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We the working group with immense pleasure and

opportunity would like to thank Prof. Mr. AJIT KURVE
MANAGEMENT lecturer in our college for giving us such a
practical project in the subject. By doing this project we are able
to grab the knowledge ERGONOMIC used in office and e.t.c.

Behind every success there is a source of inspiration. In

our case Prof. Mr. AJIT KURVE, whose inspiration and constant
encouragement led us to complete this project.

Thanking You,
The Working Group.


Ergonomics as a concept
The term ergonomics was coined from the Greek words ergon
(meaning "work") and nomos (meaning "rules).So the literal meaning is
"the rules of work," Ergonomics is the science of fitting the work-place
conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population.
The goal of ergonomics is to make the work place more comfortable and
to improve both health and productivity. To meet these goals, the
capabilities and limitations of workers and their tools, equipment and
furniture are considered in conjunction with how they relate to particular
tasks. Most people have heard of ergonomics and think it is something to
do with seating or with the design of car controls and instruments. It
is...but it is much more! Ergonomics is the application of scientific
information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and
environment for human use. Ergonomics comes into everything which
involves people. Work systems, sports and leisure, health and safety
should all embody ergonomics principles if well designed.

According to International Labor Organization, ergonomics is the
application of the human biological sciences in conjunction with
engineering sciences to the worker and his working environment, so as to
obtain maximum satisfaction for the worker and at the same time enhance

Later in the 19th century, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth expanded
Taylor's methods of “SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT” in the early 1900s
to develop "Time and Motion Studies". They aimed to improve efficiency
by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach,
the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to
4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350
bricks per hour.
In the decades since the war, ergonomics has continued to flourish
and diversify. The Space Age created new human factors issues such as
weightlessness and extreme G-forces. How far could environments in
space be tolerated, and what effects would they have on the mind and
body? The dawn of the Information Age has resulted in the new
ergonomics field of human-computer interaction (HCI).
Origins of ergonomics

Ergonomics is a relatively new branch of science which celebrated

its 50th anniversary in 1999, but relies on research carried out in many
other older, established scientific areas, such as engineering, physiology
and psychology.

It originated in World War 2, when scientists designed advanced

new and potentially improved systems without fully considering the
people who would be using them. It gradually became clear that systems
and products would have to be designed to take account of many human
and environmental factors if they are to be used safely and effectively.
This awareness of people’s requirements resulted in the discipline of

The ergonomics is divided broadly into three domains:

Physical ergonomics, deals with the human body's responses to physical

and physiological loads. Relevant topics include manual materials
handling, workstation layout, job demands, and risk factors such as
repetition, vibration, force and awkward/static posture as they relate to
musculoskeletal disorders.

Cognitive ergonomics, also known as engineering psychology, concerns

mental processes such as perception, attention, cognition, motor control,
and memory storage and retrieval as they affect interactions among
humans and other elements of a system. Relevant topics include mental
workload, vigilance, decision-making, skilled performance, human error,
human-computer interaction, and training.

Organizational ergonomics, or macro ergonomics, is concerned with the

optimization of socio technical systems, including their organizational
structures, policies, and processes. Relevant topics include shift work,
scheduling, job satisfaction, motivational theory, supervision, teamwork,
telework and ethics.
Using ergonomics
How do you use ergonomics? Ergonomics incorporates elements
from many subjects including anatomy, physiology, psychology and
design. Ergonomists apply their diverse knowledge to ensure that
products and environments are comfortable, safe and efficient for people
to use.

Disorders caused.

Musculoskeletal Disorders :

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) can range from general aches

and pains to more serious Problems. Medical practitioners do recommend
that all the users who use computers regularly should report signs and
symptoms as early as possible to prevent serious injury or permanent

Musculoskeletal Disorders :Signs and Symptoms

1. Numbness or a burning sensation in the hand

2. Reduced grip strength in the hand
3. Swelling or stiffness in the joints
4. Pain in wrists, forearms, elbows, neck, or back followed by
5. Reduced range of motion in the shoulder, neck, or back
6. Dry, itchy, or sore eyes
7. Blurred or double vision
8. Aching or tingling
9. Cramping
10.Loss of color in affected regions
12.Tension stress headaches and related ailments

Musculoskeletal Disorders :Types

The different types of Musculoskeletal Disorders are as follows:

• Repetitive Stain Injury

• Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a pinched nerve (called the Median

nerve) in the wrist. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the inflammatory
disorder that is caused due to repetitive stress, physical injury or any
other condition that causes the tissues around the median nerve to inflate.
carpal tunnel is a small canal or tunnel runs from the forearm through the
wrist. Bones form three walls of the tunnel, which are bridged by strong,
broad ligament.The median nerve passes through this tunnel, which
actually supplies feeling to the thumb, index, and ring fingers, the nine
tendons that flex the fingers and also provides function for the thenar
muscles, which are actually the muscles at the base of the thumb.
When the protective lining of the tendons within the carpal tunnel
inflamed and swell or when the ligament that forms the roof becomes
thicker and broader leads to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. This ultimately
results in pain, numbness, and tingling sensation in the wrist, hand, and
fingers leaving the little finger, as it not affected by the median nerve
which is nothing but the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

Many believe that constant repetitive use of the hand causes the
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. This is referred to as repetitive or accumulative
trauma disorders. This results in wrist pain and numbness to the thumb
and first two fingers. The main Carpal Tunnel Syndrome causes is the
repetitive motion at workplace, which is increasing a lot. These cases
contribute to half of the work associated illness and the Carpal Tunnel
Syndrome They account for nearly half of all reported work-related
illness, and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is estimated to account for over
41% of the disorders caused due to repetitive motion. The key risk factors
in the workplace that causes the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
High force,
Awkward joint posture ,
Direct pressure ,
Vibration, and
Prolonged constrained posture.

Repetitive Strain Injury:

Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is the general word that is used

to describe the prolonged pain experienced in shoulders or hands or neck
or arms. Repetitive Strain Injury occurs when the movable parts of the
limbs are injured. Repetitive Strain Injury usually caused due to repetitive
tasks, incorrect posture, stress and bad ergonomics. Repetitive Strain
Injury generally causes numbness, tingling, weakness, stiffing, and
swelling and even nerve damage. The chief complaint is the constant pain
in the upper limbs, neck, shoulder and back.

The Repetitive Stress Injury generally effects the group of workers who
generally use excessive and repetitive motion of the neck and head are at
high risk.

 Taking regular breaks from working at your computer - a few

minutes at least once an hour
 Alternating work tasks like mixing computer tasks with non
computer tasks alternately to avoid strain
 Regular stretching to relax your body
 Using comfort equipment such as footrests, wrist/palm rests, and
document holders if required
 Keeping the mouse and keyboard at the same level
 Avoiding gripping your mouse too tightly – it is always
recommended to hold the mouse lightly and click gently.
 Establish healthcare management to emphasize the importance of
early detection and treatment of musculoskeletal system disorders
for preventing impairment and disability.
 Identify effective controls for tasks that pose a risk of
musculoskeletal system injury and evaluate these approaches once
they have been instituted to see if they have reduced or eliminated
the problem.
 Gather data to identify jobs or work conditions that are most
problematic, using sources such as injury and illness logs, medical
records, and job analyses.

Ergonomics And Economics

There are two reasons to consider ergonomic issues during the
design of office environments and in the purchase of office equipment.
One reason is that dollars spent on improving the ergonomic acceptability
of offices have an excellent return on investment. The other reason is that,
because of the possibility of legislation, there may be no other choice.

A major incentive to purchase ergonomic equipment and to design

ergonomic environments is the improved performance and well-being of
office workers. Office automation (OA) has been associated with
increased absenteeism, reports of muscular discomfort, eyestrain, and
reductions in job satisfaction. There are many factors involved, including
task design and the way OA technology is introduced.

Ignoring ergonomic requirements has a substantial cost. The large

number of people reporting discomfort while using computer equipment
has resulted in many research studies and investigations. These
investigations and the continued high user complaint rate has prompted
the development of guidelines in Canada and legislation in the United
States regulating the design of office equipment and the duration of video
display terminal work. Currently, approximately half of the legislatures in
the U.S. have bills passed or in review that regulate the use of video
display equipment. Some of the legislation carries fines of up to $1,000
per day per worker for contravention of workstation regulations.

Human factors issues arise in simple systems and consumer
products as well. Some examples include cellular telephones and other
handheld devices that continue to shrink. Also, there are alarm clocks that
allow sleepy users to inadvertently turn off the alarm when they mean to
hit 'snooze'.

Worker analysis
Worker analysis determines the characteristics the worker must
possess to meet the job requirements, the responsibilities the worker will
have in the job and how the worker will be rewarded. Some jobs require
manual Labour and physical strengths whereas others require none.
Physical requirements are assessed not only to make sure the right work
is placed in a job but also to determine the physical requirements are
excessive, necessisitaing redesign. The same type of design questions
must be addressed for mental stress.

Environmental analysis
It refers to physical location of the job in the production or service
facility and the environmental conditions that must exist. These
conditions include things like proper temperature, lighting, ventilation
and noise. The production of microchips requires an extremely clean,
climatically controlled, enclosed environment. Detail work such as
engraving or sewing, require proper lighting; some jobs that create dust
levels such as lint in textile operations require proper ventilation. Some
jobs require large amount of the immediate job area.
Job analysis

Part of job design is to study the method used in the work include
in the job to see how it should be done. This has traditionally been
referred to as method, or simply work methods.
Method analysis is used to redesign or improve existing jobs. An
analyst will study an existing job to determine if the work is being done
in the most efficient manner possible; if all the present task are necessary;
or if new tasks should be added. The analyst might also want to see how
the job fits in with other jobs – that is how well job is integrated into the
overall production process or a sequence of jobs. The development and
installation of new machinery or equipment, new product or product
change and change in quality standards can all require that a job be
analyzed for redesign. Method analysis is also used to develop new jobs.
In this case the analyst must work with a description or out line of a
proposed job and attempt to develop a mental picture of how the job will
be performed.

Office Ergonomics:

Office ergonomics is not about giving people what they think they want;
it is about convincing everyone of what they really need. 90% of people
need posture and minor workstation adjustments, not expensive new
furniture. Don’t buy something just because it says it is an “ergonomic”
chair or desk.

24/7 Environments

Call centers, dispatch centers, nuclear and fossil power plant

control rooms, power marketing and transmission brokering centers have
unique work and ergonomics requirements, especially for seating,
mousing, multiple display monitors, and lighting.

“Training is the most important part of office ergonomics”

Guidelines suggested for Ergonomic Office Equipment

1. The height and angle of a keyboard should be adjusted in order to

fit the person or allow posture change.
2. There should be height adjustable and work surfaces to fit
different-size workers, or different postures for the same workers.
3. There should be task lights to reduce eyestrain or "peering"
postures by illuminating paperwork and reducing the need for
bright ambient light that may cause screen glare or increase the
contrast between the screen and its surroundings.
4. There should be footrests to allow different positions or movement
of the legs and feet.
5. Posture: In recent years, ergonomists have attempted to define
postures, which minimize unnecessary static work and reduce the
forces acting on the body. All of us could significantly reduce our
risk of injury if we could adhere to the following ergonomic
 All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several
different, but equally healthy and safe postures
 Where muscular force has to be exerted the largest appropriate
muscle groups available should do it.
 Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-
point of their range of movement. This applies particularly to the
head, trunk, and upper limbs.
Case studies.
Dental Hygiene Work

The job entails setting up a work station, which includes assembly

of hand tools and arrangement of lighting. The dentist also examines a
patient, completes scaling and root planning, polishing, and flossing.

Due to limited access to the oral cavity and the nature of the tasks,
dental hygiene work requires prolonged static trunk and neck flexion, and
awkward shoulder and wrist positions.

Use chairs that are able to increase or decrease in height and move
back to fit the comfort of the operator. They are also designed to provide
body support in the front and the back. Surrounding work surfaces are
low and positioned to make the reach for tools smooth and on a
horizontal plane at elbow height for a seated person.
RS.31500/- approx.

Reduction of Identified Risk Factor
No New Risk Factors Introduced
Productivity not Reduced
Low Cost

Design of Push Carts

 To push and pull heavy loads with a cart Problem.

 Risks associated with pushing and pulling of heavy loads

 Intervention

On 4-wheeled carts, swivel casters should be located on the handle

end, so that they can be used on all 4 wheels. The casters themselves
should be at least 4” in size. The wheel can be replaced with hard plastic
or pneumatic tires. The bearing should be maintained regularly. Handle
height should be in the range of 36”-42”. The handles should
accommodate a pushing movement, as opposed to a pulling movement.
Some equipment suggestions that accommodate these needs are the
electric hand truck, the electric push cart, and the electric platform truck.
- Electric hand truck – Rs. 180000/- approx.
- Electric push cart – Rs. 81000/- approx.
- Electric platform truck – Rs. 67500/- approx.
Telephone Information Center Operator

To attend calls and provide information to all the customers.


• Viewing the city map requires leaning over the desk; more extreme
bending is required to see the northern portion of the city.
• The downtown area located in the middle right section of the map
is accessed most frequently and is the most detailed, increasing
visual demand.
• Light from windows and overhead lights is reflected on the glass
plate covering maps and on computer monitors at many of the
workstations, depending on orientation with respect to light
• Desks are too high at 31" for many of the employees, requiring
awkward reaches for the keyboard.
• The new chairs being ordered are too low for the height of the
desks, requiring additional forward bending and standing to view
the map.
• Placement of monitors in desk corner requires neck twisting;
several of the present monitor arms are not functioning properly

Replace current desks with workstations with height- and slope-

adjustable input platforms offering forearm support. Incline the back
half of the map to at least 60 degrees. The map will need to be either
creased, curved, or re-printed onto 2 halves and then covered with an
anti-glare sheet. This brings the hard to see top part of the map within
viewing distance and allows the keyboard to remain flat on the work
surface. However, glare on the flat portion of the map will still be
present. The monitor should be positioned to one side of the map.


Approx. Rs. 30000 per workstation.