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Venezuela

1990

1. POBLACIÓN
millones de personas 19.50

2. POBLACIÓN ECONÓMICAMENTE ACTIVA (PEA)


millones de personas 7.22

3. PRODUCTO BRUTO INTERNO (PBI)


millones moneda local 2 279 261.0
millones de u$s 48 392.2
millones de dólares expresados en PPC 140,731.0

4. GASTO EN CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA


millones moneda local 8 327.0
ACT millones de u$s 176.8
millones de dólares expresados en PPC 514.1

5. GASTO EN CYT EN RELACIÓN AL PBI


ACT 0.37%

6. GASTO EN CYT POR HABITANTE


U$S ACT 9.07
PPC ACT 26.37

9. GASTO EN CYT POR SECTOR DE FINANCIAMIENTO


Gobierno 47.5%
Empresas 37.3%
Educación Superior 15.2%
ACT
Org.priv.sin fines de lucro 0.0%
Extranjero 0.0%
Total 100.0%

11. GASTO EN CYT POR OBJETIVO SOCIOECONÓMICO


Explotación de la Tierra
Infraestructura
Medio Ambiente
Salud Humana
Energía
Tecnología Agrícola
Tecnología Industrial
ACT
Relaciones Sociales
Espacio
Investigación no Orientada
Otra Investigación Civil
Defensa
Sin asignar
Total

14. PERSONAL DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA


Investigadores 0
Becarios I + D/doctorado 0
Personas Físicas Personal de apoyo 0
Personal de servicios C-T 0
Total 0
Investigadores 0
Becarios I + D/doctorado 0
EJC Personal de apoyo 0
Personal de servicios C-T 0
Total 0

15. INVESTIGADORES POR CADA MIL INTEGRANTES DE LA PEA


Personas Físicas 0.00
EJC 0.00

16. PERSONAL POR GÉNERO


Femenino
Investigadores
Masculino
Femenino
Becarios I + D/doctorado
Masculino
Femenino
Personal de apoyo
Masculino
Femenino
Personal de servicios C - T
Masculino
Femenino
Total Personal en C y T
Masculino

17. INVESTIGADORES POR SECTOR


Gobierno
Empresas
Personas Físicas Educación Superior
Org.priv.sin fines de lucro
Total
Gobierno
Empresas
EJC Educación Superior
Org.priv.sin fines de lucro
Total

18. INVESTIGADORES POR DISCIPLINA CIENTÍFICA


Cs. Naturales y Exactas
Ingeniería y Tecnología
Ciencias Médicas
Personas Físicas Ciencias Agrícolas
Ciencias Sociales
Personas Físicas

Humanidades
Total

19. INVESTIGADORES POR NIVEL DE FORMACIÓN


Doctorado
Maestría
Licenciatura o equivalente
Personas Físicas
Terciario no universitario
Otros
Total

20. TITULADOS DE GRADO


Cs. Naturales y Exactas 0
Ingeniería y Tecnología 0
Ciencias Médicas 0
Ciencias Agrícolas 0
Ciencias Sociales 0
Humanidades 0
Total 0

21. TITULADOS DE MAESTRÍAS


Cs. Naturales y Exactas 0
Ingeniería y Tecnología 0
Ciencias Médicas 0
Ciencias Agrícolas 0
Ciencias Sociales 0
Humanidades 0
Total 0

22. DOCTORADOS
Cs. Naturales y Exactas 0
Ingeniería y Tecnología 0
Ciencias Médicas 0
Ciencias Agrícolas 0
Ciencias Sociales 0
Humanidades 0
Total 0

23. SOLICITUDES DE PATENTES


de residentes 262
de no residentes 1,090
Total 1,352

24. PATENTES OTORGADAS


a residentes 63
a no residentes 724
Total 787

25. TASA DE DEPENDENCIA 4.2


26. TASA DE AUTOSUFICIENCIA 0.2

27. COEFICIENTE DE INVENCIÓN 1.3

28. PUBLICACIONES EN SCI 519


porcentaje del total mundial 0.076%

29. PUBLICACIONES EN PASCAL 316


porcentaje del total mundial 0.065%

30. PUBLICACIONES EN INSPEC 116


porcentaje del total mundial 0.045%

31. PUBLICACIONES EN COMPENDEX 103


porcentaje del total mundial 0.07%

32. PUBLICACIONES EN CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS 258


porcentaje del total mundial 0.05%

33. PUBLICACIONES EN BIOSIS 335


porcentaje del total mundial 0.06%

34. PUBLICACIONES EN MEDLINE 200


porcentaje del total mundial 0.05%

35. PUBLICACIONES EN CAB 260


porcentaje del total mundial 0.16%

36. PUBLICACIONES EN ICYT 18


porcentaje del total mundial 0.28%

37. PUBLICACIONES EN IME 16


porcentaje del total mundial 0.14%

38. PUBLICACIONES EN PERIODICA 144


porcentaje del total mundial 1.98%

39. PUBLICACIONES EN CLASE 106


porcentaje del total mundial 1.51%

40. PUBLICACIONES LILACS


porcentaje del total mundial

41. PUBLICACIONES EN SCI POR HABITANTE 2.662


cada 100 000 habitantes

42. PUBLICACIONES EN PASCAL POR HABITANTE 1.621


cada 100 000 habitantes
43. PUBLICACIONES EN SCI EN RELACIÓN AL PBI 10.725
cada mil millones de u$s

44. PUBLICACIONES EN PASCAL EN RELACIÓN AL PBI 6.530


cada mil millones de u$s

45. PUBLICACIONES EN SCI EN RELACIÓN AL GASTO EN I + D 2.936


cada millón de u$s

46. PUBLICACIONES EN PASCAL EN RELACIÓN AL GASTO EN I + D 1.787


cada millón de u$s

47. PUBLICACIONES EN SCI CADA 100 INVESTIGADORES


Personas Físicas
EJC

48. PUBLICACIONES EN PASCAL CADA 100 INVESTIGADORES


Personas Físicas
EJC

Notas:
Indicador 3 y 4: Las estimaciones en dólares fueron obtenidas aplicando los datos de Tipo de Cambio del Fondo Monetario In
Indicador
Indicador 3 y 4:
11: LosLas estimaciones
asignados en PPC con
no coinciden fueron
los obtenidas
totales de aplicando
Gasto. Selos factores
calculan losde conversiónen
porcentajes del Banco
base Mundial
a los totalessobre los
Asignad
Indicador 9: Para Venezuela, desde el año 2006, el incremento sustancial de la participación en el gasto en ACT de las empre

Explotación de la tierra corresponde a Exploración y explotación de la Tierra


Infraestructura corresponde a Infraestructuras y ordenación del territorio
Medio Ambiente corresponde a Control y protección del medio ambiente.
Salud Humana corresponde a Protección y mejora de la salud humana.
Energía corresponde a Producción, distribución y utilización racional de la energía.
Tecnología agrícola corresponde a Producción y tecnología agrícola.
Tecnología Industrial corresponde a Producción y tecnología industrial.
Relaciones sociales corresponde a Estructuras y relaciones sociales.
Espacio corresponde a Exploración y explotación del espacio
Indicador 14: EJC corresponde a Equivalente a Jornada Completa.
Indicador 17: Investigadores incluye Becarios de I+D
Indicador 25: Número de patentes solicitadas por residentes sobre el número de patentes solicitadas por no residentes.
Indicador 26: Número patentes solicitadas por residentes sobre el total de las patentes solicitadas.
Indicador 27: Patentes solicitadas por residentes sobre la población total
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

19.97 20.44 20.91 21.58 22.04 22.50 22.96 23.41

7.49 7.62 7.63 7.95 8.61 9.02 9.51 9.90

13 685 29 437 41 943 50 012


3 037 492.0 4 131 485.0 5 449 109.0 8 130 682.0 686.0 682.0 151.0 967.0
53 383.1 60 401.5 59 814.3 54 678.5 77 320.0 70 795.0 85 837.8 91 331.3
159,822.6 173,412.1 177,728.2 166,236.3 188,137.6 191,339.9 200,243.4 203,063.6

11 979.4 20 345.2 25 736.6 46 876.3 83 977.2 131 534.9 181 592.5 194 388.6
210.5 297.4 282.5 315.2 474.4 316.3 371.6 355.0
630.3 854.0 839.4 958.4 1 154.4 855.0 867.0 789.3

0.39% 0.49% 0.47% 0.58% 0.61% 0.45% 0.43% 0.39%

10.54 14.55 13.51 14.61 21.53 14.06 16.19 15.16


31.56 41.78 40.14 44.41 52.38 38.00 37.76 33.71

43.6% 53.6% 50.5% 29.4% 34.8% 29.9% 46.1% 41.7%


42.2% 33.1% 31.8% 56.8% 47.4% 55.0% 35.3% 44.1%
14.2% 13.3% 17.7% 13.8% 17.8% 15.2% 18.6% 14.2%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
0 0 0 0 0 1,275 1,398 1,538
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,538
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,159
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,159

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.15 0.16


0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12

38.75% 38.77% 39.73%


61.25% 61.23% 60.27%

19.1% 17.3% 15.6%


1.1% 0.9% 0.4%
79.4% 81.5% 83.6%
0.3% 0.3% 0.3%
100% 100% 100%
14.3%
0.3%
85.2%
0.3%
100%

26.4% 26.0% 23.3%


15.1% 15.9% 15.4%
37.0% 35.7% 37.5%
3.6% 3.4% 3.8%
18.0% 19.1% 20.0%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

77.8% 78.6% 78.3%


16.4% 15.7% 16.6%
4.3% 4.0% 3.4%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
1.5% 1.7% 1.8%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

0 0 0 0 272 457 470 482


0 0 0 0 4,143 10,891 9,183 11,230
0 0 0 0 3,132 13,521 10,643 13,851
0 0 0 0 988 2,832 2,830 2,827
0 0 0 0 15,917 23,633 13,190 18,911
0 0 0 0 361 3,224 23,417 13,610
0 0 0 0 24,813 22,194 26,478 60,912

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 190
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 129
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 42
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 181
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 434
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,036

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51

233 202 186 224 258 182 320 83


1,128 1,335 1,489 1,505 1,784 1,822 2,390 2,607
1,361 1,537 1,675 1,729 2,042 2,004 2,710 2,690

73 26 299 365 180 76 62 27


520 483 1,804 2,873 2,195 1,195 684 767
593 509 2,103 3,238 2,375 1,271 746 794

4.8 6.6 8.0 6.7 6.9 10.0 7.5 31.4


0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0

1.2 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.8 1.4 0.4

561 628 757 709 736 886 972 1,065


0.079% 0.087% 0.099% 0.089% 0.086% 0.098% 0.104% 0.113%

321 420 437 395 327 383 515 479


0.061% 0.073% 0.075% 0.075% 0.071% 0.080% 0.103% 0.094%

111 135 143 171 216 190 219 272


0.044% 0.053% 0.055% 0.061% 0.071% 0.060% 0.068% 0.082%

83 62 93 142 163 201 202 168


0.05% 0.05% 0.05% 0.06% 0.08% 0.09% 0.08% 0.08%

290 369 372 373 426 423 487 586


0.05% 0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.07% 0.06% 0.07% 0.08%

342 383 380 410 404 411 456 449


0.06% 0.07% 0.07% 0.08% 0.08% 0.07% 0.08% 0.09%

204 205 234 229 217 197 230 244


0.05% 0.05% 0.06% 0.06% 0.05% 0.05% 0.06% 0.06%

242 301 336 316 385 361 419 518


0.16% 0.20% 0.23% 0.21% 0.25% 0.24% 0.27% 0.33%

27 29 43 18 16 16 27 35
0.38% 0.37% 0.54% 0.26% 0.22% 0.22% 0.36% 0.45%

23 14 11 15 16 22 22 6
0.29% 0.21% 0.18% 0.22% 0.21% 0.28% 0.27% 0.15%

64 83 260 210 258 316 318 374


1.08% 1.77% 3.22% 2.50% 3.30% 3.54% 3.91% 4.08%

57 58 95 88 123 130 178 131


1.23% 1.20% 1.07% 0.95% 1.40% 1.42% 1.94% 1.41%

2.809 3.072 3.620 3.285 3.339 3.938 4.234 4.549

1.607 2.055 2.090 1.830 1.484 1.702 2.243 2.046


10.509 10.397 12.656 12.967 9.519 12.515 11.324 11.661

6.013 6.953 7.306 7.224 4.229 5.410 6.000 5.245

2.665 2.111 2.680 2.249 1.551 2.801 2.615 3.000

1.525 1.412 1.547 1.253 0.689 1.211 1.386 1.349

69.490 69.528 69.246


91.890

30.039 36.838 31.144


41.329

ambio del Fondo Monetario Internacional sobre la información en moneda local provista por el país
endel Banco
base Mundial
a los totalessobre los datos provistos por el país.
Asignados.
el gasto en ACT de las empresas privadas se debe a la creación de la Ley Orgánica de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (LOCTI).

adas por no residentes.


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

23.87 24.31 24.77 25.22 25.67 26.10 26.58 27.00

10.23 10.33 11.10 11.67 12.01 12.10 12.10 12.20

59 344 79 655 88 945 107 840 134 217 207 599 302 642 396 139
600.0 692.0 596.0 166.0 306.0 608.0 926.0 775.0
97 977.3 117 152.3 122 871.4 92 888.8 83 435.9 110 104.0 144 822.6 184 508.5
193,698.7 205,218.3 217,295.0 201,518.2 189,836.3 225,419.7 262,510.0 303,211.4

228 787.9 299 456.8 441 303.5 459 881.9 416 179.0 525 597.8 1 044 385.7 7 037 385.3
377.7 440.4 609.6 396.1 258.7 278.8 499.8 3 277.8
746.8 771.5 1 078.1 859.4 588.6 570.7 905.9 5 386.5

0.39% 0.38% 0.50% 0.43% 0.31% 0.25% 0.35% 1.78%

15.83 18.12 24.62 15.71 10.08 10.68 18.80 121.40


31.29 31.74 43.53 34.08 22.93 21.87 34.09 199.50

44.1% 52.7% 55.5% 59.1% 71.6% 62.3% 55.0% 13.7%


40.7% 32.6% 27.3% 22.9% 1.0% 14.3% 13.9% 83.4%
15.2% 14.8% 17.2% 18.0% 27.4% 23.4% 31.2% 2.2%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.7%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

32.8% 32.5% 31.3% 29.7% 31.1% 30.6% 28.2% 25.6%


10.6% 10.6% 11.7% 11.8% 7.6% 8.2% 9.2% 11.6%
3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.9% 4.3% 4.2% 4.2% 4.0%
6.2% 6.1% 6.0% 6.6% 7.2% 6.9% 7.0% 7.0%
3.5% 3.6% 3.6% 4.1% 4.3% 4.1% 4.2% 4.1%
3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.9% 4.3% 4.2% 4.2% 4.0%
27.5% 27.9% 28.1% 26.8% 26.6% 28.0% 29.0% 29.5%
2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 3.0%
3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.9% 4.3% 4.2% 4.2% 4.0%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 3.0%
3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.9% 4.3% 4.2% 4.2% 4.0%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

1,689 1,802 2,077 2,077 2,827 3,148 3,710 4,626


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1,689 1,802 2,077 2,077 2,827 3,148 3,710 4,626
1,336 1,495 1,761 1,761 2,450 2,749 3,248 3,977
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1,336 1,495 1,761 1,761 2,450 2,749 3,248 3,977

0.17 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.24 0.26 0.31 0.38


0.13 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.20 0.23 0.27 0.33

40.38% 42.51% 44.44% 44.44% 47.58% 48.57% 49.68% 50.37%


59.62% 57.49% 55.56% 55.56% 52.42% 51.43% 50.32% 49.63%

14.4% 13.7% 13.4% 13.4% 12.0% 13.0% 12.7% 11.4%


0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7%
84.9% 85.4% 85.6% 85.6% 86.8% 85.8% 86.0% 87.1%
0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.8%
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
13.2% 12.3% 12.3% 12.3% 11.2% 12.3% 11.7% 10.4%
0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8%
85.9% 86.8% 86.6% 86.6% 87.5% 86.8% 87.3% 88.1%
0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.4% 0.7%
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

22.3% 21.6% 20.8% 20.8% 18.9% 17.3% 16.4% 15.1%


15.2% 13.3% 12.5% 12.5% 13.2% 13.2% 13.8% 13.4%
39.2% 34.4% 28.3% 28.3% 22.0% 19.9% 20.6% 22.0%
3.6% 9.4% 16.7% 16.7% 19.8% 21.6% 21.3% 19.0%
19.7% 21.3% 21.7% 21.7% 26.1% 28.1% 27.8% 30.4%
0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

78.6% 78.7% 76.3% 76.3% 71.7% 67.6% 63.7% 59.6%


16.5% 17.3% 18.7% 18.7% 23.9% 28.2% 31.6% 33.9%
3.0% 2.4% 3.5% 3.5% 2.9% 2.7% 2.9% 3.7%
0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
1.8% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.3% 1.8% 2.5%
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

495 396 449 858 548 409 409 2,516


14,768 22,873 28,846 24,459 34,999 31,655 31,655 22,980
13,060 11,149 10,433 14,903 9,077 7,871 7,871 10,343
2,025 2,480 2,478 4,248 2,344 2,534 2,534 3,401
21,550 32,237 39,453 39,308 42,362 43,978 43,978 38,261
11,229 22,527 23,722 28,620 23,392 23,659 23,659 29,510
63,127 91,662 105,381 112,396 112,722 110,106 110,106 110,106

271 179 260 223 207 201 214 131


160 194 221 252 222 350 365 391
27 18 23 53 37 71 51 87
46 57 48 44 25 33 43 46
314 508 580 580 816 911 977 1,167
707 905 851 956 852 855 662 859
1,525 1,861 1,983 2,108 2,163 2,426 2,343 2,714

9 12 8 15 14 19 17 20
4 7 5 2 5 6 3 5
1 0 0 1 13 4 0 5
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 9 27 38 63 68 88 69
27 53 76 83 153 220 140 219
57 85 128 139 249 317 249 318

276 212 234 165 183 231 248 274


2,749 2,883 2,700 2,547 2,320 2,285 2,756 3,086
3,025 3,095 2,934 2,712 2,503 2,516 3,004 3,360

28 10 14 23 4 7 7 0
256 198 493 63 75 91 91 0
284 208 507 86 79 98 98 0

10.0 13.6 11.5 15.4 12.7 9.9 11.1 11.3


0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

1.2 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.0

1,071 1,179 1,131 1,220 1,235 1,120 1,234 1,197


0.110% 0.119% 0.115% 0.119% 0.115% 0.099% 0.103% 0.096%

544 583 609 573 531 513 551 440


0.107% 0.114% 0.119% 0.113% 0.102% 0.101% 0.115% 0.097%

229 189 218 232 193 188 236 343


0.069% 0.056% 0.064% 0.061% 0.052% 0.045% 0.053% 0.071%

202 173 226 238 325 346 421 330


0.09% 0.08% 0.09% 0.09% 0.08% 0.06% 0.07% 0.06%

497 511 486 542 514 506 548 444


0.07% 0.07% 0.06% 0.07% 0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.05%

422 542 501 458 439 393 421 421


0.08% 0.09% 0.09% 0.08% 0.08% 0.08% 0.07% 0.07%

219 289 300 323 312 288 302 277


0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.05% 0.05% 0.04%

484 471 483 435 372 433 441 481


0.30% 0.29% 0.28% 0.26% 0.21% 0.23% 0.22% 0.22%

30 26 28 18 42 32 36 31
0.38% 0.34% 0.37% 0.29% 0.64% 0.54% 0.71% 0.65%

22 28 26 22 29 21 19 20
0.29% 0.30% 0.25% 0.22% 0.32% 0.24% 0.20% 0.23%

528 406 413 385 358 319 497 449


4.90% 4.38% 3.80% 3.54% 3.46% 2.84% 2.98% 4.32%

210 191 262 259 254 378 480 472


2.09% 2.11% 2.58% 2.64% 4.10% 6.17% 6.72% 7.44%

629 612 678 618 438 435 330


3.799% 3.773% 4.186% 3.668% 2.881% 2.519% 1.793%

4.487 4.850 4.567 4.838 4.811 4.291 4.643 4.433

2.279 2.398 2.459 2.272 2.068 1.966 2.073 1.630


10.931 10.064 9.205 13.134 14.802 10.172 8.521 6.488

5.552 4.976 4.956 6.169 6.364 4.659 3.805 2.385

2.835 2.677 1.855 3.080 4.774 4.018 2.469 0.365

1.440 1.324 0.999 1.447 2.052 1.840 1.103 0.134

63.410 65.427 54.454 58.739 43.686 35.578 33.261 25.875


80.165 78.863 64.225 69.279 50.408 40.742 37.993 30.098

32.208 32.353 29.321 27.588 18.783 16.296 14.852 9.511


40.719 38.997 34.583 32.538 21.673 18.661 16.964 11.064

a e Innovación (LOCTI).
Venezuela
2007 2008

1. POPULATION
27.50 27.93 millions

2. LABOUR FORCE
12.40 12.67 millions

489 668 673 727 3. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)


006.0 036.0 millions Local Currency
228 071.0 313 361.7 millions u$s
334,212.0 459,837.4 millons current dollars (PPP)

13 161 17 145 4. EXPENDITURE ON S&T


104.6 884.3 millions Local Currency
6 130.0 7 974.8 millions u$s
8 982.8 9 126.7 millons current dollars (PPP)

5. EXPENDITURE ON S&T AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP


2.69% 2.54% STA

6. EXPENDITURE ON S&T PER CAPITA POPULATION


222.91 285.48 STA
326.65 326.71 STA

9. EXPENDITURE ON S&T BY FUNDING SOURCE


2.7% 0.2% Government
94.8% 98.1% Enterprises
1.3% 1.0% Higher Education
1.3% 0.7% Non profit private organizations
0.0% 0.0% Foreign
100.0% 100.0% Total

11. EXPENDITURE ON R&D BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE


23.5% 24.6% Exploitation of the earth
12.5% 12.1% Infraestructures
4.0% 4.0% Environment
7.2% 7.1% Human Health
4.0% 4.1% Energy
4.0% 4.0% Agricultural Technology
30.2% 29.8% Industrial Technology
3.2% 3.1% Social Relationships
4.0% 4.0% Space
0.0% 0.0% Non-oriented Research
3.2% 3.1% Other civil research
4.0% 4.0% Defence
0.0% Not specified
100.0% 100.0% Total

14. S&T PERSONNEL


5,222 6,038 Researchers
0 0 PhD Scholars / R&D assistants
0 0 Technicians
0 0 S&T services personnel
5,222 6,038 Total
4,503 5,261 Researchers
0 0 PhD Scholars / R&D assistants
0 0 Technicians
0 0 S&T services personnel
4,503 5,261 Total

15. RESEARCHERS PER THOUSAND LABOUR FORCE


0.42 0.48 Head Count
0.36 0.42 FTE

16. S&T PERSONNEL BY GENDER


51.90% 53.15% Female
Researchers
48.10% 46.85% Male
Female
Scholars I + D/doctorates
Male
Female
Technicians
Male
Female
S&T services personnel
Male
Female
Total
Male

17. RESEARCHERS BY EMPLOYEMENT SECTOR


10.2% 9.9% Government
0.5% 1.0% Enterprises
88.3% 88.4% Higher Education
0.9% 0.7% Non profit private organizations
100% 100% Total
9.4% 9.0% Government
0.5% 0.8% Enterprises
89.6% 89.6% Higher Education
0.5% 0.6% Non profit private organizations
100% 100% Total

18. RESEARCHERS BY SCIENTIFIC FIELD


14.1% Natural and Exact Sciences
13.6% Engeneering and Technology
21.8% Medical Sciences
17.6% Agricultural Sciences
32.8% Social Sciences
0.0% Humanities
100.0% Total

19. RESEARCHERS BY GRADUATION LEVEL


54.4% 53.7% Doctorates
37.0% 38.5% Master
5.2% 4.6% Basic university degree
0.2% 0.3% Other post-secondary diploma
3.2% 2.9% Other
100.0% 100.0% Total

20. FIRST LEVEL UNIVERSITY GRADUATES


2,516 2,516 Natural and Exact Sciences
22,980 22,980 Engeneering and Technology
10,343 10,343 Medical Sciences
3,401 3,401 Agricultural Sciences
38,261 38,261 Social Sciences
29,510 29,510 Humanities
110,106 107,011 Total

21. MASTER GRADUATES


161 29 Natural and Exact Sciences
330 40 Engeneering and Technology
69 6 Medical Sciences
47 5 Agricultural Sciences
1,294 31 Social Sciences
1,306 41 Humanities
3,296 152 Total

22. DOCTORATES
15 3 Natural and Exact Sciences
2 2 Engeneering and Technology
2 0 Medical Sciences
0 0 Agricultural Sciences
79 3 Social Sciences
235 11 Humanities
335 19 Total

23. PATENT APPLICATIONS


152 123 Residents
2,961 2,778 Non residents
3,113 2,901 Total

24. GRANTED PATENTS


7 0 Residents
91 0 Non residents
98 0 Total

19.5 22.6 25. DEPENDENCY RATE


0.0 0.0 26. AUTO-SUFFICIENCY RATE

0.6 0.4 27. INVENTION COEFFICIENT

1,261 28. PAPERS IN SCI SEARCH


0.095% global percentage

460 29. PAPERS IN PASCAL


0.099% global percentage

291 30. PAPERS IN INSPEC


0.052% global percentage

376 31. PAPERS IN COMPENDEX


0.06% global percentage

511 32. PAPERS IN CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS


0.05% global percentage

434 33. PAPERS IN BIOSIS


0.07% global percentage

320 34. PAPERS IN MEDLINE


0.05% global percentage

487 35. PAPERS IN CAB


0.20% global percentage

34 36. PAPERS IN ICYT


0.69% global percentage

21 37. PAPERS IN IME


0.28% global percentage

329 38. PAPERS IN PERIODICA


4.33% global percentage

306 39. PAPERS IN CLASE


6.52% global percentage

433 40. PAPERS IN LILACS


2.153% global percentage

4.585 41. PAPERS IN SCI SEARCH PER INHABITANT


per 100 000 inhabitants

1.673 42. PAPERS IN PASCAL PER INHABITANT


per 100 000 inhabitants
5.529 43. PAPERS IN SCI SEARCH / GDP
per billion u$s

2.017 44. PAPERS IN PASCAL / GDP


per billion u$s

0.206 45. PAPERS IN SCI SEARCH / R&D EXPENDITURE


per million u$s

0.075 46. PAPERS IN PASCAL / R&D EXPENDITURE


per million u$s

47. PAPERS IN SCI SEARCH PER 100 RESEARCHERS


24.148 Head Count
28.004 FTE

48. PAPERS IN PASCAL PER 100 RESEARCHERS


8.809 Head Count
10.215 FTE
Venezuela

STA

OF GDP

TION
U$S
PPP

STA

IC OBJECTIVE

STA
Head Count

FTE

ORCE

orates

nnel

Head Count

FTE

Head Count
Head Count

Head Count
RE

HERS