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Anseriformes

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Anseriformes
Temporal range:
Late Cretaceous-Holocene, 71�0 Ma
Pre??OSDCPTJKPgN
Magpie goose.jpg
Magpie goose, Anseranas semipalmata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Anserimorphae
Order: Anseriformes
Wagler, 1831
Extant families
Anhimidae
Anseranatidae
Anatidae
Waterfowl range.png
Range of the waterfowl and allies
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three
families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and
Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among
them the ducks, geese, and swans. In fact, these living species are all included in
the Anatidae except for the three screamers and the magpie goose. All species in
the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. The
males, except for the screamers, also have a penis, a trait that has been lost in
the Neoaves. All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have
subsequently become mainly terrestrial).

Contents
1 Taxonomy
1.1 Systematics
1.2 Phylogeny
2 Molecular studies
3 See also
4 References
5 Cited texts
Taxonomy
The Anseriformes and the Galliformes (pheasants, etc.) are the most primitive
neognathous birds, and should follow ratites and tinamous in bird classification
systems. Together they belong to the Galloanserae. Several unusual extinct families
of birds like the albatross-like the pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless
gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common
features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.[1][2][3][4]
[5][6] The genus Vegavis for a while was found to be the earliest member of the
anseriform crowned group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside
the crowned-group in the family Vegaviidae.[7]

Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of anseriforms and their stem
relatives.[1][2][3][4][5][7]
Odontoanserae
?
�Pelagornithidae (pseudo-tooth birds) Osteodontornis BW.jpg
?
Anserimorphae
?
�Gastornithidae Gastornis giganteus restoration.jpeg

?
?
?
�Dromornithidae (mihirungs) Dromornis BW.jpg

?
?
?
�Vegaviidae

?
?
Anseriformes (screamers and waterfowl) Palamedra cornuta white background.png
Cayley Anseranas semipalmata white background.jpgGreylag flipped.JPG

?
?
?
?
?
Systematics
Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the
dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved. See the Anatidae article for
more information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally
divided into subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae.[8] The Anatinae consists of tribes
Anatini, Aythyini, Mergini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below
follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive[9][10] and
John Boyd's website.[11]

Order Anseriformes
Sub Order Anhimae Wetmore & Miller 1926
Genus �Chaunoides de Alvarenga 1999
Family Anhimidae Stejneger 1885 (screamers)
Genus Anhima (Linnaeus 1766) Brisson 1760 [Anhima minuta; Palamedea cornuta
Linnaeus 1766] (Horned screamer)
Genus Chauna Illiger 1811
Sub Order Anseres (true anseriformes)
Superfamily Anseranatoidea
Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880
Genus �Anserpica Mourer-Chauvir�, Berthet & Hugueney 2004
Genus �Eoanseranas Worthy & Scanlon 2009 (Hand�s dawn magpie goose)
Genus �Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987 [Nettapterornis Mlikovsky 2002; Telmatornis
Shufeldt 1915] (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene � Early Eocene)
Genus Anseranas (Latham 1798) Lesson 1828 [Chenogeranus Brown 1842; Choristopus
Eyton 1838] (Magpie goose)
Superfamily Anatoidea
Family �Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 (wading-"geese")^
Genus �Teviornis Kurockin, Dyke & Karhu 2002
Genus �Telmabates Howard 1955
Genus �Headonornis (Lydekker 1891) Harrison & Walker 1976 [Agnopterus hantoniensis
Lydekker 1891; Ptenornis Seeley 1866; ?Presbyornis isoni (Dyke 2001)]
Genus �Presbyornis Wetmore 1926 [Nautilornis Wetmore 1926; Coltonia Hardy 1959]
Genus �Wilaru Boles et al. 2013
Family �Paranyrocidae Miller & Compton 1939
Genus �Paranyroca Miller & Compton 1939 (Rosebud Early Miocene of Bennett County,
USA)

Anatidae
Family Anatidae Leach 1820 (almost 150 species)
Subfamily �Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933
Genus �Romainvillia Lebedinsk� 1927 (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
Genus �Saintandrea Mayr & De Pietri 2013
Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach 1849�50
Genus Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 (whistling ducks)
Genus Thalassornis Eyton 1838 (White-backed duck)
Subfamily �Dendrocheninae Livezey & Martin 1988
Genus �Dendrochen Miller 1944
Genus �Manuherikia Worthy et al. 2007
Genus �Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988
Subfamily Stictonettinae
Genus Stictonetta (Gould 1841) Reichenbach 1853 (Freckled duck)
Subfamily Anserinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 (swans and geese)
Genus �Anserobranta Kurockin & Ganya 1972
Genus �Asiavis Nesov 1986
Genus ��Chenopis� De Vis 1905
Genus �Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931
Genus �Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931
Genus �Eremochen Brodkorb 1961
Genus �Megalodytes Howard 1992
Genus �Paracygnus Short 1969
Genus �Presbychen Wetmore 1930
Genus �Cnemiornis Owen 1866 (New Zealand Geese)
Genus Coscoroba (Molina 1782) Reichenbach 1853 [Pseudolor Gray 1855] (Coscoroba
swan)
Genus Cereopsis Latham 1801 (Cape Barren goose)
Genus Cygnus Garsault 1764 [Archaeocygnus De Vis 1905; Cygnanser Kretzoi 1957;
Euolor Mathews & Iredale 1917; Palaeocygnus Oberholser 1908; Chenopis Wagler 1832]
Genus �Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart et al. 2005
Genus Branta Scopoli 1769 [Brenthus Sundeval l1872 non Schoenherr 1826; Bernicla
Oken 1817; Geochen Wetmore 1943; Nesochen Salvadori 1895]
Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825
Genus Anser Brisson 1760 [Chen Boie 1822; Chionochen Reichenbach 1852; Exanthemops
Elliot 1868; Cygnopsis Brandt 1836; Eulabeia Reichenbach 1852; Philacte Bannister
1870; Heterochen Short 1970; Marilochen Reichenbach 1852]
Subfamily Tadorninae Reichenbach 1849�50 (shelducks and sheldgeese)
Genus �Australotadorna Worthy 2009
Genus �Brantadorna Howard 1964
Genus �Centrornis Andrews 1897 (Malagasy sheldgoose)
Genus �Miotadorna Worthy et al. 2007 (St. Bathans shelduck)
Genus �Nannonetta Campbell 1979
Genus �Pleistoanser Agnol�n 2006
Genus Plectropterus (Linnaeus 1766) (Spur-winged goose)
Genus Merganetta Gould 1842 (Torrent duck)
Genus Chloephaga Eyton 1838 [Foetopterus Moreno & Mercerat 1891]
Genus Neochen Oberholser 1918
Genus Cyanochen (R�ppell 1845) Bonaparte 1856 (Blue-winged goose)
Genus Tadorna Boie 1822 [Vulpanser Keyserling & Blasius 1840; Zesarkaca Mathews
1937; Gennaeochen Heine & Reichenow 1890; Casarca Bonaparte 1838; Nettalopex Heine
1890]
Genus Radjah Reichenbach, 1853
Genus Alopochen Stejneger 1885 [Mascarenachen Cowles 1994; Proanser Umans'ka 1979a;
Anserobranta Kurockin & Ganya 1972; Chenalopex Stephens 1824 non Vieillot 1818]
Genus Cairina (Linnaeus 1758) Fleming 1822 (Muscovy duck)
Genus Hymenolaimus (Gmelin 1789) Gray 1843 (Blue duck)
Genus Sarkidiornis Eyton 1838
Genus Tachyeres Owen 1875 [Micropterus Lesson 1828 non Lac�p�de 1802; Microa Strand
1943] (Steamer ducks)
Subfamily Anatinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996
Genus Aix Boie 1828 [Dendronessa Wagler 1832]
Genus Callonetta Delacour 1936 (Ringed teal)
Genus Chenonetta von Brandt 1836 (Australian wood duck)
Genus Biziura Stephens 1824 (musk ducks)
Genus Pteronetta (Cassin 1860) Salvadori 1895 (Hartlaub's duck)
Genus Marmaronetta (M�n�tries 1832) Reichenbach 1853 (Marbled duck)
Genus Asarcornis (M�ller 1842) Salvadori 1895 (White-winged duck)
Genus Netta Kaup 1829 [Callichen Brehm 1830; Mergoides Eyton 1836; Netta
(Rhodonessa) Reichenbach 1852]
Genus Lophonetta (King 1828) Riley 1914 (Crested duck)
Genus Amazonetta (Gmelin 1789) von Boetticher 1929 (Brazilian teal)
Genus �Dunstanetta Worthy et al. 2007 (Johnstone�s duck)
Genus �Lavadytis Stidham & Hilton 2015
Genus �Pinpanetta Worthy 2009
Genus �Tirarinetta Worthy 2008
Tribe Oxyurini Swainson 1831 (stiff-tailed ducks and allies)
Genus Heteronetta (Merrem 1841) Salvadori 1865 (Black-headed duck)
Genus Nomonyx (Linnaeus 1766) Ridgway 1880 (Masked duck)
Genus Oxyura Bonaparte 1828 [Erismatura Bonaparte 1832; Plectrura Gistl 1848;
Gymnura Nuttall 1834]
Genus Nettapus von Brandt 1836 [(Cheniscus) Eyton 1838; Anserella Gray 1855 non
Selby 1840; ; Microcygna Gray 1840; ] (Pygmy geese)
Genus �Anabernicula Ross 1935
Genus Malacorhynchus Swainson 1831 (Pink-eared duck)
Genus Salvadorina Rothschild & Hartert 1894 (Salvadori's teal)
Genus Speculanas (King 1828) von Boetticher 1929 (Bronze-winged duck)
Tribe Mergini Rafinesque 1815 (eiders, scoters, mergansers and other sea-ducks)
Genus �Chendytes Miller 1925
Genus �Shiriyanetta Watanabe & Matsuoka 2015
Genus Histrionicus Lesson 1828 [Cosmonessa Kaup 1829; �Ocyplonessa Brodkorb 1961]
(Harlequin duck)
Genus �Camptorhynchus (Gmelin 1789) Bonaparte 1838 [Anas labradorius Gmelin 1789]
(Labrador duck)
Genus Clangula Leach 1819 (Long-tailed duck)
Genus Polysticta stelleri (Pallas 1769) Eyton 1836 [Eniconetta Gray 1840; Stelleria
Bonaparte 1842] (Steller's Eiders)
Genus Somateria Leach 1819 [Platypus Brehm 1824 non Shaw 1799 non Herbst 1793;
Erionetta Coues 1884; (Lampronetta) Brandt 1847] (Eiders)
Genus Melanitta Boie 1822 [Phoenonetta Stone 1907; Ania Stephens 1824 non Stephens
1831; Maceranas Lesson 1828; Macroramphus Lesson 1828; Pelionetta Kaup 1829;
(Oidemia) Fleming 1822] (Scoters)
Genus Bucephala Baird 1858 [Charitonetta Stejneger 1885; Clanganas Oberholser 1974;
Glaucion Kaup 1829 non Oken 1816; Bucephala (Glaucionetta) Stejneger 1885]
Genus Mergellus Selby 1840 (Smew)
Genus Lophodytes (Linnaeus 1758) Reichenbach 1853 (Hooded merganser)
Genus Mergus Linnaeus 1758 non Brisson 1760 [(Promergus) Mathews & Iredale 1913;
(Prister) Heine & Reichenow 1890]
Tribe Anatini Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 (dabbling ducks and moa-nalos)
Genus �Matanas Worthy et al. 2007 (Enright�s duck)
Genus Anas Linnaeus 1758 [Boschas Swainson 1831; Dafila Stephens 1824; Nettion Kaup
1829; Phasianurus Wagler 1832; Trachelonetta Kaup 1829; Anas (Dafila) Stephens
1824; Virago Newton 1871; Macera Swainson 1837; Penelops Kaup 1829; Mareca
(Notonetta) Roberts 1922; Mareca (Chaulelasmus) Bonaparte 1838; Chauliodus Swainson
1831 non Bloch 1801; Ktinorhynchus Eyton 1838; Mareca (Eunetta) Bonaparte 1856;
Horizonetta Oberholser 1917; Anas (Melananas) Roberts 1922; Anas (Afranas) Roberts
1922; Anas (Polionetta) Oates 1899 non Rondani 1856; Anas (Virago) Newton 1872;
Elasmonetta Salvadori 1895; Xenonetta Fleming 1935; Anas (Paecilonitta) Eyton 1838;
Aethiopinetta Boetticher 1943; Anas (Dafilonettio) Boettischer 1937]
Genus Sibirionetta (Georgi 1775) (Baikal teal)
Genus Mareca (Stephens 1824)
Genus Spatula Boie 1822 [Anas (Pterocyanea) Bonaparte 1841; Querquedula Stephens
1824; Rhynchaspis Stephens 1824; Rhynchoplatus Berthold 1827; Cyanopterus Bonaparte
1838 non Haliday 1835; Clypeata Lesson 1828; Anas (Micronetta) Roberts 1922;
Adelonetta Heine & Reichenow 1890]
Tribe Aythyini Delacour and Mayr, 1945 (diving ducks)
Genus Aythya Boie 1822 [Aristonetta Baird 1858; Dyseonetta Boetticher 1950; Marila
Oken 1817; Fulix Sundevall 1836; Nettarion Baird 1858; Fuligula Stephens 1824;
Zeafulix Mathews 1937; Ilyonetta Heine & Reichenow 1890; Aythya (Nyroca) Fleming
1822]
Some fossil anseriform taxa not assignable with certainty to a family are:

�Proherodius (London Clay Early Eocene of London, England) � Presbyornithidae?


�Garganornis ballmanni Meijer 2014
Unassigned Anatidae:

�"Anas" albae J�nossy 1979 [?Mergus]


�"Anas" amotape Campbell 1979
�"Anas" isarensis Lambrecht 1933
�"Anas" luederitzensis
�"Anas" sanctaehelenae Campbell 1979
�"Anas" eppelsheimensis Lambrecht 1933
�"Oxyura" doksana Ml�kovsk� 2002
�"Anser" scaldii ["Anas" scaldii]
�Ankonetta larriestrai Cenizo & Agnol�n 2010
�Cayaoa bruneti Tonni 1979
�Eoneornis nomen dubium
�Eutelornis
�Aldabranas cabri Harrison & Walker 1978
�Chenoanas deserta Zelenkov 2012
�Cygnopterus alphonsi Cheneval 1984 [non Cygnavus senckenbergi Ml�kovsk� 2002]
�Helonetta brodkorbi Emslie 1992
�Loxornis clivus Ameghino 1894
�Mioquerquedula minutissima Zelenkov & Kurockin 2012 [Anas velox Milne-Edwards
1867]
�Paracygnopterus scotti Harrison & Walker 1979
�Proanser major Umanskaya 1979
�Teleornis Ameghino 1899
�Protomelanitta Zelenkov 2011
�Nogusunna conflictoides Zelenkov 2011
�Sharganetta mongolica Zelenkov 2011
Metopiana Bonaparte 1856 [Metopias Heine & Reichenow 1890; Phoeonetta Delacour
1937; Netta (Phoeoaythia) Delacour 1937]
�Bambolinetta (Portis 1884) Mayr & Pavia 2014 [Anas lignitifila Portis 1884]
�Heteroanser vicinus (Kurockin 1976) Zelenkov 2012 [Heterochen vicinus Kurockin
1976; Anser vicinus (Kurockin 1976) Ml�kovsk� & �vec 1986]
�Sinanas Yeh 1980
�Talpanas Olson & James 2009 (Kaua'i mole duck)
�Wasonaka Howard 1966
�Chelychelynechen Olson & James 1991 (turtle-jawed moa-nalo)
�Ptaiochen Olson & James 1991 (small-billed moa-nalo)
�Thambetochen Olson & Wetmore 1976
In addition, a considerable number of mainly Late Cretaceous and Paleogene fossils
have been described where it is uncertain whether or not they are anseriforms. This
is because almost all orders of aquatic birds living today either originated or
underwent a major radiation during that time, making it hard to decide whether some
waterbird-like bone belongs into this family or is the product of parallel
evolution in a different lineage due to adaptive pressures.

"Presbyornithidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Udan Sayr,
Mongolia) � Presbyornithidae?
UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
Petropluvialis (Late Eocene of England) � may be same as Palaeopapia
Agnopterus (Late Eocene � Late Oligocene of Europe) � includes Cygnopterus
lambrechti
"Headonornis hantoniensis" BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of
Wight, England) � formerly "Ptenornis"
Palaeopapia (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England)
"Anas" creccoides (Early/Middle Oligocene of Belgium)
"Anas" skalicensis (Early Miocene of "Skalitz", Czech Republic)
"Anas" risgoviensis (Late Miocene of Bavaria, Germany)
�"Anas" meyerii Milne-Edwards 1867 [Aythya meyerii (Milne-Edwards 1867) Brodkorb
1964]
�Eonessa anaticula Wetmore 1938 {Eonessinae Wetmore 1938}
Phylogeny
Living Anseriformes based on the work by John Boyd.[11]

Anseriformes classification

Crested screamer (Chauna torquata)

Magpie goose (Anseranas semipalmata), sole surviving member of a Mesozoic lineage

Cast of Dromornis stirtoni, a mihirung, from Australia.

Molecular studies
Studies of the mitochnodrial DNA suggest the existence of four branches �
Anseranatidae, Dendrocygninae, Anserinae and Anatinae � with Dendrocygninae being a
subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae representing an independent
family.[12] The clade Somaterini has a single genus Somateria.

See also
List of Anseriformes by population
List of Anseriformes
References
Andors, A. (1992). "Reappraisal of the Eocene groundbird Diatryma (Aves:
Anserimorphae)". Science Series Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 36:
109�125.
Murrary, P.F; Vickers-Rich, P. (2004). Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal
Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime. Indiana University Press.
Bourdon, E. (2005). "Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between
pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)".
Naturwissenschaften. 92 (12): 586�91. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0047-0. PMID 16240103.
Agnol�n, F. (2007). "Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes
(Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina". Revista del Museo
Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 9: 15�25. doi:10.22179/revmacn.9.361.
Livezey, B.C.; Zusi, R.L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds
(Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and
discussion". The Science of Nature. 149 (1): 1�95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-
3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308?Freely accessible. PMID 18784798.
Louchart, A.; Sire, J.-Y.; Mourer-Chauvir�, C.; Geraads, D.; Viriot, L.; de
Buffr�nil, V. (2013). "Structure and Growth Pattern of Pseudoteeth in Pelagornis
mauretanicus (Aves, Odontopterygiformes, Pelagornithidae)". PLoS ONE. 8 (11):
e80372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080372.
Agnol�n, F.L.; Egli, F.B.; Chatterjee, S.; Mars�, J.A.G (2017). "Vegaviidae, a new
clade of southern diving birds that survived the K/T boundary". The Science of
Nature. 104 (87). doi:10.1007/s00114-017-1508-y.
Gonzalez, J.; D�ttmann, H.; Wink, M. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships based on
two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae". Journal of
Zoology. 279: 310�318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x.
Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Anseriformes � waterfowls".
Retrieved 30 December 2015.
Paleofile.com (net, info) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-
11. Retrieved 2015-12-30.. "Taxonomic lists- Aves". Archived from the original on
11 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
John Boyd's website [2] Boyd, John (2007). "Anseriformes � waterfowl". Retrieved
30 December 2015.
Liu, G; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Luo, Z; Xu, W (2013). "The complete mitochondrial
genome of bean goose (Anser fabalis) and implications for anseriformes taxonomy".
PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e63334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063334.
Cited texts
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anseriformes.
The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Anseriformes
Agnolin, F (2007). "Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes
(Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina". Revista del Museo
Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 9: 15�25. doi:10.22179/revmacn.9.361.
Clarke, J. A.; Tambussi, C. P.; Noriega, J. I.; Erickson, G. M.; Ketcham, R. A.
(2005). "Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the
Cretaceous". Nature. 433: 305�308. doi:10.1038/nature03150.
Livezey, B. C.; Zusi, R. L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds
(Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and
discussion". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149: 1�95.
doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308?Freely accessible.
Murray, P. F. & Vickers-Rich, P. (2004) Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal
Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime. Indiana University Press.
vte
Birds (class: Aves)
Taxon identifiers
Wikidata: Q21651 Wikispecies: Anseriformes ADW: Anseriformes EoL: 8024 EPPO: 1ANSEO
Fauna Europaea: 10708 Fossilworks: 39620 GBIF: 1108 iNaturalist: 6888 IRMNG: 10908
ITIS: 174982 NBN: NBNSYS0000159375 NCBI: 8826 NZOR: 32f287ea-d5a5-49f7-a27c-
4cac41475d62 WoRMS: 2681
Categories: AnseriformesBird ordersExtant Maastrichtian first appearancesLate
Cretaceous taxonomic ordersPaleocene taxonomic ordersEocene taxonomic
ordersOligocene taxonomic ordersMiocene taxonomic ordersPliocene taxonomic
ordersPleistocene taxonomic ordersHolocene taxonomic orders
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