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**GROUP 1: CALIBRATION OF VENTURIMETER,
**

ORIFACE METER, ROTAMETER

GROUP 2: FREE SETTLING

GROUP 3: FLOCCULATION

GROUP 4: REYNOLD’S APPARATUS

FLOCCULATION

AIM

To aggregate and separate cells in the given suspension by flocculation and compare the

flocculation power of different flocculants by determining optimum flocculent dosage.

THEORY

Flocculation refers to the reversible attachment of suspended particles in a suspension

when Van der Waal’s attractions are not counter acted by electrostatic repulsions (colloidal

instability). It is a process that is related to the electrokinetic properties of particles. Practically

all bio-particles suspended in aqueous solution are negatively charged. A suspension of

particles that do not aggregate is called a stable colloidal suspension. The transition of such a

stable suspension into an unstable one requires the reduction of the surface charge on the

particles. Flocculation is normally achieved by adding suitable chemicals called flocculants to

a particle suspension. Flocculants can act by forming inter- particle molecular bridges. In such

a case the flocculants are usually polymers or oligomers. They can also act by reducing the

repulsive force between cells by reducing the strength of electrostatic field. The effectiveness

of a flocculant depends on molecular weight, charge, solubility and other properties; and their

interactions with cells and particles depend on pH, ionic strength, temperature and dry solid

concentration. The flocculating power of flocculants can be compared by determining the

optimum flocculant dosage. Optimum flocculant dosage refers to the minimum concentration

of flocculant required to produce most effective inter particle aggregation and eventual

separation by flocculation. The flocculation dosage in v/V % can be evaluated as

(𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑) × 100

𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑜𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 =

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

MATERIALS REQUIRED

1) 10 mg/ml yeast suspension

2) 5 g/l CaCl2

3) 5 g/l starch

4) Ordinary bench top centrifuge

5) Colorimeter

1. of Total volume Floculant OD at 600nm No. of Floculant Vol. 7) The samples were centrifuged approximately at 1000 rpm for 1 min. 3) Progressively increasing volumes (0. 8) The top 2 ml of supernatant was collected from each tube and OD was recorded at 600 nm using a colorimeter. 5) Water was added to attain a total volume of 10 ml in each tube. 10) The values of optimum dosage were compared and the effectiveness of the flocculants used was inferred. added water added of Suspension dosage .2.3. progressively increasing volume of 5 g/l CaCl2 solution was added into another six centrifuge tubes. of suspension Vol. 4) Similarly. Observations FLOCULANT – 1 - Tube Vol.PROCEDURE 1) The yeast suspension of required concentration was prepared. 6) The flocculant dosage in each tube was recorded in the observation table. 2) 5 ml of the suspension was pipette out each into 12 centrifuge tubes.4 and 5 ml) of 5 g/l starch solution were added respectively into six centrifuge tubes. 9) A graph was plotted with OD against flocculant dosage for both flocculants and the optimum flocculant dosage was determined for both flocculants.

Explain Orthokinetic & Perikinetic Coagulation 4. added water added of Suspension dosage RESULT EXERCISES 1. Differentiate Coagulation & Flocculation 2.FLOCULANT – 2 - Tube Vol. Define Flocculant Dosage . of Floculant Vol. of suspension Vol. Name five industrially use flocculants 3. of Total volume Floculant OD at 600nm No.

Fd= 3𝜋µ Dp U. 2) Buoyant force. The drag force. FREE SETTLING AIM: To find the drag-coefficient of a falling spherical particle in the given liquid and verify Stokes’ law by plotting logCD Vs. 𝜋 𝜋 𝐴𝑝 = 4 𝐷𝑝2 and 𝑚 = 𝐷𝑝3 𝜌𝑝 6 Substituting the value of m and Ap into the above equation and noting that du/dt=0 at 4 𝐷𝑝 2 𝜌𝑝 −𝜌 terminal settling velocity. and 3) Drag force. 𝐶𝐷 = 3 𝑈 2 [ ]𝑔 𝑡 𝜌 . Stokes observed that the drag force is entirely from viscous action and inertial forces are unimportant. and Ap. THEORY: When a particle falls freely through a fluid. For a spherical particle. Under low flow regime.Fb.𝐶𝐷 = 𝜌𝑈 2⁄ 2 The resultant forces acting on the particle is Fg-Fb-Fd and the acceleration on the particle is du/dt. we get. The settling particle quickly reaches a constant velocity called terminal settling velocity (Ut) which is attainable from under the circumstances. At the terminal settling velocity the drag coefficient (𝐶𝐷 ) can be determined from the relationship between CD and NRe. where 𝜌𝑝 .Fg.the projected area of the particle. log NRe.density of the solid. When the particle is at sufficient distance from the boundaries of the container and from all other particles or solid boundary should be within 20 times the diameter of the particle so that they do not affect its fall. 𝐹𝐷 ⁄𝐴𝑝 Drag coefficient. 𝑑𝑢 𝜌 𝐶𝐷 𝑢2 𝜌 𝐴𝑝 𝑚 = 𝐹𝑔 − 𝐹𝑏 − 𝐹𝑑 = 𝑚𝑔 − 𝑚 𝑔 − 𝑑𝑡 𝜌𝑝 2 if m is the mass of the particle. the process is called free settling. three forces act on it.Fd. 1) Gravitational force.

So in Stokes’ law range 𝜌𝜋 3𝜋 𝜇 𝐷𝑝 𝑢𝑡 = 𝐶𝐷 𝑢𝑡 2 2 4 𝐷𝑝2 24 𝐷𝑝 𝑈𝑡 𝜌 𝐶𝐷 = 𝑁 𝑁𝑅𝑒 = 𝑅𝑒 𝜇 𝑁𝑅𝑒= 𝐷𝑝𝑢𝑡 e/ 𝜇 Dp= the diameter of the particle. It is assumed that by the time a particle reaches the first mark.65 poise. The density of the liquid is determined using a specific gravity bottle. kg/ms A graph of log𝐶𝐷 Vs. The densities of solid and the viscosity of liquid are taken as given below. . The experiment is repeated with all the other particles.one near the top (at a distance of about 20cm from the top) and the other near the bottom. Density of steel= 7850 kg/𝑚3 Density of glass=2600 kg/𝑚3 Density and viscosity of castor oil is 950 kg/𝑚3 and 9. The particle is now just dropped at the centre of the column with zero velocity and the time taken to travel the distance between the marks is noted. kg/𝑚3 𝜇=viscosity of the liquid. At low Reynolds number. The diameter is measured 2 or 3 times keeping the particle in different positions and the average is taken. the drag force for a sphere is given by 𝐹𝐷 =3𝜋 𝜇𝐷𝑝 𝑢𝑡 This is called Stokes’ law. it would have attained terminal velocity. Two points are marked on the column . m/s 𝜌=the density of the liquid. The equipment consists of a long glass tube filled with the given oil. for NRe < 2. log NRe will be a straight line with slope -1 PROCEDURE. The distance between the marks is measured. m 𝑢𝑡 = the terminal settling velocity.

Observations Sl Fluid Spherical Diameter Time Terminal Particle Drag coe. Particle of Particle Taken (s) settling NRep DpUt/ (Dp) t1 t2 velocity Expt. Theory µ Ut Steel 1 Glass Crystal Steel 2 Glass Crystal Steel 3 Glass Crystal . CD logCD log NRe = No.

Define drag force and drag coefficient 4. The particle should be dropped exactly at the centre of the tube. Compare free and Hindered settling 2. i. intermediate region & Newton’s Law region of settling of particles . it should be freely falling. RESULT: EXERCISES 1.e. Explain Stoke’s Law region.PRECAUTION: The particle should not have initial velocity. Explain terminal settling velocity at Hindered settling conditions 3..

Theoretical discharge. converted to cm of water. Qa Cd Qt . g = 981cm/s2. Ax Qa where A is the area of the collecting tank. Cd and to compare it with the experimentally obtained Cd. a1 a 2 2 2 Where a1 is the area at inlet side in cm2. The actual discharge Qa is determined using the measuring tank and stopwatch as actual discharge. CALIBRATION OF VENTURIMETER AIM: To calibrate the venturimeter for the determination of the coefficient of discharge. Qt through the venturimeter is calculated from a1 a 2 2 gH known dimensions and manometer reading. a2 is the area at the throat in cm2. Qa The coefficient of discharge can be determined experimentally as Cd . t is the time for x cm rise of water in the t collecting tank. THEORY: Venturimeter Water is allowed to flow through the meter at different rates ranging from zero to the maximum and the corresponding pressure differences shown in the manometer are noted. Qt To get the Cd value from calibration. H is the head difference in the manometer. The theoretical discharge. Qt cm2/s.

a1a2 2 g From the value of K. log Qa log K n log H . K Cd . where K and n are constants. . a1 a 2 2 gH Qa C d which is in the form of Qa KH n . the Cd can be obtained as. a straight line can be obtained and the slope of the line will be n and y intercept will give the value of log K . which is called the calibration curve. H graph. Now find out Qa a1 a2 2 2 values for various assumed values of manometer readings to get the calibration chart and plot the QaVs. Plotting log Qa Vs. a1 a 2 2 2 Taking logarithms. from which we can find out the actual discharge for any given value of the manometer reading. log H .

Close the discharge valve completely and switch off the motor. which supplies water before starting. When the mercury column becomes steady.PROCEDURE: Start the pump by starting the electric motor coupled to the pump.s Qt Qa log Qa log H Cv drop. No Pressure H. Repeat the experiment for different manometer readings (minimum six) by adjusting the delivery valve. Note the time taken for x cm rise of water in the collecting tank (t). Open the delivery valve of the pump to start flow through the venturimeter. h water cm RESULT: . note the level difference (h). Precaution: close the delivery valve of the centrifugal pump. OBSERVATIONS Area of collecting tank = Diameter of Pipe = Diameter of throat = Sl. Prime the pump if necessary. cm of Time.

How is flow measured in (1) open channels (2) closed channels .EXERCISES 1. What is ‘Water hammer’ 8. Compare actual and theoretical discharge 4. What is the need for priming of pump 7. List advantages of venturi meter compared to orifice meter 2. Discuss the working of (1) Butterfly valve (2) Gate valve (3) Ball valve 9. Give the principle of operation of venturi meter 3. What are the different methods of fitting venture meter in the given pipe line 5. Describe the working of Centrifugal Pump 6.

Ax Qa where A is the area of the collecting tank. a2 is the area at the throat in cm2. CALIBRATION OF ORIFICEMETER AIM: To calibrate the orifice meter for the determination of the coefficient of discharge. converted to cm of water. The theoretical discharge. THEORY: Orifice meter Water is allowed to flow through the meter at different rates ranging from zero to the maximum and the corresponding pressure differences shown in the manometer are noted. t is the time for x cm rise of water in the t collecting tank. Qt To get the Cd value from calibration. Cd from the calibration constant and to compare it with the experimentally obtained Cd. Qt cm2/s. a1 a 2 2 2 Where a1 is the area at inlet side in cm2. Theoretical discharge. Qa Cd Qt . g = 981cm/s2. The actual discharge Qa is determined using the measuring tank and stopwatch as actual discharge. H is the head difference in the manometer. Qt through the orifice meter is calculated from a1 a 2 2 gH known dimensions and manometer reading. Qa The coefficient of discharge can be determined experimentally as Cd .

a straight line can be obtained and the slope of the line will be n and y intercept will give the value of log K . . which is called the calibration curve. log Qa log K n log H . Now find out Qi a1 a2 2 2 values for various assumed values of manometer readings to get the calibration chart and plot the QiVs. the Cd can be obtained as. from which we can find out the actual discharge for any given value of the manometer reading. where K and n are constants. Plotting log Qa Vs. a a2 2 2 1 Taking logarithms. K Cd . a1a2 2 gh Qa Cd which is in the form of Qa KH n . log H . h graph. a1a2 2 g From the value of K.

PROCEDURE: Start the pump by starting the electric motor coupled to the pump. Prime the pump if necessary. Close the discharge valve completely and switch off the motor. Give various fittings of orifice meter 4. No Pressure H. Repeat the experiment for different manometer readings (minimum six) by adjusting the delivery valve. OBSERVATIONS Area of collecting tank = Diameter of Pipe = Diameter of orifice = Sl. Compare theoretical and experimental discharge . Precaution: close the delivery valve of the centrifugal pump. h water cm RESULT: EXERCISES 1. which supplies water before starting. Note the time taken for x cm rise of water in the collecting tank (t). cm of Time. Explain principle of operation of orifice meter 3. Open the delivery valve of the pump to start flow through the orifice meter. When the mercury column becomes steady. note the level difference (h). List various flow measuring devices 2.s Qt Qa log Qa log H Co drop.

For laminar flow. the flow is turbulent. the converse being true for turbulent flow. it is neither laminar flow nor turbulent flow. If N Re> 4000. THEORY: Flow of fluids through pipelines can be classified as laminar and turbulent based on values of Reynolds number. Viscous force Laminar flow may be defined as the flow in which the viscosity of the fluid is dominating over the inertial force. a transparent glass tube of suitable length for flow observation with control valve. REYNOLDS APPARATUS AIM: To identify various flow regimes by finding the critical velocity and Reynolds number (NRe) by Reynolds ‘ experiment. a collecting tank with gauge glass and scale fittings and a drain valve. The apparatus consists of a tank with steadying sections. a small tank for the supply of coloured liquid. If NRe is in between 2100 and 4000. The Reynolds number is dimensionless number defined as: Inertial force Reynold' s Number (N Re ) . . Osborne Reynolds for visualizing and studying various regimes for flow of liquids in pipelines. APPARATUS: The Reynolds apparatus is an experimental system designed by the British Engineer. NRe< 2100.

density Reynold's number dynamic viscosity The flow rate of water into the tube was slowly increased until the coloured thread started becoming irregular and began breaking up. Such a flow is known as laminar flow.PROCEDURE: Water supply was provided to the supply tank and the flow of water through the tube was regulated to a minimum. It was seen that a fine thread of coloured liquid was carried by the flowing water. and the mean velocity of flow was calculated as: q V= A d 2 where A = area of cross section of the pipe = . As the flow rate or velocity of flow was increased further. Water was collected in the collecting tank. till the thread became diffused. The volumetric flow rate of water was determined. The time taken for 5 cm rise in water level in the collecting tank was noted. Beyond the upper critical velocity. The coloured thread was observed to move steadily. diameter . Coloured liquid of the same specific gravity as that of water was filled in the small tank and allowed to enter the centre of the glass tube. Such a velocity is called lower critical velocity. Such a velocity is called upper critical velocity. . flow was fully disturbed and such a flow is turbulent flow. the length of the coloured tread started decreasing. 4 mean velocity .

No Quantity of Time.OBSERVATIONS Diameter of Pipe. Give significance of NRe in process Engineering. D = 8mm Sl. 2. Give the numerical values of NRe in various regions . Give various dimension less groups used in momentum transfer 3. ml RESULT: EXERCISES 1. (s) Q Velocity NRe Type of water (m/s) flow collected.

the effect of change of flowrate is changed by the position of float. CALIBRATION OF ROTAMETER AIM: (1) To plot the calibration curve (flow rate v/s rotameter) for the given rotameter. stainless steel floats are closcommon. Floats be constrected of metal and of vaying density lead to al or frim glass to plastic. the RHS of the eq n is constant and independentend of the flow rate. the area of flow related to the position of the float. It is installed vertically in pipeline Rotameter is a tapered vertical glass tube containing a float. Gravitational Constant. In orifice an vertical meter the flowrate through constant area caauses a vertical pressure drop. Drag force 𝑚𝑔 𝑔 (1−𝜌) At equilibrium. me higher float rate in the tube. The larger the flow rate. FD is constant. Mass of float P . the eqn proves that FDgc = 𝑝𝑔 FD . Weight of the float 2. (2) To develop an equation relating the rate and leading from the calibration THEORY: Rotameter is an instrument widely used for continuous flow measurement of fluids. 1. For a given flow rate the equilibrium position of the float in the rotameter is established by balance of 3 forces. Before can be used determine reading must be . If the flow rate is changed. (In rotameter the pressure drop constant) The area is set related to the flowrate by calibration. The over through which fluid flowing varies flow rate. For a given rotameter operating a desinite fluid. Bought force on the float 3. Drag force Mg . The pressure drop is related to the flow rate. Density of fluid Pg . Since the tube is tapered. Density of float gc .

Area of collecting tank = OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS Sl.No Rotameter Rise in Level Time (s) Flow rate Reading (mm) of water in me/t (cm3/s) collecting tank 1. RESULT The given rotameter is calibrated and the calibration equation is Q = . pump and supply of water eith regulating values. measuring cylinder. stopwatch etc. PROCEDURE Rotameter is connected to the pump and supply of the water flow rate is set by adjusting the valve. A calibaration curve for the fluid is to that prepared from the calibration curve an equation can be developed by curve filling. 4. The discharge through the rotameter is collected in a graduated cylinder. APPARATUS REQUIRED Rotameter.prepared. 5. 2. The rotameter reading is recorded. 3.

List various types of flow measuring devices. 4. Give general steps for calibration of equipment’s. Where Q – stow rate R – Rotameter Reading mm EXERCISES 1. . 3. Differentiate variable area and variable head flow measuring devices with suitable examples. With a next sketch explain working of a Rotameter 2.

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