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The Human Brain

The human brain

Interesting brain facts!
• About 1.4 kg (2% of body weight) mass of fat & protein with 75% water content

• W = 140 mm, L = 167 mm, H = 93 mm. Left hemisphere is larger than the right

• 40% grey matter (outer covering: cerebral cortex)
60% white matter (myelinated fiber tracts traveling to & from the cerebral cortex)

• Uses 10 – 23 watt of energy, consuming 20% oxygen from the body. Goes unconscious in 8
– 10 sec. w/o oxygen

• 100 billion neurons (166 times human population & would take 171 years to count! (Tony

• 2,50,000 neurons/ minute in early development & stops growing at 18

• 12 pairs of cranial nerves & 31 pairs of spinal nerves

• Thinking initiates electro-chemical-neuro-impulse transmission from
0.5 m/sec - 120 m/sec. (434 km/hr)

Parts of the brain Keep in mind there are two distinct sides with different functions .

.. The Brainstem (Pathway to the Body) • Base of brain • Unconscious work • Autonomic functions. e. breathing. body functions. survival.g. etc.

The Cerebellum (Balance) • ‘little brain’ • Large in size • 11% of brain’s weight • Center of balance .

The brain has 4 areas called lobes • Frontal • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital .

The Frontal Lobes (Problem Solving) • Largest part • Moves your body • Highly developed • Forms your personality .

The Parietal Lobes (Touching) • Two major divisions Anterior and posterior • Senses hot and cold. hard and soft. and pain • Taste and smell • Helps integrate the senses .

The Temporal Lobes (Hearing) • Processes auditory stimuli • Subdivisions into • Wernicke’s Area (associated with speech comprehension) • Broca’s Area (associated with speech production) .

The Occipital Lobes (Seeing) • Located at lower central back of brain • Processes visual stimuli .

two sides that is! • Two sides or hemispheres of the brain: LEFT and RIGHT • We have two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum • This is a bundle of nerves that allows each side of the brain to communicate with each other • Each side of the brain processes things differently • It is an outdated assumption that “artsy” type people are right-brained . Taking sides….

How the two sides process information! Left Brain Right Brain • Logical • Random • Sequential • Intuitive • Rational • Holistic • Analytical • Synthesizing • Objective • Subjective • Looks at parts • Looks at wholes .

Left Hemisphere • processes things more in parts & sequentially • recognizes positive emotions • identified with practicality and rationality • understands symbols and representations • processes rapid auditory information faster than the right (crucial for separating the sounds of speech into distinct units for comprehension) • is responsible for language development. that is why males usually develop more language problems than females . It develops slower in boys.

Right Hemisphere • recognizes negative emotions • high level mathematicians. problem solver like chess playing • the “non-verbal” side • responds to touch & music (sensory) • intuitive • responsive to color & shape • emotional & creative .

88) . Taking sides…. what information the two sides recognize! Left Brain Right Brain • Letters • Faces • Places • Numbers • Objects • Words based on Sousa (1995. p.

mtsu. Taking sides….take the test! http://capone.html .edu/studskl/hd/hemispheric_dominan ce.

Aphasia .

or seizures • The language deficits include difficulties in language comprehension and execution . stroke.• Aphasia is defined as an acquired impairment in the use of language due to damage to certain parts of the brain • This damage could be caused by injury.

Major Types of Aphasias All aphasias can be classified into two groups • Fluent aphasias – The inability to understand the language of others and the production of less meaningful speech then normal • Non-fluent aphasias – Difficulty producing fluent. or self- initiated speech . articulated.

For instance a person my say to you instead of for you or substitute the word pork for fork – This type of aphasia is produced by damage to Wernicke’s area of the brain Video of someone with Wernicke’s aphasia . Types of Fluent Aphasias • Wernicke’s aphasia – People with this type of aphasia have difficulty or inability understanding others speech. which means they use inappropriate morphemes. and produce meaningless speech – They generally do not realize their speech is meaningless and are surprised when others cannot understand them – They may demonstrate paragrammatical speech.

More Types of Fluent Aphasia • Conduction aphasia – The main symptom of this type of aphasia is difficulty repeating something someone has just said – People with this condition have relatively good language comprehension and their conversational speech is only mildly impaired – This type of aphasia is produced by damage to the left temporoparietal region – It has been suggested that this type of aphasia could come about because of deficits in short term memory or phoneme selection .

stuff. or it instead of automobiles. thing. More Types of Fluent Aphasia • Anomic aphasia – This aphasia is characterized by difficulty finding names and difficulty substituting indefinite nouns and pronouns with substantive words. people with this affliction will use words like. or furniture. For instance. – There are very few cases of pure anomic aphasia and it is therefore difficult to find the area of the brain responsible – Some have suggested that it is a mild form of Wernicke’s aphasia . groceries.

and echolalia. – This aphasia may be caused by damage surrounding and including Wernicke’s area . For instance. “What is your name?” they are predisposed to repeat the question over and over instead of answering it. if a person with this type of aphasia was asked. poor language comprehension. – Echolalia is the tendency to repeat something someone has just said. More Types of Fluent Aphasia • Transcortical sensory aphasia – Symptoms of this type of aphasia are fluent speech with some anomia.

labored. which means words like a. Non-Fluent Aphasias • Broca’s aphasia – This type of aphasia manifests with difficulties initiating well-articulated conversational speech – The language that is produced is slow. or the and verb tense is left out of their speech – This aphasia is produced by damage to Broca’s area of the brain Video of someone with Broca’s aphasia . an. and agrammatical.

More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s • Transcortical motor aphasia – People with this aphasia do not speak unless they are strongly encouraged to do so and when they do speak it is labored and non-fluent – Interestingly enough when these people are verbally presented with long complicated sentences they are able to repeat them fluently – This aphasia is produced by damage to the premotor cortex anterior and superior to Broca’s area .

More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s • Global aphasia – As the name suggests. this type of aphasia is characterized by a severe depression of all language functioning – The people with this affliction have poor language comprehension and speak in slow. labored jargon – This aphasia is caused by damage around and to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain .

There was an experiment done where people with Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias were presented with a picture and then asked to write down a description of what they say in the picture.Other Interesting Facts About Aphasia The handwriting of a person with an aphasia reflects their speech impediment. .

This is the picture .

but the words do make some sense . A patient with Broca’s aphasia wrote this Notice the use of very few words.

. Also because they’re not struggling to find their words. A patient with Wernicke’s aphasia wrote this Notice here that there are many. less forced. but they don’t make much sense. the handwriting is better. words.