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Mechanism for Onset of Sudden-Rising Head Effect in Centrifugal Pump
When Handling Viscous Oils

Article  in  Journal of Fluids Engineering · July 2014
DOI: 10.1115/1.4026882


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Wenguang Li
University of Glasgow


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2]. China viscous oil with slightly higher viscosity than water is higher than the head of pumping water over a certain large flow rate range. 2014. Importantly. the roughness. which make a transition of boundary layer flow pattern performance of a standard industrial centrifugal pump having a in both the impeller and volute to the hydraulically smooth regime specific speed of 807 (USA) or 57 (China) or 0. The pump specifications at the design point are large exit angle was suitable for pumping liquids with high viscos. but it is not well understood presently.07663 (dimensionless–type The “sudden-rising head effect” is confirmed to exist at a higher number). Q ¼ 6.1 Fluid Domain. head. and the same effect was exhibited as well. less-type number) was tested with water and viscous oils at differ- [DOI: 10. the sudden-rising head effect appeared. and the effects of the gap between casing and blade tip on Wen-Guang Li the performance were explored. the performance of centrifugal pumps was measured various viscosities to highlight the mechanism for onset of the under various viscosities in [1. m3 =s. Assoc. In [13].” Meanwhile the effect was analyzed simply by using performance. 1(b). The pressure on impeller blade surfaces in an experimental pump were measured in [3] when 2 Computational Models pumping water and various viscous oils. Journal of Fluids Engineering Copyright V C 2014 by ASME JULY 2014. CFD the boundary layer theory over a flat plate with inviscid core flow model. US gpm.04697 (dimension- from the fully rough one. How- cosity. at a higher viscosity. roughness. tions. Mechanism for Onset of Sudden-Rising was helpful to improve the performance of viscous oils.asmedigitalcollection. in which the head rise of Lanzhou 730050.1115/1. it was shown that a wide blade defined by the following expressions: 8 pffiffiffiffi 3=4 < nS ¼ n Q=H > pffiffiffiffi ðr=min.07663 (dimensionless-type number).06757 (dimensionless type num- ber) and 1515 (USA) or 107 (China) or 0.10]. certain attention has been devoted To remove this limitation.14]. the performance of a centrifugal to investigate into the performance and flow in a centrifugal pump pump with 20 deg blade exit angle was predicted by using a CFD when handling viscous oils so far. head effect. The per- formance of the centrifugal pump with various numbers of blades Head Effect in Centrifugal Pump When was measured when pumping viscous oils in [8] and it was identi- fied that the less number of blades was necessary for achieving a Handling Viscous Oils better performance.asme. 2013. centrifugal with the tuft method in [4]. / ¼ 140 deg. various viscosities of liquid in [5–7] and it was identified that a . However. Thus. there is a volute that has a rectangular cross Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. There a finite roughness was leum industry and crude oil refineries to transport viscous oils applied into the wet walls of a centrifugal pump in CFD simula- with viscosity more than water. a phenomenon. mÞðdimensionless  type numberÞ The impeller geometrical parameters are as follows: De ¼ 62 mm. To clarify this effect the hy. n ¼ 1450 r/min. Vol. single-stage. and efficiency correction factors were proposed to the mechanism might be helpful to capture the characteristics of obtain the performance curve for pumping viscous oils from the low Reynolds fluid flow in a centrifugal pump. impeller could exhibit a better performance than a closed impeller Lanzhou University of Technology. Editor: Satoshi ameter. In [11]. Gansu. published online May 6. which are formance was tested in [7] too. the phenomenon was not highlighted by curve when a centrifugal pump transports highly viscous liquids. and a lowered efficiency. known curve for handling water. ns ¼ 1317 (USA) ¼ 93 on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. An end-suction. Z ¼ 4. the phenomenon was named as the “sudden-rising Keywords: centrifugal pump. the performance of a centrifugal pump with two differ- draulic performance of centrifugal pump when handling water ent exit blade angles (20 deg and 44 deg) and having a specific and viscous oils was evaluated numerically by using a CFD code. The effect of blade width at the impeller outlet on the per. Its performance the performance of a centrifugal pump were experimented under and flow field have been investigated experimentally in [11. The viscosity and cous oils and the same phenomenon was observed. 287 Langongping Road. final manuscript section with 40 mm width and a discharge nozzle with 50 mm di- received February 15. 190 mm diameter. speed of 1317 (USA) or 93 (China) was observed for the centrifugal pumps with specific speed of 1163 (USA) or 82 (China) or 0. 136 / 074501-1 Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. It is very hopeful that the understanding about rate. m =s. The effects of the blade exit angle on pump was used as the computational model here. namely those in [1–7]. The water and viscous oil flow patterns in the impeller of centrifugal pump were observed 2. D2 ¼ 180 mm. e-mail: Liwg40@sina. mÞðChinaÞ (1) > : pffiffiffiffi 3 nS ¼ ðn=60Þ Q=ðgHÞ3=4 ðr=min. impeller. For code-FLUENT when the pump delivers water and machine oils with instance. performance of a centrifugal pump. in [1. In that case. Outside the impeller.94 L/s. As a result.08817 (dimensionless The “sudden-rising head effect” may be prevalent in the head type number). Recently. a centrifugal pump has to operate under a reduced head ever. those authors. ftÞðUSAÞ nS ¼ 3:65n Q=H 3=4 ðr=min. a more advanced CFD method was used to study 1 Introduction the effects of the exit blade angle and liquid viscosity on flow and Centrifugal pumps have extensively been applied in the petro. are responsible for the effect. and a series of curves of flow effect in this paper. the effect was explained in a qualitative manner. and b2 ¼ 18 mm. viscosity. the optimal gap was dependent on viscosity. The volute tongue tip is located at a base circle with Watanabe. For viscous oils with a high vis. in Fig. H ¼ 8 m. 2014. Manuscript received July 3. volute. was measured when transporting water and highly vis- viscosity and a certain large surface roughness. b2 ¼ 20 deg. The performance of a centrifugal pump with a semiopen impeller was tested when handling viscous oils in [9. It was clarified that a semiopen Department of Fluid Machinery.4026882] ent viscosities in [12].5]. (China) ¼ 0.

SIM- by the tongue sequentially. 1(a). In FLUENT. The fluid is incompressible. 1(b) pass ing use of a CFD code-FLUENT. transformation is launched to make sure that flow variables in one zone to be used to estimate fluxes at the boundary of the adjacent zone.asmedigitalcollection. volute. q. ¼ 90 deg. the fluid in the suction pipe and volute is not is often applied in turbomachinery to treat weaker rotor-stator rotational. Re2 1. .621. and impeller. The relative position is specified by the circumferential were employed. the flow in the fluid domains is considered to be steady even though the individual cell zones in the domains move 2. JULY 2014 Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. The standard k  e two equa- the consumed time by the moving mesh method for establishing a tion turbulence model was selected to estimate the turbulence periodical performance and flow pattern is around 50 times longer shear stresses. Thus. steady. If the zone is stationary. The fluid flow is governed by the time-averaged conti- interaction with a less time-consuming and fair accuracy. 45 deg. and 15 deg were chosen. flow at a series of relative positions between blade 1 and the Three fluid domains. Fig. The MRF method is oil2. In and volute tongue exists. 1(b). However. It consists of a suction pipe. kg/m3 1000 839 851 858 Kinematical viscosity.383–3. and oil3 were made with the model pump. method has to be adopted in the paper. shown in Fig. The flow in each formed under 13 operating conditions. These four liquids the simplest way to cope with multiple zones in fluid domains.259. however. its flow is 3D Note that the MRF method does not take the relative motion of and turbulent inside the pump under any operation conditions. and oil3 were used as the working not taken into account.asme.48 60. 136.e. i. In the MRF method of FLUENT. The MRF method speed. and vo.. The domain was created based on the dimensions presented in the design drawings of the on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. because of the axisymmetry PLE algorithm. Four blades (1–4) illustrated in Fig. suction pipe. the method is impeller is rotated anticlockwise with the impeller at a constant equivalent to the frozen rotor approach in CFX. Since nuity and Navier–Stokes equations. 75 deg. lute. The CFD computations were per- at different rotational or translational speeds.751. In were used in CFD computations here. and the second-order upwind scheme for the of the impeller. the flow rate is ranged moving cell zone is solved using the moving reference frame from 1.476. the interaction between impeller 20  C and impeller Reynolds number are tabulated in Table 1. respectively.06 m/s.0 to 8. The finite volume method. a local reference frame range of 0.47 48. it is enough to conduct numerical computations of convection terms in the governing equations were adopted. 3D. cSt (mm2/s) 1.2 25. The first two are stationary. kinematical viscosity at In a centrifugal volute pump. the MRF cope with the effects of the boundary layer over wet walls. 2.4 Flow Model. Their density. The nonequilibrium wall function was launched to than that by the MRF technique in FLUENT [15. the MRF method or moving mesh technique. and of relative positions between impeller blade and volute tongue incompressible flows in the model pump were computed by mak- need to be clarified. oil1. namely. the method. it can be handled by means of [11].0 L/s to cover the entire operation range.5 Computational Method and Mesh. At the interfaces between cell zones.6 a Reference [11].3 20.982.2 Physical Properties of Liquids. Four Newtonian liquids. The fluid domain of the pump has been built in GAMBIT and angle h shown in Fig. experiments on the performance for handling tap water. 1 Fluid domain of centrifugal pump and definition of relative position between blade and volute tongue (a) fluid domain and (b) definition of relative position Table 1 Physical properties of liquidsa Liquid water oil1 oil2 oil3 Density. impeller.7 Nominal viscosity (cSt) 1 24 48 60 Impeller Reynolds number.3 Operating Conditions. between the pump casing and the impeller outside surfaces were namely. the The time-averaged flow of the fluid is steady. 60 deg. pump performances at a series 2. oil1. while the last one is 074501-2 / Vol. tap . the axial velocity at the inlet to the suction pipe was in the used. In the computations.0 24. the stationary equations are ingly. a moving zone with respect to adjacent zones into account. 30 deg. fluids in experiments. Accord- equations.16]. tongue.5 51. oil2. The two side chambers 2. The fluid in the mesh remains fixed for the computation.

a series of numerical computations of flow were conducted at six positions between The relative position between blade 1 and volute tongue does blade 1 and volute tongue.8.7 Implementation of Wall Roughness. In FLUENT. the impeller theoretical head Hth is defined as the At the same flow rate. such that sw can be determined easily with Eq.5%. suggesting c likely has a minor influence on the com. the pump hydraulic efficiency gh is the ratio of the 3 Results and Discussion pump head over the ideal theoretical head. i. rotational. usually c ¼ 0. The working fluid is water and the sur. Therefore. position on performance is less substantial. For a putational results under that number of cells will be presented in cast wall. formula for B is given by 8 > 0 ksþ  2:25 in hydraulically smooth regime > >   > >    < 1 ksþ  2:25 B ¼ 0:41 ln þ cksþ sin 0:4285 ln ksþ  0:811 2:25 <ksþ  90 in transition regime (4) > 87:75 > > > 1 >   : ln 1 þ cksþ ksþ > 90 in hydraulically rough regime 0:41 ghi ¼ Hth =He (5) where c is the roughness coefficient to indicate the uneven prop- erty of rough elements for a practical surface finish. 136 / 074501-3 Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. He . The impeller hydraulic efficiency is defined as the implying the performance under this angle can represent the ratio of the impeller theoretical head over an ideal theoretical actual performance of the pump. Thus. 0.75. and recommended in [18]. At Q ¼ 6. a larger c leads to a lower pump head. It was found that when the total number of cells sw =q is increased up to 910 k (10 k in the suction pipe. Likewise. pump head show a 60. and its dissipation rate are set to 0. then ks ¼ 300 lm. unless otherwise head corresponding to the consumed shaft-power for developing stated. respec- and hydraulic efficiency of the impeller. He ¼ (6) qgQ puted results. This sand equivalent roughness estimate is comparable to 250 lm. At the entrance of the suction pipe. 0.e. velocity. Ra ¼ 12. 3. only the performance data under h ¼ 45 deg are illustrated head rise Hth .5  104. is defined as dral cells. affect the pump performance.5–1. In those plots.03 changes. respectively. such as h ¼ 90 deg. pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi! Vy 1 y sw =q 2. Since the shape and distribution of the rough ele- ments of a cast surface resemble those of uniform sand grains. The impeller theoretical head and 45 deg. According to a series of flow simulations conducted This ideal head He is estimated by by the author.8. it is apparent that the effect of the relative ance data from CFD outcomes can be found in [13]. 30 deg. 3. The theoretical head hydraulic efficiencies exhibit 60. and its dissipation rate specified are wetted wall surface is given as follows [18]: 1.2 m variation. the estimated head at BEP is reduced gv Mx by 2% only. a uniform absolute velocity is specified. which is away from the wall by a distance y. from the entrance of the suction pipe to the volute nozzle exit. The turbulence cell.5 mm diameter roughness Reynolds number ksþ . 0. (3) is used to involve the effect of wetted wall bulence intensity are held at the exit of the discharge nozzle (its roughness on the boundary layer flow. Journal of Fluids Engineering JULY 2014. velocity.5. roughness on the velocity profile and in turn the shear stress on a The fluid domain of suction pipe was discretized with hexahe. Pump hydraulic perform- ance depends on the relative position between impeller blades and gh ¼ H=He (7) volute tongue in a CFD simulation. turbulence and a sand equivalent roughness of the natural surface of cast iron kinetic energy. The was specified on the cylindrical surface with 92. The reduction method for extracting perform. Thus. (3). eventually the following hydraulic diameter is 50 mm). 380 k in the ksþ ¼ ks (2) . that is in the following sections.0 L/s. and 520 k in the volute) the pump performance becomes independent of mesh size. wall. unless otherwise stated. the averaged values of the pump head mass-averaged total energy head rise of fluid from the impeller and hydraulic efficiency are quite close to those under h ¼ 45 deg.6 Boundary Conditions. As a result. but those of the impeller and volute were meshed with pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi tetrahedral cells. Wetted solid walls entrance of the on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme.5 to 0. 75 deg. Vol. the com. The pump head H is defined as the total energy rise of fluid c ¼ 0. the following sections. which indicates the effect of down the impeller outlet. diameter is 62 mm) is set to 5%. 2 in terms of flow rate at and hydraulic efficiency of the impeller are less than 2% and various h positions. and 15 deg. 60 deg. A zero static pressure and 5% tur.75 is chosen in the paper. The universal velocity profile across a boundary layer over a turbulence kinetic energy.asmedigitalcollection.. inlet to outlet. An impeller-suction pipe interface was generated at the 2. the relative changes in the theoretical head ciency of the pump are depicted in Fig. the fluid velocity Vy at a node of a mesh rate and the inner cross-sectional area of the pipe.3. the velocity has the axial component only and determined by a prescribed known flow In a CFD simulation. As c is increased from 0. an impeller-volute interface in a centrifugal pump are subject to a certain roughness ks .0. is always intensity of flow at the entrance of the suction pipe (its hydraulic known. head and hydraulic effi.02 and 60.5–50 lm. The roughness ks is correlated to Ra by ks ¼ 6 Ra in [17]. If Ra ¼ 50 lm. The under-relaxation factors for pressure.asme. The residual tolerances of pressure. Eq. tively. while the impeller and pump face roughness of wet walls is Ra ¼ 50 lm. Likewise.1 Performance Presentation. The no-slip velocity condition is pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ ln þ 5:5  B (3) sw =q 0:41  imposed on all the wet solid walls.

The maximum relative error is 11% only.2 Head Rise Curve. (b) impeller hydraulic efficiency. Although the predicted pump efficiencies are comparable with those measured ni ¼ ghi =u22 for impeller (8) at  ¼ 1. and experimental data in [11] 3. symbols. and 60 ciency predicted by CFD is 10%–13% lower than that estimated cSt and 50 lm surface roughness. 48. (c) pump head. head-flow rate curves. is demonstrated in found at  ¼ 48 and 60 cSt.asmedigitalcollection. hydraulic loss coefficients of the impeller. The hydraulic loss coefficients of puted head is basically consistent with the experimental observa. 2 Centrifugal pump performance curves at various angles of h between blade 1 and tongue. lated based on the pump hydraulic efficiency given by CFD and the volumetric and mechanical efficiencies estimated by using the 3. 3 Pump head and efficiency curves at various viscosities. The pump efficiency was calcu. line. line. H.asme. CFD results. . For this reason the hydraulic effi- Fig. and (d) pump hydraulic efficiency. The flow model in pump side chambers in [14] and the experimental hydraulic efficiency. mean value of hydraulic parameter. and computed parameter Fig. see the Discussion for details. Fig. 24 cSt. 136. by the flow model in [14] at both viscosities. 24. JULY 2014 Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. a slightly large deviation from the experiment is nV ¼ ghV =u22 for volute 074501-4 / Vol. 3 in terms of flow rate at the viscosities of 1. and volute are shown in Fig. (a) head and (b) effi- ciency. the impeller and volute are defined as the following: tion.3 Hydraulic Efficiency and Loss on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. symbols. (a) impeller theoretical head. The pump head. The com.

It is because standard k-e model to handle the low Reynolds effect near wet the change in hydraulic loss coefficient of the impeller is quite solid boundaries.08–0. does exist. This in the impeller. head effect in Fig. The at the viscosity of 24 cSt in the CFD computation. It is to the standard k-x SST model. suction pipe). The obtained pump head curves are nearly the same In Fig. the effect reappears. The rest of the setup remain unchanged.. 3(a) and the hydraulic effi. and wall roughness rather than viscosity alone. In fact.0 L/s. the staggered scheme for terms of flow rate. and there are 630 k cells in by the wet surfaces of impeller and volute are shown in Fig. (a) hydraulic efficiency. 370. so that there is no sudden-rising head effect at all. where the The averaged skin friction factors applied to the liquid pumped mesh on the mid-span plane is shown. 6(b). for an absolutely smooth surface (Ra ¼ 0 lm).834 cells in the phenomenon is captured by the CFD computation here. The heads at three flow rates. showing the k-x SST model unlikely can predict the estimated pump head is decreased continuously with increasing sudden-rising head effect. such as Q ¼ . Vol.0 to 8. and the highest head occurs 3. 3(a). SST model. and (c) loss coefficient of volute Fig. oil2 longer appears. the hydraulic loss ard k-e model. 6(a). 6(c). 7 in the whole fluid domain. the wall roughness effect see Fig.916 cells sudden-rising head effect is onset at those viscosities. was chosen. 5 Pump head curves for two surface roughness at various viscosities. Thus. see on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. Note that those averaged skin factors are Journal of Fluids Engineering JULY 2014. 6(d). the staggered mesh proposed by [19] Significant variation in the hydraulic efficiency for different vis. larger than that of the volute at the high flow rate. 136 / 074501-5 Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. the standard k-x SST was and oil3) in the experimental data in Fig.36.2 from 2. This suggests the flow model and ciency illustrated in Fig.asmedigitalcollection. the as Fig. however. which are shown in Fig. 6(b) for the stand- the flow rate is increased from 1. To validate this further. the standard k-x SST model liquid viscosity. hedral mesh with core hexahedral cells. The phenomenon. 5. suggesting the attempted once again under a dense hex-core mesh (405. The standard k-x SST turbulence model replaced the cosities is shown at a flow rate higher than 4. Compared with the hydraulic loss coefficient of the volute. is named as the “sudden-rising head effect” in [12]. 6(c) for the standard k-x coefficient of the impeller is reduced to around 0. i. the and 8. the sudden-rising head effect no clear that the pump head is improved at  ¼ 24–60 cSt (oil1. seems to be improper for the viscous oil flow problem in a centrif- At the roughness of Ra ¼ 100 lm. are plotted as a function loss coefficient of the impeller is always dominated at all the flow of impeller Reynolds number Re2 to illustrate the sudden-rising rates. experiment [11].e. 4(a) at  ¼ 24 cSt (oil1) are improved computational method adopted here are reasonable and the effect compared with those at  ¼ 1 cSt (water). Therefore. regarding the pump head. (a) Ra 5 0 lm and (b) 100 lm The pump hydraulic efficiency is below 75% in all the cases. the tetrahedral mesh was switched to the tetra. 5(a). channels has played a key role in the occurrence of the effect. It is believed that the wet surface roughness of flow has been removed in the standard k-x SST turbulence model. 104. It is seen that an even stronger sudden- rising head effect has been exhibited. For instance. pressure interpolation. while the curves in Fig.0 L/s. 4 Pump hydraulic efficiency and hydraulic loss coefficients of impeller and volute against flow rate at various viscosities. but at 48 cSt in computed pump head shown in Fig. ugal pump with rough wet walls. Fig. Meanwhile.4 Sudden-Rising Head Effect and its Mechanism.79. especially at a low flow rate. is improved at a higher viscosity than Note that once the standard k  e turbulence model is switched water. (b) loss coefficient of impeller. 5(b).728 cells in the volute.asme.0 L/s. as The head-flow rate curves are plotted in Fig. the sudden-rising head effect involves liquid viscosity To confirm this.

asme. As a result of this. In the same passage. 7. fV gets large with increasing 074501-6 / Vol. 6(b)–6(d). 136. 3–5 and 6(b) starts to exhibit a notice- sages of impeller and volute. 3 and 4 and averaged skin friction factor. and experimental data in [11] Fig. the more the skin friction loss is have nothing to with Figs. (c) head-flow rate curves for standard k -x SST model. their relations with flow rate are quite different. JULY 2014 Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. the increment is not significant. even though the magnitudes of fi and fV are compara- . (b) head-flow rate curve for standard k -e model.0 L/s. (a) in impeller and (b) in volute extracted from the same simulation results as Figs. fi keeps rising considerably and makes an (9) fV ¼ 2swV =qu22 for volute increasing contribution to flow resistance in the impeller flow channels.asmedigitalcollection. symbols. defined by the following formulas: In Fig. and (d) head-Reynolds number curves for standard k -e model. the per- and surface roughness on the skin friction loss in the flow pas.0 L/s.0 L/s. 7 Averaged skin friction factors versus flow rate at various on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. As a flow rate fi ¼ 2sw =qu22 for impeller is higher than 4. the larger the able difference just from 4. Even though fi is also increased at a flow rate lower than Both skin friction factors include influences of liquid viscosity 4. Fig. formance presented in Figs. The averaged factors are experienced. 6 Pump head curves at various viscosities for two turbulence models. (a) tet- rahedral mesh with core hexahedral cells in blade mid-span plane.

0 L/s water  ¼ 1 cSt oil1  ¼ 24 cSt oil2  ¼ 48 cSt oil3  ¼ 60 cSt Impeller. and Fig.5 L/s and Q ¼ 6. in which the factor is dependent on when Ra is in 25–100 lm range. this effect was observed by experiment in [11] too. hydraulically rough zone.1 256.07663 (dimensionless- 1 < in impeller Ra ¼ ks ¼ 6 W   (10) type number). 8 Pump head and hydraulic efficiency against roughness at Q 5 6. (a) head and (b) hydraulic efficiency Journal of Fluids Engineering JULY 2014.2 . Consequently. causing the sudden. more than 48 cSt. 4. If roughness is too high and those in Figs. In fact. however. the flow regime is in the impeller and volute is around 100 lm at  ¼ 24 cSt. the admissible roughness of Reynolds number is reduced further. Reynolds number is decreased.9 181. If the real roughness of a wet wall is larger than the roughness. in the hydraulically rough regime. Vol. the flow regime of the boundary Reynolds number only. (water) from Q ¼ 4. where the skin fric. fi and fV are lower than those at  ¼ 1 cSt in [17].04697 (dimensionless-type num- determine the admissible roughness of impeller and volute ber) and confirmed by using a simple 2D theory of the boundary 8 layer along a flat plate in [12].3 flow on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. To clearly show the change of flow regime in the impeller and ered skin friction factors decrease the skin friction loss in the volute. respectively. As the viscosity is should take place in the transition zone rather than in the others. 6 > : 1 100 in volute The flow in this pump is investigated with the CFD method and 6 V the effect has been confirmed here. the flow regime of the boundary layer will be in water. Ra ¼ 40 lm. If surface roughness is too small or volute should be in a hydraulically smooth zone. Table 2 Admissible roughness of impeller and volute Mean velocity at Q ¼ 6. 5.4 Volute. namely high enough surface roughness surface roughness because the roughness is much less than Ra* and properly decreased Reynolds number determine the onset of and the flow regime of the boundary layer in the impeller and the sudden-rising head effect. Reynolds number is too large. It is shown that the admissible roughness gets Based on the experiments on turbulent flow of the boundary layer enlarged with increasing viscosity of liquid. the The pump head and hydraulic efficiency are illustrated in Fig.asmedigitalcollection. the hydraulically rough regime. the sudden-rising Fig. over a rough flat plate in [20]. which is the same as ks ¼ 6 Ra  ¼ 24 cSt. known as the Schlichting formula in [20]. Ra is so small that the flow regime almost is the regime moves to the hydraulic transition zone. and it is decreased with decreasing Reynolds number. 6(b) and 6(c). 8 skin friction factor is related to the surface roughness only. Since the and a better hydraulic efficiency. Reynolds number is decreased too much. hydraulically smooth zone.asme. the effect cannot occur because the Since the admissible roughness becomes larger for a higher liq- flow regime will be in the hydraulically rough zone.8 90. however. the sudden-rising head effect was also found experi- tion regime or hydraulically smooth zone. is applied to of 807 (USA) or 57 (China) or 0. viscosity increases. W ¼ 3. It can be concluded that the sudden-rising head effect where a smaller skin friction loss is expected. 8 are originated from the same mesh and solver set up as rising head effect unlikely happens. The admissible roughness can distinguish the hydraulically it may be acceptable that the pump flow passages maintain larger rough regime. Otherwise. As when Ra > 25 lm. the admissible roughness of the impeller is comparable sudden-rising head effect. if a pump is used to transport highly viscous liquids.0 L/s and various viscosities.9 m/s 4. then the flow regime It should be pointed out that the results presented in Table 2 will be in the hydraulically smooth zone. the performance is basically unaffected by the Two key parameters.5 L/s. and increases with decreasing Reynolds layer in the impeller and volute should be in the transition zone. In the centrifugal pump with a > 1 100 moderate specific speed of 93 (China) or 0. Therefore. and the performance is degraded until tion factor depends on both Reynolds number and surface rough. 136 / 074501-7 Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. accordingly the pump performance shows a higher head and volute at BEP (Q ¼ 6. V ¼ 4.0 L/s) at various viscosities. the deceased skin mean relative velocity of flow in the impeller is close to that in friction loss in impeller and volute should be responsible for the the volute. mentally in the industrial centrifugal pump with a specific speed sion. however. 3. the performance is improved ness. for the liquid with a viscosity close to admissible one.0 L/s for four viscosities. it does not show a substantial difference at the where the admissible equivalent sand grain roughness ks is related viscosities of 1 and 24 cSt. number. and 7 rather than in Figs. to the admissible arithmetic average of absolute values of the real The skin friction factors rise with increasing liquid viscosity.6 205. otherwise it will be in the transi. Consequently.8 227. uid viscosity. the surface roughness should be kept as small as possible. Based on Table 2. As liquid in terms of surface roughness at Q ¼ 6.4 m/s 3. The following expres. Table 2 illustrates the admissible roughness of the impeller pump. causing the flow At  ¼ 1 cSt. at roughness of a wall by ks ¼ 6 Ra . At  ¼ 24 cSt. The low. with volute.

D. 10 against impeller Reynolds in the two side chambers and estimate the volumetric and mechan. This suggests the draulic efficiency estimated by the flow model shows less change clearance is responsible for the onset of sudden-rising head effect to decreasing Reynolds number. In Fig. number at BEP. 4 Discussion To identify the reason why there is a remarked difference in In order to estimate overall pump efficiency based on the hy. finally the mechanical efficiency gm can be predicted. thus further inves. Euler head with slip In Fig. and pump head given by CFD at various viscosity (decreasing impeller Reynolds number). In other words. Unfortunately. The detailed Fig. the pump hy- higher viscosity than water in the centrifugal pump with a semi. pump head. The hydraulic efficiency gh degrades slightly with increas- when handling highly viscous oils. the flow retical head of the impeller calculated by making use of the torque through in the gap and that in the side chamber must solve in a coupling manner. pump hydraulic efficiency between the flow model and CFD com- draulic efficiency at various operating points predicted by CFD putation.5 at all viscosities. the pump hy- the smaller the gap. Firstly. Euler head without slip factor correction. This computational pro- cess is carried out continuously until the leakage flow rate is no longer changed. HE is the Euler head without slip factor correction. the disc friction loss consumed by the impeller can be obtained by integrating the shear stress profile across the outside surfaces. side chambers along the radius becomes slow with increasing vis- tigations are needed.asmedigitalcollection. Secondly. and the results at BEP are presented in Fig. 9 Predicted hydraulic. especially at low Reynolds num- was narrowed less than 4. The predicted pump efficiency by the flow model Note that the sudden-rising head effect merged too at a slightly agrees well with the measurements. and mechanical on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. the flow rate is updated by using a theoretical relation between pressure drop and leakage flow rate for an annular gap with movable walls. there are no wear-rings and on leakage flow at all. lines. 9(b). The mechanical impeller Reynolds number at BEP 074501-8 / Vol. in a semiopen impeller. In the hub side chamber. for the same curves in [11]. and then the moment equation of tangential velocity in the chamber was solved numerically along the radius direction to get the velocity profile and shear stress on the wet walls and the pressure drop across the chamber. He is a theo- rate depends on the flow pattern in the side chamber.5. so that the kf ¼ 0. the dimensionless velocity profile kf in the two lers is more complicated than in the closed one. and bers (at 48 and 60 cSt viscosities). the flow model in [14] was adopted to calculate flows estimated by CFD are plotted in Fig. After a volumetric efficiency gV is achieved. Since this flow HES is the Euler head with the slip factor correction.65 mm in the experiments of [9. and eventually approaches 0. (a) various efficiencies predicted and (b) kf profile along the radius. Fig. a leakage flow rate is assumed. the stronger the effect. pump hydraulic efficiency predicted by CFD. the flow in semiopen impel. Hence. through the wear-ring gap and the side chambers between the In the figure. cosity. the theoretical heads of the impeller and the pump head simulations. experimental pump efficiency. the leakage flow rate efficiency. Nonetheless. 136. the volumetric efficiency gV rises with increasing factor correction. based on the just obtained pressure drop across the gap. Since hydraulic efficiency is defined as the ratio ical efficiencies by means of the experimental head-flow rate of pump head over a theoretical head of the impeller. 10 Comparison of head based on impeller torque in CFD. ing viscosity. 9. impeller and casing has to be figured out initially. the shear stress on the outside surfaces of the impeller is available already. as well as veloc- ity profile in the side chambers at the BEP based on the experimental head-flow rate curve in [11]. the pressure drop across the wear- ring gap is calculated from the experimental pressure drop between the volute and the entrance of the impeller and the pres- sure drop across the chamber.asme. volumetric. JULY 2014 Transactions of the ASME Downloaded From: . 9(a). and variables predicted by the flow model in two side chambers head effect should be an essential characteristic of a centrifugal efficiency gm and the product gV  gm decline with increasing vis- pump with low or moderate specific speed and rough wet walls cosity. a high theoretical head means a poor hydraulic To predict the volumetric efficiency gV .21]. 䊊. flow model equations are presented in [14]. draulic efficiency given by CFD does not seem to be consistent open impeller if the clearance between blade tip and casing wall with that from the flow model. Thirdly.

and much and the volumetric efficiency even increases with increasing BEP in [22]. 12. the hydraulic effi. but can also decrease quickly measured blade profiles is presented in Fig. The influence of the turbulence model and mesh type on the performance was examined. r and the overall hydraulic loss coefficient in pump f from the known H. 3(b). The wetted flow chan- nels in the pump were subject to a rough surface. but the mechanical efficiency decreases very quickly trated in Fig. Eventually. the estimated pump effi. Clearly. The mechanism for onset of the sudden-rising head effect Fig. 12 Comparison of blade profiles on shroud and hub surfa- dQ dQ g gV F2 tan b2 ces that are designed and measured. low flow rate. The unsteady flow simulations in the always steadily decreases with increasing viscosity. In the next plan. it is hopeful that the blade profiles ciency is shown in Fig. it unlikely is applied across a large number of oper- In the figure. is lower than the experimental data. According to pump were conducted at 1 and 24 cSt viscosities by making use of Fig. Since unsteady flow hydraulic and volumetric efficiencies is unable to compensate for simulations of CFD are too time consuming and have a tedious the huge reduction in the mechanical efficiency. the product gV  gm has to be considered as constant from the designed ones. see Eq. multiply the pump hydraulic efficiency obtained by CFD to get In the CFD computations. the pump overall efficiency always declines with increasing viscosity. r. It can be Since the flow model in the side chambers is valid at or near seen that the real profiles of the two blades are slightly different BEP only. Besides. but also of the blade pressure and suction surfaces on the shroud and hub declines with reducing Reynolds number. although the pump head raises at a certain viscosity. The impeller was with decreasing Reynolds number (increasing viscosity). 136 / 074501-9 Downloaded From: http://turbomachinery. Thus. (6). the hydraulic efficiency does not seem to change too the moving mesh method in FLUENT at shut-off. The pump efficiencies at 48 and 60 can be updated with the measured ones to identify how they affect cSt are underpredicted because the hydraulic efficiency from CFD the performance of the pump for water and viscous oils. The flow was solved by using the steady MRF method. turbulent. in order to determine HES . the unsteady flow model can result in a with increasing viscosity. viscosity. metallic and made by means of a sand casting technique. 9(a). This means that a little increase in the good prediction in head at low flow rates. designed profiles. The turbulent effect on the flow was described with the standard k  e turbu- lence model and nonequilibrium wall function. even the pump The unsteady model can increase the slope of a head-flow rate head raises at a certain viscosity. The flow inside the pump was assumed to be steadily. applied by the shroud. the geometry errors caused from the manufacturing The theoretical head from a torque He is the second highest one process may be responsible for different slopes in the experimen- and rises very sharply with decreasing Reynolds number. 11 Comparison of head curves between CFD and . The corresponding head-flow rate curves are illus.asmedigitalcollection.asme. has been explored. The computed results were compared with measure- ments. and the fluid is incompressible. symbols. Vol. especially in the portion near the trailing for all the operating on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. were measured by using a 3D coordinate probing device for two ciency H=He in CFD is not only smaller than the hydraulic effi. lines. Eventually. the designed blade profiles were the pump overall efficiency. post process. and f simultaneously. 3. blades in the impeller in the paper. The coordinates Euler head with slip correction HES is not only the lowest. the product gV  gm is used to edge. and Q. It was confirmed that the sudden-rising head ment at 1 and 48 cSt effect is present and flow regime transition from the hydraulically Journal of Fluids Engineering JULY 2014. 5 Conclusions The hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump when han- dling water and viscous oils was investigated by means of a CFD code FLUENT. and the pump total efficiency curve in CFD computation. dH=dQ. applied only. and measured profiles Obviously. the two blades do not seem exactly 90 deg apart. the Euler head without slip correction HE is the ating points and viscosities. a comparison of designed and ciency H=HES in the flow model. In the experimental results shown in Fig. The tal and predicted head-flow rate to some extent. 11. two additional equations as follows are required at BEP: 8 2 < HES ¼ H þ fQ dH dHES u2 1 (13) : þ 2fQ ¼ ¼ Fig. (12) and (13) are in a closed-form for deciding HES . hub. and blades on the fluid in a CFD simulation. highest and slightly increases with decreasing Reynolds number. Then. Eqs. The expressions for HE and HES are as the following at BEP if the preswirling velocity at the impeller en- trance is ignored:   u2 Q HE ¼ u2  (11) g gV F2 tan b2 and u2 Q HES ¼ u2 ð1  rÞ  (12) g gV F2 tan b2 In the flow model in [14]. Further.

Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers. “Experiments on the Performance of a Centrif- V¼ mean velocity of liquid in volute (m/s) ugal Oil Pump. pp..” J. 279–285.” Exp.. HES ¼ Euler head with slip factor correction (m) [3] Kamimoto. M. 1(b) [19] Cebeci. Y. B.. “Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Pumps with stats on 12/16/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme. [9] Toykura. T... and Hollander.. ks ¼ admissible equivalent sand grain roughness (lm) pp. [13] Li. pressure side of blade 1 in Fig. K. and Yamamoto.. “Effect of Exit Blade Angle.. 324. 1994. Kurokawa. (mm) [14] Li. Cambridge.(L/s)1) BEP ¼ best efficiency point dHES =dQ ¼ slope of the theoretical head curve HES (m... T. Re2 ¼ xR22 = High Viscosity Liquids (Effect of Clearance Ratio)... 823–848. Kanemoto. pp. H.-M. ASME.. [18] Patankar. “Prediction of Impeller- b2 ¼ blade discharge angle (deg) Induced Flows in Mixing Vessels Using Multiple Frames of Reference. “Improve the Performance of a Centrifugal Pump Handling High Viscosity Liquids. “Model of Flow in Side Chambers of Industrial Centrifu- gal Pump for Delivering Viscous Oil. W. J..” Pro- f¼ overall hydraulic loss coefficient in pump (m.” Trans. K. JSME. and Nishikawa. T.” ASME J. and Kanemoto.(L/s)2) ceeding of the 8th Europe Conference on Mixing. u2 ¼ impeller tip speed (m/s) [11] Li. B. He ¼ ideal head generated by impeller (m) [2] Itaya. 2000.. “On the Flow in the Impel- Hth ¼ impeller theoretical head (m) ler of Centrifugal Type Hydraulic Machinery.. JULY 2014 Transactions of the ASME DownloadedViewFrom: publicationhttp://turbomachinery. Vy ¼ fluid velocity at the point of distance y from the wall [12] Li. “Study on Centrif- inside surfaces in pump (kW) ugal Pump for high Viscosity Liquids. 2011. 135(5). 1959. D. 361–368.. 5. A. R. J.-G.” Trans. 34–36. 1979. kf ¼ xf =x [5] Toykura. and Ohashi. [22] Li. S. “Unsteady Flow in a Viscous Oil Transporting Centrifugal sw ¼ averaged shear stress on wet surface (Pa) Pump. pp.” Int. rough zone to the hydraulically smooth one is responsible for the / ¼ blade warp angle (deg) effect. 21–41. K. ¼ liquid kinematic viscosity (cSt or mm2/s) [20] Shirakura. T. W. Ohta. J. 1972. 1985. [4] Acosta.” Turbomachinery.” (m/s) World . and Bradshaw. 074501-10 / Vol...-G. pp.” Central Eur.. 579–594. 2011. T. pp. and Shirai. “Turbulent Boundary gm ¼ pump mechanical efficiency Layers on Rough Surfaces. V. 68. pp. G. 25. 2001.. “The Influence of Viscosity on Centrifugal Pump Perform- ance. 1990.. JSME.” Trans... 1702–1707. “Study on Centrifugal Pump for High Viscosity R¼ radial coordinate in a side chamber (m) Liquids (Effect of Impeller Blade Number on the Pump Performance). JSME Ser. H. Testing and Operation.. [15] Dick... Japan. 202–209.-G. H. B. B. “Performance Ra ¼ arithmetic average of absolute values of real of a Centrifugal Pump With Non-Clog Type of Impeller Using a High Viscosity roughness of a wall with particular finish (lm) Liquid. Washington. 56.asmedigitalcollection.(L/s)1) MRF ¼ multiple reference frame f¼ averaged skin friction factor F2 ¼ net area of flow channels at the impeller outlet (m2) g¼ acceleration of gravity (m/s2). Yamamoto. B. A... W. “Observations on the Performance of ks ¼ equivalent sand grain roughness (lm) Centrifugal Pumps at Low Reynolds Numbers. M.” Trans. 12th–14th. J.” Trans. 51. T. Vierendeels. 26. pp. 1960.. pp. JSME Ser. 8.. pp. gh ¼ pump hydraulic efficiency [17] Acharya. Ra* ¼ admissible roughness (lm) [10] Ohta.. n¼ impeller rotational speed (r/min) 2753–2758. “Influence of Clearance and Viscosity on Centrifugal Pump r¼ slip factor Performance. and Spalding. 1979. Z. P.-G. JSME Ser. 25. 1959. W. P. 051201.. H. J. “A Calculation Procedure for Heat gV ¼ pump volumetric efficiency and Mass Transfer in Three Dimensional Parabolic Flows.” Technical Note of the Port and Harbour Research Institute Min- sw ¼ local shear stress on wet wall (Pa) istry of Transort. “Performance of Centrifugal Pumps at Low nS ¼ pump specific speed in China Reynolds Number. Z¼ number of blades 549–556. 1980. T. K. and Hu..” Trans.. 2013. p.. kf ¼ dimensionless angular velocity of fluid in a side 379–393. and Voorde.” TASK Quarterly.. x ¼ impeller rotational angular speed (rad/s) xf ¼ angular velocity of fluid in a side chamber (rad/s) Nomenclature b2 ¼ blade outlet width (mm) Subscripts B¼ velocity profile shift due to roughness i ¼ impeller c¼ roughness coefficient V ¼ volute D2 ¼ impeller discharge diameter (mm) De ¼ impeller eye diameter (mm) Abbreviations dH=dQ ¼ slope of the experimental head-flow rate curve (m. UK. 383–388. Matsuoka.. A. Heat and h¼ angle measured from tongue tip to trailing edge of Mass Transf. Trans. 1985. Aoki.. Y. W. pp. and Masuda. Serbrugyns.81 m/s2 h¼ hydraulic loss (m) References H¼ pump head (m) [1] Ippen. “Effects of Surface Roughness of Impeller Channel on n¼ hydraulic loss coefficient Volute-Pump Performance. chamber. DC. “Studies on the Volute Pump Handling Vis- HE ¼ Euler head without slip factor correction (m) cous Fluids. Viscosity and Roughness in W¼ mean relative velocity of liquid in impeller (m/s) Centrifugal Pumps Investigated by CFD Computation. Eng.” Fluid Mach. V. pp.asme. and Nakayama. J. and Gosman.. [16] Luo. “The Sudden-rising Head Effect in Centrifugal Oil Pumps. M. Q¼ pump flow rate (L/s) [8] Ohta. 1984.” Proceedings of the Symposium ksþ ¼ roughness Reynolds number on Pump Design. Hemisphere Publishing. Kurokawa. J. 3–8. 409.. 136. 1946.. [7] Tanaka. K. Fluids Eng. pp. 1977. 15. JSME. T... “Study on Centrifugal Pump for Re2 ¼ impeller Reynolds number. Glasgow. A. 4295–4300.. J. and Aoki.. R2 ¼ impeller discharge radius (mm) JSME Ser. Fluids. I. pp. y¼ distance between a node of cells adjacent to the wall pp. 7. 62.”. and Escudier.” Turbomachinery.” TASK Quar- Greek Symbols terly. T. q¼ liquid density (kg/m3) [21] Masuda. 51. 1. J. 50. Bornstein. 1787–1806. 1986. pp.. 100–104. pp.. g ¼ 9.-G. pp. K.. 5. No. S. 1965. 890–899. Y. UK.. 72–79. Issa. A. E. pp... D. M¼ total torque applied to liquid by impeller blades and [6] Aoki. 1996. 4. 33–47. H.