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09/08/15 1:01 am

Ancient India Culture
Friday, July 4 2014, 3:58 PM

Indus Valley Civilization
Science & Technology

1. They were aware of directions given they had trade routes, their dead were buried in N-S directions, their town planning made use of directions etc.
So they must have used astronomical bodies to gauge direction.
2. Recently observatories were excavated from Lothal and Dholavira.

Medical Science

1. They were aware of surgery as evidence of skull surgery has been found from Kalibangan and Lothal.

Chemical Science

1. They used different colors on their pots.


1. Weights and measures of specific standards were used.
2. The brisk trade indicates some knowledge of basic mathematics.


1. Bronze working + copper, gold, silver and tin working.

Civil Engineering

1. They constructed public buildings, embankments, drains, used burnt bricks.
2. They knew the technique of water-proofing.

Arts & Crafts Techniques

1. Industry: Seal making, precious stone working, bead making and terracotta making were quite advanced.
2. Agriculture: They used to plough their fields with wooden ploughs as is evident from terracotta plough figurines from Banwali. Plough furrows
discovered in Kalibangan. They also had irrigation and water conduits (underground in some areas) and small scale inundation canals (to lead the
water where desired) have been found.


1. Used permanent material on a large scale: In villages mud bricks were used with stone being used in foundations and drains. In cities, burnt bricks
were used. In Kutch, stones were used on a large scale.
2. Planned: The bricks were laid in English bond style. The bricks had standard ratio. There is no correlation between planning and size of the
3. Technical knowhow: They knew the technique of water-proofing. Houses had separate bathrooms near the well and the bathing area was sloping
towards the drain and water-proof.
4. Secular.
5. House structure: Houses sizes differ from large to small ones. People generally lived in houses with a central courtyard and rooms surrounding it.
Doors and windows opened in side streets not the main street. There were double storied houses and staircases as well. Doors were sometimes
painted or carved.


1. Cities were fortified. They had well laid out roads and drains.
2. Great bath, assembly hall, granaries.


1. Remains of stone pillars have been found from Dholavira.


1. They used to paint the outer side of their pots with geometrical designs, birds, animals etc. The outer surface of their pots used to be red on which
paintings were made in black.


1. They made use of metal, alloys, stones and terracotta figurines. Terracotta masks and faience bangles were also made.
2. The images were both secular and religious in nature. Examples are numerous terracotta figurines of mother goddess, animals etc., the bearded
priest, the bronze dancing girl, the red torso etc.

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Architecture Monuments 1. 09/08/15 1:01 am Music & Dance 1. blue color was used to make the designs. The bottom portion has additional clay as well. On the grey surface. The statue of dancing girl shows they were aware of music and dance. PGW was the distinctive pottery. Metallurgy 1. designs of birds. Industry: Carpentry and chariot making were advanced professions. Astrological charts etc. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. Pottery 1. Fire altars. about:blank Page 2 of 15 . The system of Ayurveda emerged in this age. animals. Mathematics 1. They knew fermentation techniques and made somaras. Pottery 1. Images of a stringed musical instrument too have been found on some pots. Vedic Age Science & Technology Astronomy 1. The outer surface of the pots was grey on which they painted floral and geometrical designs. 3. venus. Various astronomical bodies like sun. moon. It was coarse with medium fabric. were prepared. jupiter. The term stupa has been referred to in Rig Veda but not in the context as we know it. Paintings 1. Technique of bronze making and later iron making were present. They knew tanning of leather. The outside surface was grey on which blue floral and geometrical designs were made. Chemical Science 1. 2. They used to paint their pots. On the outer red surface. mars. 2. saturn are mentioned in Vedas but perhaps their astronomical significance was missing and they were more for astrological / religious use. The pottery was black-on-red ware where both inner and outer surfaces were red. The rims of the pots are strong to help in lifting them and moving around. Aitraya was a famous teacher there. Pre-Mauryan Age Science & Technology Astronomy 1. 2. Medical Science 1. Music witnessed progress in the form of the hymns of Sam Veda. Medical Science 1. mud bricks and thatched roofs were used. Dance & Music 1. Vedic texts contain references of huge palaces of kings but no such imposing structures have been found. Taxila was a famous centre of medical science. The term then referred to the fire coming out of the sacrificial altar. 2. Bimbisara's personal doctor Dhanvantri was a famous doctor. Stupas 1. Wood. 2. They used different colors on pots. 2. geometry were painted in black color.

The distinctive pottery of the age was NBPW.MAJOR ROCK EDICTS about:blank Page 3 of 15 . Pottery 1. 09/08/15 1:01 am Chemical Science 1. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. We find evidences of fortifications and embankments. The method to make this polish is also described in detail in contemporary works. Amrapali was a famous courtesan in Licchavi. Dance & Music 1. We find evidences of wooden palisade in PP. The polish of NBPW was very glossy. Trade: Punched marked coins came into existence. 2. Architecture Features 1. Wood. medium to fine fabric and would have been used by rich. Stone fortifications were also used. Mathematics 1. were used. They along with NBPW distribution help us in tracking the trade routes of the age. Stone fortifications existed in Rajgir and Licchavi republic. They were patronized by the court which maintained courtesans. There is a reference in King Kharvela's Hathigumpha inscription that Nanda king took away a jina image when he conquered Kalinga. It tells how to make a circle equal in area to a square or a rectangle. Monuments 1. Sculpture 1. squares and rectangles. Mauryan Age Architecture SEE THE TRIANGLES IN THIS MAP . Sulvasutra is a text on geometry. 2. Agriculture & industry: The use of iron became widespread. It talks about circles. It was highly glossy. mud-bricks. Civil Engineering 1. triangles. thatched roofs etc.

Water could be stored in these and also they could be used for sanitation. Shining polish of NBPW was also applied to the stone pillars. 3. 8. 09/08/15 1:01 am Features 1. Ring wells were another distinct feature. stone began to be used again along with wood. It was pan-Indian in character. Stone masonry reached new heights. 6. Foreign (Iranian) Influence on Mauryan Architecture about:blank Page 4 of 15 . Art and architecture received court patronage. 4. 7. Private merchants ad craftsmen also donated for religious causes. Permanent material like burnt bricks. It enabled them to construct larger and durable structure which made denser habitations possible and hence growth of towns and spread of Mauryan culture. Hence it became possible to have denser habitations farther away from the rivers. Large monuments show that architecture was technologically advanced. 5. 2. It was both religious and secular in character.

4. 5. The shaft of Asokan pillars is smooth whereas that of Archimidean pillars has got grooves. Asokan pillars are erected without any support base whereas Archimidean pillars have a support base. In reality. glossy polish and have a bell shaped part. There are similarities between CGM's palace and Darius'. But the Archimidean pillars have no capitals and only images of humans are engraved on their shafts. Because the Archimidean pillars were older. (b) Differences 1. the shaft of Asokan pillars is monolithic whereas the Archimidean pillars have joints. 2. The Asokan pillars have capitals which have sculptures of lions. 3. The shaft of Asokan pillars tapers from bottom to top whereas Archimidean pillars are cylindrical. about:blank Page 5 of 15 . 6. the so called bell shaped part of Asokan pillars is an inverted lotus. But Archimidean pillars were part of palace and their job was to support the roof. Both Asokan and Archimidean pillars use stone. 7. 9. elephants and bulls. In pillars. The bell shaped part of Asokan pillars is at top while that in Archimidean pillars is at bottom. the concept of pillars itself was borrowed by Asoka from Iran. 8. CGM's palace was made of wood but Darius' palace was made of stone. The gloss polish was known to Indians from NBPW independent of Iran. The purpose behind their construction was to engrave instructions and carry them fat. The Asokan pillars were not a part of any other structure. 2. 09/08/15 1:01 am (a) Similarities 1.

oblong. dancers lived in the society and entertained the public specially on fairs and festivals. 2. The capitals of Asokan pillars were beautiful carved images and were added later to the top of the pillars. however. A naked and headless torso of a jina tirthankara has been recovered from Lohanipur (Patna). Bull fights. musicians and actors performed. Science & Technology Chemical Science 1. 3. Examples of oblong are Vishnu temple @ Besnagar. Use of burnt bricks and ring wells. apsidal or square. These caves. Stone masonry reached new heights. This is the earliest Jaina image found. elephants and bulls were joined from the top. 2. Burnt bricks were now used for flooring and tiles for both flooring and roofing. One of them had a painting of stupa and a tree together enclosed in a railing. 3. 2. MP) with paintings. dancers. singers. Sarnath. horse races and elephant fights. acrobats. From Dhauli (Odisha). Sudarshan lake was built. Painting 1. The Leisurely Activities 1. chariot races. Hindu temples followed 3 main architectural designs . Courtesans were maintained in the royal court. Matrikas and Naga temples @ Sonkh. This was of indigenous origin. Examples of apsidal are Lakshmi temple @ Atiranjikhera. It was patronized by the court and courtesans were maintained by the court. During Asokan time. Lumbini. Post-Mauryan Age (North India) Architecture Features 1. Caves 1. Example of square temple is Siva temple @ Gudimallam. 09/08/15 1:01 am Monuments 1. Sculpture 1. acrobats. about:blank Page 6 of 15 . Pillars 1. Temples 1. Then it got extended to his followers as well and gradually stupa itself became an object of worship. But their gates were carved out as if wooden. Some stupas have been found in Sanchi. Only their capitals in form of lions. Stupas 1. Trade: There was great development in means of transport as is evident from the transportation of Asokan pillars. Karnasuvarna. Civil Engineering 1. Dance & Music 1. 2. According to Buddhist tradition. Stone masonry was introduced on a wide scale. 4. The palace of CGM at Kumrahar (Patna) had 80 stone pillars. Asoka built 84K stupas. Stone polishing was as shiny as NBPW. In addition. The glossy polish of NBPW continued. rock sculpture of front part of an elephant has been made. Vishnu temple @ Nagari. 4. Nagarjunkonda contains temples of all three types. Deorkothar. Asokan pillars made use of white spotted red sandstone in Mathura and grey colored sandstone in Chunar and were monolith in style. Samtata. were simple and without much ornamentation. Nuts. Pottery 1. Initially stupas were Buddha's relic places. the glossy polish appeared on Asokan pillars. NBPW continued. Huen Tsang mentions seeing stupas at Tamralipti. 63 rock shelters have been found in Deorkothar (Rewa. 2. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. 2. Siva and Vishnu temples @ Dangwada. hunting were popular sport. 3. It looks like the elephant is in forward motion and is coming out of the rock. Fairs and festivals were organized where magicians. The practice of cutting caves into rocks began with the Lomarishi caves in Barabar hills and also Nagarjuni Hills which were donated to Ajivika sect. Palaces were constructed. musicians. Multiple images of the folk deities such as yaksha and yakshini and animals such as elephants have been found from Parkham (Mathura) and PP. Both men and women wore ornaments. the tradition of wooden arch gave way to stone arch.

4. Sometimes cells. In terms of similarities. 4. the sculptures use similar motifs like animals. The Buddhist caves on the other hand were an elaborate and spacious affair. Mathura emerged as great centers. 09/08/15 1:01 am 2. Pottery 1. In the oblong temples. 2. the pillars came to have elaborate capitals. the summit and a stone umbrella over it. Pitalkhora. The Jaina caves were simple and reflected the asceticism of jina monks. The sculpture was mainly meant to be seen from one side as against the Mauryan sculpture which was same as viewed from any side. The new stupas had a circumambulatory path. The cells were tiny (not tall enough to stand. Phase 3: The next stage was when rows of pillars were built parallel to the walls creating a circumambulatory passage right after entering. rock cut beds were cut around the central hall. Junnar.those without pillars in verandah or those with pillars. Its shaft contains 4 parts and it has an inverted lotus and a capital. The basic features of previous phase continued. sometimes had multiple shrines in which case each shrine had a mandapa (pillared hall) too. Bedsa caves are examples. A variety of mithun couples were carved on the gates. 2. Most earlier stupas used to have a solid core. Phase 2: The second stage (100 BC) showed up at Konditve. however. The Besnagar pillar erected by the Greek ambassador Heliodorus is an example. Colossal images of yakshas and yakshis were built in Mathura which disappeared later as the religion got absorbed into the dominant religion. However. 6. The Buddhist cave structure on the other hand was well laid out. 4. The central roof was high. at the 4 cardinal points of the raised platform. The entire structure was enclosed in stone railings and toran-dwars on all four sides. Stupas 1.birth. The railings and gateways of Buddhist structures were elaborately worked upon. a stone railing around it. Only the outer portions were carved sometimes. The honeysuckle style is similar too. Other examples are Nasik caves. Images of yaksha have been found from Pawaya. 5 free standing pillars were erected. Caves (a) Evolution of Buddhist Cave Architecture 1. Bhattiprolu stupa (200 BC) is from intermediate phase having central wheel plan (no spokes). small entrances so as to bend very low). New large stupas were built. about:blank Page 7 of 15 . There was no planning. Naga images have been found at Mathura and Karimnagar. Examples are the stupas at Sanchi. Sculpture Image Worship 1. some cells were enlarged into shrines. Now images began to be built. Gaja-Lakshmi stone plaque from Atiranjikhera and mukhalinga from Gudimallam are another examples. enlightenment. Besnagar which represents Kuber. The temples were usually east facing. Phase 1: It began with the construction of Lomarishi and Sudama caves in Barabar Hills by Asoka. birds and others came up. The apsidal temples had apsidal rooms. 3. 2. The Buddhist caves on the other hand had clear halls and the shrine area. The cave was cut perpendicular to the rock face and the inner room now contained a stupa and a circumambulatory path around it. two staircases leading up to it. caves got royal patronage and became more elaborate and ornamented. Spoked wheel is a symbol of Buddha's first sermon. not long enough to stretch while sleeping. In AP stupas. The Jaina caves had no congregation halls or rock cut shrines. The tradition of image worship became popular and numerous idols were made. a transition was made towards having a spoke wheel plan at the centre made of bricks and the spaces filled with mud. He was an ambassador to the Sunga king. But Buddhist caves were cut into hard rocks and were better for sculpting. Bharhut. The pillars were made of stone and brick was used for the temple superstructure. earlier the tradition of image worship was absent and instead symbols of Buddha were worshipped along with the stupa. There was one large rectangular room followed by a smaller circular room. Amrawati. Buddhist Relief Sculpture 1. 2. The outer ellipse had rectangular projection leading out to the entrance. plinths of brick or mud or stone and superstructure of wood and mud. Sprinklers and spouted channels are the distinctive pots of this age. plants. In Buddhism. The red pottery was of Central Asian origin. Pillars 1. The pottery was red ware. These were simple caves and the cave ran parallel to the rock face after entry. (b) Jaina Caves vs Buddhist Caves 1. Sculpture decoration was found on the railings and the gateways. both plain and polished with fine and medium fabric. Nagarjunkonda. first sermon. Pillars were square at top and bottom and octagonal at middle. Pitalkhora. These represent the 5 important events in Buddha's life . The main shrine was in the inner ellipse which was separated from the outer ellipse by a gap which usually was the circumambulatory path. 2. Human bodies along with animals. Jaina stupa is also found in Kankali @ Mathura which is called Devanirmit Stupa. The Jina caves are of two types . Terracotta images were made and Chandraketugarh. Phase 4: During the Kshatrap-Satvahna kings. The Jaina cave cells were cut wherever the rock permitted. renunciation. vaulted and side roof was low and half-vaulted. The landscape didn't form a background but was very much a part of the sculpture. 2. 5. 3. Later. The Nagarjunkonda temples apart from having all three designs. Bhaja. there were 2 ellipse. death. 3. Kanheri caves. The temple usually had a plinth made of bricks or mud or stones and the superstructure was made of wood and mud. the side roof became flat. Without pillars had cells cut along three sides of the verandah. 4. Multi- storied caves came up. Jaina caves were cut in sandstone which is easy to cut but not good for sculpting. 3. Examples of such caves are Khandgiri and Udaigiri in Puri. An example is Bedsa caves. Double storied viharas came up at Karle and triple storied at Ajanta. The only luxury was occasional shelves cut into rocks and sloping floor acting as a pillow but actually designed to keep of water from accumulating.

about:blank Page 8 of 15 . 2. We also find the use of wheel to draw water from the well. Example. It narrated incidents from Buddha's life and Jatak stories. It was indigenous throughout and was patronized by Satvahnas. Beautiful images of Siva as ardh-nari-ishwar were built. Industry: Leather shoes. Mahavira and Kanishka. 4. 5. Civil Engineering 1. Sometimes these narrations were just one single screenshot of a story or sometimes it was a continuous narration of a sequence of events with one scene merging seamlessly into the next. Veterinary sciences developed and books on horses and elephants were written (obviously driven by military needs). Greek gods were depicted as paying obeisance to Buddha. 3. It was indigenous in origin and was patronized by local rulers. It was not patronized by Indo-Greeks but by Sakas and Kushanas. The subjects were Indians and the style was Greco-Roman. Buddha is shown in meditation mode. They used white spotted red sandstone. Agriculture: A hydraulic lift has been found in Sringverapura which may not have been used for irrigation per se but the technology for moving water by varying the water levels may have been derived from or influenced irrigation. nagas. animals etc.Godavari region. balram and Surya too were its subjects. Kurnool and Krishna . Drama 1. Pliny tells us that Indian ships were 75 tonnes and some other sources tell us they could carry 700 persons. The Greeks introduced the curtain in Indian drama. Later they began to use blue-grey stone. 2. Initially they used soft material such as wood and stucco. The Mathura School 1. It made use of symbols to tell the stories. curly hair and semi-transparent clothes. 3. Krishna. wells and embankments. These images are famous for their feminine beauty and sensuous appeal. It was the oldest and flourished from 2 cent BC onwards. They used white marble in their images. Indian iron and steel technologies made rapid advancements and large number of iron implements were made which were even exported to Abyssinian ports. 5. Krishna was ignored before the Gupta period. anthromorphs (of copper hoards). Charak belonged to this period and was associated with Taxilla school of medicine. yakshis. 2. The images have a deep spiritual outlook. Painting 1. Medical Science 1. Hadda and Bamiyan were main centers. 4. 2. 2. Metallurgy 1. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. Nagarjunkonda. pipal. 3. yaksha. The Buddhist sculpture also drew heavily from other religious traditions. highly ornamented multi storied viharas were built. But later with the advent of Kushanas. The literature as well as inscription provide ample evidence of tanks. It made images of Buddha and brahmanical deities. wheel for first sermon. The Buddha of this school is depicted with focus on bodily features such as muscular body. Ikshavakus and later Vakatakas. birth of buddha as Maya sitting on a lotus. Popular depictions of Buddha are in the Padmasana-mudra (sitting crossed legged and meditating) and Dharma-Chakra-Parivartana-Mudra (giving sermons). Focus is not on highlighting the bodily features of Buddha but on his spiritualistic aura and content on face. This was a fusion of Greek and Indian styles from the very beginning. 3. foreign influence was visible clearly. For example. glass making (due to contact with Romans). Thus the mother of Buddha resembled a Greek goddess while Buddha himself too had an Apollo like face. The Amrawati / Vengi School 1. 4. 09/08/15 1:01 am 3. The Sudarshan lake was repaired by Rudradaman. Indian astronomy and astrology drew a great deal from the Greeks including the term horasastra (astrology in Sanskrit) itself from Greek term horoscope. Initial subjects were Buddha. Trade: The Greek coins were a great improvement over the ill-designed punch marked coins. 4. Cave architecture progressed. It flourished from 1 cent BC onwards in Vengi. The Gandhara School 1. We find many brahmanical texts on medicine written which could have obviously been written by those who had a formal education and yet brahmanical literature places medical practitioners at low level. Science & Technology Astronomy 1. They were Buddhist in character. This school emerged from 1 cent BC onwards. The sculpture was narratory in nature. The names of seven days and the zodiac signs all come from Greeks. 2. Thus despite the theoretically low level the social utility of such professions was high enough to warrant formal education and medical practice. enlightenment as bodhi tree. The cave paintings of Ajanta began in this period.

Kamasutra tells us that painting was an established form of art and was studied in a systematic way. But the same can't be said for architecture because the temple architecture form (nagara) just emerged in this phase and yet it peaked only in the post Gupta age. It became associated wit Buddhism and many chaityas (shrines) and viharas (monasteries) were cut out in rocks. Then there are epics Silappadikaran and Manimekalai. 2. Eg. Pliny talks of over 30 walled towns. Silappadikaran was written by a Jaina scholar and is a love story of a dignitary preferring a courtesan over his wife. natural scenery. bodhistava. The tradition of cutting into rocks reached new heights under Satvahnas. perforated roof tiles and 22 brick wells. temples or free standing. 3. Idol worship reached its true popularity in this age. drinking water and durability of structures. 4. Images were often more symbolic than representational . 2. The Sangam texts are the most important pieces of work. Architecture Features 1. They depict various scenes from the life of Buddha and his previous births. The relief sculpture showed scenes from religion as well as everyday life. One bronze image of Buddha has been found from Sultanganj. we have found use of flat baked bricks. Images of Jina tirthankaras were also sculpted. They also have more secular theme and scenes and thus are more valuable as a historical source. kings. apsara traditions by depicting them on their relief sculpture. 5. The Mathura. the Gandhara and the Amaravati schools continued and new school developed at Benaras / Sarnath. samantas etc. For the first time images of Hindu gods were built. They were built from a period spanning from 1 cent to 7 cent AD. 09/08/15 1:01 am Post-Mauryan Age (Satvahnas) Architecture Use of Burnt Bricks and Tiles 1. The Buddha images from east UP and Bihar show Buddha in a serene spiritual form (as against the emphasis on the body as in the Gandhara form). PP also became an important center. 5. Manimekalai is the adventure story of his daughter. hair styles. Gupta period can be called the golden age of sculpture and image making. These epics throw light on the socio-economic life of the Sangam age. Paintings 1. The Satvahna towns were fortified. Buddha images now had more mudras and wore transparent clothes. Both the fresco and the tempera styles were used. The fresco style paintings are made on wet plaster and the tempera style paintings are made on dry plaster. in them. we have to wait until the 8th century to see impressive temples. jatak stories. Bagha paintings have a materialistic theme and tell us about the contemporary clothing style. Gupta Age Religious Practices 1. They were composed by brahmans of Prakrit-Sanskrit learning. 2. 4. Vishnu images in human. But it cannot be said that Guptas patronized these paintings. 3. Vihara was a large hall which was entered by a door which separated it from the verandah in front. makeup. There was increasing use of re-used or broken bricks. varah as well as anthromorphic forms. In this way they reflect the contemporary society and its values as well. Chaitya was a large hall with a number of pillars. 4. From Peddabankur (Karimnagar). Famous chaitya is at Karle and viharas at Nasik. Inscriptions at Udayagiri (Vidisha) and Kahaum (Gorakhpur) talk about establishing tirthankara images. Bhita in Allahbad. natural and have brilliant colors even after all these centuries. So they have more uniformity. This facilitated dense habitation as it addressed the issues of sanitation. But most work was done in Gupta age. The Buddhist relief sculpture made an attempt to absorb the yaksha. They are life-like. Shiva images came up in linga and anthromorphic forms. gandharva. 2. Caves 1. Ajanta paintings were dominated by buddha. about:blank Page 9 of 15 . 3.thus the gods and goddesses may have multiple hands each holding a symbol. Even though the theme is religious in most paintings. Statues of Buddha were built at Mathura and Sarnath. The agricultural festivals were also given much of their religious color and fanfare in this age. Stupas 1. The images had a large and clear prabhamandal as against the Gandhara images where such a feature was not prominent. Fortifications 1. Sangam States in Tamil Land Literature 1. animals etc. But there is no reflection of the common man's life in these paintings. ornaments etc. The greatest specimen of Buddhist art in Gupta times is the Ajanta cave paintings. Temple architecture came up. The first style was the nagara style. Sculpture 1. Famous stupas are at Amaravati and Nagarjunkonda. Bagha paintings were made in Gupta period only as against the Ajanta paintings which were spread over multiple periods. Sometimes these images were solo and sometimes the image of the main god was accompanied with other minor gods. Statues were made of both stone and metals and carved on caves. we also find a glimpse of the lives of the princes. Both religious and secular character was visible though religious was more prominent. Tamil text Tolkkapiyam deals with grammar and poetics and Tirukkal with philosophy. Thus while impressive buddhist viharas and chaityas can be seen from the Gupta age.

Mandargiri and Udaigiri. They were of Nagara style. Parvati temple @ Nachna. Pillars 1. a Buddha was carved. The pillars were richly carved and on the stupa. The early temple was built on a raised platform. The Mehrauli iron pillar. Examples of such brick temples are Bhitargaon (Kanpur). a shrine room was now introduced. 4. However. Shiva temple @ Bhumra and Koh. Charsada. 09/08/15 1:01 am Monuments 1. Few examples are Dhamekh stupa @ Sarnath. The mandapa was used to house the devotees. Stupas 1. The garbha-griha had a flat roof and a pole on top. Temples were generally built from rock. 5. the stupa building in Buddhist caves continued. 2. The temple had a plinth and a shikhara. Taxila. 2. 2. Sirpur (Raipur. Temple walls were plain but the doorways were profusely carved. Its earliest structures were made of bricks in this age. The Hoskote (Bangalore) and Banavasi inscription are examples which mention of land grants to such temples. Later the influence of Dravidian style also became visible. Caves 1. Deogarh temple is one such example with a vimana on top. The pillars of these temples have capitals in the form of kalash. The Buddhist university of Nalanda came up in this age (5 cent AD). Vishnu temple @ Deogarh and Tighwa. about:blank Page 10 of 15 . Chattisgarh). The independent stupa building activity lost momentum. The Bhitari stone pillar inscription of Skandagupta. There are remains of a temple from Dah-Parbatia in Assam. In the viharas. There was a main deity room called garbha-griha then two rows of pillars leading to a smaller room in the front of the garbha-griha called the mandapa. The entire compound was like and enclosed courtyard and walled with gates for entry and exit. Temples 1. Shiva caves were built in Elephanta. 3. Jina temples were constructed mostly in S India by Kadambas. Paharpur (Rajshahi. The first brick and stone temples were built in this age. 2. The Buddhist caves include Bagha caves. Bangladesh).

it would be difficult to read various regional inscriptions. 2. Plays were romantic comedies and tragedy was avoided. Even the inscriptions are in all different scripts such that even if we know Gupta brahmi script. the sutras etc. It was the love story of a brahman in love with the daughter of a courtesan. An Estimate of Gupta Age 1. Kamandak wrote Nitisara and Vatsayan wrote Kamasutra. Now it came to be divided into 12 equal lunar months. First. Sushruta came from there. Literature 1. The transition from Prakrit to Sanskrit in royal inscriptions was complete. Kalidasa's work are not a symbol of any Hindu intellectual renaissance but they are merely a developed form of an older style of writing. The Sanskrit drama Mrichchakatika (by Sudrak) was composed in this age. The institution of devdasis began. Chemical Science 1. Post-Gupta Age 1. Palkapya wrote Hasti-Ayurveda. Bhakti movement in Vishnu and Siva sects was not a new phenomenon. Aryabhatta's and Varahmihira's principles were not all indigenous. 3. 2. Second. Brick temples began to be constructed in the Nagara style. Civil Engineering 1. 3. Two things are evident from plays of this age. (Matharas of Odisha) Mathematics 1. The epics. 13 plays were written by Bhasa. Gupta rulers patronized music and dance and some rulers themselves were indulged in it. Aryabhatta came up with zero. 4. 2. A different ornate style of Sanskrit was developed during this period which was different from the old simple Sanskrit. Varhamira and Kalidasa in their respective works talk about the method of preparing various colored pastes. Various commentaries on philosophical schools were written in this period. 3. He believed that earth was spherical and rotated on its own axis. He also gave true reason for the occurrence of eclipses and measured the circumference of earth. 4. Previously the year was divided into 3 units of 4 months each. 2. three variable equations. about:blank Page 11 of 15 . This literature was not for religious purposes but focused on urban life. Gupta scholars merely compiled them. Trade: Ship building industry flourished. 3. Even puranas and epics were composed in earlier age. 3. The paintings in caves of Ajanta and Bagha use rich colors. Medical Science 1. It was a mere continuation and strengthening of an older strand. none of them are tragedies. Dance & Music 1. Greater emphasis was laid on kavya than on prose. Science & Technology Metallurgy 1. Aryabhatta came up with Aryabhattika in 5 cent AD. Mudrarakshasha was written by Vishakhadutta. Sialhotra wrote Asva-Shastra. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. Amarsimha composed Amarkosha. Bronze and iron technologies advanced further as evident from the Mehrauli pillar and Buddha's bronze statues. This was useful for agricultural operations. the higher classes speak Sanskrit whereas shudras and women speak Prakrit. 5. The growing feudal order in the society limited inter regional mobility and gave a boost to the development of regional cultural strands. Astronomy 1. Varhamira in 6 cent AD explained the movement of some heavenly bodies in his book Brihad-Samhita. Large ships capable of carrying 500 persons were built. concept of place value and the decimal system. Mrichchha katika was written by Shudrak and gives a description of urban life. The growth of temples led to growth of dance and music as well. Benaras school was a famous school of surgery. 2. were compiled in this age. Panchatantra too was written under Vakatakas. THey had also borrowed from the Romans and the Greeks. Patanjali composed Mahabhashya and Panini composed Ashthadhyayi. 2. The audience of the kavya literature was mainly an urbanite and it was played in goshtis and festivals. Samudragupta is depicted as playing veena in some of his coins. Dhanvantri was a great physician and in the court of CGV. 2. 09/08/15 1:01 am Drama 1. Nagarjuna discovered medicinal properties of certain metals and herbal juices.

It was prevalent from Vindhyas to Krishna. Dhanvantri wrote Nighantu. vault. Medical Science 1. The notion that the architect must remain anonymous was belied in the temples of this age and the most famous architect was Kokasa. in front of the vimana was a pillared hall with elaborately cared pillars and flat roof called mandapa. Such examples are found @ Aihole and Pattadakal. sum of the the opposite angles of a quadrilateral is 180 if all its vertices lie on a circle. Bhaskaracharya in 12 cent AD in his book Siddhanta-Shiromani explained the motion of heavenly bodies. and use of one-humped camel in dry areas. elaborate. entire rock was cut and shaped from outside to give it the shape of a temple. Mathematics 1. into gold. 3. Individual enterprise and style was encouraged but at the same time texts were written on architecture (vastusastra) which led to some standardization. 3. Indian chemists made great progress in alchemy (due to tantric and magic influence). Rock cut. Civil Engineering 1. Large umber of fine bronze sculptures were made specially of the natraja theme. Multi-dimensional i. Court patronage. Military Technology: Leather and wooden stirrups were there but iron stirrups. In phase 3. 2. Bhaskaracharya's book had an elaborate chapter on mathematics called Leelavati. Religious. architect caste was not held in low esteem in reality (otherwise why a brahman would study architecture and write a text on it). 4. Huge temples were also built. 2. Like nagara style the outer walls had chariots carved out on them. Horse-archery was also absent. use of animals for threshing and milling sugar and oil. Manufacturing Technology: Cotton gin came up in weaving. They were trying to convert metals like iron. additional structures began to come up in the temple complex and they grew horizontally and became more massive. 2. The sutradhara was an exalted position and he supervised the construction activity while the stapathi was the master builder. Architecture Features 1. Beautiful images were then carved on it. 6. Similarly shilpashastras were written on sculpture. Chemical Science 1. Some of them even received land grants and were held as belonging to the visvakarma lineage. So when they began to construct huge buildings there was no way other than constructing tapering pyramidical tops or to install thick pillars to support heavy beams. Vaghavatta in 8 cent AD wrote Ashtanga-Hridaya which explained the functioning of different parts of heart. many forms of architecture were pursued. concave saddles and iron horse-shoe were absent. copper etc. Large embankments.e. 09/08/15 1:01 am Science & Technology Astronomy 1. Like nagar style the vimana was heavily sculpted. Indigenous. canals etc. It also proves that despite the brahmanical literary rhetoric. 2. The dravida style temples: It was prevalent in the south of Krishna river. The nagara style was prevalent north of Vindhyas. Later in phase 2. 5. Use of fire-arms and mangonels was absent as well. Ajanta and Ellora are examples as well. Other examples are Jaina temples in Dharwad about:blank Page 12 of 15 . The entire structure was walled and had lofty gates called gopuram. 2. persian wheel. 4. dome and mortar. The Chalukyas of Badami patronized the vesara style (prevalent between the Krishna and the Vindhyas) which was a fusion of the dravidian style and the nagara style. Agriculture Technology: Irrigation increased. The rath temple style: In the rath temples. 7.e. Like nagara style its circumambulatory path was open. Metallurgy 1. 2. Brahmagupta developed the concept of cyclical quadrilateral i. A circumambulatory path was provided around the garbhgriha and images of multiple gods were carved along this passage. In the phase 1. 8. Styles 1. massive and advanced technology. the main feature was building pyramidical shikhara above the garbhgriha (chief deity room). and (b) in the later age the flat roofed temples gave way to a shikhara (which reflected the temple's plan) on the main shrine and smaller shikharas on the secondary shrines. It consists of (a) a square elevated platform with a number of projections in the middle of each side giving it a cruciform shape. So larger and larger stones had to be used and this necessitated the need for sculpting them for aesthetic appeal. They didn't use arch. Obviously they didn't succeed in that but in the process they made many acids and bases. Arts & Crafts Techniques 1. were built in this period for irrigational purposes. a mandapa and in some cases an additional open mandapa. Like dravidian style it had a vimana. The shikhara had a dome at the top and this entire structure was called vimana. Highly ornamented. 3. Brahmagupta in 7 cent AD in his book Brahma-Sphuti-Siddhanta talked about various astronomical instruments and suggests observation based astronomy. shaped or use of permanent material.

Architectural Features Dimension: They represent multiple styles of architecture. 4. From 11th cent AD the vimanas (pyramidical shaped) and gopurams (which gradually overwhelmed the shikharas) became massive. Independent Sculpture about:blank Page 13 of 15 . rath temples were cut in addition to the cave temples which became more ornamented. There was not so much emphasis (as in Chola temples) on shikharas and gopurams and thus the overall temples appear 'flat'. 2. They show scenes of wars. This was linked to the military victories of the Chola kings. The central Indian temples are known for their extensive use of richly carved pillars. Political Dimension: They represent different dynasties. 3. Earlier they just picked up from the Chalukya style. Aihole had megalithic stone worship centers in the vicinity and thus emerged as a sacred town. Examples are @ Kanchi and Gudimallam. yaksha and yakshis. The ground plan of these temples was no longer rectangle but star shaped or polygonal and the whole complex was built on a raised platform. of women in the society. The temple walls were carved with images of gods and goddesses and their attendants. The early Chola temples were relatively small and superb in simplicity. The Chalukyas of Badami: They too patronized cave architecture. the Rajsimha style (674-800 AD) and the Nandivarman style (800-875 AD). The Ladkhan temple @ Aihole has a flat roof and a pillared mandapa. They also typically have chariots carved out on their outer walls. musicians. This was under the Mahindra style (640- 74 AD ) and the Mamalla style (640-74 AD). 2. There are 5 Pandava rathas. In the Nandivarman style. battle scenes. there are smaller temples on the 4 corners of the plinth. Each mandapa has thin shikharas. The Cholas: They picked up on the the dravidian style and took it to new heights. The Buddhist cages represent the last in the tradition of Buddhist cave cutting. Sculpture Temple Relief 1. The sculptures are exquisitely materialistic in appearance an reflect the contemporary society. kings and queens etc. Caves are there from Jaina. Religious Dimension: They represent different different religions. The Hosyals: They built elaborate temples in Halebid.the circular sanctum being surrounded by concentrically arranged areas. It is multi-storeyed and highly ornamented. They were essentially chaityas and viharas of 4th generation. the Pallava power was on a decline and this was reflected in the temples as well which became smaller and less elaborate. Examples are @ Padupattu & Tanjore. The garbhgriha was entered by one or more massive mandaps with multiple pillars. 8. The Pallava sculpture was inspired more from the Buddhist tradition of Amaravati school and remained linear and avoided over ornamentation - something which was present in the Chalukyan sculpture. The famous Kailashnath temple has a superstructure in Dravidian style. 09/08/15 1:01 am and Kalleshwar temple in Kukanoor (Hyderabad). We can see the cosmetics. The comparison of plans of Ladkhan temple and the Virupaksha temple show us the rapidity of the change in architectural styles. Examples are @ Pallavaram and Mahendrabad. These caves are less complex than those @ Ajanta and Ellora. Kanderiya temple @ Khajuraho is the only temple in Khajurao to have shikhara (reflecting Dravidian influence). Caves 1. Examples are the Shore temple @ Mahabalipuram and Kanchi. 4. cave and ratha temples were discontinued and independent dravidian style temples emerged. 6. A characteristic feature of this style was the present of bawris in the basement for water storage. The Lingaraja temple @ Bhubneswar. love. The sculpture of the Konark temple shows clear evidence of tantric influence like the temples of Khajuraho. Odisha shows clear tantric influences. One example is the Narttamalai temple of 9th cent . These temples clearly show the influence of tantricism. After there decline we can see that no attempt was made to maintain the grandeur of the temples and this is a reflection of the economic decline which had set in. The Pallavas: They built the cave temples of 4th generation with elaborate pillars and ornamented entries. The Dilawara and Tejpala temples are most famous Abu temples. Ellora Caves 1. Jagannath temple @ Puri and Sun temple @ Konark were all built during this period. and religious literature events. The temple complex grew horizontally as numerous smaller structures came up. Examples are some temples @ Aihole & Patdakal. The wide. 2. The famous Kailashnath temple was built by Rashtrakutas. hair styles etc. The Kailashnath temple contains images of Shiva pantheon as well as Vishnu. The Solanki rulers of Gujarat: They patronized many temples in Mt. These temples are built of granite and red sandstone. 2. It shows a development over previous styles.a free standing temple facing some rock cut caves. In N India the sculpture @ Khajurao. dancers. Their temples are known for excellence in relief sculpture. The temples of Gujarat are immensely rich and were studded with semi precious and precious stones. White marble was used in construction. circular pillars are a distinctive feature. Abu. It also reflected the high level of skills mastered by the guilds of sculptors in Gujarat. Kerala: Here the temples were made of wood instead of stone and many temples were circular in form . The Chandela rulers of Bundelkhand: They patronized the Khajuraho temples. They are multi-storeyed and highly ornamented. The star shaped plan provided more space for sculpting. Examples of both styles are @ Mahabalipuram. the Mamalla style (640-74 AD). they represent multiple gods and multiple forms of the same god as well. Even in Hindu tradition. The Durga temple @ Aihole is a continuation of the Buddhist chaitya plan. Cave temples called mandaps were cut in Mahindra style. clothing style. Temples 1. 3. The khajurao temples are in panchyatan style i. Such a lavish temple building was possible only due to immense prosperity brought by the trade. dance and music. Cave temples are located @ Badami. Somnathpura and Belur. In the Rajsimha style. The Tiruparantik form of Diva is popular in the Brihadeshwara temple @ Tanjore. The Odisha temples have pyramidical shikharas on their mandaps as well. 4th generation caves were cut. Gradually they became more ornate (they began to use soapstone rather than sandstone which is softer). The Ganga rulers of Odisha: They patronized temples between 8-12 cent AD. The cave pillars are square from bottom and top and octagonal in the middle. 5. The Chalukyas of Badami: The Chalukyan temples evolved from Gupta style and their architecture developed into the Vesara style which is a fusion of dravidian style and nagara style. The balanced proportion of the structure gave it aesthetic quality. They also built the Karnameru temple @ Anhilwara and Rudramallah temple @ Siddhpur. All temples are built on a plinth. In the Mamalla style.e. There is a gate in each direction. The Pallavas: Their architecture was divided into the Mahindra style (610-40 AD). On the temple walls elaborate sculpting is done using animal and floral motifs. Buddhist and Hindu traditions. 3. Moreover the main shikhara has multiple smaller shikharas at the top. 7.

Sanskrit texts on various professions like krishiparashar. 5. Focus was more on linguistic proficiency. The jains insisted on literacy and thus preserved and re-copied their texts as a treasury in the jaina temples. Images of kings and queens were also built in this period and placed in the temples. This age also lacks important texts on politics like Arthasastra and Nitisara. Bal Ramayan and Bal Bharat by Rajshekhar. In N India the images lack the grandeur of the Gupta age . employing dancers. Literature 1. Chalukyas and Hosyals. there was a tradition of hero stones or viragals. The jainas were prolific in writing biographies. were written reflecting social priorities. The literature of this age also mentions brahmanical rituals less frequently indicating growth of bhakti. The bronze dancing figure of Shiva i. They were merely commentaries on old subjects from epics etc. One cave painting shows Pulakesin II receiving a Persian ambassador. 2. Dance & Music 1. This was specially because of the royal patronage scholars used to receive. Narad wrote Sangeetam Karanand. Medium of instruction of formal language was Sanskrit which shows its growing distance from day to day life. Painting 1. It was patronized by Rashtrakutas. These figures were solid from inside unlike the N Indian sculpture which was hollow from inside. treatment of gender and even the narrative was varied according to the local tradition. The Chalukyas of Badami: The cave paintings of Ellora and Elephanta belong to this period and contain themes of secular nature. musicians. Attempts were made to provide vanshavalis where descent was traced from mythological lines. 2. Tamil --> Alvars and Naynar saints popularized it from 6-9 AD. Their writings were collectively compiled in 12th cent and called Tirumurais. 3. Telugu --> It was patronized by Rashtrakutas. By now a new sharda script was used which was closer to devanagari than brahmi. singers etc. Sanskrit dictionary was composed in this era by Amarsimha (Amarkosha). a remarkable feature was the growth in literature of regional languages. and also through multiple festivals from the Pallava period onwards. 6. Professional education was provided by the guilds. Vaghavatta and Kalhana wrote in this age. 2. Brahmagupta. The bhakti saints also popularized other languages like Odiya. 5. Sanskrit also began to be widely used by Jainas and Buddhists by this time. Prakrit: It gradually became very heavy and lost out to Pali and Sanskrit and even Jaina scholars began to write in Sanskrit while buddhist scholars in Pali. 2. The dancing Siva has 2 types . Kailash temple was built by Krishna I. 3. Mahabharata was written under Chalukyan kings. But gradually this was later misused to providing entertainment to influential priests and persons. A new style known as "shlesha style" emerged. These developed into impressive libraries. An interesting aspect was writing stories on Rama from a jaina perspective. Hemchandra (12th cent) and Merutunga (14th cent) were famous scholars. Regional Languages 1. This period witnessed the growth of kavya as well as grammar. The devdasis initially also composed poems and performed some temple rituals which were related to the idea of the special power embedded in women (a S Indian original concept) and rituals and dance were an expression of it. Pampa. The snake is the ornament and Ganga in his hair locks. vastushastras. Natraja became a popular theme under Cholas and Rashtrakutas. Ponna and Ranna (the 3 Kannada jewels) wrote in this age. veterinary sciences etc. bow / shield in left and arrows on shoulder.a historical epic but written to please a king who had usurped the throne from his elder brother). Two back hands hold a flame and a drum while the front hands are in abhaya mudra and one points down towards feet. Confidence in Tamil can be seen in its use along with Sanskrit in inscriptions. Karnataka). While Sanskrit was the language of the elites. 3. 09/08/15 1:01 am 1. Buddhism as well as Jainism (Ellora). There was a trend of growing ornate style in Sanskrit championed by Banabhatta. 5. 4. Bengali.probably because now they were mostly of gods and goddesses to be used mostly for worship. Vijaynagar Architecture about:blank Page 14 of 15 . 2. brahmanical religion. The spread of Sanskrit grew in S India along with the spread of Brahmans and because of the proximity to kings much of the literature has political motives. 2. 6. Bilhana's Chaurpanchasika and Jayadeva's Geet Govinda are examples. The doha style of writing began to come up in this age and specially popularized by the bhakti movement. The bronze images used lost-wax technique. Sometime the subjects were taken from Sanskrit works like Kamban wrote Ramayna in Chola period but it was not merely a translation of the Valmiki ramayna as the style. Kannada -->Amoghavarsha (Rashtrakuta king)wrote the first work in Kannada poetry. Usually there is an inscription recording the deeds of the hero. Erotic mysticism also finds its way into the literature of the age reflecting the influence of bhakti. Someshwar wrote Manollas. 4. Jaina Literature 1. regional languages had overtaken sanskrit. World's largest monolithic statue is the Jina statue of Gomteswar is present at Sravana Belgola (Hassan. 4. 2. Apbhramsha --> The Rashtrakutas patronized it and many poets in this language lived in their courts. In most sanskrit works of the age we find lack of original and innovative thinking. An example is Shrutikirti's Dwisandhan which when read from left to right tells the story of Rama and when read from right to left tells the story of Kauravs. Temples played a vital role through the institution of devdasis. There was a growing trend of writing histriographies like Kalhana and Bilhana (Vikramankdevcharit . But in some professions we do find sanskrit works being written indicating some confluence. First books on music began to come up. Important plays were Mudrarakshah by Vishakhdatta. In the Pallava age the tamil poems contain rich description of general country life as well as the town life in Kaveripattnam. chronicles of kings and courts and texts on religion. They hold a sword in right hand. Tamil literature witnessed great development. Sanskrit 1. shilpashastras. Chalukyas and Hosyals.angry and pacific symbolizing the creation and destruction of universe. By the end of this age. Thus he treats Ravan in a much more sympathetic way than Valmiki. The Rashtrakutas: They continued the Ellora and Elephanta cave paintings.e. In S India. Bhaskaracharya. 3.

Basically it was an advanced version of the dravidian style.e. the structures of the chief god and goddess were separated and the goddess structure was called shrine of the "Amma". were constructed. Palaces. The nayak style temples were bigger and more ornamented. 6. many forms of architecture were pursued. Highly ornamented. shaped or use of permanent material. 5. In the provida style. In the 14th century. it was influenced by deccani style of Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas. During 15th century. A new structure called kalyan mandap came up which was used for the ceremonial union of the chief god and the goddess. 09/08/15 1:01 am Features 1. Example is Meenakshi temple @ Madurai. the nayak style emerged (nayaks were the feudatories of Vijaynagar kings). A thousand pillar hall was created in the temple complex for the devotees. about:blank Page 15 of 15 . Secular sculpture developed with bronze images made of kings and queens. 2. Multi-dimensional i. Sculpture 1. In 17th cent. a typical Vijaynagar style called provida style emerged. 3. Examples are Viruprakash temple and Hazaraswami temple @ Hampi. queens' baths. Monuments 1. 2. Rock cut. Example is Lotus palace of Krishnadevrai. stables etc. 3. Religious as well as secular. massive and advanced technology. The gopurams became bigger and more ornamented. 4. Temples 1. Court patronage. elaborate.