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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

 Embryonic origin
- dermis arises from the dermatome
- segmented epimeres (somites) divide to give rise to the sclerotome medially and the dermatome
laterally
- inner cells of the dermyotome becomes rearranged into the myotome

 Dermis
• The dermis of many vertebrates produces plates of
bone directly through intramembranous ossification.
• known as dermal bones
• prominent in the ostracoderm fishes
• collagen fibers - is the most conspicuous component;
may be woven into distinct layers known as plies.
• plies - collagen fibers which are woven into distinct
layers; found in amphioxus; laminated together like warp and weft
of threads to prevent the skin from sagging
• Fibrous Connective Tissue - most conspicuous component of the dermis;
composed mostly of collagen fibers
• Among sharks the bundles of collagen lie at angles to each other, giving the
skin a bias, like cloth
• the skin stretches when it is pulled at an angle oblique to the direction of the
bundles
• In fishes and aquatic vertebrates, including cetaceans and aquatic
squamates
• collagen fibers of the dermis are usually arranged in orderly plies that form a
recognizable stratum compactum
• In terrestrial vertebrates
• stratum compactum is less obvious because locomotion on land depends more
on the limbs and less on the trunk
• any wrinkling of the skin is less disruptive to a terrestrial vertebrate moving
through air

 Epidermis
• epidermis of many vertebrates produces mucus to moisten the surface of the skin
• In fishes, mucus seems to afford some protection from bacterial infection and helps ensure the
laminar flow of water across the body surface.
• In amphibians, mucus probably serves similar functions and additionally keeps the skin from
drying during the animal’s sojourns on land.
• terrestrial vertebrates
• epidermis forms an outer keratinized or cornified layer
• to address life in a drying and abrasive terrestrial environment
• Keratinization and formation of a stratum corneum occur where friction or direct mechanical
abrasion insult the epithelium.
• The stratum corneum may be differentiated into hair, hooves, horn sheathes, or other specialized
cornified structures.
• keratinizing system - elaborate interaction of epidermis and dermis that produces the orderly
transformation
• scales form within the integument of many aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates
• Scales are basically folds in the integument.
• If dermal contributions predominate the form of ossified dermal bone is termed a dermal scale.

• An epidermal fold. produces an epidermal scale. especially in the form of a thickened keratinized layer. .