You are on page 1of 24

TABLE OF CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT .............................................................................................................. i


1.0 ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 2
3.0 THEORY ............................................................................................................................. 3
4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ...................................................................................... 5
4.1 LOCATION ..................................................................................................................... 5
4.2 APPARATUS .................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 1 : Torsion Test Machine ........................................................................................ 5
Figure 2 : Torque Meter...................................................................................................... 5
Figure 3 : Vernier Calipers ................................................................................................. 5
Figure 4 : Mild steel (dumbell shape) ................................................................................. 5
Figure 5 : Extension Gage .................................................................................................. 6
Figure 6 : Worm Gear ......................................................................................................... 6
4.3 PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 7 : Specimen (dumbell shape) ................................................................................. 7
Table 1 : Presentation of Data ............................................................................................ 8
5.0 RESULT .............................................................................................................................. 8
Graph 1 : Torque (Nm) vs Angle of Twist (rad) ................................................................ 9
Graph 2 : Stress vs Strain ................................................................................................. 10
5.1 CALCULATION ........................................................................................................... 11
6.0 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................... 14
7.0 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. 14
8.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 22

i
1.0 ABSTRACT

The objective of this experiment is to understand the principle of torsion test and determine the
modulus of shear, G through measurement of the applied torque and angle of twist. This torsion
test experiment is performed on a mild steel rod using a manual torsion application instrument.
The rod is fixed at one end to the machine where the torque is measured, while the other end
is connected to a chuck that is rotated by a hand-operator crank. A large analog dial gauge, and
the torque sensor digital signal that is read by software, indicates the torque (N.m) applied to
the rod as the rod is twisted by the hand crank. The rotational encoder is attached to the rod by
screws and its digital output to software gives the relative angle of twist developed in the rod
as the torque is applied. The torque-twist data is used to compute the modulus of rigidity ( shear
modulus) and the strain energy throughout the experiment. From the experiment the due is
taken and calculations and graphs are constructed. The error between theoretical and
experimental value were determined for the discussion.

1
2.0 INTRODUCTION

In many areas of engineering application, materials are sometimes subjected to torsion in


services, for example, drive shaft, axles, and twisted drills. Moreover, structural applications
such as bridges, springs, car bodies, airplane fuselages and boat hulls are randomly subjected
to torsion. The materials used in this case should require not only adequate strength but also be
able to withstand torque in operation. By testing this product in torsion, manufactures re able
to stimulate real life service conditions, check product quality, verify designs, and ensure
proper manufacturing techniques.

A torsion test can be conducted on most materials to determine the torsional properties of the
material. These properties are modulus of elasticity in shear, yield shear strength, ultimate shear
strength, and modulus of rupture in shear and ductility.

The torsion test generates the “torque versus angle” diagram that looks very similar to a “stress
versus strain” curve in a tensile test. They are not the same however they are analogous to
properties that can be determined during a tensile test.

2
3.0 THEORY

When an external torque is applied to a shaft, it creates a corresponding internal torque within
the shaft. In this section, we will develop an equation that relates this internal torque to the
shear stress distribution on the cross section of a circular shaft or tube.

If the material is linear-elastic, then Hooke’s law applies, 𝜏 = 𝐺𝛾 , and consequently linear
variation in shear strain, as noted in the previous section, leads to a corresponding linear
variation in shear stress along any radial line on the cross section. Hence, 𝜏 will vary from zero
at the shaft’s longitudinal axis to a maximum value, 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 , at its outer surface. Due to the
proportionality of trangles, we can write
𝜌
𝜏 = ( 𝑐 )𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 (1)

This equation expresses the shear-stress distribution over the cross section in terms of the radial
position 𝜌 of the element. Using it, we can now apply the condition that requires the torque
produced by the stress distribution over the entire cross section to be equivalent to the resultant
internal torque T at the section, which holds the shaft in equilibrium.

Specifically, each element of area dA , located at 𝜌, is subjected to a force of 𝑑𝐹 = 𝜏 𝑑𝐴 .

The torque produced by this force is 𝑑𝑇 = 𝜌(𝜏 𝑑𝐴). We therefore have for the entire cross
section

𝜌
𝑇 = ∫𝐴 𝜌(𝜏 𝑑𝐴) = ∫𝐴 𝜌(𝐶 )𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑑𝐴 (2)

Since 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 /c is constant,

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑇= 𝑐
∫𝐴 𝜌2 𝑑𝐴 (3)

The integral depends only on the geometry of the shaft. It represents the polar moment of inertia
of the shaft’s cross sectional area about the shaft’s longitudinal axis. We will symbolize its
value as J, and therefore the above equation can be arranged and written in a more compact
form , namely

3
Here

𝑇𝑐
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (4)
𝐽

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = the maximum shear stress in the shaft, which occurs at the outer surface

T = the resultant internal torque acting at the cross section. Its value is determined from the
method of sections and the equation of moment equilibrium applied about the shaft’s
longitudinal axis

J = the polar moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area

C = the outer radius of shaft

Combining eqs. (1) and (4), the shear stress at the intermediate distance 𝜌 can be determined
from

𝑇𝜌
𝜏= (5)
𝐽

Solid Shaft.
𝜋 4
𝐽= 𝑐 (6)
2

Tabular shaft.
𝜋
𝐽= 2
( 𝑐𝑜4 − 𝑐𝑖4 ) (7)

The shear modulus of elasticity is defined as the linear slope, of the shear stress-shear strain
relation, between zero shear stress and the proportional limit shear stress (defined below), i.e.,

G ,    PL
 (8)

This equation clearly states that the shear modulus, like Young’s modulus, is only valid for the
linear elastic range of the material

Angle of twist.

𝑇𝐿
∅=
𝐽𝐺

4
4.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

4.1 LOCATION
Laboratory : Material Strength Laboratory, Level 4.
Faculty : Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

4.2 APPARATUS

Figure 1 : Torsion Test Machine

Figure 2 : Torque Meter

Figure 3 : Vernier Calipers

Figure 4 : Mild steel (dumbell shape)

5
Figure 5 : Extension Gage

Figure 6 : Worm Gear

6
4.3 PROCEDURE

1. The Torque Meter power was switched on and the specimen diameter, d and
length, L was measured.

Figure 7 : Specimen (dumbell shape)

1. The specimen was placed and fixed at the end on the machine chuck and the zero
reading was set all on gauge.
2. The hand wheel was turned on the clockwise to provide the applied load.
3. For the first four rotations, we have fixed an increment of a quarter rotations 90⁰ . Then,
the increment of 180⁰ for 4 rounds. Finally, the increment of 360⁰ was used till the end
of the experiment which is the fracture state.
4. The dial gauge was set to initial values as 0 to read the turning the hand wheel. The
reading of torque was displayed at torque meter.
5. Data that were obtained from the torque meter and the rotation of handwheel was
recorded. From the given data, the graph was plotted.

7
5.0 RESULT

Rotation Twisting Twisting Load Shear stress, Shear strain Modulus of


(rev) Angle (°) Angle (rad) Torque (Nm) τ (Mpa)  (10^-3) Rigidity, G
(Gpa)
0.25 1.4516 0.0253 1.70 40.08 0.9570 41.88
0.50 2.9032 0.0507 3.65 86.05 1.9140 44.96
0.75 4.3548 0.0760 5.90 139.10 2.8711 48.45
1.00 5.8065 0.1014 8.15 192.14 3.8281 50.19
1.50 8.7097 0.1520 12.45 293.51 5.7421 51.12
2.00 11.6129 0.2027 15.60 367.78 7.6562 48.04
2.50 14.5161 0.2534 17.30 407.86 9.5702 42.62
3.00 17.4194 0.3041 18.30 431.43 11.4842 37.57
4.00 23.2258 0.4054 19.15 451.47 15.3123 29.48
5.00 29.0323 0.5068 19.40 457.36 19.1404 23.90
6.00 34.8387 0.6081 19.60 462.08 22.9685 20.12
7.00 40.6452 0.7095 19.60 462.08 26.7966 17.24
8.00 46.4516 0.8108 15.00 353.63 30.6247 11.55
9.00 52.2581 0.9122 Fracture (3.2) 75.44 34.4527 2.19
Table 1 : Presentation of Data

8
Torque (Nm) vs Angle of Twist (rad)
25.00

20.00

15.00
Torque (Nm)

10.00

5.00

0.00
0.0000 0.1000 0.2000 0.3000 0.4000 0.5000 0.6000 0.7000 0.8000 0.9000 1.0000
Angle of twist (rad)

Graph 1 : Torque (Nm) vs Angle of Twist (rad)

9
Stress-Strain
500

450

400
Shear Stress,τ (MPa)

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00

Shear Strain, (10^-3)

Graph 2 : Stress vs Strain

10
5.1 CALCULATION
Given that:
Diameter of the specimen : 0.006 m
Length of the specimen : 0.07943 m

Polar Moment of Inertia, J (𝒎𝟒 ) :

𝜋𝑑 4 (1)
𝐽=
32

𝜋(0.006)4
𝐽=
32

𝑱 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟎 𝒎𝟒

Sample calculation at (0.25 rev) rotation ;


Angle of Twist (θ˚):

𝑅𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑑𝑒𝑔) (2)


𝜃=
62

90°
𝜃= = 1.4516°
62

 = 1.4516

Angle of Twist (Rad):

𝜋
𝜃𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑡 (𝜃°) × (3)
180
𝜋
𝜃𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 1.4516 × = 0.0253
180

𝜽𝒓𝒂𝒅 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟓𝟑 𝒓𝒂𝒅

11
Shear Stress , τ (MPa) :

16
𝜏= × 𝑇 (𝑁𝑚) (4)
𝜋𝑑3

16
𝜏= × 1.70
𝜋(0.006)3

𝝉 = 𝟒𝟎. 𝟎𝟖 𝑴𝑷𝒂

Shear Strain , (𝟏𝟎−𝟑 ) :

𝑑 (5)
𝛾= × 𝜃𝑟𝑎𝑑
2𝐿

0.006
𝛾= × 0.0253
2(0.07943)

 = 0.9570 (𝟏𝟎−𝟑 )

Modulus of Rigidity, G (GPa) :

Sample calculation at (1.50 rev) rotation ;


Highest Modulus of Rigidity;
𝜏
𝐺𝑒𝑥𝑝 = (6)
𝛾

293.51 × 106
𝐺𝑒𝑥𝑝 =
5.7421 × 10−3

𝑮𝒆𝒙𝒑 = 𝟓𝟏. 𝟏𝟐 𝑮𝑷𝒂

Max Shear Stress , τmax (GPa) :

𝐺𝑒𝑥𝑝 . 𝜃𝑟𝑎𝑑 (7)


𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝐿

(51.12 × 109 ) × 0.1520


𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
0.07943

𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟗𝟕. 𝟖𝟑 𝑮𝑷𝒂

12
Energy, U (kPa) :

1
𝑈= 𝜏𝛾 (8)
2

1
𝑈= (293.51 × 106 )(5.7421 × 10−3 )
2

𝑼 = 𝟖𝟒𝟐. 𝟔𝟖 𝒌𝑷𝒂

Percentage Error (%) :

|𝐺𝑒𝑥𝑝. − 𝐺𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜. |
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 (%) = × 100% (9)
𝐺𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜

|75×109 − 51.12×109 |
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 (%) = × 100%
51.12×109

𝑷𝒆𝒓𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑬𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 (%) = 46.7%

13
6.0 DISCUSSION
&
7.0 CONCLUSION

14
NAME : ANIS BINTI ISMAIL

STUDENT ID : 2016218314

DISCUSSION

Torsion test is applicable for testing brittle materials such as mild steel. And test has
also been used to determine the forge ability of the material of torsion testing.

Load torque

Based on the graph torque against twisting angle(rad), at 1.70 N.m , the twisting angle is
0.00253 rad. The torque increase to 3.65 N.m, the twisting angle also increase to 0.0507 rad.
The torque continue increasing from 5.90 N.m, 8.15 N.m, 12.45 N.m, 15.60 N.m, 17.30 N.m,
18.30 N.m, 19.15 N.m and 19.40 N.m and the twisting angle is 0.0760 rad, 0.1014 rad, 0.1520
rad, 0.2027 rad, 0.2534 rad, 0.3041 rad, 0.4054 rad and 0.5068 rad respectively. The torque is
increasing again and became 19.60 N.m and the twisting angle is 0.6081 rad. Then the torque
become constant at 19.60 N.m but the twisting angle is inceasing to 0.7095 rad. Suddenly , the
torque decrease to 15 Nm which it twisting angle is 0.8108 rad before fracture at twisting angle
0.9122 rad.

Stress-strain

Based on the graph of shear stress against shear strain, 40.08 MPa of shear stress, the shear
strain is 0.9570(10^-3). The shear stress increasing drastically to 86.05 MPa which is the shear
strain is 1.9140(10^-3). The shear stress continue increase to 139.10 MPa, 192.14 MPa, 293.51
MPa, 367.78 MPa, 407.86 MPa, 431.43 MPa, 451.47 MPa and 457.36 Ma while the shear
strain is 2.8711(10^-3), 3.8281(10^-3), 5.7421(10^-3), 7.6562(10^-3), 9.5702(10^-
3),11.4842(10^-3),15.3123(10^-3) and 19.1404(10^-3) respectively. Then, the shear stress
continue increase to 462.08 MPa which is the shear strain is 22.9685(10^-3). Then the shear
stress become constant at 462.08 MPa but the shear strain continue decrease to 26.7966(10^-
3). Suddenly the shear stress decrease to 353.63 MPa and 75.44 MPa which is the shear strain
is 30.6247(10^-3) and 34.4527(10^-3).

The Modulus of Rigidity, G is 75 GPa. The value of G that we get from the experiment is 51.12
GPa. So the percentage error that we get is 46.7 %.

15
NAME : ANIS BINTI ISMAIL

STUDENT ID : 2016218314

CONCLUSION

From the data that we get, the graph plotted shows that the angle of twist against torque is
increasing at the beginning and finally drop before constant at 19.60 N.m. For the graph of
shear stress against shear strain, the beginning of the experiment the shear stress increasing and
constant before drop drastically at 353.63 MPa and 75.44 MPa. For this time, we have not a
good result due to the big percentage error that have big different from theoretical value. There
are three reason of the occurring of error. First, when reading the value, there were some
parallax errors and the apparatus also might have zero error. Next, when measuring the
specimens, it is not parallel or perpendicular. The third is when reading the value anle of twist,
there were some zero-error occur where the pointer of the angle measurement apparatus is not
pointing zero value before loading added.

REFERENCES

Hibbeler, R. C., Hibbeler, R. C., & Hibbeler, R. C. (2015). Statics and mechanics of
materials. Sydney, NSW: Pearson Australia.

ME 354 LAB #4: DISCUSSION OF THE TORSION TEST. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2018,
from
http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=8AB46C3AF26B446CB4E4C9DE725143E7&CID=1A11C953
2F966DFF2478C2942E396C5D&rd=1&h=O_iFF2incksQsCd_eLOOIvF0_M1ExnzCm9Xfi
TANm3E&v=1&r=http://courses.washington.edu/me354a/Lab4d.pdf&p=DevEx.LB.1,5484.
1

16
NAME : LIYANA SYAMIMI BINTI KAMEL
STUDENT ID : 2016218276

DISCUSSION
For this experiment a mild steel specimen of length 0.07943 m and cross sectional
diameter of 0.006m was used. According to calculation made, this specimen have moment of
inertia of 1.27 x 10−10 𝑚4 . Based on the data obtained, as the angle of twist increase, the value
of torque also increase. So does the value of shear stress. The graph constructed showed a linear
trend. But as it came to the fracture state, the value of torque will start to decrease and then
drastically decrease upon fractured.

From the calculated value of shear stress and shear strain, we can achieve the value of
Modulus of Rigidity of the specimen. For the first four rotations, we have fixed an increment
of a quarter rotations started with 0.25 rev, 90⁰, the torque value increased with a quite great
increment. The torque value started from 1.70 Nm until 8.15 Nm. Meanwhile the shear stress
and shear strain values started with a value of 40.08 MPa and 0.9570 Mpa respectively.

Then the experiment was continued with the change of angle of rotation. We used the
increment of 180⁰ for 4 rounds started with 1.50 rev. The torque values increased with a lesser
increment than 90⁰ rotation. The torque value started from 12.45 Nm to 18.30Nm. The shear
stress value started from 293.51 MPa while the shear strain value started from 5.7421 Mpa.

Finally, the increment of 360⁰, started with 4.00 rev was used till the end of the
experiment which is the fracture state. The value of torque decreased drastically from 19.15
Nm to 3.20 Nm Fracture. The shear stress value dropped down from 451.47 Mpa until 75.44
MPa.

After we obtained all of the data from the experiment, the calculated value of modulus
of rigidity, G, is 51.12 Gpa with a percentage error 46.7%. The theory value of modulus of
rigidity is 75 GPa. This is due to the human error and systematic error. Human error may be
occurred because of faulty procedure used by us. This can be prevent by listening and follow
every each of the detail briefed by the lab instructor. Beside, error when taking the reading also
might be one of the reason. So, we have to make sure our eyes is perpendicular to the scale.

17
While the systematic error is the defect of the specimen itself. As we come to the end of the
experiment, we found out the fracture happen at the end of the specimen. To obtain the best
result, the fracture supposed to happen at the middle. To counter this problem, before start the
experiment, make sure the specimen and tools are at the best condition.

18
NAME : LIYANA SYAMIMI BINTI KAMEL
STUDENT ID : 2016218276

CONCLUSION
The experiment was a success. Although errors occurred during the experiment and
calculation we managed to achieve the aim of this experiment which are determine the torsion
properties subjected to pure torque loading and also identify types of fracture under pure torque.
Plus, we can effectively relate Hook’s Law with this experiment, which make us to understand
more about it. Hence, we will apply it on our daily routine. To put it in a nutshell, increase the
angle of twist will increase the value of torque, shear stress and strain. Once the specimen reach
the maximum capability of tensile, there will be a drastic decrement in the value of torque.
Hence it will fracture. This also proved that steel is brittle.

19
NAME : HANIS FARINA BINTI MOHD SALLEH
STUDENT ID : 2016229484

DISCUSSION

From the Torsion experiment that was conducted in Material Strength Laboratory, we can
obtain the angle of twist of the specimen Mild Steel at diameter of 0.006m and length of
0.07943m. The torque act on the specimen also can be determined by using Torque Meter.
Based on the data recorded, we can calculate the shear stress and shear strain for the specimen
at specific rotation. By using equation (6), the experimental value, G (Modulus of Rigidity) of
mild steel can be calculated. The highest G that can be obtained are 51.12 GPa at 1.5 rev
(rotation) .

The percentage error (%) that we gain by using equation (9) are 46.7% . The percentage
difference show a big difference. This may happen due to some human error such as, eye does
not perpendicular to the surface of the scale reading and the gauge are not equal to zero
perfectly after reading has been taken. Plus, the machine error also may contribute to the huge
difference between the experimental and the theoretical result.

From the Graph 2 : Stress-Strain graph, the gradient of the linear line is equal to the Modulus
of Elasticity , E of the material. The graph show linearity within the elastic limit. The graph
proved that this experiments obey Hooke’s Law. Lastly, the fracture of mild steel imitating the
brittle fracture. Brittle fracture takes place without any appreciable deformation, and by rapid
propagation. The direction of crack motion is very nearly perpendicular to the direction of
applied tensile stress and yields a relatively flat fracture surface.

Figure (a) : Shows the difference between brittle and ductile failure.

20
NAME : HANIS FARINA BINTI MOHD SALLEH
STUDENT ID : 2016229484

CONCLUSION

To conclude, above experiment involves collecting data, scale reading, and require good
observation. This experiment is a success as we can get to know the experimental value of G
and compare it to the theoretical value. For the future study, precise data may reduce the
percentage of error. Therefore, you must be very precise and careful in handling this
experiment. However, based on this experiment, the objectives which led to determine the
torsion properties, identify the type of fracture and to validate data between experimental and
theoretical values are achieved. Therefore, the experiment is a success.

REFERENCES

Books

Hibbeler, R. C., Hibbeler, R. C., & Hibbeler, R. C. (2015). Statics and mechanics of
materials. Sydney, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Websites

Failure Mechanism In Ductile & Brittle Material. (2016, August 11). Retrieved April 04, 2018,
from https://www.slideshare.net/shaikhsaif/failure-mechanism-in-ductile-brittle-material

Failure Mechanism In Ductile & Brittle Material. (2016, August 11). Retrieved April 04, 2018,
from https://www.slideshare.net/shaikhsaif/failure-mechanism-in-ductile-brittle-
materialMishra, P. (2017, October 27). What is Hooke's Law? - Strength of Materials.
Retrieved April 04, 2018, from http://www.mechanicalbooster.com/2016/09/what-is-hookes-
law.html

Satyam Impex. (2017, June 27). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from
http://www.eurekamagazine.co.uk/design-engineering-news/ductile-high-strength-steel-
developed-in-wmg-project/156839/

21
8.0 REFERENCES

Books

Hibbeler, R. C., Hibbeler, R. C., & Hibbeler, R. C. (2015). Statics and mechanics of
materials. Sydney, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Websites

Failure Mechanism In Ductile & Brittle Material. (2016, August 11). Retrieved April 04, 2018,
from https://www.slideshare.net/shaikhsaif/failure-mechanism-in-ductile-brittle-material

Failure Mechanism In Ductile & Brittle Material. (2016, August 11). Retrieved April 04, 2018,
from https://www.slideshare.net/shaikhsaif/failure-mechanism-in-ductile-brittle-
materialMishra, P. (2017, October 27). What is Hooke's Law? - Strength of Materials.
Retrieved April 04, 2018, from http://www.mechanicalbooster.com/2016/09/what-is-hookes-
law.html

Satyam Impex. (2017, June 27). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from
http://www.eurekamagazine.co.uk/design-engineering-news/ductile-high-strength-steel-
developed-in-wmg-project/156839/

ME 354 LAB #4: DISCUSSION OF THE TORSION TEST. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2018,
from
http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=8AB46C3AF26B446CB4E4C9DE725143E7&CID=1A11C953
2F966DFF2478C2942E396C5D&rd=1&h=O_iFF2incksQsCd_eLOOIvF0_M1ExnzCm9Xfi
TANm3E&v=1&r=http://courses.washington.edu/me354a/Lab4d.pdf&p=DevEx.LB.1,5484.
1

22
23