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# In the Name of God

Computer Aided
Engineering
Instructor:
Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

Deformation of a body can be described by a displacement field {u} as a
function of position:
Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

By applying moment equilibrium, only 6 independent components are
needed to describe the stress state at a certain point:
Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

The strain is a quantity used to describe how material is stretched and twisted.
Only 6 independent components are needed to describe the strain state at a
certain point:
Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

In structural analysis, we use following quantities to describe the response of a
structure subjected to environmental condition:

## These 15 quantities are not independent each other. We must establish 15

equations to solve these 15 quantities. These equations are called Governing
Equations, since the govern the structure’s behaviors:
• (a) Strain-displacement relations
• (b) Stress-strain relations
• (c) Equilibrium Equations
Introduction

Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

(c) Equilibrium Equations

## Note; It is possible to replace stress components in the equilibrium equations

by strain components and in turn replace the strain components by
displacement components. We can solve the three differential equations for
three displacement components.
This is how the finite element software solve the problems!
Introduction

## Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

A basic idea of the finite element methods is:

(a) to divide the entire structural body into many smaller and geometrically
simpler bodies, called elements.
(b) the equilibrium equations of each element can be written down.
(c) all the equilibrium equations are then solved simultaneously.
Introduction

freedom.

## • The force vector {F} contains forces acting on all degrees of

freedom.

• The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. In a special
case when the structure is a spring, {F} as external force, and {D} as the
deformation of the spring, then [K] is the spring constant.
Introduction

F

(1) (2) (3) (4)

## 3. Establish the equilibrium equation: [K] {D} = {F}

3.1 Construct the [K] matrix, according to the elements' geometries and
the material properties.
3.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated, according to the loading
conditions.
3.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. Some component, however,
are known, according to the support conditions.
Introduction

## 4. Solve the equilibrium equation. Now, the nodal displacements {d} of

each element are known.

## 5.1 Calculate displacement fields {u}, using an interpolating method,

{u} = [N] {d}. The interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape
functions.

## 5.2 Calculate strain fields according to the strain-displacement

relations.
5.3 Calculate stress fields according to the stress-strain relations
(Hooke's law).
Introduction

## Shape functions serve as interpolating functions, allowing the calculation

of displacement fields (functions of X, Y, Z) from nodal displacements
(discrete values):

## For elements with nodes at vertices, the interpolation must be

linear and thus the shape functions are linear (of X, Y, Z).
Introduction

##  How small do I need to make the

elements before I can trust the F
solution?

##  It will be necessary to conduct

convergence tests:
1. Begin with a mesh discretization
and then observe the solution.

## 2. Repeat the problem with a finer

mesh and then compare the results
with the previous test.

## 3. If the results differ by a large

amount however, it will be necessary to
try a finer mesh yet!
Introduction

##  Finer meshes come with :

 More calculation time
 Large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)

##  It is desired to find the minimum number of elements

that give you a converged solution

##  Stresses will converge more slowly than the

displacement, so it is not sufficient to examine the
displacement convergence!
Introduction

ANSYS

## (a)static/dynamic structural analysis

(b)both linear and non-linear structural analysis
(c) heat transfer
(d)fluid problems
(e) Acoustic
(f) electro-magnetic
Introduction

three stages:

## (a) Define key points/lines/areas/volumes

(b) Define element type and material/geometric properties
(c) Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required

Note:
The amount of detail required will depend on:
1D, 2D, axi-symmetric, 3D
Introduction

## a finite element solution may be broken into the following

three stages:

2. Solution
Here we specify
• the loads (point or pressure)
• constraints (translational and rotational)
• solve the resulting set of equations.
Introduction

## a finite element solution may be broken into the following

three stages:

3. Post Processing

## Further processing and viewing of the results:

• Lists of nodal displacements

## • Element forces and moments

• Deflection plots

## • Stress contour diagrams

Introduction

Starting up ANSYS

## Starting up ANSYS in Windows is

simple:
• All Programs
• ANSYS 14.5
• Mechanical APDL 14.5
Introduction

## Starting up ANSYS Workbench in

Windows is simple:
• All Programs
• ANSYS 14.5
• Workbench 14.5
Introduction

1.Main Window:
Introduction

## The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
The Utility Menu contains functions that are available
throughout the ANSYS session, such as file controls,
selections, graphic controls and parameters.

Input Window

## The Input Line shows program prompt messages and

allows you to type in commands directly.
Introduction

## The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Toolbar
The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute
commonly used ANSYS commands. More push buttons

## The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions,

organized by preprocessor, solution, general
postprocessor, design optimizer.
Introduction

## The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Graphics Window
The Graphic
Window is where
graphics are shown
and graphical
picking can be
Introduction

2. Output Window

## The Output Window

shows text output
from the program,
such as listing of data
etc.
Introduction

ANSYS Interface

## There are two methods to use ANSYS:

1.Graphical Interface
This is done by means of the graphical user interface or
GUI.

## • Entire analysis can be described in a small text file

• Enables easy model modifications
• Minimal file space requirements
Introduction

ANSYS Files

## Database file (*.db)

This file stores the geometry, boundary conditions and any
solutions.
You need only activate the resume command to proceed
from where you last left off.
Backup of the database files are saved as *.dbb format.

Introduction

ANSYS Files

## Log file (*.log)

Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands
used during the current session.

## Output of all ANSYS operations (*.out)

This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an
ANSYS session.
Introduction

ANSYS Files

File
Save As Jobname.db
where jobname is the name that you specified.
Resuming a Previously Saved Job

## There are two methods to do this:

File
Resume Jobname.db
File
Resume from
select your job from the list that appears
Introduction

## The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be

demonstrated here:

## - Remove all unnecessary and/or

cosmetic features like rounds,
chamfers, holes, etc.
- You must compromise between
accuracy and available CPU
resources.
Introduction

## The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be

demonstrated here:

## - You can save your work with

IGES ( *.igs)
or
Step (*.stp or *.step)
format in order to import
into Ansys Software.
Introduction

## The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be

demonstrated here:

File
Import
IGES

## Browse into file location :

Select the IGES file
Press ok