Adaptive Multi Rate 1 Introduction

Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) is a new speech and channel codec for both half rate and full rate channels. By adapting the codec rate to the radio conditions the speech quality is enhanced. At low C/I, a large amount of channel coding is applied and less speech coding. When the C/I increases the speech coding is increased and the channel coding is decreased. Both the BTS (uplink ) and the MS (downlink) continuously measures the radio quality (C/I) and based on these measurements the codec rate is changed. AMR requires support in all network nodes, i.e. MSC, BSC, BTS and MS and AMR is only supported in cells where all TRUs are AMR capable.

2 Glossary
2.1 Concepts
A set of up to 4 different codec modes (all using the same channel rate). Speech and channel codec capable of operating at gross bit rates of 11.4 and 22.8 kbps. The codec can operate at various combinations of speech and channel coding bit rates. Full rate (gross bit rate of 22.8 kbps) or half rate (gross bit rate of 11.4 kbps) operation. A codec rate used within a codec set is called a codec mode.

Active Codec Set Adaptive Multi Rate

Channel Rate Codec Mode C/I

The ratio between signal strength and interference signal strength (expressed i dB). Tandem Free Operation is a feature that removes unnecessary speech encoding/decoding in the transcoders for mobile to mobile calls. Speech encoding/decoding is then only done in the mobiles, see 3GPP TS 28.062.

TFO

2.2
ACS AMR

Abbreviations and acronyms
Active Codec Set Adaptive Multi Rate

. The first is the robust FR channel that provides high speech quality at low C/I. This will increase the capacity in the networks and reduce transmission costs. This makes it possible to tighten the cell planning in a network with only AMR mobiles. thus making it possible to increase the coverage area. AMR also tolerates more interference than the old speech codecs.BSC BTS DL DTX FER FR HR ICM MRR MS MSC Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Downlink Discontinuous Transmission Frame Erasure Rate Full Rate Half Rate Initial Codec Mode Measurement Result Recording Mobile Station Mobile Services Switching Center RATSCCH Robust AMR Traffic Synchronized Control CHannel STS TFO TRU UL Statistic and Traffic Measurement Subsystem Tandem Free Operation TRanceiver Unit Uplink 3 Capabilities The feature AMR makes it possible to offer an enhanced speech quality for AMR mobiles in a network. This enables higher traffic loads which leads to higher capacity. The second is an audible better HR codec than the ones on the market today. The speech quality enhancement is divided in two parts and can therefore be of different interest to the operator. The enhanced speech quality also provides better coverage at the edges of the cell.

a codec mode control entity selects . Note: Since 7. all with the same channel rate. 4.4 Technical description 4. There.90 5.1 General AMR makes it possible to change codec rate during a call.40 6.2 10. The decision is done by the operator per BSC.95 kbps is not specified for 8 kbps sub-multiplexing on the Abis interface this codec mode will not be supported for HR channels.2 kbps and 10. by command. This measurement results in a Quality Indicator.2 Inband Signalling To be able to perform the codec mode adaptation the receiving side performs quality measurements on the incoming link. Two of these codec sets are pre-defined and two can be defined by the operator. The Quality Indicator produced on the MS side is converted to a Mode Request that is sent to the BTS using inband signalling.95 7. At call setup and handover an Active Codec Set (ACS) and a channel rate is selected.70 5.15 4. 12.2 7.75 kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps According to the standard. Since Tandem Free Operation is not supported the RATSCCH protocol is not supported. There are four codec sets for each channel rate in the system and it is possible to decide. The ACS is a subset of the 8 (5 for AMR HR) codecs above and may contain up to 4 codec modes. AMR FR is also referred to as Full Rate Speech version 3 and AMR HR is also referred to as Half Rate Speech version 3. which codec set that shall be used for each channel rate.2 kbps can only be used in FR channels and the other six can be used in both FR and HR channels. on the air interface. There are 8 different codec rates available in the AMR transcoder:         12.

It is not possible to have different channel rates within the same codec set. The codec set can consist of up to 4 different codec modes. giving a suggestion of a DL codec mode) UL: Mode Indication (2 bits per speech frame.3 Codec Mode Adaptation At call setup a channel rate is selected by the network. based on the Quality Indicator produced in the BTS. The presently applied codec mode is also sent in band both uplink and downlink.the codec mode to be used on the downlink.009. see 3GPP TS 45. The selection of codec mode within the codec set is based on measurements of the uplink and downlink radio channel. telling the MS which UL codec mode to use) DL: Mode Indication (2 bits per speech frame. This mode indication is sent every second speech frame and the Mode Request (uplink)/Mode Command (downlink) is sent in the speech frames in between. based on the Mode Request sent by the MS. all using the same channel rate. giving the present DL codec mode) AMR Functional Diagram 4. The codec set for that channel rate is communicated to the MS and the BTS. giving the present UL codec mode) DL: Mode Command (2 bits per speech frame. The codec mode control entity also selects the codec mode to be used on the uplink. Figure 1 In band messages: UL: Mode Request (2 bits per speech frame. . The selected uplink mode is sent inband to the MS.

Represents the second lowest mode (if the ACS includes more than one mode) CODEC_MODE_3 .0 dB THR 1 = 0.The codec modes in an Active Codec Set is defined as follows: CODEC_MODE_1 .5 dB HYST 2 = 1. A threshold (THR) is given as an absolute value between 0 and 63 which represent normalized C/I values as follows: THR 0 = 0.Represents the third lowest mode (if the ACS includes more than two modes) CODEC_MODE_4 .0 dB HYST 1 = 0.0 dB :: HYST 14 = 7.5 dB THR 2 = 1.0 dB THR 63 = 31. The hysteresis values (HYST) are given as an absolute value between 0 and 15 and are coded as follows: HYST 0 = 0.0 dB HYST 15 = 7. To avoid continuous rapid changes between 2 codec modes a hysteresis is used for the decision thresholds.5 dB .5 dB 1.Represents the highest mode (if the ACS includes four modes) For each of the predefined codec sets (two for HR channels and two for FR channels) there is an associated set of decision thresholds that determine which codec mode that should be used for a certain C/I (channel quality).Represents the codec mode with the lowest bit rate CODEC_MODE_2 .0 dB :: THR 62 = 31.2 or 3 thresholds needs to be defined depending on the number of codec modes in ACS.

The sum of the decision threshold and hysteresis constitutes the upper threshold between two codec modes. The codec set (including its thresholds and hysteresis values) is the same for the uplink and downlink. codec mode 3 (CODEC_MODE_3) will be in operation instead of codec mode 4 (CODEC_MODE_4).2 or 3 hysteresis values needs to be defined depending on the number of codec modes in ACS. 4.1. when C/I drops below decision threshold THR_3.g when C/I exceeds THR_3 + HYST_3 codec mode 4 (CODEC_MODE_4) will be in operation instead of codec mode 3 (CODEC_MODE_3). Different codec modes (within the ACS) can be used on the uplink and downlink. hysteresis and the operational range of codec modes. The lower decision threshold for switching from a higher codec rate to a lower is given by one of THR_1. The change of codec mode within a set is called fast codec mode adaptation. It is possible to change codec mode every second speech frame but only to the closest higher or lower codec rate in the set. Figure 2 Definition of thresholds and hysteresis The figure above illustrates the definition of decision thresholds. There are two full rate codec sets and two half rate codec sets pre-defined .4 Multirate Configuration At setup and handover the codec set to be used is sent from the BSC to the MS and the BTS together with the decision threshold and hysteresis values. As an example. THR_2 or THR_3. e.

This is done since the 6.9 kbps 6.9 . it provides a very small deviation from optimum AMR performance (when all 8 codec modes are used). satisfies the AMR FR and AMR HR interoperation in an optimal way when TFO is introduced.2 kbps This codec set has been selected because extensive evaluations have shown that it provides a good overall speech quality during all radio conditions (both for clean speech and with different background noise). see above.5 dB) Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3 Value 2 (1 dB) 3 (1.5 dB) 21 (10. Table 4 Decision thresholds and hysteresis values for full rate codec set 2 Threshold THR_1 THR_2 Value 12 (6 dB) 17 (8. With these two codec sets it will be possible to run TFO on the three lower modes (6.2 kbps This codec set provides basically the same overall speech quality as full rate codec set 1 but offers a slightly better speech quality under clean speech conditions.7 mode does not give any advantage except when TFO is introduced.5 dB) 3 (1. This codec set. i.7 kbps 10.4.7 mode. The two pre-defined full rate codec sets are defined as follows: Table 1 Full Rate Codec set 1 CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4 4. together with the Half Rate Codec set 1.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 7.5 dB) . This codec set is not optimized for a future introduction of TFO.e. see below. Table 2 Decision thresholds and hysteresis values for full rate codec set 1 Threshold THR_1 THR_2 THR_3 Value 12 (6 dB) 21 (10.75 kbps 5. A future introduction of TFO has also been taken into consideration. At the same time it also allows the operator to take full advantage of the possibility to use AMR as a capacity booster in the network.75) since they are common.in the BSC.7 .5 dB) Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 Value 2 (1 dB) 3 (1. Table 3 Full Rate Codec set 2 CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4 4.95 kbps 12.5.5 dB) Note: This setting bypass the 6. These codec sets with their associated threshold and hysteresis values are hardcoded and can not be changed.

5 dB) 33 (16.THR_3 25 (12. This codec set is not optimized for a future introduction of TFO.9 kbps 7.9 kbps 6. then the ICM shall be the second most robust mode.4 kbps This codec set provides basically the same overall speech quality as half rate codec set 1 but offers a slightly better speech quality under noisy speech conditions.5 dB) 4 (2 dB) 4 (2 dB) Half Rate Codec set 2 CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_4 4.75 kbps 5. then this codec shall be the ICM. Table 6 Decision thresholds and hysteresis values for half rate codec set 1 Threshold THR_1 THR_2 THR_3 Table 7 Value 25 (12. i.e. then the ICM shall be the most robust codec mode in the set.5 dB) 31 (15.  If the ACS contains 2 or 3 codec modes.5 dB) 36 (18 dB) Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3 Value 3 (1.75 kbps 5.  If the ACS contains 4 codec modes.5 dB) The two pre-defined half rate codec sets are defined as follows: Table 5 Half Rate Codec set 1 CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4 4.7 kbps 7. A future introduction of TFO has also been taken into consideration.4 kbps This codec set has been selected since extensive evaluations have shown that it provides a good overall speech quality during all radio conditions (both for clean speech and with different background noise). Table 8 Decision thresholds and hysteresis values for half rate codec set 2 Threshold THR_1 THR_2 Value 25 (12. The ICM is determined by the following rule:  If the ACS contains 1 codec mode.5 dB) HYST_3 3 (1.5 dB) Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 Value 3 (1. it provides a very small deviation from optimum AMR performance (when all 6 codec modes are used).5 dB) 4 (2 dB) The Initial Codec Mode (ICM) is also sent from the BSC to the BTS and MS at setup and handover. .

Measurement Result Recording (MRR) is a feature that can be used in troubleshooting.5 DTX The radio network feature Discontinuous Transmission (see User Description. 4. Using this it is possible to specify:    'No Filter'. This enables targeted optimization activities when AMR FR mobile stations are introduced in the network. 4. The DTX operation has been slightly changed for AMR because of the inband signalling. 'Record Only Measurement Reports from non AMR full rate Connections'.75 kbps will be the ICM for half rate codec set 2. 'Record Only Measurement Reports from AMR full rate Connections'. which needs to be carried out as part of the codec mode adaptation. Discontinuous Transmission) is supported for the AMR codec as well as for the other codec types. 4. Radio Network Statistics. 4.e. The Codec Mode Indication or Codec Mode Command/Request are transmitted in the SID_FIRST frames and both Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Command/Request are sent in every SID_UPDATE frame.8 Main changes in Ericsson GSM system R10 / BSS R10 . all connections will be recorded. If AMR is used in the system an extra 'AMR Connection Filter' is available at the Recording Definition in MRR. in periodic monitoring of the network performance and in determining the impact of changes to the network.9 kbps will be the ICM for both full rate codec sets and for half rate codec set 1. i. 4.7 Related Statistics There is a number of STS counters related to AMR:      SQI counters (speech quality uplink) Codec mode utilization counters (uplink and downlink) FER counters (uplink) Dropped call counters Traffic level counters Additional information on counters can be found in User Description.6 Handover AMR is handled in the same way as all other speech versions at handover except for the parameter AMRSPEECHVERUSED (see User Description Channel Administration).This means that 5.

6 Parameters 6. Statistics and codec mode administration have been added to the existing AMR feature.  AMRHRSUPPORT Indicates if AMR HR is turned ON or OFF and also which half rate codec set that shall be used within the BSC. 1 = 4. and optimize the different codec rates within a codec set. 6. The following exchange properties is set by the BSC command RAEPC:  AMRFRSUPPORT Indicates if AMR FR is turned ON or OFF and also which full rate codec set that shall be used within the BSC. For Full Rate all 8 codec modes can be used.AMR HR is a new feature in Ericsson GSM system R10/BSS R10.2 Parameters for special adjustments Codec sets 3 and 4 for both FR and HR channels can be defined per BSC using the command RLADC.1 Main controlling parameters AMR FR and AMR HR are activated by changing BSC exchange properties. Note if AMR HR shall be activated the feature Half Rate Channels must have been purchased by the operator. 5 Engineering Guidelines Besides the two pre-defined codec sets for both AMR FR and AMR HR codec set 3 and 4 are available. based on statistics. expressed as a numeral between 1 and 8.75 kbps . and defined in ascending order. The following parameters are set using this command:  SET Indicates which of the codec sets for a specific channel rate that shall be modified. These codec sets can be configured by the operator giving the possibility to fine tune AMR parameters.  MODE Specifies the codec modes that shall be included in the codec set. Transcoder pools for AMR FR and AMR HR must also be defined in order for AMR to work.

4=Full rate codec set 4 AMRHRSUPPORT 0 - 0 to 4 0=off. .2 kbps For Half Rate only the 5 lower codec modes can be used. in steps of 0.4 kbps  THR Specifies the thresholds between the codec modes in the codec set.  HYST Specifies the hysteresis values for the threshold in the codec set. in steps of 0.5 dB. 5 = 7. 2=Full rate codec set 2.2 = 5. 1=Half rate codec set 1. . It is expressed as a numeral between 0 and 15.5 dB. 3=Full rate codec set 3. .15 kbps . 8 = 12. 1 = 4.75 kbps . 1=Fullrate codec set 1. expressed as a numeral between 0 and 63.3 Value ranges and default values Parameters for AMR Table 9 Parameter name AMRFRSUPPORT Default value 0 Recommended value - Value range 0 to 4 Unit 0=off. 6.

FR4. HR4 1 to 8 0 to 63 0 to 15 Codec Mode Threshold Hysteresis . 4=Half rate codec set 4 SET MODE THR HYST FR3. 3=Half rate codec set 3. Codec Set HR3.2=Half rate codec set 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful