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Problems and Solutions

in

Hilbert space theory,

Fourier transform,

wavelets

and

generalized functions

by

Willi-Hans Steeb

International School for Scientific Computing

at

University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Preface

The purpose of this book is to supply a collection of problems in Hilbert

space theory, wavelets and generalized functions.

Mechanics

by Willi-Hans Steeb

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998

ISBN 0-7923-5231-9

Birkhauser Verlag, Boston, 2002

ISBN 376-436-610-0

tion, second edition

World Scientific, Singapore, 2006

ISBN 981-256-916-2

http://www.worldscibooks.com/physics/6077.html

cate courses for this subject. Please contact the author if you want to do

this course or other courses of the ISSC.

steebwilli@gmail.com

steeb_wh@yahoo.com

Home page of the author:

http://issc.uj.ac.za

v

Contents

Notation x

1 General 1

1.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

5 Fourier Transform 58

5.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

6 Wavelets 63

6.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

6.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

7 Linear Operators 68

7.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

7.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

vii

8 Generalized Functions 73

8.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

8.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Bibliography 90

Index 93

viii

Notation

:= is defined as

∈ belongs to (a set)

∈

/ does not belong to (a set)

∩ intersection of sets

∪ union of sets

∅ empty set

N set of natural numbers

Z set of integers

Q set of rational numbers

R set of real numbers

R+ set of nonnegative real numbers

C set of complex numbers

Rn n-dimensional Euclidean space

space of column vectors with n real components

Cn n-dimensional complex linear space

space of column vectors with n complex components

H Hilbert

√ space

i −1

<z real part of the complex number z

=z imaginary part of the complex number z

|z| modulus of complex number z

|x + iy| = (x2 + y 2 )1/2 , x, y ∈ R

T ⊂S subset T of set S

S∩T the intersection of the sets S and T

S∪T the union of the sets S and T

f (S) image of set S under mapping f

f ◦g composition of two mappings (f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x))

x column vector in Cn

xT transpose of x (row vector)

0 zero (column) vector

k.k norm

x · y ≡ x∗ y scalar product (inner product) in Cn

x×y vector product in R3

A, B, C m × n matrices

det(A) determinant of a square matrix A

tr(A) trace of a square matrix A

rank(A) rank of matrix A

AT transpose of matrix A

x

A conjugate of matrix A

A∗ conjugate transpose of matrix A

A† conjugate transpose of matrix A

(notation used in physics)

A−1 inverse of square matrix A (if it exists)

In n × n unit matrix

I unit operator

0n n × n zero matrix

AB matrix product of m × n matrix A

and n × p matrix B

A•B Hadamard product (entry-wise product)

of m × n matrices A and B

[A, B] := AB − BA commutator for square matrices A and B

[A, B]+ := AB + BA anticommutator for square matrices A and B

A⊗B Kronecker product of matrices A and B

A⊕B Direct sum of matrices A and B

δjk Kronecker delta with δjk = 1 for j = k

and δjk = 0 for j 6= k

δ delta function

Θ Heaviside’s function

λ eigenvalue

real parameter

t time variable

Ĥ Hamilton operator

xi

Chapter 1

General

Problem 1. Consider a Hilbert space H with scalar product h , i. The

scalar product implies a norm via kf k2 := hf, f i, where f ∈ H.

(i) Show that

Start with

kf + gk2 = kf k2 + kgk2 .

Start with

kf + gk2 = hf + g, f + gi.

1 1

hf, gi = kf + gk2 − kf − gk2

4 4

or

1 1 i i

hf, gi = kf + gk2 − kf − gk2 + kf + igk2 − kf − igk2

4 4 4 4

1

2 Problems and Solutions

H. Let k.k be the norm induced by the scalar product, i.e. kuk2 = hu, ui.

Show that (Schwarz-Cauchy inequality))

assume that u 6= 0 and v 6= 0 in the following.

hu + αv, u + αvi.

1

hf |f ihg|gi ≥ (hf |gi + hg|f i)2 .

4

kf + gk ≤ kf k + kgk.

the scalar product. Let u, v ∈ H.

(i) Show that

ku − vk + kvk ≥ kuk.

(ii) Show that

hu, vi + hv, ui ≤ 2kuk · kvk.

H. Show that kP k = 1.

General 3

Let U be a unitary operator, i.e. U −1 = U ∗ in the Hilbert space H ⊗ H

such that

U (|ψi ⊗ |si) = |ψi ⊗ |ψi

U (|φi ⊗ |si) = |φi ⊗ |φi.

Show that hφ|ψi = hφ|ψi2 . Find solutions to this equation.

is called a frame if for any f ∈ H there exist two constants k1 > 0 and

0 < k2 < ∞, such that

X

k1 kf k2 ≤ hψj |f i|2 ≤ k2 kf k2 .

j∈J

1 1

ψ0 = , ψ1 = .

1 −1

Show that we have a tight frame.

(vector spaces) X, Y . The null space or kernel of the linear map T , denoted

by ker(T ), is the subset of X defined by

ker(T ) := { x ∈ X : T x = 0 }.

The range of T , denoted by ranT , is the subset of Y defined by

ran(T ) := { y ∈ Y : there exists x ∈ X such that T x = y }.

Let P be a projection operator in a Hilbert space H. Show that ran(P ) is

closed and

H = ran(P ) ⊕ ker(P )

is the orthogonal direct sum of ran(P ) and ker(P ).

h , i. Show that if ϕ is a bounded linear functional on the Hilbert space H,

then there is a unique vector u ∈ H such that

ϕ(x) = hu, xi for all x ∈ H.

erator A : H → H satisfies the Fredholm alternative if one of the following

4 Problems and Solutions

(i) either Ax = 0, A∗ x = 0 have only the zero solution, and the linear

equations Ax = y, A∗ x = y have a unique solution x ∈ H for every y ∈ H;

(ii) or Ax = 0, A∗ x = 0 have nontrivial, finite-dimensional solution spaces

of the same dimension, Ax = y has a (nonunique) solution if and only if

y ⊥ u for every solution u of A∗ u = 0, and A∗ x = y has a (nonunique)

solution if and only if y ⊥ u for every solution u of Au = 0.

alternative.

Hilbert space) and let f : M → M be a mapping such that

for some m ≥ 1, where 0 ≤ k < 1 is a constant. Show that the map f has

a unique fixed point in M .

mapping such that for some constant β > 0

Show that for any w ∈ H, the equation u + f (u) = w has a unique solution

u.

v, w be elements of the Hilbert space with kuk = kvk = kwk = 1. Show

that p p p

1 − |hu, vi|2 ≤ 1 − |hu, wi|2 + 1 − |hw, vi|2 .

The Hilbert space projection theorem states that for every f ∈ H, there

exists a unique g ∈ G such that

(i) f − g ∈ G⊥

(ii) kf − gk = inf kf − hk

h∈G

General 5

that f − g ∈ G ⊥ .

H. Then any vector f ∈ H can be written as

X

f= hf, φn iφn .

n∈Z

Now suppose that { ψn }n∈Z is also a basis for H, but it is not orthonormal.

Show that if we can find a so-called dual basis { χn }n∈Z satisfying

X

f= hf |χn iψn .

n∈Z

and 1 otherwise.

Problem 19. Let (X1 , k · k1 ) and (X2 , k · k2 ) be two normed spaces. Show

that the product vector spaces X = X1 × X2 is also a normed vector space

if we define

kxk := max(kx1 k1 , kx2 k2 )

with x = (x1 , x2 ).

space H. Let u, v ∈ H and λ ∈ C. Consider the equation

Au − λu = v.

(i) Show that for λ nonreal (i.e. it has an imaginary part) v cannot vanish

unless u vanishes.

(ii) Show that for λ nonreal we have

1

k(A − λI)−1 vk ≤ kvk.

|=(λ)|

{ z ∈ C : |z| > 1 }

{ z ∈ C : |z| = 1 }.

6 Problems and Solutions

in the region E. The inner product for f (z), g(z) ∈ H2 (E) is defined by

Z π I

1 1 dz

hf, gi = f (eiω )∗ g(eiω )dω = f ∗ (1/z ∗ )g(z) .

2π −π 2πi T z

Let f (z) = z 2 and g(z) = z + 1. Find the scalar product hf, gi.

dimensional Hilbert space. Show that if

∞

X

x= cj uj

j=1

then

∞

X

kxk2 = |cj |2 .

j=1

equivalent if for all > 0, there is a k() such that for all j ≥ k() we have

d(xj , yj ) < . One writes { xk } ∼ { yk }. Obviously, ∼ is an equivalence

relationship. Show that equivalent Cauchy sequences have the same limit.

by xk = 1/k 2 for all k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that this sequence is a Cauchy

sequence.

Show that any element u of H can be decomposed uniquely

u=v+w

where v is in S and w is in S ⊥ .

v1 + v2

2ku − v1 k2 + 2ku − v2 k2 = k2 u − k2 + kv1 − v2 k2 .

2

Problem 27. Let P be the set of prime numbers. We define the set

S := {(p, q) : p, q ∈ P p ≤ q }.

General 7

Show that

d((p1 , q1 ), (p2 , q2 )) := |p1 q1 − p2 q2 |

defines a metric.

Problem 28. Consider the vector space of all continuous functions de-

fined on [a, b]. We define a metric

a≤x≤b

Problem 29. The n × n matrices over R form a vector space. Show that

n X

X n

d(A, B) := |ajk − bjk |

j=1 k=1

defines a metric.

0 0 ≤ t < 1/2 − 1/n

fn (t) = 1/2 + n2 (t − 1/2) 1/2 − 1/n ≤ t ≤ 1/2 + 1/n

1 1/2 + 1/n ≤ t ≤ 1

Show that the sequence { fn (t) } is not a Cauchy sequence for the uniform

norm, but with any of the Lp norms (1 ≤ p < ∞) it is a Cauchy sequence.

Problem 31. The sequence space consists of the set of all (bounded or

unbounded) sequences of complex

x = (χ1 , χ2 , . . .)

Thus we have a vector space. Can we define a metric in this vector space

which is implied by a norm?

E is called a Cauchy sequence if, for every > 0, there exists a number M ,

such that kfp − fq k < for p, q > M . Consider the Hilbert space R. Show

that

n

X 1

sn = , n≥1

j=1

(j − 1)!

is a Cauchy sequence.

8 Problems and Solutions

equivalent if for all > 0, there is a k() such that for all j ≥ k() we have

d(xj , yj ) < . One writes { xk } ∼ { yk }. Obviously, ∼ is an equivalence

relationship. Show that equivalent Cauchy sequences have the same limit.

by xk = 1/k 2 for all k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that this sequence is a Cauchy

sequence.

Problem 35. The sequence space consists of the set of all (bounded or

unbounded) sequences of complex numbers

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)

Thus we have a vector space. Can we define a metric in this vector space

which is not implied by a norm?

Problem 36. Consider a complex Hilbert space H and |φ1 i, |φ2 i ∈ H. Let

c1 , c2 ∈ C. An antilinear operator K in this Hilbert space H is characterized

by

K(c1 |φ1 i + c2 |φ2 i) = c∗1 K|φ1 i + c∗2 K|φ2 i.

A comb is an antilinear operator K with zero expectation value for all states

|ψi of a certain complex Hilbert space H. This means

for all states |ψi ∈ H, where L is a linear operator and C is the complex

conjugation.

(i) Consider the two-dimensional Hilbert space H = C2 . Find a unitary

2 × 2 matrix such that

hψ|U C|ψi = 0.

3 X

X 3

hψ|σµ C|ψig µ,ν hψ|σν C|ψi

µ=0 ν=0

General 9

hf, gihg, f i = 1.

hf, gihg, f i = i.

(I index set) be an orthonormal sequence in the Hilbert space H. Then

(Bessel inequality) X

|hf, ek i| ≤ kf k.

k∈I

1 1 1

1

f = √ 1 , e1 = 0 , e2 = 0 .

3 1 1 −1

Problem 3. Let x, y ∈ R. Is

|x − y|

d(x, y) :=

2 + |x − y|

a metric on R?

Chapter 2

Finite Dimensional

Hilbert Spaces

2.1 Introduction

We consider the Hilbert space Cn with the scalar product

n

X

v∗ v = v j vj

j=1

and the Hilbert space for n × n matrices over C with the scalar product

hA, Bi = tr(AB ∗ ).

1 0 0

0 1 0

0, 0, ···0.

. . .

.. .. ..

0 0 1

10

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 11

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space R4 and the vectors

1 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

, , , .

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 1

(ii) Use the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process to find mutually or-

thogonal vectors.

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space R4 . Show that the vectors (Bell

basis)

1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

√ , √ , √ , √

2 0 0 2 1 2 −1

2

1 −1 0 0

are linearly independent. Show that they form a orthonormal basis in the

Hilbert space R4 .

vectors (column vectors) x1 , . . . , xp , where the entries of the column vectors

can only be +1 or −1. Calculate the matrix

p

X

xi xTi

i=1

i 1

|0i = , |1i = .

i −1

Note that

kxk2 := hx, xi.

12 Problems and Solutions

Let

|ψi = cos(θ/2)|0i + eiφ sin(θ/2)|1i

where θ, φ ∈ R.

(i) Find hψ|ψi.

(ii) Find the probability |h0|ψi|2 . Discuss |h0|ψi|2 as a function of θ.

(iii) Assume that

1 0

|0i = , |1i = .

0 1

Find the 2 × 2 matrix |ψihψ| and calculate the eigenvalues.

1 1 1 1

√ , √

2 1 2 −1

are linearly independent. Find

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

√ ⊗√ , √ ⊗√ ,

2 1 2 1 2 1 2 −1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

√ ⊗√ , √ ⊗√ .

2 −1 2 1 2 −1 2 −1

Show that these four vectors form a basis in R4 . Consider the 4 × 4 matrix

Q which is constructed from the four vectors given above, i.e. the columns

of the 4 × 4 matrix are the four vectors. Find QT . Is Q invertible? If so

find the inverse Q−1 . What is the use of the matrix Q?

matrix over R. Assume that the eigenvalues are given by λ1 = 0, λ2 = 1,

λ3 = 2 and λ4 = 3 with the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions

1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

u1 = √ , u2 = √ , u3 = √ , u4 = √ .

2 0 2 0 2 1 2 −1

1 −1 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 1

A= √ , B=√ ,

2 0 1 2 1 0

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 13

1 0 −i 1 1 0

C=√ , D= √

2 i 0 2 0 −1

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space M2 (C).

the complex numbers with the scalar product

hA, Bi := tr(AB ∗ ), A, B ∈ H.

2

1 0 1 1 0 −i 1 1 0

µ1 = √ , µ2 = √ , µ3 = √

2 1 0 2 i 0 2 0 −1

1 1 0

µ0 = √

2 0 1

scalar product

tr(AB ∗ ) 1

hA, Bi := = tr(AB ∗ ).

trIn n

This provides us with a Hilbert space.

The Lie group SU (N ) is defined by the complex n × n matrices U

SU (N ) := { U : U ∗ U = U U ∗ = In , det(U ) = 1 }.

matrices X

su(N ) := { X : X ∗ = −X , tr(X) = 0 }.

(i) Let U ∈ SU (N ). Calculate hU, U i.

(ii) Let A be an arbitrary complex n×n matrix. Let U ∈ SU (N ). Calculate

hU A, U Ai.

(iii) Consider the Lie algebra su(2). Provide a basis. The elements of the

basis should be orthogonal to each other with respect to the scalar product

given above. Calculate the commutators of these matrices.

0 1 0

~

S1 := √ 1 0 1

2 0 1 0

14 Problems and Solutions

(i) Find exp(−iĤt/~)ψ(0), where ψ(0) = (1, 1, 1)T / 3.

(ii) Calculate the time evolution of

1 0 0

S3 := ~ 0 0 0

0 0 −1

using the Heisenberg equation of motion. The matrices Sx , Sy , Sz are the

spin-1 matrices, where

0 −i 0

~

S2 := √ i 0 −i .

2 0 i 0

Problem 13. Consider the Hilbert space R4 . Show that the Bell basis

1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

u1 = √ , u2 = √ , u3 = √ , u4 = √

2 0 0 2 1 2 −1

2

1 −1 0 0

forms an orthonormal basis in this Hilbert space.

Problem 14. (i) Consider the Hilbert space C4 . Show that the matrices

1 1

Π1 = (I2 ⊗ I2 + σ1 ⊗ σ1 ), Π2 = (I2 ⊗ I2 − σ1 ⊗ σ1 )

2 2

are projection matrices in C4 .

(ii) Find Π1 Π2 . Discuss.

(iii) Let e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 be the standard basis in C4 . Calculate

Π1 ej , Π2 ej , j = 1, 2, 3, 4

projections.

2 0 2

A = 1 0 0.

0 0 1

the 3 × 3 matrices with the scalar product hA, Bi := tr(AB T ). Find the

norm of A with respect to this Hilbert space.

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 15

Hilbert space R3 . Find die norm

kxk=1

(iii) Find the eigenvalues of A and AAT . Compare the result with (i) and

(ii).

Problem 16. Consider the Hilbert space M4 (C) of all 4 × 4 matrices over

C with the scalar product hA, Bi := tr(AB ∗ ), where A, B ∈ M4 (C). The

γ-matrices are given by

0 0 0 −i 0 0 0 −1

0 0 −i 0 0 0 1 0

γ1 = , γ2 =

0 i 0 0 0 1 0 0

i 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0

0 0 −i 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 i 0 1 0 0

γ3 = , γ4 =

i 0 0 0 0 0 −1 0

0 −i 0 0 0 0 0 −1

and

0 0 −1 0

0 0 0 −1

γ5 = γ1 γ2 γ3 γ4 = .

−1 0 0 0

0 −1 0 0

We define the 4 × 4 matrices

i

σjk := [γj , γk ], j<k

2

where j = 1, 2, 3, k = 2, 3, 4 and [ , ] denotes the commutator.

(i) Calculate σ12 , σ13 , σ14 , σ23 , σ24 , σ34 .

(ii) Do the 16 matrices

tors) of matrix

1 1 1

A = 1 1 1.

1 1 1

16 Problems and Solutions

Problem 18. Let A and B be two arbitrary matrices. Give the definition

of the Kronecker product. Let uj (j = 1, 2, . . . , m) be an orthonormal basis

in the Hilbert space Rm . Let vk (k = 1, 2, . . . , n) be an orthonormal basis in

the Hilbert space Rn . Show that uj ⊗ vk (j = 1, 2, . . . , m), (k = 1, 2, . . . , n)

is an orthonormal basis in Rm+n .

1 1 0 1 0 1

A= √ , B=√ ,

2 0 1 2 1 0

1 0 −i 1 1 0

C=√ , D= √

2 i 0 2 0 −1

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space M 2 (C).

1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

A= , B= , C= , D=

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

form a basis in the Hilbert space M 2 (R). Apply the Gram-Schmidt tech-

nique to obtain an orthonormal basis.

2 0 2

A = 1 0 0.

0 0 1

the 3 × 3 matrices over the real nunbers with the scalar product

hB, Ci := tr(BC T ).

(ii) On the other hand the matrix A can be considered as a linear operator

in the Hilbert space R3 . Find the norm

kxk=1

(iii) Find the eigenvalues of A and AT A. Compare the result with (i) and

(ii).

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 17

Problem 22. Consider the Hilbert space C2 . The Pauli spin matrices

σx , σy , σz act as linear operators in this Hilbert space. Let

Ĥ = ~ωσ3

be a Hamilton operator, where

1 0

σ1 =

0 −1

and ω is the frequency. Calculate the time evolution (intial value problem)

of

0 1

σ1 =

1 0

i.e.

dσ1

i~ = [σ1 , Ĥ](t).

dt

operator

0 0 0 −i

0 0 −i 0

Ĥ := ~ω .

0 i 0 0

i 0 0 0

Find the time-evolution of the operator

0 0 −i 0

0 0 0 i

γ3 =

i 0 0 0

0 −i 0 0

using the Heisenberg equation of motion

dγ3

i~ = [γ3 , Ĥ](t).

dt

linear operator A is defined by

Ax = (w1 , w2 , . . .)T

where

n

X

wj := Mjk xk , j = 1, 2, . . . , n

k=1

wj := xj , j>n

18 Problems and Solutions

hermitian. Show that A is unitary if M is unitary.

vj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n be orthonormal bases in Cn , where uj , vj are considered

as column vectors. Show that

n

X

U= uj vj∗

j=1

is a unitary n × n matrix.

√ √

0 3/2 − 3/2

u1 = , u2 = , u3 = .

1 −1/2 −1/2

The three vectors u1 , u2 , u3 are at 120 degrees of each other and are

normalized, i.e. kuj k = 1 for j = 1, 2, 3. Every given two-dimensional

vector v can be written as

v = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + c3 u3 , c1 , c2 , c3 ∈ R

1 2

(c + c22 + c23 )

2 1

subject to the constraint v − c1 u1 − c2 u2 − c3 u3 = 0.

role of the Hamilton operator. The Heisenberg equations of motion is given

by

dA(t) i

= [H, A(t)].

dt ~

with A = A(t = 0) = A(0). Let Ej (j = 1, 2, . . . , n2 ) be an orthonormal

basis in the Hilbert space H of the n × n matrices with scalar product

hX, Y i := tr(XY ∗ ), X, Y ∈ H.

2

n

X

A(t) = cj (t)Ej

j=1

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 19

2

n

X

H= hj Ej .

j=1

Find the time evolution for the coefficients cj (t), i.e. dcj /dt, where j =

1, 2, . . . , n2 .

Problem 28. Consider the Hilbert space M2 (C) of all 2 × 2 matrices over

C with scalar product

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

E11 = , E12 = , E21 = , E22 = .

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1

µ0 = √ σ0 = √ , µ1 = √ σ1 = √ ,

2 2 0 1 2 2 1 0

1 1 0 −i 1 1 1 0

µ2 = √ σ2 = √ , µ3 = √ σ3 = √ .

2 2 i 0 2 2 0 −1

(i) Express the Hadamard matrix

1 1 1

A= √

2 1 −1

(ii) Express the Bell matrix

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 1 0

B=√

2 0 1 −1 0

1 0 0 −1

µj ⊗ µk , j, k = 0, 1, 2, 3.

20 Problems and Solutions

Av = λv.

Show that

v∗ Av

λ= .

v∗ v

1 0 0 0

x 1 0 0

2, , .

x 2x 2 0

x3 3x 2

6x 6

form a basis in this Hilbert space?

2 0 0

A = 0 0 1

0 1 0

kxk=1

considered as a column vector and x 6= 0. Find the matrix xxT and the

real number xT x. Show that the matrix xxT admits only one nonzero

eigenvalue given by xT x.

values and normalized eigenvectors) of matrix

1 2 3

A = 1 2 3.

1 2 3

Find kAk := supx=1 kAxk, where k.k denotes the norm and x ∈ R3 .

Finite Dimensional Hilbert Spaces 21

of the 3 × 3 matrix

3 3 3

A = 3 3 3.

3 3 3

Find kAk, where k.k denotes the norms

kxk=1

p

kAk2 := tr(AA∗ ).

Compare the norms with the eigenvalues. Find exp(A).

Problem 7. Let

v0 , v1 , v2 , v3

be an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space C4 . Show that the vectors

1 1

u0 = (v0 + v1 + v2 + v3 ), u1 = (v0 − v1 + v2 − v3 ),

2 2

1 1

u2 = (v0 + v1 − v2 − v3 ), u3 = (v0 − v1 − v2 + v3 ),

2 2

also form an orthonormal basis in C4 .

Chapter 3

square integrable function with scalar product

Z

hf, gi = f (x)g ∗ (x)dx.

Ω

Z

2

kf k = hf, f i = f (x)f ∗ (x)dx ≥ 0.

Ω

Z

H(Cn×N ) := f : Cn×N → C | f holomorphic |f (z)|2 dµ(z) < ∞

Cn×N

n Y

N

1 Y

dµ(z) = exp(−tr(zz ∗ )), dz = dxjk dyjk .

π nN j=1 k=1

Z

hf, gi = f (z)g(z)dµ(z).

Cn×N

22

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 23

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [a, b], where a, b ∈ R and b > a.

Find the condition on a and b such that

hcos(x), sin(x)i = 0

where h , i denotes the scalar product in L2 [a, b].

Hint. Since b > a, we can write b = x + , where > 0.

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−1, 1]. Normalize the function

f (x) = x in this Hilbert space.

L2 [−π, π]. Find the norm k cos(x)k. Find nontrivial functions f, g ∈

L2 [−π, π] such that

hf (x), cos(x)i = 0, hg(x), cos(x)i = 0

and

hf (x), g(x)i = 0.

Problem 4. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, π]. Let k k be the norm

induced by the scalar product of L2 [0, π]. Find the constants a, b such that

k sin(x) − (ax2 + bx)k

is a minimum.

Problem 5. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Find a non-trivial func-

tion

f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.

such that

hf (x), xi = 0, hf (x), x2 i = 0, hf (x), x3 i = 0

where h , i denotes the scalar product

1 x

f (x) = , g(x) = .

1 + x2 1 + x2

Obviously f, g ∈ L2 (R). Calculate the scalar product

Z ∞

hf, gi = f (x)g(x)dx.

−∞

24 Problems and Solutions

sin(ωt) 1 − cos(ωt)

f (t) = , g(t) = .

ωt ωt

Obvioulsy f (0) = 1, g(0) = 0 and f, g ∈ L2 (R). Calculate the scalar

product Z ∞

hf, gi = f (t)g(t)dt.

−∞

sider the functions

Z ∞ Z ∞

(fj (x), fk (x)) := fj (x)f¯k (x)dx = fj (x)fk (x)dx.

−∞ −∞

Z ∞

Γ(n + 1)

xn e−ax dx = .

0 an+1

Discuss.

B := e2πixn : n ∈ Z .

Let

2x 0 ≤ x < 1/2

f (x) =

2(1 − x) 1/2 ≤ x < 1

Is f ∈ L2 [0, 1]? Find the first two expansion coefficients of the Fourier

expansion of f with respect to the basis given above.

Problem 9. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−1, 1]. Consider the se-

quence

−1 if −1 ≤ x ≤ −1/n

fn (x) = nx if −1/n ≤ x ≤ 1/n

+1 if 1/n ≤ x ≤ 1

Cauchy sequence in the norm of L2 [−1, 1].

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 25

−1 if −1 ≤ x < 0

sgn(x) = .

+1 if 0 < x ≤ 1

(iii) Use this sequence to show that the space C[−1, 1] is a subspace of

L2 [−1, 1] that is not closed.

Problem 10. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. The Legendre polyno-

mials are defined as

1 dn 2

P0 (x) = 1, Pn (x) = (x − 1).

2n n! dxn

Show that the first first four elements are given by

1 1

P0 (x) = 1, P1 (x) = x, P2 (x) = (3x2 − 1), P3 (x) = (5x3 − 3x).

2 2

Normalize the four elements. Show that the four elements are pairwise

orthonormal.

sider the eigenvalue problem

(i) Show that all eigenvalues are real and positive

(ii) Show that the eigenfunctions which belong to different eigenvalues are

orthogonal.

Z b

hf, gi := f (x)g ∗ (x)dx.

a

Z b

hf, f i = f (x)f ∗ (x)dx = kf k2 .

a

the space C[a, b] which converges to an element which is not in the space

C[a, b].

26 Problems and Solutions

Problem 13. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π]. Given the function

1 0<x≤π

f (x) = 0 x=0

−1 −π ≤< 0

mal basis B is given by

1

B := φk (x) = √ exp(ikx) k ∈ Z .

2π

Find the approximation a0 φ0 (x) + a1 φ1 (x) + a−1 φ−1 (x), where a0 , a1 , a−1

are the Fourier coefficients.

Problem 14. Consider the linear operator A in the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]

defined by Af (x) := xf (x). Find the matrix elements

hPi , APj i

the matrix Aij symmetric?

p(x) = a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

such that

hg(x), p(x)i = 0, hf (x), p(x)i = 0.

Solve the equations for a3 , a2 , a1 , a0 .

Problem 16. Let b > a. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]) and the

functions

x−a

φn (x) := sin nπ , n = 1, 2, . . .

b−a

which form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([a, b]). Find

Z b

hφm (x), xφn (x)i ≡ φm (x)xφn (x)dx, m, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

a

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 27

Problem 17. Let m, n ∈ N. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([−1, 1]) the

functions

1

fn (x) = , n = 1, 2, . . .

1 + nx2

which are elements in this Hilbert space. Find

Problem 18. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Give the definition

and an example of an even function in L2 (R). Give the definition and an

example of an odd function in L2 (R). Show that any function f ∈ L2 (R)

can be written as a combination of an even and an odd function.

Problem 19. The Chebyshev polynomials Tn (x) of the 1-st kind are

defined for x ∈ [−1, 1] and given by

The Chebyshev polynomials Un (x) of the 2-nd kind are defined for x ∈

[−1, 1] and given by

sin((n + 1) arccos x)

Un (x) = √ , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

1 − x2

Consider the Hilbert spaces

√ !

2 1 − x2 dx

dx

H1 = L2 [−1, 1], √ , H2 = L2 [−1, 1],

π 1 − x2 π

which bases are formed by the Chebyshev polynomials of the 1-st and 2-nd

type

√ (1)

Φ(1)

n (x) = 2Tn (x), n ≥ 1, Φ0 = T0 (x) = 1

Φ(2)

n (x) = Un (x), n≥0

(1) (2)

Find a recursion relation for Φn and Φn .

Problem 20. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Find a non-trivial

polynomial p

p(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

such that

hp, 1i = 0, hp, xi = 0, hp, x2 i = 0.

28 Problems and Solutions

{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn , . . . }.

Use the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the inner product

Z b

hf, gi = f (x)g(x)ω(x)dx, ω(x) > 0

a

(i) a = −1, b = 1, ω(x) = 1 (Legrendre polynomials)

(ii) a = −1, b = 1, ω(x) = (1 − x2 )−1/2 (Chebyshev polynomials)

(iii) a = 0, b = +∞, ω(x) = e−x (Laguerre polynomials)

2

(iv) a = −∞, b = +∞, ω(x) = e−x (Hermite polynomials)

∞

X 1

f (x) = j

cos(jx).

j=0

2

Problem 23. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]). The shifted Legrendre

polynomials , defined on the interval [0, 1], are obtained from the Legren-

dre polynomial by the transformation y = 2x − 1. The shifted Legrendre

polynomials are given by the recurrence formula

(2j + 1)(2x − 1) j

Pj (x) = Pj (x) − Pj−1 (x) j = 1, 2, . . .

j+1 j+1

and P0 (x) = 1, P1 (x) = 2x − 1. They are elements of the Hilbert space

L2 ([0, 1]). A function u in the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]) can be approximated

in the form of a series with n + 1 terms

n

X

u(x) = cj Pj (x)

j=0

equation of first kind

Z x

y(t)

λ dt = f (x), 0≤t≤x≤1

0 (x − t)α

with 0 < α < 1 and f ∈ L2 ([0, 1]). Consider the ansatz

n

X

yn (x) = a0 xα + cj Pj (x).

j=0

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 29

kind (α = 1/2)

Z x

y(t)

λ √ dt = f (x)

0 x−t

where

2 √

f (x) = x(105 − 56x2 + 48x3 ).

105

x

fn (x) = , n = 1, 2, . . . .

1 + nx2

lim kfn (x)k.

n→∞

(ii) Does the sequence fn (x) converge uniformely on the real line?

√

n for n ≤ x ≤ n + 1/n

fn (x) =

0 otherwise

(i) Calculate the norm kfn − fm k implied by the scalar product. Does the

sequence { fn } converge in the L2 [0, ∞) norm?

(ii) Show that fn (x) converges pointwise in the domain [0, ∞) and find the

limit. Does the sequence converge pointwise uniformly?

(iii) Show that { fn } (n = 1, 2, . . .) is an orthonormal system. Is it a basis

in the Hilbert space L2 [0, ∞)?

x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/2

f (x) =

1 − x for 1/2 ≤ x ≤ 1

n √ o

B := 1, 2 cos(πnx) : n = 1, 2, . . . .

Find the Fourier expansion of f with respect to this basis. From this

expansion show that

∞

π2 X 1

= .

8 (2k + 1)2

k=0

30 Problems and Solutions

trable walls, inside which it can move freely. The Hilbert space is

L2 ([0, a] × [0, b] × [0, c])

where a, b, c > 0. Find the eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues. What can

be said about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions?

Problem 28. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the polynomials

1, x, x2 , x3 , x4 .

Apply the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process to these polynomials.

Problem 29. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (T). Let f ∈ L2 (T). Give an

example of a bounded linear functional.

Problem 30. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the Hilbert

space is the direct sum of the Hilbert space M of even functions and the

Hilbert space N of odd functions. Give an example of such functions in

this Hilbert space.

Problem 31. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, a]. Let

Af (x) := xf (x)

for f ∈ L2 [0, a]. Find the norm of the operator A. We define

kAk := sup kAf k.

kf k=1

g(x) = cos(x), f (x) = x.

Find the conditions on the coefficients of the polynomial

p(x) = a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

such that

hg(x), p(x)i = 0, hf (x), p(x)i = 0.

Solve the equations for a3 , a2 , a1 , a0 .

1 − cos(2πx)

f (x) = .

x

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 31

Problem 34. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−1, 1]. The Legendre poly-

nomials are given by

1 dj 2

Pj (x) := (x − 1)j .

2j j! dxj

hPj (x), Pk (x)i.

Problem 35. Consider the Hilbert space H = L2 (T). This is the vector

space of 2π-periodic functions. Then

1

u(x) = √

2

projection operator Pu defined by

Pu f := hu, f iu

Z 2π

Pu f = hf i, hf i = f (x)dx.

0

Problem 36. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π] and the vector space

of continiuous real-valued functions C[−π, π] on the interval [−π, π]. Let

k > 0 and

0 if −π ≤ x ≤ 0

fk (x) = kx if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/k

1 if 1/k ≤ x ≤ π

(i) Show that fn → χ in the norm of the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π], where

0 if −π ≤ x ≤ 0

χ(x) :=

1 if 0 < x ≤ π

L2 [−π, π].

(ii) Show that kχ − gk > 0 for every g ∈ C[−π, π]. Conclude that C[−π, π]

is not a Hilbert space.

32 Problems and Solutions

[−1, 1] and defined by the recurrence formula

2j + 1 j

Lj (x) = xLj (x) − Lj−1 (x) j = 1, 2, . . .

j+1 j+1

L2 ([−1, 1]). Calculate the scalar product

for j, k = 0, 1, . . .. Discuss.

√ 1 for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0

fn (x) = 1 − nx for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/n

0 for 1/n ≤ x ≤ 1

Problem 39. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([−1, 1]). The Chebyshev

polynomials are defined by

Z 1

Tm (x)Tn (x)

√ dx

−1 1 − x2

for (m, n) = (0, 1), (m, n) = (1, 2), (m, n) = (2, 3).

Problem 40. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] with the scalar

product h·, ·i. Let f : [0, 1] → [0, 1]

2x if x ∈ [0, 1/2)

f (x) :=

2(1 − x) if x ∈ [1/2, 1]

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 33

Z 1

µk := hf (x), xk i ≡ f (x)xk dx.

0

∞

X Z 1

|µk |2 < π |f (x)|2 dx.

k=0 0

Problem 41. Let a, b ∈ R and −∞ < a < b < +∞. Let f be a function

in the class C 1 (i.e., the derivative df /dt exists and is continuous) on the

interval [a, b]. Thus f is also an element of the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]).

Show that Z b

lim f (t) sin(ωt)dt = 0. (1)

ω→∞ a

box. The underlying Hilbert space is L2 (−a, a). Solve the Schrödinger

equation

∂ψ

i~ = Ĥψ

∂t

as follows: The formal solution is given by

ψ(t) = exp(−iĤt/~)ψ(0).

Expand ψ(0) with respect to the eigenfunctions of the operator Ĥ. The

eigenfunctions form a basis of the Hilbert space. Then apply exp(−iĤt/~).

Calculate the probability

P = |hφ, ψ(t)i|2

where

1 πq

φ(q) = √ sin

a a

and

1 πq

ψ(q, 0) = √ sin .

a a

ix·k

Mk f (x) = e f (x), modulation operator

Ds f (x) = |s|−n/2 f (s−1 x), s ∈ R \ {0} dilation operator

34 Problems and Solutions

where x · k = k1 x1 + · · · + xn kn .

(i) Find kTy f k, kMk k, kDs f k, where k k denotes the norm in L2 (Rn ).

(ii) Find the adjoint operators of these three operators.

q

kgk1 := kgk20 + k∂g/∂xk20 .

Consider the Hilbert space L2 (−π, π) and f (x) = sin(x). Find the norm

kf k1 .

Z y

f (y) = f (x) + f 0 (s)ds.

x

(ii) Show that p

|f (y) − f (x)| ≤ kf k1 |y − x|.

Problem 46. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ∞). The Laguerre poly-

nomials are defined by

dn n −x

Ln (x) = ex (x e ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

dxn

The first five Laguerre polynomials are given by

L0 (x) = 1

L1 (x) = 1 − x

L2 (x) = 2 − 4x + x2

L3 (x) = 6 − 18x + 9x2 − x3

L4 (x) = 24 − 96x + 72x2 − 16x3 + x4 .

1 −x/2

φn (x) = e Ln (x)

n!

form an orthonormal system in the Hilbert space L2 [0, ∞).

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 35

Problem 47. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π]. A basis in this

Hilbert space is given by

1

B = √ eikx : k ∈ Z .

2π

Find the Fourier expansion of

f (x) = 1.

Problem 48. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Let P n be the n + 1-

dimensional real linear space of all polynomial of maximal degree n in the

variable x, i.e.

P n = span{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn }.

The linear space P n can be spanned by various systems of basis functions.

An important basis is formed by the Bernstein polynomials

of degree n with

n

X

Din (x) = cij Bjn (x).

j=0

on the disc

D := { z ∈ C : |z| ≤ 1 }.

36 Problems and Solutions

∞

X

cn z n .

n=−∞

f into D. This means

∆u = 0 and u = f on ∂D = T

The Hilbert space L2 (U (1)) is the space L2 ([0, 1]) consisting of all measure-

able funcrions f (θ) with period 1 such that

Z 1

|f (θ)|2 dθ < ∞.

0

{ e2πimθ : m ∈ Z }

form an orthonormal basis for the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]). Thus every

f ∈ L2 ([0, 1]) can be expressed uniquely as

+∞

X Z 1

f (θ) = cm e2πimθ , cm = f (θ)e−2πimθ dθ.

m=−∞ 0

Calculate Z 1

|f (θ)|2 .

0

Problem 51. The Hilbert space L2 (R) is the vector space of measur-

able functions defined almost everywhere on R such that |f |2 is integrable.

H1 (R) is the vector space of functions with first derivatives in L2 (R). Give

two examples of such a function.

Problem 52. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π]. The set of functions

1 −inx

√ e

2π n∈Z

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 37

1

K(x, t) = √ eitx .

2π

For t fixed find the Fourier expansion of this function.

Problem 53. Consider the vector space C([0, 1]) of continouos functions.

We define the triangle function

2x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/2

Λ(x) := .

2 − 2x 1/2 < x ≤ 1

Let Λ0 (x) := x and

Λn (x) := Λ(2j x − k)

where j = 0, 1, 2, . . ., n = 2j + k and 0 ≤ k < 2j . The functions

{ 1, Λ0 , Λ1 , . . . }

are the Schauder basis for the vector space C([0, 1]). Let f ∈ C([0, 1]).

Then

X∞

f (x) = a + bx + cn Λn (x).

n=1

(i) Find the Schauder coefficients a, b, cn .

(ii) Consider g : [0, 1] → [0, 1]

g(x) = 4x(1 − x).

Find the Schauder coefficients for this function.

0, 1, 2, . . . be

2

(−1)n dn e−x

hn (x) = √ √ exp(x2 /2) .

2n/2 n! 4 π dxn

Thus hn for an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Consider the

sequence

s

1 X

fs (x) = √ einθ hn (x)

s + 1 n=0

where s = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Show that the sequence converges weakly but not

strongly to 0.

Problem 55. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2π) with the scalar prod-

uct Z 2π

1

hf1 , f2 i = f1 (eiθ )f2 (eiθ )dθ.

2π 0

38 Problems and Solutions

(ii) Let f1 (z) = z 2 and f2 (z) = sin(z). Find hf1 , f2 i.

Problem 56. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R2 ) with the basis

2 2

ψmn (x1 , x2 ) = N Hm (x1 )Hn (x2 )e−(x1 +x2 )/2

two-dimensional potential

a 4

V (x1 , x2 ) = (x + x42 ) + cx1 x2 .

4 1

(i) Find all linear transformation T : R2 → R2 such that

V (T x) = V (x).

(ii) Show that these 2 × 2 matrices form a group. Is the group abelian.

(iii) Find the conjugacy classes and the irreducible representations.

(iv) Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R2 ) with the orthogonal basis

2 2

ψmn (x1 , x2 ) = Hm (x1 )e−x1 /2 Hn (x2 )e−x2 /2

operators of the irreducible representations.

Problem 57. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Let P n be the n + 1-

dimensional real linear space of all polynomial of maximal degree n in the

variable x, i.e.

P n = span{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn }.

The linear space P n can be spanned by various systems of basis functions.

An important basis is formed by the Bernstein polynomials

of degree n with

(

The Bernstein polynomials have a unique dual basis {D0 x), D1n (x), . . . , Dnn (x) }

which consists of the n + 1 dual basis functions

n

X

Din (x) = cij Bjn (x).

j=0

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 39

Hilbert space on V is a Hilbert space H of functions on V such that for each

x ∈ V , the point evaluation functional

δx (f ) := f (x), f ∈H

reproducing kernel K which is a function on V × V characterized by the

properties that for all f ∈ H and x ∈ V , K(x, ·) ∈ H and

where h·, ·iH denotes the inner product on H. The reproducing kernel K

uniquely determines the reproducing kernel Hilbert space H. The repro-

ducing kernel Hilbert space of a reproducing kernel K is denoted by HK .

The Paley-Wiener space is defined by

is given by

Z

1

fˆ(k) := √ f (x)e−ix·k dx, k ∈ Rd

( 2π)2d R2d

vector space S inherits from that in L2 (Rd ). Show that the reproducing

kernel for the Paley-Wiener space S is the sinc function

d

Y sin(π(xj − yj ))

sinc(x, y) := , x, y ∈ Rd .

j=1

π(xj − yj )

∞

X zn

exp(−(u2 +v 2 −2uvz)/(1−z 2 )) = (1−z 2 )1/2 exp(−(u2 +v 2 )) Hn (u)Hn (v)

n=0

n!

40 Problems and Solutions

Problem 60. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R) and the one-dimensional

Schrödinger equation (eigenvalue equation)

d2

− 2 + V (x) u(x) = Eu(x)

dx

where the potential V is given by

ax2

V (x) = x2 +

1 + bx2

where b > 0. Insert the ansatz

2

u(x) = e−x /2

v(x)

and find the differential equation for v. Discuss. Make a polynomial ansatz

for v.

Problem 61. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let g > 0. Consider

the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation (eigenvalue equation)

d2 λx2

− 2 + x2 + u(x) = Eu(x).

dx 1 + gx2

Find a solution of the second order differential equation by making the

ansatz

u(x) = A(1 + gx2 ) exp(−x2 /2).

Problem 62. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−1/2, 1/2]. Show that

the following sets

B1 := { φk (x) = exp(2πikx), k ∈ Z }

√

B2 := { ψk (x) = 2 sin(2πkx), k ∈ N }

(ii) Expand the step function

−1 for x ∈ [−1/2, 0]

f (x) =

1 for x ∈ [0, 1/2]

with respect to the basis B1 and with respect to the basis B2 . Show that

the two expansions are equivalent. Recall that

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 41

box [−a, a]. The underlying Hilbert space is L2 [−a, a]. An orthonormal

basis in L2 [−a, a] is given by

(+) (−)

B = { uk (q), uk (q) : k ∈ N }

where

(+) 1 (k − 1/2)πq (−) 1 kπq

uk = √ cos , uk = √ sin .

a a a a

The formal solution of the initial value problem of the Schrödinger equation

∂ψ

i~ = Ĥψ

∂t

is given by

ψ(t) = exp(−iĤt/~)ψ(0).

Let

1 1

ψ(q, 0) = √ sin(πq/a), φ(q) = √ sin(πq/a).

a a

Find exp(−iĤt/~) and P = |hφ, ψ(t)i|2 .

L2 [0, n] and the function

f (x) = e−x .

Find a, b ∈ R such that

scalar product.

Z ∞ Z ∞

f (x)dx = 1, xf (x)dx = 1.

0 0

Problem 66. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2π]. The linear operator

Lf (x) := df (x)/dx acts on a dense subset of L2 [0, 2π]. Show that this linear

operator is not bounded.

Problem 67. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R3 , dx) and let

42 Problems and Solutions

the radial momentum operator

1 ∂

P̂r := −i~ r

r ∂r

L2 (S 2 , sin(θ)dθdφ) where

1 d

D(P̂r ) = f ∈ L2 (R+ , r2 dr) : f ∈ AC(R+ ), rf (r) ∈ L2 (R+ , r2 dr) lim r|f (r)| = 0

r dr r→0

1 d

P̂r f (r) = −i~ (rf (r))

r dr

where P̂r is maximal symmetric in L2 (R+ , r2 dr). Show that P̂r is not self-

adjoint.

Problem 68. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π] and the functions

kf (x) − g(x)k

in this Hilbert space.

Problem 69. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the spectrum

of the position operator x̂ is the real line denoted by R.

1

φn (x) = p e2in arctan(x) , n∈Z

π(1 + x2 )

Problem 71. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ∞). Show that the func-

tions

φn (x) = e−x/2 Ln (x), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 43

form an orthonormal basis in L2 [0, ∞), where Ln are the Laguerre polyno-

mials defined by

n

x dn n −x (−1)k n k

X

Ln (x) = (x e ) = x .

n! dxn k! k

k=0

Problem 72. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the functions

1 2

φn (x) = √ Hn (x)e−x /2 , n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2n/2 n!(π)1/4

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R), where Hn are the

Hermite polynomials

2

2 dn e−x

Hn (x) = (−1)n ex , n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

dxn

L2 [a, b]. Find

b

nπ(x − a)

Z

2

sin .

a b−a

The functions r

2 nπ(x − a)

φn (x) = sin

b−a b−a

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 [a, b].

r Z ∞ r Z ∞

2 2

f (x) = g(y) cos(yx)dy, g(x) = f (y) cos(yx)dy.

π 0 π 0

Let g : R+ → R

g(y) = e−y

Find f (x).

basis in this Hilbert space is given by

1

B = √ eikx : |x| ≤ π, k ∈ Z .

2π

44 Problems and Solutions

Consider the function f (x) = eiax in this Hilbert space, where the constant

a is real but not an integer. Apply Parseval’s relation

X 1

kf k2 = |hf, φk i|2 , φk (x) = √ eikx

k∈Z

2

to show that

∞

X 1 π2

2

= 2 .

(a − k) sin (ax)

k=−∞

x

f (x) =

sinh(x)

∞

x X x2

=1+2 (−1)j 2 .

sinh(x) j=1

x + (jπ)2

x01

x1

R = x2 , R0 = x02 .

x3 x03

exp(−|R − R0 |/µ)

=

|R − R0 |

∞ Z ∞

X

0 1 p

n cos(n(φ−φ )) Jn (kr)J(kr0 ) exp(− k 2 + 1/µ2 |x3 −x03 |)kdk

n=0 0 k2 + 1/µ

function of order m.

(ii) Consider the functions

√

k

fs,k,n (R) = Jn (kr)einφ+isx3

2π

where 0 < k < ∞, −∞ < s < ∞, and n = 0, ±1, ±2, . . .. Show that

Z 2π Z +∞ Z ∞

dx3 fs,k,n (R)f¯s0 ,k0 ,n0 (R)rdr = δnn0 δ(s − s0 )δ(k − k 0 )

0 −∞ 0

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 45

Problem 78. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

function fn ∈ L2 ([0, a])

1

fn (x) = √ e2πixn/a , n = 1, 2, . . .

a

Problem 79. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

linear bounded operator

Find kAk.

Problem 80. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 2π]). For any 2π periodic

function k(τ ) in L2 ([0, 2π]) we define

Z 2π

K(u) := k(x − τ )u(τ )dτ.

0

{einx : n ∈ Z} form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([0, 2π]).

Problem 81. Let b > a. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]) and the

second order ordinary differential equations

d2 u

+ λu = 0

dx2

with the boundary conditions u(a) = u(b) = 0. Solve the differential equa-

tion with this boundary condition. Discuss.

Problem 82. Let a, b > 0. Consider the linear partial differential equa-

tion

∂2u ∂4u ∂4u 2

2∂ u

+ 2 + + c = 0.

∂x41 ∂x21 ∂x22 ∂x42 ∂t2

For the space coordinates x1 , x2 we have the domain 0 ≤ x1 ≤ a, 0 ≤ x2 ≤ b

and the boundary conditions that u(0) = u(a) = u(b) = 0. We consider the

Hilbert space L2 ([0, a] × [0, b]) for the space coordinates. Find a solution of

the partial differential equation.

φ(x, y) = (x + y, x + 2y).

46 Problems and Solutions

x 1 1 x

7→ mod 1.

y 1 2 y

(ii) Show that φ is invertible. Show that the entire sequence can be recov-

ered from one term.

(iii) Show that φ is mixing utilizing the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1] × [0, 1]).

Problem 84. Let Ω be the unit disk. A Hilbert space of analytic functions

can be defined by

( Z )

H := f (z) analytic, |z| < 1 : sup |f (z)|2 ds < ∞

a<1 |z|=a

Z

hf, gi := lim f (z)g(z)ds.

a→1 |z|=a

the analytic function f . Find the norm of f .

(z1 , . . . , zn ) ∈ Cn and w = (w1 , . . . , wn ) ∈ Cn then the scalar product

(inner product) is given by

z · w := zw∗ = zwT

Let Fn denote the set of f ∈ En such that

Z

1

kf k2 := n |f (z)|2 exp(−|z|2 )dV

π Cn

n

Y n

Y

dV = dxj dyj = rj drj dθj

j=1 j=1

with zj = rj eiθj . The norm follows from the scalar product of two functions

f, g ∈ Fn Z

1

hf, gi := n f (z)g(z) exp(−|z|2 )dV.

π Cn

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 47

Let

zm := z1m1 · · · znmn

Pn

where the multiindex m is defined by m! = m1 ! · · · mn ! and |m| = j=1 mj .

Find the scalar product

hzm , zp i.

the interval [0, 2π] and Ψ(0) = Ψ(2π), i.e. Ψ is an element of the Hilbert

space L2 ([0, 2π]). Assume that (normalization condition)

Z 2π

Ψ∗ (φ)Ψ(φ)dφ = 1.

0

Calculate Z 2π

~ d

= Ψ∗ (φ)φ Ψ(φ)dφ

i 0 dφ

where = denotes the imaginary part.

Problem 87. The Fock space F is the Hilbert space of entire functions

with inner product given by

Z

1 2

hf |gi := f (z)g(z)e−|z| dxdy, z = x + iy

π C

where C denotes the complex numbers. Therefore the growth of functions

in the Hilbert space F is dominated by exp(|z|2 /2). Let f, g ∈ F with

Taylor expansions

∞

X ∞

X

f (z) = aj z j , g(z) = bj z j .

j=0 j=0

(ii) Consider the special that f (z) = sin(z) and g(z) = cos(z). Calculate

hf |gi.

(iii) Let

K(z, w) := ezw , z, w ∈ C.

Calculate hf (z)|K(z, w)i.

Problem 88. Let Cn×N be the vector space of all n×N complex matrices.

Let Z ∈ Cn×N . Then Z ∗ ≡ Z̄ T , where T denotes transpose. One defines a

Gaussian measure µ on Cn×N by

1

dµ(Z) := exp(−tr(ZZ ∗ ))dZ

π nN

48 Problems and Solutions

where dZ denotes the Lebesgue measure on Cn×N . The Fock space F(Cn×N )

consists of all entire functions on Cn×N which are square integrable with

respect to the Gaussian measure dµ(Z). With the scalar product

Z

hf |gi := f (Z)g(Z)dµ(Z), f, g ∈ F(Cn×N )

Cn×N

one has a Hilbert space. Show that this Hilbert space has a reproducing

kernel K. This means a continuous function K(Z, Z 0 ) : Cn×N × Cn×N → C

such that Z

f (Z) = K(Z, Z 0 )f (Z 0 )dµ(Z 0 )

Cn×N

n×N n×N

for all Z ∈ C and f ∈ F(C ).

α β

SU (1, 1) = |α|2 − |β|2 = 1 .

β̄ ᾱ

The elements of this Lie group act as analytic automorphism of the disk

Ω := { |z| < 1 }

under

ᾱz + β

z → zg =

β̄z + α

where (zg)h = z(gh). Let n ≥ 2. We define

Z

Hn := { f (z) analytic in Ω, kf k2 = |f (z)|2 (1 − |z|2 )n−2 dxdy < ∞ }

Ω

and

1

Un (g)f (z) := f ((ᾱz + β)/(β̄z + α)).

(β̄z + α)n

Then Hn is a Hilbert space, i.e. the analytic functions in

L2 (Ω, (1 − |z|2 )n−2 dxdy)

form a closed subspace. Un is a representation, i.e.,

Un (gh) = Un (g)Un (h)

and Un (e) = I, where e is the identity element in SU (1, 1) (2 × 2 unit

matrix).

Show that

1

dx ∧ dy

(1 − |z|2 )2

is invariant z → zg.

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 49

L2 [0, ∞)

f (x) = exp(−u1/4 ) sin(u1/4 ).

Show that

Z ∞

hf, xn i = f (x)xn dx = 0 for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

0

Problem 2. Let 0 ≤ r < 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2π] and

f (θ) ∈ L2 [0, 2π]. Show that

Z 2π ∞

1 2π X j

Z

1

f (θ)dθ + r f (θ) cos(j(φ − θ))dθ

2π 0 π 0 j=1

2π

1 − r2

Z

1

= f (θ) dθ.

2π 0 1 − 2r cos(φ − θ) + r2

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π]. Find the series

∞

X

f (θ) = cn einθ

n=−∞

1 1

c0 = 1, c1 = c−1 = 1, c2 = c−2 = , . . . , cn = c−n = .

2 n

j=∞

R = ∪j=−∞ Ij , Ij = [j , j+1 ), j < j+1

with dj := j+1 − j = |Ij |. Let fj be a window function supported in the

interval [j − dj−1 /2, j+1 + dj+1 /2) such that

j=∞

X

fj2 (x) = 1

j=−∞

and fj2 (x) = 1 − fj2 (2j+1 − x) for x near j+1 . Show that the functions

2 π

gj,k (x) = p fj (x) sin (2k + 1)(x − j ) , k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2dj 2dj

50 Problems and Solutions

partition fj .

Problem 5. Let

d2

L(q) := − + q.

dx2

Show that the operator L(q) defines a selfadjoint operator in the Hilbert

space L2 (R, dx).

[0, a]). Let nj ∈ Z with j = 1, 2, 3. Show that the functions

1

φn1 ,n2 ,n3 (x) = exp(i(n1 x1 + n2 x2 + n3 x3 ))

a3/2

form an orthonormal basis in this Hilbert space.

Problem 7. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2π], the curve in the plane

expressed in polar coordinates

r(θ) = 1 + r cos(2θ)

and

+∞ Z 2π

X 1

r(θ) = Cn exp(inθ), Cn = r(θ) exp(−inθ)dθ.

n=−∞

2π 0

the Hilbert space L2 ([0, `1 ] × [0, `2 ] × [0, `3 ]). Let n1 , n2 , n3 ∈ N0 .

(i) Show that the functions

v(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = sin(k1 x1 ) cos(k2 x2 ) sin(k3 x3 )

w(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = sin(k1 x1 ) sin(k2 x2 ) cos(k3 x3 )

n1 π n2 π n3 π

k1 = , k2 = , k3 = .

`1 `2 `3

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 51

aries of the box (rectangular cavity) [0, `1 ] × [0, `2 ] × [0, `3 ].

(iii) Show that the functions (A, B, C are constants)

u

ve(x1 , x2 , x3 , t) = Bv(x1 , x2 , x3 )eiωt

e 1 , x2 , x3 , t) = Cw(x1 , x2 , x3 )eiωt .

w(x

1 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ

= + +

c2 ∂t2 ∂x21 ∂x22 ∂x23

with (dispersion relation))

+`

X

∗ 2` + 1

Y`m (θ, φ)Y`m (θ, φ) = .

4π

m=−`

Problem 10. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let T be the linear

operator of pointwise multiplication on L2 (R) given by

Problem 11. Let Ai(x) be the Airy function, dAi(x)/dx be the derivative

and an (n = 1, 2, . . .) be the zeros of the Airy functions. Show that the

functions

Ai(x + an )

, n = 1, 2, . . .

dAi(x = an )/dx

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 ([0, ∞)).

Problem 12. Let b > a. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]). Do the

functions (Chebyshev polynomial)

(b − a)n

2x b+a

Tn (x) = 2n−1 cos n arccos −

2 b−a b−a

form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([a, b])?

52 Problems and Solutions

Problem 13. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]).

(i) Show that the functions

1

φn (x) = √ e2πinx/a , n∈Z

a

form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([0, a]).

(ii) Show that the functions

1 p p

√ , 2/a cos(2πnx/a), 2/a sin(2πnx/a), n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

a

form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([0, a]).

(i) Show that the functions

p

φn (x) = 2/a sin(πnx/a), n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

(i) Show that the functions

√ p

1/ a, 2/a cos(πnx/a), n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

Problem 14. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−π, π]. A basis in this

Hilbert space is given by

1 ikx

B= √ e : k∈Z .

2π

Find the Fourier expansion of f (x) = 1.

space L2 (R) starting from (σ > 0)

Problem 16. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([−1, 1]) and the function

fn ∈ L2 ([−1, +1]) (n ∈ N)

√ 1 for −1 ≤ x ≤ 0

fn (x) 1 − nx for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/n

0 for 1/n ≤ x ≤ 1.

Show that

1 1

kfn (x) − fm (x)k ≤ + .

n m

Hilbert Space L2 (Ω) 53

use the Gram-Schmidt procedure the scalar product (inner product)

Z 1

hf, gi = (f (x)g(x) + f 0 (x)g 0 (x))dx

−1

Problem 18. Let I = [0, 1), µ the Lebesgue measure, f0 (x) = 1 and for

n≥1

+1 for 2n−1 x = y ∈ [0, 1/2) (mod 1)

fn (x) =

−1 for 2n−1 x = y ∈ [1/2, 1) (mod 1)

Show that the functions fn : [0, 1) → R form an orthonormal sequence in

the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1). The functions are called Rademacher functions.

∞ ∞

π2 X 1 π6 X 1

= , = .

8 j=1

(2j − 1)2 945 j=1 j 6

Problem 20. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]). Let n ≥ 2 and

consider the function fn : [0, 1] → R

n2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/n

2

fn (x) = −n (x − 2/n) for 1/n ≤ x ≤ 2/n

0 for 2/n ≤ x ≤ 1.

Show that Z 1

fn (x)dx = 1.

0

Study

lim fn .

n→∞

Chapter 4

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (N). Let x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)T be

an element of `2 (N). We define the linear operator A in `2 (N) as

Ax = (x2 , x3 , . . .)T

i.e. x1 is omitted and the n+1st coordinate replaces the nth for n = 1, 2, . . ..

Then for the domain we have D(A) = `2 (N). Find A∗ y and the domain of

A∗ , where y = (y1 , y, . . .). Is A unitary?

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (N) and x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)T . The

linear bounded operator A is defined by

Show that the operator A is unitary. Show that the point spectrum of A is

empty and the continuous spectrum is the entire unit circle in the λ-plane.

Problem 3. We have

A∗ =

54

Hilbert Space `2 (N) 55

are the right and left shift linear operators on this sequence space, defined

by

Show that T = S ∗ .

0 1 0 0 0 ...

1 0 1 0 0 ...

0 1 0 1 0 ....

A=

0 0 1 0 1 ...

.. ..

. .

In other words

1 if i = j + 1

aij = 1 if i = j − 1

0 otherwise

1

P0 (x) = 1, P1 (x) = x, P2 (x) = (3x2 − 1), . . . .

2

Calculate the infinite dimensional matrix A = (Ajk )

Z +1

dPk (x)

Ajk = Pj (x) dx

−1 dx

where j, k = 0, 1, . . .. Consider the matrix A as a linear operator in the

Hilbert space `2 (N0 ). Is kAk < ∞?

`2 (Z2 ). Let (m1 , m2 ) ∈ Z2 . Let f (m1 , m2 ) be an element of `2 (Z2 ). Con-

sider the unitary operators

They are the so-called magnetic translation operators with phase α and β,

respectively. Find the spectrum of U and V . Find the commutator [U, V ].

The so-called Harper operator which is self-adjoint is defined by

Ĥ := U + U ∗ + V + V ∗ .

56 Problems and Solutions

Find the spectrum of Ĥ. Consider the case α, β irrational and α, β rational.

set of all λ for which the resolvent

subset of the real axis. The Lebesgue decomposition theorem states that

where σpp is the countable union of points (the pure point spectrum), σac

is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure and σsing is

singular with respect to Lebesgue measure, i.e. it is supported on a set of

measure zero. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (Z) and the linear operator

Ĥ = · · · ⊗ I2 ⊗ I2 ⊗ σ3 ⊗ σ1 ⊗ σ3 ⊗ I2 ⊗ I2 ⊗ · · ·

can be defined by

( Z )

H := f (z) analytic |z| < 1 : sup |f (z)|2 ds < ∞

a<1 |z|=a

Z

hf, gi := lim f (z)g(z)ds.

a→1 |z|=a

the analytic function f . Find the norm of f .

0, 1, . . .. Define the operators

∞

X

Tk := |nih2n + k|.

n=0

†

(ii) Show that TP

k Tk = Pk is a projection operator.

∞

(iii) Show that k=0 Pk = I.

Hilbert Space `2 (N) 57

∞

Tk ⊗ Tk†

X

k=0

unitary?

that

AAT = In . (1)

Show that

AT A = In . (2)

Does (2) also hold for infinite dimensional matrices ?

linear operator A is defined by

Ax = (w1 , w2 , . . .)T

where

n

X

wj = Mjk xk , j = 1, 2, . . . , n

k=1

wj = xj , j>n

hermitian. Show that A is unitary if M is unitary.

Chapter 5

Fourier Transform

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Find the Fourier trans-

form of the function

1 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 0

f (x) = e−x if x≥0

0 otherwise

α

fα (x) = exp(−α|x|), α > 0.

2

Discuss α large and α small.

(ii) Calculate

Z ∞

fα (x)dx.

−∞

1 − |t| for −1 < t < 1

f (t) =

0 otherwise

58

Fourier Transform 59

Can we conclude that fˆ(k) = fˆ(−k)?

Problem 5. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Find the Fourier trans-

form of

f (x) = e−a|x| , a > 0.

1

|x| < a

fa (x) = 2a

0 |x| > a

Calculate Z

fa (x)dx

R

and the Fourier transform of fa . Discuss the result in dependence of a.

1 if 1/2 ≤ |ω| ≤ 1

ψ̂(ω) =

0 otherwise

and

φ̂(ω) = e−α|ω| , α > 0.

(i) Calculate the inverse Fourier transform of ψ̂(ω) and φ̂(ω), i.e.

Z

1

ψ(t) = e−iωt ψ̂(ω)

2π R

Z

1

φ(t) = e−iωt φ̂(ω).

2π R

2πhψ(t)|φ(t)i = hψ̂(ω)|φ̂(ω)i.

L2 (R)

1 if |x| < 1

f (x) =

0 if |x| ≥ 1

Calculate f ∗ f and verify the convolution theorem

∗ f = fˆfˆ.

f[

60 Problems and Solutions

Problem 9. Let

(1 − ω 2 ) for |ω| ≤ 1

fˆ(ω) =

0 for |ω| > 1

Find f (t).

Problem 10. Let a > 0. Find the Fourier transform of the function

fa : R → R

x/a2 + 1/a for −a ≤ x ≤ 0

fa (x) = −x/a2 + 1/a for 0≤x≤a

0 otherwise

1

fa (t) = √ e−a|t| .

a

Discuss the cases a large and a small. Is fa ∈ L2 (R).

Problem 12. Show that the Fourier transform of the rectangular window

of size N

1 for 0≤n≤N −1

wn =

0 otherwise

is

sin(ωN/2) −iω(N −1)/2

W (eiω ) = e .

sin(ω/2)

Problem 13. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let T > 0. Consider

the function in L2 (R)

A cos(Ωt) for −T < t < T

f (t) =

0 otherwise

Problem 14. Let σ > 0. Show that the Fourier transform of the Gaussian

function

x2

1

gσ (x) = √ exp − 2

2πσ 2σ

is again a Gaussian function

2 2

ĝσ (k) = e−σ k /2

.

Fourier Transform 61

R∞

We have g (x)dx

−∞ σ

= 1. Is

Z ∞

ĝσk (k)dk = 1 ?

−∞

1

f (x) = sech(πx) ≡

cosh(πx)

is an element of L2 (R) and L1 (R). Find the Fourier transform of the func-

tion.

√ sin(ax)

2πfa (x) +

ax

where fa is the function with 1 for |x| ≤ a and 0 otherwise.

21/4 √

fn (x) = √ Hn ( 2πx) exp(−πx2 ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

n

2 n!

where Hn is the nth Hermite polynomial. They for an orthonormal basis

in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Do the Fourier transform of the functions form

an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R)?

Problem 18. Let ω0 > 0 be a fixed frequency and t the time. Calculate

Z ∞

1

fˆ(ω) = √ e−|ω0 t| e−iωt dt.

2π −∞

Problem 1. The Hilbert transform h(t) of the function f (t) is the prin-

cipal value of the convolution of f (t) with the kernel function k(t) = 1/(πt)

Z ∞ Z ∞

1

h(t) = f (s)k(t − s)ds = f (s) ds.

−∞ −∞ t−s

62 Problems and Solutions

Let Z ∞

G(ω) = g(t) exp(iωt)dt

−∞

written as

H(ω) = F (ω)K(ω) = −isgn(ω)F (ω).

function fˆ. Is fˆ ∈ L2 (R)? What is preserved under the Fourier transform?

Chapter 6

Wavelets

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the function f (x) =

x2 in this Hilbert space. Project the function f onto the subspace of L2 [0, 1]

spanned by the functions φ(x), ψ(x), ψ(2x), ψ(2x − 1), where

1 for 0≤x<1

φ(x) :=

0 otherwise

1 for 0 ≤ x < 1/2

ψ(x) := −1 for 1/2 ≤ x < 1 .

0 otherwise

the father wavelet and ψ is called the mother wavelet.

1 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/2

H(x) = −1 1/2 ≤ x ≤ 1

0 otherwise

Let

Hmn (x) := 2−m/2 H(2−m x − n)

where m, n ∈ Z. Draw a picture of H11 , H21 , H12 , H22 . Show that

hHmn (x), Hkl (x)i = δmk δnl , k, l ∈ Z

63

64 Problems and Solutions

f (x) = exp(−|x|)

L2 (R).

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the Haar scaling

function (father wavelet)

1 if 0≤x<1

φ(x) =

0 otherwise

Let n be a positive integer. We define

√

gk (x) := nφ(nx − k), k = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1.

in the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1].

(ii) Let f be a continuous function on the unit interval [0, 1]. Thus f ∈

L2 [0, 1]. Form the projection fn on the subspace Sn of the Hilbert space

L2 [0, 1] spanned by { g0 , g1 , . . . gn−1 }, i.e.

n−1

X

fn = hf, gk igk .

k=0

1 +∞

t−b

Z

W f (a, b) = f (t)ψ dt, (a, b ∈ R, a > 0)

a −∞ a

decomposes the function f ∈ L2 (R) hierarchically in terms of elementary

components ψ((t−b)/a). They are obtained from a single analyzing wavelet

ψ applying dilations and translations. Here ψ̄ denotes the complex conju-

gate of ψ and a is the scale and b the shift parameter. The function ψ has

to be chosen so that it is well localized both in physical and Fourier space.

The signal f (t) can be uniquely recovered by the inverse wavelet transform

Z +∞ Z +∞

1 t − b da

f (t) = W f (a, b)ψ db

Cψ −∞ 0 a a

if ψ(t) (respectively its Fourier transform ψ̂(ω) satisfies the admissibility

condition Z +∞

|ψ̂(ω)|2

Cψ = dω < ∞.

0 ω

Wavelets 65

2

ψ(t) = te−t /2

.

1 0 ≤ x < 1/2

H(x) = −1 1/2 ≤ x ≤ 1

0 otherwise

Let

Hmn (x) := 2−m/2 H(2−m x − n)

where m, n ∈ Z. Draw a picture of H11 , H21 , H12 , H22 . Show that

f (x) = exp(−|x|)

L2 (R).

assume that φ satisfies

Z

φ(t)φ(t − k)dt = δ0,k

R

i.e. the integral equals 1 for k = 0 and vanishes for k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that

for any fixed integer j the functions

1 for x ∈ [0, 1]

ψ(x) :=

0 otherwise

Z ∞

ψ(x)dx.

−∞

66 Problems and Solutions

The mother wavelet of this set is

1

L(x) := (sin(2πx) − sin(πx)).

πx

Show that

1

Lmn (x) = m/2 L(2−m x − n), m, n ∈ Z

2

generates an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Apply the rule

of L’Hospital to find L(0).

Problem 1. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R) and φ ∈ L2 (R). The

basic scaling function (father wavelet) satisfies a scaling relation of the form

N

X −1

φ(x) = ak φ(2x − k).

k=0

Z

1 φ(x)

H(φ)(y) = dx

π R x−y

is a solution of the same scaling relation. Note that the scaling function φ

may have compact support, the Hilbert transform has support on the real

line and decays as y −1 .

(ii) Show that the Hilbert transform of the related mother wavelet ψ is also

noncompact and decays like y −p−1 where

Z

xm ψ(x)dx = 0

R

for m = 0, 1, . . . , p − 1.

Problem 2. Is 2

f (x) = e−x /2

cos(x)

a mother wavelet for the Hilbert space L2 (R).

1 − |x| −1 ≤ x ≤ 1

f (x) =

0 otherwise

Wavelets 67

Hilbert space L2 (R) using the technique of multiresolution analysis.

A wavelet basis of the Hilbert space L2 (R) is an unconditional basis of

L2 (R) generated by the dilations and translations of a wavelet function ψ

(mother wavelet)

Problem 4. Show that for the Shannon wavelet the projection operators

are given by

sin(2j π(y − x))

Z

(Pj )(x) = f (y)dy.

R π(y − x)

Chapter 7

Linear Operators

Problem 1. Show that an isometric operator need not be a unitary

operator.

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Show that the linear

operator T : L2 [0, 1] → L2 [0, 1] defined by

T f (x) = xf (x)

is a bounded self-adjoint linear operator without eigenvalues.

T on a Hilbert space H are positive semi-definite and commute (ST = T S),

then their product ST is positive semi-definite. We have to show that

hST f, f i ≥ 0 for all f ∈ H.

Problem 4. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [−a, a]. Consider

the Hamilton operator

~2 d 2

Ĥ = + V (x)

2m dx2

where

0 for |x| ≤ a

V (x) =

∞ otherwise

68

Linear Operators 69

Solve the Schrödinger equation, where the initial function ψ(t = 0) = φ(x)

is given by

x/a2 + 1/a for −a ≤ x ≤ 0

φ(x) =

−x/a2 + 1/a for 0 ≤ x ≤ a

Normalize φ. Calculate the probability to find the particle in the state

1 πx

χ(x) = √ sin

a a

after time t. A basis in the Hilbert space L2 [−a, a] is given by

1 nπx 1 (n − 1/2)πx

√ sin , √ cos n = 1, 2, . . . .

a a a a

of the bound state is always non-degenerate. Hint. Suppose that the oppsite

is true. Let u1 and u2 be two linearly independent eigenfunctions with the

same energy eigenvalues E, i.e.

d2 u1 2m d2 u2 2m

+ 2 (E − V )u1 = 0, + 2 (E − V )u2 = 0.

dx2 ~ dx2 ~

ble walls, inside which it can move freely. The Hilbert space is L2 ([0, a] ×

[0, b] × [0, c]). Find the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. What can be said

about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions.

Problem 7. Conside the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the linear operator

T : L2 [0, 1] → L2 [0, 1] defined by

(T f )(x) := xf (x).

Show that T is self-adjoint and positive definite. Find its positive square

root.

Problem 8. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (N) and the linear operator T

defined by

T : (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) 7→ (0, 0, x3 , x4 , . . .).

Is T bounded? Is T self-adjoint? If so is T positive?

L = r × p, T=r×F

70 Problems and Solutions

dL

= T.

dt

In quantum mechanics with p → −i~∇, r → r and wave function ψ we

have Z

L = −i~ d3 x ψ ∗ (r × ∇)ψ

R3

and Z

T=− d3 x ψ ∗ (r × ∇V )ψ

R3

∂ψ ~2 2

i~ =− ∇ ψ+Vψ

∂t 2m

∂ψ ∗ ~2 2 ∗

−i~ =− ∇ ψ + V ψ∗ .

∂t 2m

Show that

dL

= T.

dt

normalized eigenfunctions φj (j ∈ I) which form an orthonormal basis in

the underlying Hilbert space. We can write

X

ψ(t) = cj e−iEj t/~ φj

j∈I

~2 d2

Ĥ = − + D(1 − e−αx )2 + eEx cos(ωt)

2m dx2

where α > 0. So the third term is a driving force. Find the quantum

Liouville equation for this Hamilton operator.

∂ψ 1

i~ = − ∆ + V (x) ψ

∂t 2m

Linear Operators 71

∇ψ

ρ := ψ ∗ ψ, v := = .

ψ

Problem 13. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

linear bounded operator A defined by

Find kAk.

define s0 = 0, for k ≥ 1 we define

1 1 1

sk := 1 + + + ··· +

2 3 k

and for k < 0 we define sk = −s−k . Let > 0. Define the indicator

functions Wk as

1 for sk < x/ ≤ sk+1

Wk (x) :=

0 otherwise

(Ou)(x) := g(x)u(x)

where

x X sk + sk+1

g(x) = − + Wk (x).

2

k∈Z

(ii) Show that the norm of O

kuk=1

is given by 1/2.

72 Problems and Solutions

d

p̂ = −i

dx

defined on C0∞ [0, ∞). Show that the operator has no self-adjoint extensions

on the Hilbert space L2 [0, ∞).

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R) and the linear operator

d df

p̂ = −i on D = {f : f, ∈ L2 (R)}.

dx dx

Show that the spectrum is the whole real axis.

We define the operator U (θ) as

Chapter 8

Generalized Functions

Problem 1. Consider the function H : R → R

1 0 ≤ x ≤ 1/2

H(x) := −1 1/2 ≤ x ≤ 1

0 otherwise

H can be considered as a regular functional

Z

H(x)φ(x)dx.

R

functions and the m-th derivative is continuous over the interval [a, b] (b >

a). We define an inner product (scalar product) of such two functions f

and g as

Z b

dm f dm g

df dg

hf, gim := fg + + · · · + m m dx.

a dx dx dx dx

Given (Legendre polynomials)

1 1

f (x) = (3x2 − 1), g(x) = (5x3 − 3x)

2 2

73

74 Problems and Solutions

and the interval [−1, 1], i.e. a = −1 and b = 1. Show that f and g are

orthogonal with respect to the inner product hf, gi0 . Are they orthogonal

with respect to hf, gi1 ?

P r := −r.

Obviously, P = P −1 . We define

where

0 ≤ φ < 2π 0 ≤ θ < π.

(i) Calculate P (r, θ, φ).

(ii) Let

1/2

(−1)l+m dl+m

2l + 1 (l − m)!

Ylm (θ, φ) = (sin θ)m (sin θ)2l eimφ

2l l! 4π (l + m)! d(cos θ)l+m

creation operators denoted by b and b† are defined as follows: They have a

common domain

∞

X

D(b) = D(b† ) = ξ = (x0 , x1 , x2 , . . .)T : j|xj |2 < ∞ .

j=0

Then bη is given by

√ √

b(x0 , x1 , x2 , . . .)T = (x1 , 2x2 , 3x3 , . . .)T

and b† η is given by

√ √

b† (x0 , x1 , x2 , . . .) = (0, x0 , 2x1 , 3x2 , . . .).

un = (0, 0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .)T

Generalized Functions 75

H = `2 (N0 ). Is

ξ = (1, 1/2, 1/3, . . . , 1/n, . . .)

an element of D(a)?

of n real variables t = (t1 , t2 , . . . , tn ). We define the symplectic tomogram

associated with the square integrable function f

2

n Z n

Y 1 X iµj iX j

t2j −

w(X, µ, ν) = dt1 dt2 · · · dtn f (t) exp tj

2π|νk | Rn j=1

2ν j νj

k=1

Z Z

w(X, µ, ν)dX = |f (t)|2 dt (1)

Rn Rn

function of the random variable X. This probability distribution function

depends on 2n extra real parameters µ and ν.

(ii) The map of the function f (t) onto the tomogram w(X, µ, ν) is invert-

ible. The square integrable function f (t) can be associated to the density

matrix

ρf (t, t0 ) = f (t)f (t0 ).

This density matrix can be mapped onto the Ville-Wigner function

Z u u −ip·u

W (q, p) = ρf q + , q − e du.

Rn 2 2

(iii) How is the tomogram w(X, µ, ν) related to the Ville-Wigner function?

(iv) Show that the Ville-Wigner function can be reconstructed from the

function w(X, µ, ν).

(v) Show that the density matrix f (t)f ∗ (t0 ) can be found from w(X, µ, ν).

on a Dirac delta function, i.e.

U (q) = U0 δ(q)

76 Problems and Solutions

coefficient, and reflection coefficient.

(ii) Calculate the transmission and the reflection coefficients of a particle

having total energy E, at the potential barrier given by

∞ ∞

1 X ikx X

e = δ(x − 2kπ)

2π

k=−∞ k=−∞

Hint. Expand the 2π periodic function

1 x

f (x) = −

2 2π

into a Fourier series.

(ii) Calculate the first and second derivative in the sense of generalized

function of

0 x<0

f (x) = 4x(1 − x) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

0 x>1

functions.

f (x) = | cos(x)|.

cos(x) for x ∈ [0, 2π)

f (x) :=

0 otherwise

Find the first and second derivative of f in the sense of generalized func-

tions.

Generalized Functions 77

f (x) = |x|

defined by

f (x) = e−|x|

in the sense of generalized functions.

to be the space consisting of those functions in the Hilbert space L2 (Ω) that,

together with all their weak partial derivatives up to and including those

of order m, belong to the Hilbert space L2 (Ω), i.e.

space by introducing the Sobolev inner product h·, ·iH m defined by

Z X

hu, viH :=

m (Dα u)(Dα v)dx for u, v ∈ H m (Ω).

Ω |α|≤m

Z X

kuk2H m = hu|uiH m = (Dα u)2 dx.

Ω |α|≤m

X

hu, vi = hDα , Dα viL2 (Ω) .

|α|≤m

In other words the Sobolev inner product hu, viH m (Ω) is equal to the sum

of the L2 (Ω) inner products of Dα u and Dα v over all α such that |α| ≤ m.

(i) Consider the domain Ω = (0, 2) and the function

x2

0<x≤1

u(x) = 2

2x − 2x + 1 1 < x < 2.

(ii) Find the norm of u.

78 Problems and Solutions

~2 d 2 u

− + cδ (n) (x)u = Eu

2m dx2

where δ (n) (n = 0, 1, 2, . . .) denotes the n-th derivative of the delta function.

Derive the joining conditions on the wave function u.

∞

X ∞

X

exp(i2πm(x + q)/a) ≡ a δ(x + q − ka).

m=−∞ k=−∞

of f , i.e. f (x0 ) = 0. Show that

f 00 (x0 )

1

δ 0 (f (x)) = 0 δ 0

(x − x 0 ) + δ(x − x 0 )

(f (x0 ))2 f 0 (x0 )

∞

1X

(2` + 1)P` (x)P` (y)

2

`=0

for −1 ≤ x ≤ +1 and −1 ≤ y ≤ +1.

∞

1 1X

δ(x − x0 ) = + (cos(nx) cos(nx0 ) + sin(nx) sin(nx0 )).

2π π n=1

Generalized Functions 79

Miscellaneous

∂ψ

i~

= Ĥψ

∂t

be the Schrödinger equation, where

~2 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2

Ĥ = − ∆ + U (r), ∆ := 2 + 2 +

2m ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x23

∂ρ

divj + = 0.

∂t

trable walls, inside which in can move freely. The Hilbert space is

said about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions?

trum of the bound states is always non-degenerate.

Hint. Suppose that the opposite is true.

energy eigenvalues E.

d2 u1 2m

+ 2 (E − V )u1 = 0

dx2 ~

d2 u2 2m

+ 2 (E − V )u2 = 0

dx2 ~

fa (x) =

−x/a2 + 1/a for 0 ≤ x ≤ a

the sense of generalized functions.

80 Problems and Solutions

constant a. Let k be the sum over the first Brioullin zone we have

Z π/a

1 X a

F ((k)) → F ((k))dk = G

N 2π −π/a

k∈1.BZ

where

(k) = 0 − 21 cos(ka).

Using the identity

Z ∞

δ(E − (k))F (E)dE ≡ F ((k))

−∞

we can write

!

Z ∞ Z π/a

a

G= F (E) δ(E − (k))dk dE.

2π −∞ −π/a

Calculate Z π/a

g(E) = δ(E − (k))dk

−π/a

d2

− 2 + 2δ(x) u(x, ) = E()u(x, )

dx

with the boundary conditions u(±1, ) = 0. Here is the coupling con-

stant and determines the penetrability of the potential barrier. Find the

eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues.

1 1

δ(x) = lim e−|x|/

2 →0

1 sin2 (x)

δ(x) =lim

π →∞ (x)2

1 1 |x| −|x|/

δ(x) = lim 1+ e .

4 →0

functions

∞

X

f (k) = 2π cn (−1)n δ (n) (k). (1)

n=0

Generalized Functions 81

1

δ(x2 − a2 ) = (δ(x − a) + δ(x + a)).

2a

Problem 29. (i) Show that the Fourier transform in the sense of gener-

alized function of the Dirac comb

X

δ(x − n)

n∈Z

(ii) Find the Fourier transform in the sense of generalized functions of

√

1 + 2πδ(x).

du du d2 u d3 u

3u =2 + u .

dx dx dx2 dx3

Show that u(x) = e−|x| is a solution in the sense of generalized function.

(ii) Consider the nonlinear partial differential equation

∂u ∂3u ∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u ∂3u

− 2

+ 3u =2 2

+ u 3.

∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

Show that u(x, t) = c exp(−|x − ct|) (peakon) is a solution in the sense of

generalized functions.

a such that f (x = a) = 0 and df (x = a)/dx 6= 0. Let g be a differentiable

function with a simple zero at x = b 6= a such that g(x = b) = 0 and

dg(x = b)/dx 6= 0. Show that

1 1

δ(f (x)g(x)) = δ(x − a) + δ(x − b)

|f 0 (a)g(a)| |f (b)g 0 (b)|

where 0 denotes differentiation.

the Bohr radius and a = a0 /Z. The Schrödinger-Coulomb Green function

G(r1 , r2 ; E) corresponding to the energy variable E is the solution of the

partial differential equation

~2 2 ~2

− ∇1 − − E G(r1 , r2 ; E) = δ(r1 − r2 )

2m amr1

82 Problems and Solutions

of spherical harmonics Y`m

∞ X

X `

∗

G(r1 , r2 ; E) = g` (r1 , r2 ; E)Y`m (θ1 , φ1 )Y`m (θ2 , φ2 )

`=0 m=−`

1 d 2 d `(` + 1) 2 1 2m δ(r1 − r2 )

2 r1 − 2 + − 2 2

g` (r1 , r2 ; ν) = − 2

r1 dr1 dr1 r1 ar1 ν a ~ r1 r2

where ν 2 a2 := −~2 /(2mE).

Hint. Utilize the identity

∞ `

δ(r1 − r2 ) X X ∗

δ(r1 − r2 ) = Y`m (θ1 , φ1 )Y`m (θ2 , φ2 )

r1 r2

`=0 m=−`

Z ∞

x 1

δ t− = e−iωt(t−x/c) dω.

c 2π −∞

(x − a)2

1

f (x − a) = √ exp −

π

tends to δ(x − a) in the sense of generalized function if → 0+ .

Z ∞

1 p

δ(x)δ(x) = kJ0 (k (x2 + y 2 ))dk

2π 0

in the sense of generalized functions.

Z ∞

α−1 1 π

x P 2

= cot(πα/2).

0 1 − x 2

3/2

2π αβ

δ(x − x0 ) = lim exp − (x − x0 )2 .

α→β β−α 2(β − α)

Generalized Functions 83

1 −|x|

ρ(x) = pe + (1 − p)δ(x).

2

Then ρ(x) ≥ 0. Show that in the sense of generalized function

Z

ρ(x)dx = 1.

R

XX

C(x1 , x1 ) := δ(x1 − m)δ(x2 − n).

m∈Z n∈Z

n

1 n nt

fn (t) = exp(−nt/T )

n! T T

where n = 1, 2, . . .. Find fn (t) for n → ∞ in the sense of generalized

functions. Find the Laplace transform of fn (t).

Problem 41. What charge distribution ρ(r) does the spherical symmetric

potential

e−µr

V (r) =

r

give? For r 6= 0 Poisson’s equation in spherical coordinates is given by

1 d2

∆V (r) = (rV (r)) + R(θ, φ)V (r) = −4πρ(r)

r dr2

where R(θ, φ) is the differential operator depending on the angles θ, φ.

Z 1 Z 1 Pn

1 δ(1 − j=1 j

= (n − 1)! d1 · · · dn Pn .

a1 a2 · · · an 0 0 ( j=1 j aj )n

∂ ∂ df (y)

f (y) δ(x − y) ≡ −f (x) δ(x − y) + δ(x − y).

∂y ∂x dy

84 Problems and Solutions

functions

sin(ζx)

lim φ(x)dx = πφ(0).

ζ→∞ x

(x − x0 )2

1

u(x, t) = √ exp −

4πDt 4Dt

∂u ∂2u

=D 2

∂t ∂x

with the initial condition

u(x, 0) = δ(x − x0 ).

Z ∞ Z ∞Z ∞

eA+B = dα1 eα1 A δ(1 − α1 ) + dα1 dα2 eα1 A Beα2 A δ(1 − α1 − α2 )

0 0 0

Z ∞Z ∞Z ∞

+ eα1 A Beα2 A Beα3 A δ(1 − α1 − α2 − α3 ) + · · ·

0 0 0

Problem 47. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([−1, 1]). The Legendre poly-

nomials are given by

1 dn 2

P0 = 1, Pn (x) = (x − 1)n

2n n! dxn

where n = 1, 2, . . .. They satisfy

Z +1

2

Pm (x)Pn (x)dx = δm,n , n, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

−1 2n + 1

Let

∞

X

δ(x) = dj 0 Pj 0 (x).

j 0 =0

Generalized Functions 85

written as (α ∈ C)

Z Z

1 ∗ ∗ 1

(2)

δ (z) = 2 2

d α exp(α z − z α) = 2 d2 α exp(i(α∗ z + z ∗ α)).

π C π C

∞

!

0 1 X

0

δ(x − x ) = 1+2 cos(kx) cos(kx ) .

π

k=1

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, ∞)). The Laguerre poly-

nomials are defined as

dn −x n

Ln (x) = ex (e x ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

dxn

For the Hilbert space L2 ([0, ∞)) we have the basis

B = { e−x/2 Ln (x) : n = 0, 1, 2, . . . }.

Let a ∈ R. Show that

∞

X

δ(x − a) = e−(x+a)/2 Lk (x)Lk (a).

k=0

∞ X

X `

∗

δ(cos(θ1 ) − cos(θ2 ))δ(φ1 − φ2 ) = Y`,m (θ1 , φ1 )Y`,m (θ2 , φ2 ).

`=0 m=−`

that 2 2 ∞

e−(x +a )/2 X

Hk (x)Hk (a)

δ(x − a) = √

π 2k k!

k=0

∂ 1

= πδ(z)

∂ z̄ z

86 Problems and Solutions

where

∂ 1 ∂ ∂

≡ +i .

∂ z̄ 2 ∂x ∂y

Z +∞

δ(x − a) = Ai(s − x)Ai(s − a)ds

−∞

∞ ∞

X 1 X

δ(x − nα) ≡ exp(2πinx/α).

n=−∞

α n=−∞

x exp(−cx2 ) for x ≥ 0

f (x) :=

0 for x < 0

Z ∞

cos(ωt)dt = πδ(ω).

0

0 0 0

Problem 11. Let r2 = x21 + x22 and r 2 = x12 + x22 .

(i) Show that

1

δ(x1 , x2 ) = δ(r)

2πr

(ii) Show that

1

δ(x1 − x01 , x2 − x02 ) = δ(r − r0 )δ(θ − θ0 ), r0 > 0

r

where we applied polar coordinates.

1

δ(x1 − x01 , x2 − x02 , x3 − x03 ) = δ(r − r0 )δ(θ − θ0 )δ(φ − φ0 )

r sin(θ)

Generalized Functions 87

∂u ∂u

+c = 0.

∂t ∂x

Show that u(x, t) = f (x − ct) is a solution for any one-dimensional gener-

alized function.

1 X i(m+1/2)φ 1

e cos(p|m + 1/2|x) = (δ(x − φ/p) + δ(x + φ/p)) .

2π 2p

m∈Z

0 for x < −a

fa (x) = exp(− exp(x/(x2 − a2 ))) for −a ≤ x ≤ +a

1 for a<x

d

δa (x) = fa (x).

dx

Then consider a → 0.

a Gaussian, i.e.

1 2

ψ(η) = 1/4 eiωη e−η /2

π

where ω is the dimensionless frequency. Show that if ω = 6 the admissibility

condition is satisfied.

f0 (x) = exp(−x2 /2).

We define the mother wavelets fn as

d

fn (x) = − fn−1 (x), n = 1, 2, . . .

dx

Show that the family of fn ’s obey the Hermite recursion relation

88 Problems and Solutions

Z ∞ Z ∞

dτ

H(x − a) = du exp(iu(τ − x)).

−∞ −∞ 2π

Z

1 1

dx = δ(t − s)

π 2 R (t − x)(s − x)

delta function is given by

Z c+i∞

1

δ(x) = etx dt

2πi c−i∞

where the path of the t-integration can be closed to the right or left.

Z +∞ Z ∞

1

δ(x) = exp(ikx)dx, θ(x) = δ(λ − x)dλ.

2π −∞ 0

Generalized Functions 89

Bibliography

Davies E. B.

Linear Operators and their Spectra

Cambridge studies in advanced mathematics, Cambridge University Press,

2007

Linear Operators. Part 1: General Theory

Interscience, New York (1966)

Matrix Computations, Third Edition,

Johns Hopkins University Press (1996)

Jones D. S.

The Theory of Generalized Functions, Cambridge University Press (1982)

Kato T.

Perturbation Theory of Linear Operators

Springer, New York (1966)

Keener J. P.

Principles of Applied Mathematics: Transformation and Approximation.

Perseus Books, 2nd revised edition (2000)

Miller W.

Symmetry Groups and Their Applications

Academic Press, New York (1972)

Reddy B. Daya

Introductory Functional Analysis,

Springer, New York (1990)

Riesz F. and Nagy B. Sz., Functional Analysis, Frederick Unger Pub., New

90

Bibliography 91

York, 1965

Schwartz L.

Théorie des distributions, Hermann, 2 vols. (1966)

Steeb W.-H.

Matrix Calculus and Kronecker Product with Applications and C++ Pro-

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World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (1997)

Steeb W.-H.

Continuous Symmetries, Lie Algebras, Differential Equations and Com-

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World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (1996)

Steeb W.-H.

Hilbert Spaces, Wavelets, Generalized Functions and Quantum Mechanics

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1998)

Steeb W.-H.

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World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (2009)

Steeb W.-H.

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Vladimirov V. S.

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92 Bibliography

Yosida K.

Functional Analysis, Fifth Edition

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Zuily C.

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North-Holland, Amsterdam (1988)

Index

Airy function, 51

Analysing wavelet, 64 Inverse wavelet transform, 64

Anosov map, 45

Antilinear operator, 8 Kernel, 3

Kernel function, 61

Bell basis, 11, 14

Bernstein polynomials, 35, 38 Laguerre polynomials, 43, 85

Bessel function, 44 laguerre polynomials, 34

Bessel inequality, 9 Legendre polynomials, 25, 31, 55, 84

Legrendre polynomials, 32

Cauchy sequence, 7 Lie group, 48

Chebyshev polynomial, 51

Chebyshev polynomials, 32 Momentum operator, 72

Comb, 8 Morlet wavelet, 87

Continuous wavelet transform, 64 Mutually unbiased basis, 19

Convolution theorem, 59

Null space, 3

Dilations, 64

Dirac comb, 81 Paley-Wiener space, 39

Dispersion relation, 51 Parseval’s relation, 44

Peakon, 81

Fock space, 47, 48 Poisson equation, 83

Frame, 3 Position operator, 42

Fredholm alternative, 3 projection theorem, 4

Gaussian measure, 47 Reproducing kernel, 48

Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization pro- Reproducing kernel Hilbert space, 39

cess, 11 Resolvent, 56

Gram-Schmidt technique, 16

Schauder basis, 37

Haar scaling function, 64 Schwarz inequality, 2

Hardy space, 6 Schwarz-Cauchy inequality, 2

Harper operator, 55 Shannon wavelet, 67

Hat function, 58 Shifted Legendre polynomials, 28

93

94 Index

Sinc function, 39

Sobolev space, 77

Spectral theorem, 12

Spherical harmonics, 74

Symplectic tomogram, 75

Translations, 64

Triangle function, 37

Triangle inequality, 2

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