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COMPREHENSIVE PHARMACY REVIEW

MODULE 1-Pharm Chem.Inorganic

GROUP 1A- ALKALI METALS


Elements and its Compound Synonyms/Flame Test Uses/ Imp.
Inflammable Air 3 ISOTOPEs:
HYDROGEN
Protium- Normal hydrogen
Deuterium- Heavy hydrogen
Tritium-Radioactive hydrogen
Stone or Earth P-col/0-use
LITHIUM
1.Depressant Action to the nerves
F/T= Carmine Red/ Crimson center & to the circulation
red
2.Diuretics action
3.Heat exchanger for AIRCON
Lithium Bromide -sedative due to Bromine ion

Lithium Carbonate USP BN- LITHASE -Drug of choice for MANIC state
(Bipolar Disorder)- Manic
Depressive Psychosis
Lithium Citrate USP -For Hypomanic State
Natrium- from Nature P-col
SODIUM
1.Predominant Cation in the
F/T= Intense Yellow EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (most
abundant)

2. Fluid retention
3.Osmotic Effect on the body
Sodium Acetate -systemic and urinary alkalizer
-Diuretics (osmotic effect)
-Antacids
-Alkalinizing Agent in BENEDICTs
SOLUTION (reducing sugar)
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Hydrogen carbonate -ABSORBABLE (Systemic)
Sodium acid carbonate -ANTACID (soluble)
-Provides Carbonation
Baking soda (Palatability)
Baker’s Soda
Soda saleratus SIDE EFFECTS
1.Sys. Alkalosis
2.Rebound hyperacidity
BICARBONATE- main Plasma
3.Edema
Buffer

POTIO REVERII- mix. Of


NaHCO3 + Citric acid

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BSPh-3B
Sodium Biphosphate Sodium dihydrogen -Urinary acidifier
phosphate -Combined with other drug:
LEUCOGEN NaH2PO4.H2O + Methanamine=
FORMALDEHYDE liberation- resp.
aKa: Fleet Enema Tx. Of Cytitis (antiseptic Effect)

Sodium Bisulfite Sodium acid sulfite -Antioxidant


Sodium hydrogen sulfite -Antiseptic
-LEUCOGEN (removes Stains of
LEUCOGEN MnO4
-Solubilize Kidney Stone

Sodium Borate BORAX -Antiseptic


Sodium tetraborate -Water softener
Sodium pyrroborate
Sodium Bromide -Sedative
Sodium Carbonate Anhydrous- SODA ASH -Efflorescent
-Sources of Na+ and CO3 –
Aqueous sol’n- SODA
-Antacids
CRYSTALS -Carbonating Agent
SAL SODA
WASHING SODA

BN= TRONA

Sodium chloride Table salt -Electrolyte replenisher


Sea salt -Tonicity Adjuster
-Condiments
Rock salt -Preservatives
Common salt
Soler salt
Sodium citrate Potio Reverii -Alkalizer
-Diuretic
-shorten Blood Clotting Time
-Preservative
-Expectorant
-Buffer
Sodium Fluoride -High Con. Gen. Protoplasmic
Poison
-Low con. As Dental
Prophylactic
(antiCariogenic)
-Overdosage/ Toxicity Fluorosis

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BSPh-3B
Sodium Iodide -Sources of Iodine & sodium
-Solubilizer of iodine
-Tx & Prevention of GOITER
-Radioactive Iodine (BN-Iodotope).
-Expectorant
-Antifungal
-Iodize Salt -10% Nal
-Deliquescent

Sodium nitrite -BEFORE (Preservatives)


-TODAY (hypotensive).TX of
Cyanide poisoning= I.V
Sodium nitrate Chile Salt peter -Preservative
Sodium biphosphate Sodium hydrogen phosphate -Saline CATARTHIC
Sodium acid phosphate -RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL
(localization of Ocular Tumor)
Sodium hypophosphite -Antioxidant
-Reducing agent
-Negative Catalyst
Sodium sulfite -Reducing agent
Sodium sulfate Glauber’s Salt -Saline CATHARTIC
-Laxative
Sodium thiosulfate Sodium hyposulfite -Tx. Cyanide poisoning w/ NaNO2
HYPHOCHLOR -Cathartic
PHOTOGRAPHER’S hypo
Sodium silicate Water Glass
Sodium perborate
Sodium thiocyanate -Same used with NaNO2
-Hypotensive
-M/A is Unknown
Dibasic sodium phosphate Phospo-Soda -Saline Laxative
Monobasic sodium soda Sodium dihydrogen -Urinary acidifier
phosphate
POTASSIUM P-col
1.Predominant Cation In the
INTRACELLULAR fluid
2.Gretest Diuretic Effect
3.Muscle Contraction
F/T= Violet
Potassium acetate -Diuretic
-Antacid
-Systemic alkalizer
Potassium bicarbonate -Systemic antacid
-Diuretic
-Carbonating agent
-Electrolyte replenisher

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BSPh-3B
Potassium bitartrate Cream of tartar -Diuretic
CREAMOR -Cathartic
Acid potassium tartrate
Potassium bromide -Sedative
Potassium chloride SYLVITE -Sources of K+ and Cl-
-Diuretic
-Electrolyte replenisher
Potassium carbonate POTASH -used in the Prep. K+ compounds
PEARL ASH -Sources of CO3
-Manuf. Glass
SALT OF WORMWOOD -Systemic Alkalizer
Salt of tartar
Salt of Peter
Potassium chlorate -Antiseptic
-Oxidizing agent
-Bleaching agent (gargles &
mouthwashes)

3 categories of Antiseptic
Activity (M/A)- Common in Board
Exam

1.Oxidation
2.Halogenation
3.Protein Precipitation

Potassium citrate Neutral Mixture -Diuretic


-Expectorant
-Diaphoretic
Potassium iodide -Same use as NaI ( but most
preferred)
-Sources & solubilizer of I2
-Expectorant
Potassium phosphate -Cathartic
-Laxative
Potassium permanganate Mineral Chameleon -Powerful oxidizing agent
-Antiseptic (Low Con. 0.01%)
Potassium sodium tartrate Rochelle salt -Cathartic
Salt or Sal Seignette -Saline Laxative
-Sequestering agent (esp.
Fehling’s Sol)
Sulfurated potash Liver of sulfur -Parasitic Tx. Ringworm
Potasa sulfurata -Tx. Psoriasis
-Tx. Tinea Vesicolor
Hepar sulfuris -used in the Prep of WHITE
LOTION (Lotio alba)

Zinc Sulfide- white sulfide


Most Sulfides are Black

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BSPh-3B
Potassium nitrate Salt Peter -Meat Preservative (corn beef)
SALITRE -Diuretic
-Diaphoretic
NITER -Manuf. Of Gun powders,
Fertilizers, matches etc..

SALT PRUNELLE- Old name


KNO3
Potassium thiocyanate -Used the same as w/ Sodium
thiocyanate as Hypotensive

DARROW’s Sol Lactated Potassium Saline -Used in the fluid therapy to repair
Injection. a potassium defecit
FRANCIUM -RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT
AMMONIUM Hypothetical 1A Cation / -Maintenance of ACID-BASE
alkali metal balance
-Diuretic
-Expectorant
F/T= Colorless -Anti-denatl Caries
Ammonium bromide -Sedative (CNS Depressant)
Ammonium carbonate SAL Volatile -Respiratory stimulant
BAKER’s AMMONIA -Expectorant
-Anatacids
Salt Ammonium Sesqui- -Prep. Of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit
carbonate -Carminative
HARTSHORN
Aromatic Ammonia Spirit Spirit of Sal Volatile -Respiratory stimulant
Spirit of Hartshorn -Expectorant
-Carminative
-Anatacid
Ammonium chloride Sal ammoniac -Systemic (Acidifier)
Muriate of ammonia -Expectorant
-Diuretic
Muriate of Hartshorn -Tx. Of Metabolic alkalosis
Ammoniated mercury White Precipitate -Topical Antiseptic
-Tx. Of Psoriasis
Ammonium iodide -Sources of I2
-Expectorant
Ammonium hydroxide Ammonia Solution -Mild alkalizer
10% ammonia Household Ammonia
16% ammonia
Ammonium acetate Spirit of Mindererus -Used as 6.5 to 7.5 % (Diuretic &
Diaphoretic)
Ammoniacal silver nitrate Household solution -Dental Protective

Strong ammonia spirit Spirit of hartshorn -Ingredient in NH3 Spirit


Stronger ammonium -Stimulating agent
-Important solvent and reagent
Stronger ammonium sol.

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BSPh-3B
GROUP 1B- COINAGE METAL
COPPER Malachite -Emetic
-Water Purification
F/T= Emeral Green -Protein precipitant
-Astringent
-Antiseptic
Copper sulfate Blue stone -Prep. Fehlings & Benedicts
Blue vitrol reagents (Reducing sugars)
-Emetic
-Tx. Of Phosphorous poisoning
-Algacide( BORDEUX MIXTURE)
-Combined w/ iron Increases
Hematinic activity
-Fungicide
Cuprous citrate -Astringent in 8% concentration
Basic cuprous acetate VERDIGRIS -Paint pigment
Copper acetoarsenate -Anti-termite (insecticide)
Copper Poisoning WILSON’S DISEASE -ANTIDOTE
-TX.of Penicillamine
SILVER ARGENTUM or LUNA= -Oligodynamic action
Shining/ Bright -Photosensitive
-Protein Precipitant
-Astringent
-Antiseptic
-Corrosive
ARGYRIA -Silver Poisoning
Silver nitrate Caustic pencil -Antiseptic (eyes & warts)
Indelible ink
Lapis infernaliz
Ammoniacal silver nitrate Howe’s solution -Caustic
-Tx. Of Gonorrheal infection babies
Eyes (Ophthalmia Neonatorium)

Mild silver protein ARGYROL -OPHTHALMIC antiseptic


(19-25% con.) -Local antibacterial (Ears,Nose,
and Throat)
Strong silver protein PROTARGOL -Antiseptic (Ears, Nose and Throat)
(7.5-8.5%) and wounds

Colloidal silver protein COLLARGOL -Gen. Germicides


(7-8%) -Tx. Of (ears, nose and throat)
infection
Colloidal silver iodide NEOSILVOL - Gen. Germicides

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BSPh-3B
Silver picrate PLOROTOL -Tx. Of Vaginitis
PLOARGOL
GOLD AURUM= shining dawn -Au poisoning= Tx w/ Dimercaprol
King of all metals and BAL
Aurothioglucose -Tx. Of rheumatoid
-Arthritis
-Tx. Of Lupus Erethematosus

Auranofin -Tx. Of rheumatoid


-Arthritis
GOLD 198 Radiopharmaceutical Gold -Determining Kidney Function
PURPLE OF CASSIUS A PIGMENT (colloidal gold +
Stannic acid)
Flotation process Metallurgical procedure for -Extraction for gold
Gold Extraction
ZSIGMONDY NO. Gold Number -Determining the protective power
Solution of Colloidal Gold of colloids

GROUP IIA- ALKALINE EARTH METAL


BERYLLIUM MOST TOXIC METAL -Fluorescent Lighting industry
-Manuf. Neon signs
MAGNESIUM 2ND MOST ABUNDANT -Lightest of all structurally
INTRACELLULAR CATION Important metal
-Biological Chelate-
CHLOROPHYLL
-Natural Ca+ channel blocker
-Depressant
-Laxative
Talc As SILICATE -Magnesium Occurrence
-HYDRATED MAGNESIUM
SILICATE
Asbestos As CARBONATE -Magnesium Occurrence
-MAGNESITE & DOLOMITE
Kieserite As SULFATE
MAGNESIUM poisoning Calcium gluconate -Mg present in bones as
magnesium phosphate
Magnesium carbonate Magnesia -Antacid
Magnesite -Laxative

Magnesium oxide Calcined magnesia -CALCINATION


Light magnesia -Used externally together with
UNIVERSAL antidote:

1.Tannic acid

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BSPh-3B
2.Activated charcoal
3.Magnesium oxide
Magnesium Trisilicate - Prolong Antacid Action
-Glidant
-In Ciprofloxacin Overdose &
toxicity
-Upon ingestion release 2-
byproducts of Silicon dioxide &
silicic acid that can protect
ulceration

Magnesium sulfate Epson salt -Found in England


-Cathartic
-Antidote for Ba+2 & Barbiturates
Poisoning
-Anticonvulsant in ECLAMPSIA
-As ANTIPHLOGISTIC
Hydrated magnesium Native hydrous magnesium -Dusting powder
silicate silicate -Filtering aid
-Clarifying agent
Talc- Soapstone
French chalk
Softest mineral
Magnesium citrate Lemonada purgante -Purgative
-Saline Laxative
BN= Citromag or Citroma
Magnesium hydroxide Milk of magnesia -Antacid
Magnesia magma -Laxative
CALCIUM -Absorb from the upper part of the
small intestine

Natural sources:

DOLOMITE
CYPSUM/SELENITE
FLUORSPAR/FLUORITE
PHOSPHATE ROCK/BONE
PHOSPHATE
APPATITE/FLUOROAPATITE
Calcium bromide
Calcium carbonate Chalk marble -Internally antacid
Precipitated chalk -Externally dentifrices (Dental
Abrasive)
Prepared chalk -Inhibit the act. Of tetracycline’s,
Limestone forming insoluble complex
Calcite

F/T= Yellowish-Red color

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BSPh-3B