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# LAB 1: Identify sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces on 2D seismic data.

Map water bottom on Line DT B01-31-discuss apparent shelf-slope water depths-using a water velocity of 1500 m/s-what is apparent dip of slope-snapshot for discussions-show scales and
vertical exaggeration

## We know the water velocity 1500 m/s.

66.55 km So, 1 s (OWT) = 1500 m
500 cmp = 6.28 km
26.37 km 23.64 km
If we have 0.410 s (OWT) = 615.5 m
16.54 km
If we have 0.226 s (OWT) = 339 m

## 451.11 ms (TWT) Apparent Dip Shelf Slope:

225.55 ms (OWT)
820.74 ms (TWT) • Tan α = y / x
410.37 ms (OWT) α = tan-1 (615.5 /66,550)
= 0.5°
• Tan α = y / x
α = tan-1 (339 /16,540)
= 1.2°

ABYSSAL
PLAIN SLOPE SHELF x
α tan α = y/x
y α= tan-1 (y/x)
Horizontal Scale : Vertical Scale :
1 cm = 250 cmp 1 cm = 110 ms (TWT)
500 cmp = 6.28 km
1 cm = 55 ms = 0.055 s (OWT)
250 cmp = 3.14 km
If 1 cm = 250 cmp From velocity we know 1 s (OWT) = 1500 m
0.055 Vertical Exaggeration :
So, 1 cm = 3.14 km 0.055 s (OWT) = 1 x 1500 = 75 m 𝐻𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 3.14
So, 1 cm = 75 m VE = = = 42
𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 0.075
1 cm = 0.075 km
LAB 1: Identify sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces on 2D seismic data. Define small scale and large scale-show an example of each. Identify different
reflection terminations-snapshot the examples and explain what it indicates for sequence stratigraphy.

3. Toplap 4. Truncation
3.55 km

## 1. Offlap There are 5 terminations of reflections that

Truncation has been identified in this seismic section :
2. Downlap 1.) Offlap = Top discordant (angular)
relationship in which older strata
terminates against younger strata.
Toplap and truncation are two forms of
Truncation 5. Onlap offlap.

## 2.) Downlap = Downdip termination of

Truncation initially inclined younger strata against
older strata.

## 3.) Toplap = Updip termination of initially

inclined older strata against overlying
younger strata.

## 4.) Truncation = Top discordant termination

of older strata against younger strata
resulting from erosion.

## 5.) Onlap = Updip termination of younger

strata against initially inclined older
strata.
Every system tract has different
kind of reflection termination and
characterized each of those system
tract itself.
2.5 km

## 3. Toplap 1.) Offlap = Commonly occurs in the

4. Truncation top of falling stage system track
SB 4 parasequences.
HST

MFS 3
2.) Downlap = Commonly occurs in
TST the base of lowstand system
track parasequences.
SB 3
1. Offlap
5. Onlap

## HST Transgressive Surface 3.) Toplap = Commonly occurs in

2. Downlap TST
the top of highstand system
MFS 1
HST track parasequences
MFS 2 Transgressive Surface
FSST LST

LST
TST Incised Valley
4.) Truncation = Commonly occurs
in the top of highstand system
track parasequences as the
SB 2 FSTST sequence boundary eroded
SB 1 TST
away the highstand system track
sequence sediment.

## 5.) Onlap = Commonly occurs in

LST
transgressive system track
FSST onlaps sequence boundary in
landward direction from the
shelf break.
1. OFFLAP 2. DOWN LAP

## Progradational Offlap Relections Sequence Boundary

700.37 m

HST

Downdip of
Incline Parasequence
(Younger Strata)
LST

FSST
Maximum
Sequence Boundary Flooding Surface

Downlap
Low Angle
Parasequence
(Older Strata)
1.5 km

## The indication of reflections terminology :

1.) Offlap : It is indicates that our strata surface deposit during progradational environment. Offlap is the product of
rapid base level fall. It means that this reflections indicates the forced regression phase.
2.) Downlap : It occurs both at base of depositional sequence and above maximum flooding surface (mfs). It indicates
the presence of sequence boundary and mfs. It also represents a change from marine slope deposition to marine
condensation or nondepostition.
3 & 4 TOPLAP AND TRUNCATION 5. ONLAP

1 km
Younger Strata
1 km Erotional Surface, 3 km (Transgressive
Sequence Boundary and Parasequences)
Angular Unconformity
Truncation
Younger Strata

Toplap Onlap

## Updip of Incline Older

Parasequences (Older Strata)

Older Strata

3.) Toplap : It typically occurs at the top of depositional sequence and also indicates the presence of sequence boundary. This type of reflections also representing
the result of non-deposition and/or minor erosion.
4.) Truncation = It commonly recognized at top of depositional sequence and at the base of incised valley. It indicates the presence of sequence boundary and the
development of angular unconformity.
5.) Onlap = It is typically seen at the base of depositional sequence and indicates the presence of a sequence boundary and phase of transgressive system tract. In
this case, the transgressive parasequences on lapping to the older strata (salt dome). This salt usually move from the bottom of younger sequence because of the
character of salt itself, moveable, always looking to the lower pressure. So, it is break through the younger strata and make onlap reflections.
Identify different clinoforms-discuss-using a velocity of 1800 m/sec-calculate the slope and accommodation space for two
clinoforms.

2.35 km

Sigmoid
Oblique

Sigmoid

Sigmoid Hummocky
Oblique

## Clinoforms is a simple to complex package of reflections that

represent the significant deposition of strata in laterally outbuilding
At least, there are 4 type of clinoforms has been identified :
1.) Hummocky 3.) Sigmoid
2.) Sigmoid Oblique
1.) Hummocky
consisting irregular, discontinuous,
subparallel reflection segments forming
Steeply Dipping
a practically random hummocky pattern
Horizontal Sigmoid marked by nonsystematic reflections
Middle Segment, S-
Segments
Shaped, Thin Strata terminations and splits.
Oblique Segments

## 2.) Sigmoid Oblique

SIGMOID OBLIQUE A prograding clinoform pattern
consisting of a combination of variably
alternating sigmoid and oblique
within a single seismic facies unit. The
Combination topset segments are characterized by
Between Sigmoid horizontal sigmoid segments and
and Oblique
SIGMOID oblique segments with toplap
terminations.
SIGMOID OBLIQUE HUMMOCKY
3.) Sigmoid
Hummocky Pattern,
discontinuous and irregular
formed by superposed sigmoidal (S-
reflections shaped) reflections interpreted as strata
thin, gently dipping upper and lower
segment, and thicker, more steeply
dipping middle segments. This pattern
represent that accommodation was
increasing during deposition
(transgressive phase).
CLINOFROM SIGMOID OBLIQUE

1.5 km

## Apparent dip Slope:

Accomodation Space is Accomodation Space (h) = 817.49 ms (TWT) = 0.4087 s (OWT) • Tan α = y / x
space available for potential We know that water velocity value is 1800 m/s α = tan-1 (735.74 /16,080)
accumulation of sediment. So, 1 s (OWT) = 1800 m = 2.7°
In this case, it’s apparent 0.4087
If we have 0.4087 s (OWT) = = x 1800 = 735.74 m α tan α = y/x
with the height of our top of 1
So, accommodation space (h) = 735.74 m below sea level y α= tan-1 (y/x)
sediment to the sea level.
CLINOFROM SIGMOID

1.5 km

## Accomodation Space (h) = 800.57 ms (TWT) = 0.40028 s (OWT) α

We know that water velocity value is 1800 m/s Apparent dip Slope: y
So, 1 s (OWT) = 1800 m • Tan α = y / x
0.40028 α = tan-1 (720.513 /15,500)
If we have 0.40028 s (OWT) = = x 1800 = 720. 513 m tan α = y/x
1 = 2.6°
So, accommodation space (h) = 720.513 m below sea level α = tan-1 (y/x)
Identify 3 sequence boundaries on the seismic-explain your evidence

## • Sequence Boundary (SB) is regional

unconformity and correlative conformity
that develop during times of relative sea
level fall.
2.5 km

## • Sequence boundary may be marked by

4 obvious erosion and abrupt basinward
shift in facies. The abrupt shift is called
SB 4
force regression.

## 3 a.) Sequence boundary type 1 :

Regional unconformity that forms
SB 3 2 when eustatic sea level falls at greater
rate than basin subsides, exposing the
shelf into subaerial erosion. It is
correlate with forced regression .
1 Typically sea level drops to a point
near the shelf break.

## b.) Sequence boundary type 2 :

SB 2
Regional unconformity that forms
SB 1 when the basins subsides at a greater
rate than at eusthatic sea level falls at
the depositional shelf break. In this
case, sea level do not fall below this
break and the shelf typically not
exposed.
2.5 km

SB 4
HST

MFS 3
TST

SB 3

Transgressive Surface
HST
TST

HST MFS 1
MFS 2 Transgressive Surface
FSST LST Incised Valley
TST
LST

SB 2 FSST

SB 1 TST

LST

FSST

Based in identification of our system tract, the sequence boundary in this seismic
section probably classify to the sequence boundary type 1 which is forming FSST and
LST sediment that caused by forced regression and rapid changes basinward shift in
facies.
SEQUENCE BOUNDARY 1 SEQUENCE BOUNDARY 2
1 2

554.89 m Sequence
1.25 km
Incised Valley Boundary (SB)

## Irregular Reflection (Erosional truncation)

LST and Different Amplitude Impedance

FSST

HST

## Sequence Boundary (SB)

1.) Sequence Boundary (SB) usually identified by occurrence of valley incision that happened because of erosional surface
during falling stage system track (FSST).
2.) Sequence Boundary usually identified by irregular reflection in the base of FSST or LST sequences that represent
erosional truncation during sea level fall. Sometimes it is also followed by distinct amplitude impedance in the top and base
of sequence boundary.
3 SEQUENCE BOUNDARY 3 SEQUENCE BOUNDARY 4 4

1.5 km
TST
1 km
SB 3 Bounded by HST as its Onlapl Trend
base and TST as its top
HST

LST
FSST
Sequence
TST
Toplap Trend Eroded Boundary (SB)

3.) Sequence Boundary (SB) usually bounded by Highstand System Track (HST) as its base and Lowstand System Track / Falling
Stage System Track (FSST) as its top. It represent abrupt change of basinward facies from marine facies to the shelf or coastal
facies. The sediment from coastal or even from fluvial can be deposited during sea level fall with forced regression mechanism.
But, sometimes not all the system tracks are always show. Like in SB 3, we get TST overlying SB 3. Maybe the LST or FSST are
alreafy eroded or too thin to show in seismic section.
4.) Sequence Boundary usually identified by uncontinuous trend of strata/parasequences that makes the strata truncated (in
the example, toplad trend to onlap trend).
Identify 2 possible maximum flooding surfaces-explain your evidence.
• Maximum Flooding Surfaces
(MFS) is marine flooding
surface that formed at the
2.5 km time of maximum
transgression.

## • It forms at the top of

HST transgressive system tract
MFS 3 and seperates backstepping
parasequences below from
HST
HST
parasequences above.
MFS 2 TST
• It is characterized by
extensive condensation and
MFS 1 the widest landward extent
of the marine condensed
facies.

the overlying highstand
systen tract downlap the
maxium flooding surface
(MFS).
Stacking pattern in which each progressively Stacking pattern in which progressively younger Stacking pattern in which which each progressively
younger parasequence is deposited farther parasequence have been deposited above one younger parasequence is deposited farther
basinward. This stacking occurs when the rate of another with no significant lateral shift either landward. This stacking occurs when the rate of
accommodation is less than rate of deposition landward or basinward. This occurs when the rate of accommodation is greater than rate of deposition
accommodation equal to the rate of deposition

## Probably Condensed Section with

Downlaping HST deposti Above MFS widest deposition
1.45 km
1.5 km
HST

TST
MFS
MFS