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Some Formulas and Constants: Mechanics BC 2001

(Note that symbols have the usual meanings).


Scalars & Vectors:
Unit vector notation: ~a = ax î + ay ĵ + az k̂
Scalar product: ~a.~b = abcosφ where φ is the angle between the the directions of ~a and ~b.
Vector (or cross) product: ~c = ~a × ~b. Magnitude of ~c = ab sin φ
Motion in one, two and three dimensions:
vav = ∆x/∆t,
aav = ∆v/∆t
v = v0 + at
∆x = x − x0 = v0 t + (1/2)at2
v 2 = v02 + 2a∆x
For projectile motion, the above equations of motion for constant acceleration may be used.
But, note that for zero acceleration: Distance traveled = v0x t
g = 9.8 m/s2
vy = v0y − gt
∆y = v0y t − 12 gt2
2
Range = vg0 sin 2θ
vy2 = v0y
2 − 2g∆y
2
Uniform circular motion: Centripetal acceleration a = vr where v is the speed of the particle
moving in a circular path of radius r.
Time for particle to complete revolution (period): T = 2πr
v
Relative motion for a particle P given two reference frames A and B: ~vP A = ~vP B + ~vBA
Newton’s Laws:
F~net = m~a (Newton’s 2nd Law)
w~ = m~g (weight)
Fx = −k∆x (Spring force)
fs ≤ µs FN , where FN is the normal force
fk = µk FN (Static & kinetic friction)
Work and Energy:
Work: W = f cos θ∆x
~
W = F~ .ds
Kinetic energy: K = 21 mv 2
Wtotal = ∆K
~B
A. ~ = AB cos φ
Power: P = dW/dt = F~ .~v
W
Average power: Pavg = ∆T
Potential energy ∆U = −W ,
∆U = −F~ .ds~
U = U0 + mgy (Gravitational potential energy)
∆U = 21 kx2f − 12 kx2i (Spring potential energy)
U = 21 kx2 (Spring potential energy when reference configuration has zero potential energy)
∆K + ∆U = 0 (for conservative forces)
∆K + ∆U = Wnc (work done by non-conservative forces).
System of particles, conservation of momentum
MR ~ cm = Σi mi~ri ; M V
~cm = Σi mi~vi ; M A
~ cm = Σi mi~ai
p~ = m~v
F~net = d~p
dt

1
p 2
Kinetic energy: K = 2m
General equations for elastic collision, both bodies are moving prior to the collision, their
m1 −m2
velocities immediately after the collision are given by: v1f = m 1 +m2
v1i + m2m 2
1 +m2
v2i
2m1 m2 −m1
and v2f = m1 +m2 v1i + m1 +m2 v2i
vcm = m1m v1i +m2 v2i
1 +m2
s
For elastic collision (equal mass), v2f − v1f = −(v2i − v1i )
Conservation of momentum: m1 v1i + m2 v2i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f
Impulse I~ = Favg ∆t, p~f − p~i = ∆p
~ = I~

Rotation
θ angular displacement measured in radians.
1 rev = 360◦ = 2π radians
Angular velocity: ω = dθ/dt
Angular acceleration: α = dω/dt
Equations of rotation for constant α :
ω = ω0 + αt
θ = θ0 + ω0 t + (1/2)αt2
ω 2 = ω02 + 2α∆θ
Relation between torque (τ ) and moment of inertia (I): τ = Iα
Nonslip conditions: s = Rθ, v = Rω, a = Rα, where v is the center of mass speed, a center of
mass acceleration and R cross-sectional radius of the rolling object.
Kinetic energy of rotation: K = 12 Iω 2
Total KE of rotation + translation: K.E. = 21 mv 2 + 12 Iω 2
Torque as a vector: ~τ = ~r × F~ , where F~ is the force. τ = rF sin θ (magnitude of torque).
Angular momentum of a particle with linear momentum L, ~ mass m, and linear velocity ~v :
~
L = ~r × p~ = m(~r × ~v )
~
Newton’s 2nd law in angular form: τnet = ddtL
Angular momentum of a rigid body: L = Iω.
Moment of inertia: I = Σmi ri2 . I for Solid sphere: 25 M R2 , Hollow sphere: 23 M R2 , Cylinder
(about axis): 12 M R2
Gravity
Kepler’s 3rd law: T 2 = (4π 2 /GMs )R3
Law of gravitation: F~ = −G m1r2m2 r̂
GM m
p energy: U (r)√= − r , U = 0 at r = ∞
Gravitational potential
Escape speed: ve = 2GME /RE = 2gRE
GME m
RE2 = mg
Constants:
Universal gravitational constant: G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg2
Mass of Earth: ME = 5.98 × 1024 kg
Radius of Earth: RE = 6.37 × 106 m
Simple Harmonic motion
x(t) = xm cos(ωt + φ) for simple harmonic motion.
v(t) = −ωxm sin(ωt + φ)
a(t) = −ω 2 x(t) = −ω 2 xm cos(ωt + φ)
velocity amplitude vm = ωxm , acceleration amplitude am = ω 2 xm
ω = 2πf = 2π T
Etotal = 12 kA2
Time period & frequency: T = f1
q q
m l
For spring: T = 2π k; For a simple pendulum: T = 2π g