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Introduction to Physics formulas

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Scalars & Vectors:

Unit vector notation: ~a = ax î + ay ĵ + az k̂

Scalar product: ~a.~b = abcosφ where φ is the angle between the the directions of ~a and ~b.

Vector (or cross) product: ~c = ~a × ~b. Magnitude of ~c = ab sin φ

Motion in one, two and three dimensions:

vav = ∆x/∆t,

aav = ∆v/∆t

v = v0 + at

∆x = x − x0 = v0 t + (1/2)at2

v 2 = v02 + 2a∆x

For projectile motion, the above equations of motion for constant acceleration may be used.

But, note that for zero acceleration: Distance traveled = v0x t

g = 9.8 m/s2

vy = v0y − gt

∆y = v0y t − 12 gt2

2

Range = vg0 sin 2θ

vy2 = v0y

2 − 2g∆y

2

Uniform circular motion: Centripetal acceleration a = vr where v is the speed of the particle

moving in a circular path of radius r.

Time for particle to complete revolution (period): T = 2πr

v

Relative motion for a particle P given two reference frames A and B: ~vP A = ~vP B + ~vBA

Newton’s Laws:

F~net = m~a (Newton’s 2nd Law)

w~ = m~g (weight)

Fx = −k∆x (Spring force)

fs ≤ µs FN , where FN is the normal force

fk = µk FN (Static & kinetic friction)

Work and Energy:

Work: W = f cos θ∆x

~

W = F~ .ds

Kinetic energy: K = 21 mv 2

Wtotal = ∆K

~B

A. ~ = AB cos φ

Power: P = dW/dt = F~ .~v

W

Average power: Pavg = ∆T

Potential energy ∆U = −W ,

∆U = −F~ .ds~

U = U0 + mgy (Gravitational potential energy)

∆U = 21 kx2f − 12 kx2i (Spring potential energy)

U = 21 kx2 (Spring potential energy when reference configuration has zero potential energy)

∆K + ∆U = 0 (for conservative forces)

∆K + ∆U = Wnc (work done by non-conservative forces).

System of particles, conservation of momentum

MR ~ cm = Σi mi~ri ; M V

~cm = Σi mi~vi ; M A

~ cm = Σi mi~ai

p~ = m~v

F~net = d~p

dt

1

p 2

Kinetic energy: K = 2m

General equations for elastic collision, both bodies are moving prior to the collision, their

m1 −m2

velocities immediately after the collision are given by: v1f = m 1 +m2

v1i + m2m 2

1 +m2

v2i

2m1 m2 −m1

and v2f = m1 +m2 v1i + m1 +m2 v2i

vcm = m1m v1i +m2 v2i

1 +m2

s

For elastic collision (equal mass), v2f − v1f = −(v2i − v1i )

Conservation of momentum: m1 v1i + m2 v2i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f

Impulse I~ = Favg ∆t, p~f − p~i = ∆p

~ = I~

Rotation

θ angular displacement measured in radians.

1 rev = 360◦ = 2π radians

Angular velocity: ω = dθ/dt

Angular acceleration: α = dω/dt

Equations of rotation for constant α :

ω = ω0 + αt

θ = θ0 + ω0 t + (1/2)αt2

ω 2 = ω02 + 2α∆θ

Relation between torque (τ ) and moment of inertia (I): τ = Iα

Nonslip conditions: s = Rθ, v = Rω, a = Rα, where v is the center of mass speed, a center of

mass acceleration and R cross-sectional radius of the rolling object.

Kinetic energy of rotation: K = 12 Iω 2

Total KE of rotation + translation: K.E. = 21 mv 2 + 12 Iω 2

Torque as a vector: ~τ = ~r × F~ , where F~ is the force. τ = rF sin θ (magnitude of torque).

Angular momentum of a particle with linear momentum L, ~ mass m, and linear velocity ~v :

~

L = ~r × p~ = m(~r × ~v )

~

Newton’s 2nd law in angular form: τnet = ddtL

Angular momentum of a rigid body: L = Iω.

Moment of inertia: I = Σmi ri2 . I for Solid sphere: 25 M R2 , Hollow sphere: 23 M R2 , Cylinder

(about axis): 12 M R2

Gravity

Kepler’s 3rd law: T 2 = (4π 2 /GMs )R3

Law of gravitation: F~ = −G m1r2m2 r̂

GM m

p energy: U (r)√= − r , U = 0 at r = ∞

Gravitational potential

Escape speed: ve = 2GME /RE = 2gRE

GME m

RE2 = mg

Constants:

Universal gravitational constant: G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg2

Mass of Earth: ME = 5.98 × 1024 kg

Radius of Earth: RE = 6.37 × 106 m

Simple Harmonic motion

x(t) = xm cos(ωt + φ) for simple harmonic motion.

v(t) = −ωxm sin(ωt + φ)

a(t) = −ω 2 x(t) = −ω 2 xm cos(ωt + φ)

velocity amplitude vm = ωxm , acceleration amplitude am = ω 2 xm

ω = 2πf = 2π T

Etotal = 12 kA2

Time period & frequency: T = f1

q q

m l

For spring: T = 2π k; For a simple pendulum: T = 2π g

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