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BLACK 2016 - A spark that faded!
Editor Emeritus
Ravi Damodaran
On June 11, 2016, The Masterbuilder, my mother - Renza Pradeep, and I lost
Executive Editor
in the demise of Shri K.P. Pradeep, a founder, a husband,a father, a mentor, a Agith G Antony
friend, and most importantly a light that illuminated every moment of our
lives. His passion, flair, charisma, and above all, his genuinely optimistic out- Editor
Nigel Narayan
look has been severely missed on all platforms that he has been involved in.
Associate Editors
Shri K.P Pradeep had set lit a flame, filled with warmth, and compassion and M J Krishna, M K Prabhakar, Sonjoy Deb
now the onus is on us, team MB to keep alive that flame and charge on. Head - Content Development CE,
Infrastructure & Environment
Steadying the reins was old faithful Editor Emeritus, Ravi Damodaran. The Sadagopan Seshadri
Masterbuilder, my mother, and I will forever be grateful to Ravi Damodaran Content Editor
Avishek Ghosh
for his immense contribution and undulating support. He will continue to
remain a part of Masterbuilder, guiding and mentoring us as we move for- Bhavani Balakrishna, Priya, Sowmya Raja,
ward. The Masterbuilder is now in a state of transition. With focus on maintaining the ethos of the company, Snehal Joshi, Dhanya R, Priya Pradeep
and on the laurels of Shri K.P. Pradeep we have embarked on a journey to realise our late founder's dreams Vice President Marketing
H Usha Devi
and wishes. Every move here on forth will be in tune with the ideology and road map set forth for us. Finance
R Prema
On to industry linked activities; the month of December will play host to BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA 2016.
Manager Digital Production
Scheduled for the 12th to 15th, the show will be sporting a host of new cosmetic changes designed to further K Sravanthi Kiran
foray into the Indian Construction Industry. The show will also be shifting venues to HUDA Ground, Manager Digital Media
Gurgaon/Delhi.Having put up a relatively successful event in 2014 amidst the economic downcycle, BAUMA Lakshmi Rahul
Creative Head
CONEXPO INDIA has already proved that the brand has established itself as a solution for the industry's net- S Nithiyanandam
working needs. Hence, with investor sentiment in the positive and with India once again a bright spot in the Production Manager
world economy, it comes as no surprise that the show has attracted over 700 exhibitors and expects over Caroline D'sylva
30,000 business visitors to attend. Digital Production Assistant
R Anand, Sudhir Kumar Singh
Earlier this year, under the leadership of Shri Nitin Gadkari, management of bridges in India received the impe- Sales Coordinator
Stephen Jacob
tus needed to make sustainable advances. An Indian Bridge Management System was launched to both; tag
Subscription & Circulation Team
and monitor bridges and culverts across the country. The system employs a software which IDs an asset and Sateesh Kuniyil, R Vidya Parthan
maintains structural data about it. This data is then used to schedule maintenance,effectively averting a crisis Manager
well in advance. Pradeep Nair
Corporate Office
2016 bolstered the Indian economy through a slew of measures from the government meticulously crafted to MB Publishers Pvt. Limited
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affected. However, how long will this effect last, and will it propel Printed By
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As the year 2016 comes to a close, I would like to wish you a happy and pros- K P PRADEEP Disclaimer
perous new year 2017. We hope you enjoy this edition and look forward to your 17.04.1961 -11.06.2016 All rights reserved. Reproduction, stored in a retrieval sys-
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lisher, neither do the publishers endorse any of the claims made in the advertisements.

Editor's Comment.............................10
Advertisers Index..............................16
Asumptions - -India Sets Sail for Growth
Via 'blue Revolution'
Classification Index..........................18
News & Events.................................20
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development,
CE - Infrastructure - Environment


Asumptions - -India Sets Sail for Growth 80 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING - SOIL
Via 'blue Revolution' Behaviour of unsaturated soils and significance of
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, physico-chemical effects in clays
CE - Infrastructure - Environment Amiya Prakash Das, M.S., PhD, Student, Hong Kong University
of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR


Pitch Deck Presentation -Part II (of III) CONCRETE RECYCLING PLANT
Subu Venkataraman
Strategic Advisor & Consultant, Startups and SMEs
92 Specilalised Concrete Recycling Plant RA 12 / RA 20


Sustainable Handling of Construction
Inside Wire of Cracking the Interview
Mandar Chitre, Consultant, Trainer & Writer and Demolition ( C & D ) Waste

Emancipation of acotec SEMI wall plant 102 EVENT
A Session on Concrete Waterproofing
established in India and Affordable Housing

Analysis of 110 meter high air traffic 106 CURTAIN RAISER: BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA 2016
Bauma Conexpo India 2016 - A continued
control tower (ATC) tradition with a new identity!
Subhash Mehrotra1, Deepak Thakur2, Sakshi Mehra3 Nigel Narayan
M. Tech. (Structural Engineering) I.I.T. Delhi
B.E. (Civil Engineering) from N.I.T. Nagpur
M. Sc. (Structural Engineering) University of Glasgow& Edinburgh
Managing Director Mehro Consultants New Delhi
110 Roads & Highways to Push The Growth Momentum
Agith G Antony
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Stabilization of expansive soil with industrial
solid waste
Prof. P V Sivapullaiah, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Gitam University,
Formwork Applications
Bangaluru Campus, Nagadenahalli Avishek Ghosh

54 106

36 57

“Value Engineered Formwork Suited for
bauma China 2016 - A sustained beacon for the
Indian Conditions” construction industry!

142 Evolvement of Advanced Concrete Solutions COMMUNICATION FEATURE

152 Innovation of Concreting Solutions 60 FibreFix forays into the Indian market

80 Slope Protection for the Abutment of

198 Scaling the challenges of equipment market Minor Bridge at NH-91

132 REPORT: IMPACT OF DEMONETIZATION 90 Third Generation Nano Polymer Binder

Demonetization - A Speed Breaker?
Agith G Antony
100 Waterproofing: Bridge Deck Protection


Driving Forces of the Mining Sector
114 JCB India Diversifying for Evolving Landscapes!

MB Bureau Report
118 Underlining Full Line Capabilities at BC India 2016


Concreting Equipment for Infrastructure 120 Launch of Products Targeted at the Value
Segment and Robust Performance on Site
MB Bureau Report

144 BKT - An Indian Manufacture with a Global Presence

Dynamic Analysis of Pile-Raft Foundation for
Site-Specific Earthquake 148 Infrastructural Alignment with Quality Equipment
Buvaneswari C.1, Kamatchi, P.2
1M. E. Project student, 2Principal Scientist, CSIR-Structural
Engineering Research Centre CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai 150 The Automatic Four Station Press

156 Fly-ash Concrete and Block Making Machines

Critical Resilient Design Criteria in Construction of
Natural Disaster-Resistant Buildings
Dr. A.N. Sarkar, Former-Senior Professor (International Business)
158 On a sustained robust growth path

& Dean (Research) Asia-Pacific Institute of Management, New Delhi

In conversation with R C Mangal, Sr. VP, Sales &
158 Marketing – Mahindra Truck and Bus Division


The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Analysis and evaluation of stability for the reactivated 192 DURAfloorprotector for Effective
Protective Floor Covering
landslide along deep-seated weakness zones
Boo-Seong Park1, Hyun Cho2, Sung-Pill Youn3, Dong-In Park4
Presentation of Road and Mineral
General Manager, 2Senior Vice President, Ph.D,
Assistant Manager, 4Manager, Sangyong Engineering and Technology Solutions at BC India 2016
Construction Co., Ltd., Korea

132 138

134 190

Advertisers Index
A H Perlcon Premix Pvt. Ltd. 89

Action Construction Equipment Ltd. 167/169 Hitech Scaffolding Pvt. Ltd. 195 Perma Cosntruction Aids Pvt. Ltd. 193

Ajax Fiori Engg., (I) Pvt. Ltd. 117 I Piscon Construction Equipments Pvt. Ltd 95

I.H.Shah Associates Polygoma Industries Pvt. Ltd. 19

Amman Apollo India Pvt. Ltd. 7
(Construction Learning) 195
Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt. Ltd 9
Apollo Infratech Pvt. Ltd. 93/145/155
Ihita Engineering Services Pvt. Ltd 129
Asons Enterprises 11
J REIT Qgreen Machines Pvt. Ltd 157
B JCB India Ltd. Gate Fold Reliance Industries Ltd. (Recron) 181
Balkrishna Industries Ltd. 99 Jilin India 103 Relyon Facility Service 193
Bekaert Mukund Wire Industries Jindal Aluminium Ltd 49 Roof India -2017 157
Pvt. Ltd (Dramix) 15
K Reva Engineeing Enterprises 165
Bosch India 41
Kaveri Ultra Polymers Pvt. Ltd. 2nd Wrapper Robert Thomas Metall-und Elektrowerke
Build Smart Construction GmbH & Co. KG 193
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. 35 Kernoes Aluminate Technologies 33
Roof India 2017 191
Buildmat- 2017 199 Kyb Conmat Pvt. Ltd. 21
C Schwing Stetter (India) Private Ltd. Cover /55
Leister Technologies India Pvt. Ltd. 13
Cerachem Pvt. Ltd. 29 Sharp Ply (India) Pvt. Ltd 131
Columbia Machine Engineering Pvt. Ltd. 202 Shri Parijatha Machinery works Pvt. Ltd 153
Maccaferri Environmental Solutions
Conmac 2017 (CII) 201 Private Limited 79 Sicoma Mixers India Pvt. Ltd 151

ConMec Auto Consultants India Pvt. Ltd. 8 Maco Coporation India Pvt. Ltd. 185 Sika India Private Ltd. 27

Macons Equipments Pvt. Ltd. 49 Spartan Engineering Industries Pvt. Ltd 177
Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt. Ltd 75
Elematic India Pvt.Ltd 83 Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. Front Inner-1
Surie Polex 53
Elgi Equipments Ltd 185 Manitowoc cranes 113
Marini India Pvt.Ltd (Fayat India) 63
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Escorts Construction Equipment Ltd 109

Talrak Construction Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. 31
Metecno India Pvt. Ltd. Front Inner-2
Everest Engineering Equipment Pvt. Ltd. 17
MFS Formwork Systems Pvt.Ltd 123
Excon 2017 197
Ultratech Cement Ltd. Back Cover
Minitech Floors 189
F Universal Construction Machinery &
Morfi Concrete Systems Pvt. Ltd 127 Equipment Ltd 133 / 141 / 149
Fab India Industries 159
MTANDT Ltd 127 V
Forest Press Hydraulics Ltd 115
Municipalika 2017 194 VMT International 71
N Vollert India Pvt. Ltd. 69
Gareware-Wall Ropes Ltd 189 Neha Infra Services 173 Volvo India Pvt. Ltd 61
GMMCO Ltd Back Inner /137 P W
Golecha Equipment Pvt. Ltd 43 Pakona Engineers (I) Pvt. Ltd. 161 Wirtgen India Pvt. Ltd. 59

Advertisers Index / Classification

Admixture Asons Enterprises 11 Flooring
Talrak Construction Chemicals Pvt.Ltd 31 Balkrishna Industries Ltd 99 Minitech Floors 189
Jilin India 103 Bosch India 41 Formwork
Aerial Access platform Conmac 2017 (CII) 201 Ihita Engineering Services Pvt.Ltd 129
Maco Corporation India Pvt.Ltd 185 Conmec Auto Consultants India Pvt.Ltd 8 MFS Formwork Systems Pvt.Ltd 123
Aluminium Escorts Construction Equipment Ltd 109 Morfi Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd 127
Jindal Aluminium Ltd 49 Everest Engineering Equipment Pvt.Ltd 17 Sharp Ply (India) Pvt.Ltd 131
C& D waste Equipment Fab India Industries 159 Geosynthetics
Piscon Construction Equipments Pvt.Ltd 95 GMMCO Ltd Back Inner /137 Gareware-Wall Ropes Ltd 189
Calcium Aluminium Silicate Golecha Equipment Pvt.Ltd 43 MACCAFERRI Environmental Solutions
Kernoes Aluminate Technologies 33 JCB India Ltd Gate Fold Private Limited 79
Cement Kyb Conmat Pvt.Ltd 21 Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt.Ltd 75
Ultratech Cement Ltd Back Cover Macons Equipments Pvt.Ltd 39 Precast Elements
Compressors Elematic India Pvt.Ltd 83
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd Front Inner-1
Elgi Equipments Ltd 185 Precast Equipment
Marini India Pvt.Ltd (Fayat India) 63
Concrete Block Making Machine Vollert India Pvt.Ltd 69
MTANDT Ltd 121
Columbia Machine Engineering Sand Plaster
Neha Infra Services 173
Pvt. Ltd. 202 Perlcon Premix Pvt.Ltd 89
Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd 9
Forest Press Hydraulics Ltd 115 Sandwich Panels
Reva Engineeing Enterprises 165
REIT Qgreen Machines Pvt.Ltd 157 Metecno India Pvt.Ltd Front Inner -2
Schwing Stetter India Pvt.Ltd Cover /55
Reva Engineeing Enterprises 165 Scaffolding
Spartan Engineering Industries Pvt.Ltd 177
Shri Parijatha Machinery works Pvt.Ltd 153 Hitech Scaffolding Pvt.Ltd 195
Universal Construction Machinery &
Concrete Pipe Making Machine Soil & Slope Stabilization
Equipment Ltd 133 / 141 / 149
Pakona Engineers(I) Pvt. Ltd. 161 Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt.Ltd 75
VMT International 71
Concrete Polishing Machine Soil Stabilization
Volvo India Pvt.Ltd 69
Surie Polex 53 Kaveri Ultra Polymers Pvt.Ltd 2nd Wrapper
Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd 59
Concrete Mixers Steel Fiber Reinforcement
Sicoma Mixers India Pvt.Ltd 151 Bekaert Mukund Wire Industries Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Manitowoc cranes 113 (Dramix) 15

Construction Training
Crushing Equipment Stone Polishing Machine
I.H.Shah Associates (Construction
Piscon Construction Equipments Surie Polex 53
Learning) 195
Pvt.Ltd 95 Tower cranes
Construction Chemicals
Curing compound Chamber Everest Engineering Equipment Pvt.Ltd 17
Build Smart Construction Chemicals
Pvt.Ltd 35 Robert Thomas Metall-und Elektrowerke Waterproofing
GmbH & Co. KG 193 Cerachem Pvt.Ltd 29
Cerachem Pvt.Ltd 29
Exhibition Perma Construction Aids Pvt.Ltd 193
Perma Construction Aids Pvt.Ltd 193
Buildmat 2017 199 Polygomma Industries Pvt.Ltd 19
Sika India Pvt.Ltd 27
Excon 2017 197 Reliance Industries Ltd 181
Construction Equipment
Municipalika 2017 194 Sika India Pvt.Ltd 27
Action Construction Equipment Ltd 167/169
Roof India 2017 191 Talrak Construction Chemicals Pvt.Ltd 31
Ajax Fiori Engg., (India) Pvt.Ltd 117
Facility services Welding machine
Amman Apollo India Pvt.Ltd 7
Relyon Facility Services 193 Leister Technologies India Pvt.Ltd 13

Apollo Infratech India Pvt.Ltd 93/145/155



substantially enhance production of coal

by 2019-20. This includes capacity addi-
POWER tion from new projects, use of mass pro-
duction technologies and identification of
existing on-going projects with growth
Infrastructure sector records 6-month high potential. The focus of the government is
growth of 6.6% in October on increasing the domestic production,
which includes efforts to expedite envi-
Infrastructure sector recorded a growth ronment clearances & forest clearances
rate of 6.6 percent in October the high- expeditiously, pursuing with the state gov-
est in last six months on the back of ernment for assistance in land acquisition
impressive performance by steel and and coordinated effort with Railways for
refinery products. However, the growth movement of coal, the minister added. Coal
is the biggest contributor to the total value
rate of power generation, cement output
of mineral production in the country.
and fertiliser production fell consider-
ably on a year-on-year basis. Coal pro- NTPC's Vindhyachal power
duction continued to fall for the third a contraction of 5.5 per cent in the year-
straight month. The growth rate of eight ago period. The output of refinery prod- plant gets IPMA International
infrastructure sectors steel, cement, ucts soared by 15.1 per cent in October. project cxcellence award
electricity, coal, crude oil, natural gas, Growth in fertiliser and electricity gen-
refinery products and fertilisers was 3.8 eration was at 0.8 per cent and 2.8 per
percent in October 2015. It was 5 per- cent, respectively, in October 2016,
cent in September 2016. The core sec- against 16.8 percent and 13.8 percent,
tors, which contribute 38 per cent to the respectively in October 2015. Coal pro-
total industrial production, expanded by duction declined by 1.6 percent in Octo-
4.9 per cent in April-October compared ber as against a growth of 6.6 per cent in
to 2.8 per cent growth in the similar period the year-ago period. Natural gas and
of last financial year. Steel production crude oil output during October fell by
jumped 16.9 per cent in October against 1.4percentand3.2percent,respectively.
Power generator, NTPC Ltd's Vindhyachal
power plant in Madhya Pradesh, also the
Jakson will install India's coal production country's largest electricity generation
rooftop solar plant rises 13 percent over two station, has bagged the IPMA International
Project Excellence's Silver Award for the
at Rashtrapati Bhawan fiscal years: Piyush Goyal year 2016 for project management. The
company said in a statement a unit of the
4,760 Megawatt project was commissioned
ahead of schedule it was synchronised on
6 August last year and achieved full load
the same day within 26 months from the
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

date of construction. The award was

received by Rajesh Kumar Bhatnagar,
Executive Director of the Vindhyachal pro-
ject along with SK Roy, Executive Director,
Operations from the IPMA organisers at
an award ceremony held in Warsaw, Poland.
Jakson Group has secured a contract to Global industrial giant, GE got gold for their
install a rooftop solar plant of 508 kWp India's coal production increased 13 per- South Africa Escom project, and China
capacity at the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The cent from 565 million tonne (MT) in 2013- State Construction got a bronze medal for
company will design installs, commission 14 to 639 MT in 2015-16, power, coal, mines Mauritius Airport Expansion project on
and maintain this facility, Jakson Group and renewable energy minister, Piyush occasion. IPMA International Project
Goyal said. The minister also said coal Excellence Award recognises projects from
said in a statement. The project is expected
imports have fallen nine per cent to 199.88 different countries, industries and organi-
to be commissioned by this year end. The MT in 2016. The drop in coal imports has sations and motivates project teams to
project will generate approximately 7.41 been on account of increased production develop and improve project management.
lakh units per year. Jakson is among top 2 by Coal India Ltd (CIL) in 2015-16, Goyal said It supports professional project manage-
players in India Solar Rooftop market and in a written reply in Rajya Sabha. While ment in achieving high performance and
has a portfolio of 30 MW Rooftop project addressing the Parliament, Goyal said that identifies projects as examples of excel-

so far. a roadmap has been prepared by CIL to lent project management.



ily responsible for development and main-

tenance of National Highways. Last month,
ROADS Road Transport and Highways Minister,
Nitin Gadkari had told that there are pro-
posals to develop highway stretches in such
NHAI requires ` 71,911 crore for highway a fashion that they may double up as air-
projects: Government strips, which will provide connectivity in dif-
ficult places. The transport ministry is shortly
The government said the National High- going to convene a meeting with the defence
ways Authority of India (NHAI) has esti- ministry to firm up the proposal. 22
mated a total investment of ` 71,911 stretches have been identified in various
crore for the execution of different high- parts of the country for the same. In August,
way projects during 2016-17. Life Gadkari had spoken about the construc-
Insurance Corporation of India(LIC) has tion of such an airport in Rajasthan and said
agreed in principle to subscribe to NHAI similar projects were being planned in
taxable bonds to the tune of ` 25,000 Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and some
crores subject to not more than ` 8,500 other border districts. In Rajasthan, such
crores in one financial year, Union Min- an airport could serve as an airstrip for
ister of State for Road Transport and quate preparation are being taken by landing and take-off when it is closed, and
Highways and Shipping Pon. NHAI to complete the National Highways traffic can be restored later. The govern-
Development Project (NHDP). The Min- ment is working on ways to boost regional
Radhakrishnan informed Lok Sabha.
air connectivity in the country.
According to the Minister, various steps ister elaborated that no future project
like streamlining of land acquisition, would be awarded unless 80 per cent of
revamping of disputes resolution mech- land is available with authority with req- Delhi-Meerut E-way may be
anism and awarding projects with ade- uisite forest clearance.
allowed: Expert panel to NGT
Government clears menting of existing highway stretches on The permission to National Highways
` 6,068 crore highway NH 39 and NH-415. The three projects for Authority India (NHAI) to build a bridge
Maharashtra pertain to two and four-laning and its approach roads across the river for
projects in eight states of highway stretches on NH-930, NH-211 the Delhi- Meerut Expressway should be
(New NH-52) and NH-211 (New NH-52). allowed to help ease traffic congestion, an
The Goa project is for the construction of expert committee on told the National Green
Margaon Western NH Bypass for NH 17 Tribunal (NGT). The project would be
(New NH-66). The West Bengal project allowed” subject to fulfilling of certain con-
pertains to four-laning of Kolaghat to ditions including increasing the cost of
Haldia section of NH-41 with ROB cum Fly- monitoring during the construction phase
of the bridge by nearly ` 2.5 crores. The
over while Rehabilitation and upgrade of
committee, constituted by the NGT for
Barhani-Kataya Chowk near Shohratgarh
implementation of 'Maili se Nirmal Yamuna
section of NH-730. The Standing Finance
The government has approved 12 high- Revitalisation Project 2017', has recom-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Committee (SFC) approved reconstruc- mended that project proponent should save
way projects worth ` 6,067.9 crores in eight tion with geometric improvements of two-
states including Uttar Pradesh and West “as many trees” as possible and no wet-
lane to two lanes with paved shoulder of a land area on the floodplains should be dis-
Bengal. The National Highway projects section of NH-125 in Uttarakhand.
totalling 476.386 km were cleared by the turbed during the construction phase. The
committee also suggested that a strong
Standing Finance Committee on Novem-
Govt to form inter-ministerial iron marshes of 8-inch height should be
ber 15, Ministry of Road Transport and
panel for setting up emergency erected along the proposed bridge to stop
Highways said in a statement. Most of the
the public from throwing solid waste in
476-km projects are under engineering, landing facilities along the Yamuna. The submissions came in
procurement and construction (EPC) mode major NH corridors response to National Highways Authority
for augmenting highways. The projects are of India's (NHAI) plea seeking NGT's nod
in Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, An inter-ministerial coordination group for the building of bridges and approach
Maharashtra, Goa, West Bengal, (IMG) is being constituted to achieve the roads over the Yamuna. The Delhi-Meerut
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Of the 12 objective of creating emergency landing Expressway will be built through public -
projects, nine are in EPC mode, two in facilities along with all major national high- private partnership mode and slated to be
hybrid annuity and the remaining one in OMT way corridors, Minister of State for Road operational by March 2018. The project will
(operate-maintain- transfer) mode. Four Transport and Highways (MoRTH), Pon reduce the time of travel between Delhi
of the projects pertain to Manipur, Radhakrishnan said in a written reply to and Meerut (NH-58) to 40-45 minutes from
the Lok Sabha. He said MoRTH is primar-

Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh for aug- three hours at present.



tional time to six developers and units to

LMRC starts first trial run, will open to implement their projects. G P Realtors
public on March 26, next year had sought a further extension of the
validity period of formal approval granted
The trial run of the Lucknow Metro in for setting up electronic hardware and
Uttar Pradesh was flagged off by Chief IT/ITeS zone in Haryana. The board
Minister, Akhilesh Yadav and his father, extended the validity up to November 13,
Mulayam Singh Yadav. The primary sec- 2017. SEZs are export hubs, which con-
tion (between Transport Nagar to tribute about 23 percent of the country's
Charbagh) would be open for public on total outbound shipments. As per the
March 26 next year after three months Commerce Ministry's data, as on March
of rigorous trial. The entire 23-km long 31, these zones had attracted invest-
North-South corridor will have 21 sta- ment in 2013 to execute the metro-rail ments worth Rs 3.76 lakh crore and gen-
tions including eight elevated ones. The project in the city. Padma Vibhushan, E. erated employment for 15.91 lakh people.
estimated cost of the project will be Sreedharan, who has successfully han-
around ` 6,800 crore. LMRC, a special dled many mega projects in the coun- Extension plan of Kochi
purpose vehicle, was registered under try, like Konkan Railway and Delhi
Metro gets a big boost
the Companies Act by the state govern- Metro, is the principal advisor of LMRC.
with 175mn EUR loan
DMRC successfully wraps tunnelling work on the 38 kilometres long
up all tunnelling works of its Janakpuri West Botanical Garden corri-
dor had multiple engineering challenges.
phase-3 project The new tunnels passed below already
operational elevated viaducts of Delhi Metro
at three locations.

Government approves six

new proposals to set up
SEZs for IT, biotech

Kochi Metro Rail LTD's (KMRL) extension

plan has got a major boost with a French
The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) funding agency agreeing to provide a loan
has successfully completed all the tun- of around 175 million Euros for the pro-
nelling works of Phase 3 with the comple- The government has approved six pro- ject. The Agence Francaise de
tion of a 1.25-kilometre long tunnel between posals from four developers to set up new Developpement (AFD) has offered to fund
Vasant Vihar and Munirka on the Janakpuri special economic zones (SEZs) across the metro rail's extension from JLN Sta-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

West Botanical Garden Magenta Line. dium to Infopark via Kakkanad. Consider-
three states in areas such as IT and bio-
The work on this 1.25-kilometre long tun- ing it as a special case, the French agency
technology. The decision was taken by
nel had started in the month of October agreed to extend the loan for a longer ten-
2015. The tunnel consists of a total of 904 the Board of Approval (BoA), headed by ure of 25 years at an interest rate of 1.35
rings and has been constructed about 20 Commerce Secretary, Rita Teaotia. The percent. The normal tenure for such loans
metres below the surface. With this tun- developers who got the nod for new zones for urban infrastructure is presently 20
nel breakthrough, DMRC in Phase 3 has include Vaxenic India, EON Kharadi Infra- years. The loan also includes a component
now completed one of the largest ever tun- structure and KRC Infrastructure. GAR of EUR 22 million for the non-motorized
neling projects taken up in any urban area Corporation has proposed to set up two transportation works at 20 stations,
all over the world where a record 30 Tun- IT/ITeS zones in Telangana, while Vaxenic pedestrianisation of M G Road and junction
nel Boring Machine (TBMs) were used to India wants to set up biotechnology and improvement in Aluva, Edapally and Vyttila.
bore close to 80 kilometres of underground Discussion on the proposed extension over
biopharmaceuticals SEZ in the state.
tunnels (combining the length of both tun- a distance of 11.2 km at the cost of ` 2,024
nels for to and fro movement of trains). EON Kharadi Infrastructure and KRC
crore was held at the Seventh Annual
The total underground corridor length in Infrastructure to have planned to set up Negotiation Meeting between the Ministry
Phase 3 including the stations is about 54 separate IT/ITeS special economic zones of Finance, Government of India and AFD
kilometres. The underground work of Phase in Pune. Information Technology Park at Paris on November 9 and 10. It is expected
3 was even more than the combined work has got the approval to set up IT zone in that AFD's Board will clear the proposal in

undertaken in the first two phases. The Karnataka. The board has also given addi- December 2016.


Mining conglomerate, Vedanta plans to

NTPC receives investment approval invest `15,000 crore to `20,000 crore over
for its first wind power project three years in expanding its alumina and
aluminium producing capacity. The com-
State-run power generator, National pany plans to expand the capacity of its
Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC Ltd) Lanjigarh alumina refinery to 5 million
announced it has received investment tonnes from the current 2 million tonnes
approval for its first wind power project and double the capacity of its Jharsuguda
in Gujarat. India's largest power utility is aluminium smelter to 2 million tonnes.
planning to set up a 50 Megawatt (MW) Both the plants are located in Odisha.
wind project, which will cost the com- Vedanta has been trying to expand the
pany an estimated ` 323.35 crore, capacity of its refinery for almost 8 years
according to a company statement. The now but, a paucity of availability of bauxite,
wind power project is a part of NTPC's the raw material, which is refined to make
aim to become a “low-cost low emis- alumina, has proved a hurdle.
sion utility”. NTPC's Power Management MW of commissioned solar capacity set
Institute and research arm NETRA will up all across the country. The company Essar Power subsidiary at
play a crucial role in achieving the firm's also has 1,519 MW of operational Hazira commissions second
goals. The company recently announced hydropower capacity, which adds to the
unit of 135 MW
its Telangana Thermal Power Project company's green energy capacity.
will be the most modern complying NTPC aims to set up 1000 MW of capac-
with the latest environment norms. The ity from renewable sources by 2017. The
country's largest coal-based power Maharatna PSU plans to meet its target
generator has established itself in the by setting up a further 360 MW from
renewable sector in the India with 360 solar power.

Dow Corning to showcase which improve the sustainability of build-

new silicone technologies at ing materials. Dow Corning's range of Essar Power said its subsidiary at Hazira
high-performance silicone solutions has
the Glass Technology Expo 2016 in Gujarat has commissioned the second
been playing a key role in the global build- and last unit of 135 MW, making the 270
ing and construction industry for many MW project fully operational now. The
years, and are increasingly being speci- company said commissioning was done
fied as the materials of choice in India. in a record 53 days from IBR hydro test to
With Dow Corning Corporation becoming final synchronisation making it among the
a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow fastest in the industry. The first unit was
Chemical Company, there are exciting commissioned in July last year. With this,
opportunities, which will drive new prod-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

the 270 MW multi-fuel power plant, which

uct offerings, increased geographic reach is 100 percent captive to Essar Steel Hazira,
and expanded R&D power to bring inno- is now fully operational. The plant runs on
Dow Corning India Pvt. Ltd will participate vations to the customers faster. multiple fuels, like coal (both domestic
in the Glass Technology Expo 2016 being and imported) and corex gas, simulta-
held at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi from Vedanta plans to invest neously. Essar Power has a target capac-
December 9th to 11th,2016. Dow Corning, ` 20,000 crores over 3 years in ity of 6,100 MW, and this commissioning
a global leader in silicones, silicon-based expanding its aluminium capacity makes 80 per cent, or 4,840 MW, opera-
technology & innovation, is showcasing tional now. Increased coal availability, as
its high-performance new silicone tech- well as strong operational efficiencies over
nologies for building and construction at the last two years, have helped the com-
the expo. The Company is expanding its pany to improve performance significantly.
range in India and is offering more options Essar Power has an operational capacity
to Indian customers. The options range of 4,840 MW, of which 3,240 MW is coal-
from technologies, which include high- based and 1,600 MW gas-based. Its oper-
performance silicone adhesives and seal- ating plants are located at Mahan in
ants for building façades, to silicone-based Chhatisgarh and at Hazira, Salaya and

water repellent coatings and additives, Vadinar in Gujarat



cement. The rail depot will mean that

Construction Progresses on the 49-story trains will be used to transport cement in
Wales for the first time in over 20 years.
mixed-use Vancouver House The yard is expected to replace 2500
annual truck movements on the local
Progress has been moving along at the roads. Reducing its road movements by
site of the Bjarke Ingels-designed Van- 25% is a significant achievement of the
couver House. The 49-story mixed-use company. It also gives an even better posi-
tower by Westbank is beginning to rise tion to supply materials to their custom-
above grade in the heart of downtown ers across Wales and the south west of
Vancouver's up-and-coming Beach England in a more sustainable way. The
District. Designed in conjunction with plant has been in operation for over 100
Canadian firms, DIALOG and James KM years, and it employs 109 people.
Cheng Architects, the project has been
described as a “living sculpture,” due to
Giant protective arch slides
the tower's signature twist. A challeng- over Chernobyl site to create
ing build site, the irregular plot is con- a casement to block radiation
strained on all sides by the surrounding
road infrastructure. The most obvious
obstacle is the elevated roadway, which with a smattering of restaurants, cafés,
abuts the length of the site from one end and shops, which will populate the bot-
to the other, thus necessitating a care- tom of the tower at street level. Once
ful management of all operations related complete in 2018, the tower will be a
to construction. The structure will even- welcome addition to the local skyline
tually be home to 600 residential units and Beach District, a relatively new A New Safe Confinement (NSC) structure
(7,400 square meters) of office space, neighbourhood made possible by the was built over the old sarcophagus cover-
and 5,600 square meters of retail, along city's recent development boom. ing the damaged fourth reactor at the
Chernobyl nuclear power plant, Ukraine.
The world's largest land-based moving
Beijing to completely shift ing for residences in the city. Beijing has a structure has been slid over the Chernobyl
coal mining history of nearly 800 years. nuclear disaster site to prevent deadly
away from coal mining by 2020 West Beijing's mountainous area became radiation spewing from the stricken reac-
to curb alarming air pollution renowned as a high-quality coal produc- tor for the next 100 years. A concrete sar-
tion base. Statistics show that Beijing's cophagus had been built over the site of
coal consumption in 2010 was over 26 mil- the stricken reactor to contain the worst
lion tonnes, with the number declining to of the radiation, but a more permanent
about 12 million tonnes in 2015. The cen- solution has been in the works since 2001.
tral and the Beijing municipal govern- The new structure, which resembles a vast
ments are allocated more than USD 23.2 aircraft hangar, has been designed to with-
million in subsidies to local coal workers stand extreme temperatures, corrosion
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

and miners in 2016. The coal mining areas and tornadoes. Easily visible from kilo-
will be developed as new industries, which metres away, the 36,000 tonne 'New Safe
are expected to be brought in. Confinement' arch has been slowly pulled
over the site to create a casement to block
Tarmac opens rail facility at radiation and allow the remains of the
Beijing will close its last three coal mines reactor to be dismantled safely. A cere-
in the next four years and entirely quit coal
Aberthaw Cement Plant to mony was held at Chernobyl to mark this
mining by 2020, ending an 800-year-old despatch bulk cement major milestone in the decades of work to
practice in a bid to curb alarming air pollu- secure the site that has been funded by
tion. China is the world's top coal con- donations amounting to over €2 billion
sumer, but demand has been on the wane ($2.1 billion) from over 40 countries and
as economic growth slows and the coun- organisations. Even with the new arch, the
try shifts away from fossil fuels to curb pol- surrounding zone, which at 2,600 sq. kms is
lution. In 2016, Beijing closed two coal mines roughly the size of Luxembourg, will remain
with a total annual production capacity of largely uninhabitable and closed to
1.8 million tonnes. Pollution levels in unsanctioned visitors. The European Bank
Beijing goes up high especially during the for Reconstruction and Development was
winter as the city operates numerous Tarmac's Aberthaw Cement Plant has tasked to managed the funding for the

coal-fired heating plants to provide heat- opened a rail facility to despatch bulk clean-up.


presence to be more valuable to custom-

Caterpillar India Wins Golden Peacock Award for ers, the media, jobseekers and other
Sustainability for 2016 interested stakeholders. In addition to pro-
viding product and service information, the
Caterpillar India has won the 'Golden global site also gives visitors an insight
Peacock Award' for Sustainability for into the company's long history, what
the year 2016 instituted by the Institute Volvo CE believes in and the values at the
of Directors (IOD) for its many sustain- core of the business. There is a heightened
able and innovative initiatives and pro- focus on video and images across the
grams at its manufacturing facilities website as well as a media area, which
located at Hosur, Tamil Nadu. The Jury gathers news and events in one place,
under the chairmanship of Justice M.N. allowing users to easily sort and filter press
sustainability economic, environmen- releases by date and topic.
Venkatachaliah, former Chief Justice of tal and social performance,” stated Mr.
Supreme Court of India has specially Vivekanand Vanmeeganathan, Country “We wanted the new site to reflect the fact
mentioned the company's efforts in low- Head and Managing Director, Caterpil- that Volvo CE is an innovative company,
ering the greenhouse gas (GHG) inten- lar India. “Sustainable development for one that is approachable and the best busi-
sity in its manufacturing processes at Caterpillar means leveraging technol- ness partner in the industry,” commented
its engine manufacturing facility located ogy and innovation to increase effi- Bill Law, senior vice president of corporate
at Hosur. ciency and productivity with less impact communications and public affairs at Volvo
“We are especially pleased that Cater- on the environment and helping our CE. “I believe the new global website will
pillar India has earned this award for customers do the same enabling their attract a great number of visitors, helping
Sustainability. We have initiated a num- businesses to become more produc- us to engage more effectively with our
ber of programmes at our manufactur- tive by providing products, services and audiences.”
ing facilities in India that deliver excel- solutions that use resources more effi-
lence in the three aspects of ciently,” Mr. Vanmeeganathan said.
New Single-drum
Compactor from Volvo
CobraTM PROi, bar. This approach minimizes pressure
variations and voids in the fuel, ensuring Volvo Construction Equipment will rein-
the First Petrol Breaker smooth running. Putting the operator first force its strength in road-building with the
from Atlas Copco is embedded in Atlas Copco's DNA, and introduction of the new SD110BA at bC India
the Cobra PROi is a good example. Hand-
2016. The robust Volvo SD110BA provides
arm vibration level on 3 axes is below 4 m/s2,
equal measures of efficiency, versatility and
and the machine is light. Weighing just 24
stability to ensure superior compaction,
kg, it is no problem to carry around and fits
easily in the trunk of a car. Starting is easy shift after shift. Delivering an efficient,
in any conditions; the ECU (Engine Con- powerful performance, the 11-ton class
trol Unit) wakes up during the first revolu- SD110BA combines dynamic drum forces
tions when the user pulls the starter cord. and a heavy drum weight to produce the
energy necessary to achieve material tar-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

get density in fewer passes. With the high-

Volvo CE launches
est centrifugal force in its class, the SD110BA
New Global Website delivers unmatched performance, ease
Atlas Copco is the first to introduce a petrol of operation and outstanding output. Built
breaker with electronic fuel injection (EFI),
for power and productivity, the SD110BA
a technology which offers significant bene-
also offers optimum fuel efficiency and
fits for users. The Cobra PROi provides up
emission compliance, making it the ideal
to 10% more power at all working speeds,
while optimal combustion gives up to 10% choice for both limiting environmental
savings on fuel consumption. The machine impact and minimizing operating costs.
is easy to start in almost any climate, or at The BS-III compliant engine and optimized
any altitude, and the breaker requires less hydraulics work in harmony to provide a
routine maintenance. An integrated smooth, efficient and effective use of energy.
mechanical fuel pump employs a unique Following the recent roll-out of over 120 To further increase fuel efficiency, the
system that keeps constant pressure to dealer and market websites around the intelligently-designed vibration system
the regulator without the help of electric- world, Volvo CE has unveiled its new global offers quicker ramp-up speeds at lower
ity. While standard EFI systems require 3 website The pressure. In addition to optimizing power
bar pressure in the fuel system, thanks to launch of Volvo Construction Equipment's and productivity, the Volvo SD110BA is
custom-made injectors the Cobra PROi's global website is the culmination of a pro- designed to achieve high quality compac-

low pressure EFI system needs just 0.2 ject that enables the company's online tion and a flawless mat finish.


Sadagopan Seshadri
Chief - Content Development,
CE - Infrastructure - Environment

ndia's coastal contours resemble a - empower coastal communities. trialization and Coastal Community Dev-
necklace and the symbolic name - Pro- elopment
The Sagarmala Programme was
ject Sagar Mala (meaning Ocean's “SagarMala” is a strategic, customer-
launched with the approval of the Union oriented initiative to evolve a model of port
Necklace) is no doubt apt not only by
Cabinet on 25th March 2015, with a view to led development whereby India's long
shape but also by asset value since it aims
achieve the broad objective of promoting coastline to integrate the development of
to accelerate economic development by
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

port-led economic development in India. the Ports, the Industrial clusters and hin-
harnessing the potential of its coastline.
In order to harness India's 7,500 km long terland and efficient evacuation systems
It explores overall opportunity with India coastline, 14,500 km of potentially naviga- through road, rail, inland and coastal
- To save on logistic costs ble waterways, and strategic location on waterways resulting in Ports becoming
- Make Indian goods more competitive key international maritime trade routes, the drivers of economic activity in coastal
in the global markets and hence the Government has embarked on the areas. It envisages the growth of coastal
- Drive its port-led-development agenda ambitious Sagarmala Programme which and inland shipping as a major mode of
under Sagarmala. was approved by the Cabinet on 25th transport for carriage of goods and peo-
March, 2015. ple along the coastal and riverine eco-
The programme aims As part of the programme, a National nomic centers.
- To change the way logistics evacua- Perspective Plan (NPP) for the compre- As an outcome, the Sagar Mala would
tion happens in India hensive development of the coastline and integrate the hinterland projects of Indus-
- Save logistics costs nationwide for car- maritime sector has been prepared. The trial and Freight Corridors with the mari-
go handled and evacuated through NPP has identified more than 150 pro- time developments to offer efficient and
seaports jects across the areas of Port Moderniza- seamless transport for both exim and do-
- boost overall economic development tion & New Port Development, Port Con- mestic sectors thereby reducing logistics
nectivity Enhancement, Port-led Indus-

through ports and costs for the customer and exports more

THE NEED - WHY IS SAGARMALA PROJECT To maintain continuity, an

- Currently 95% of India's trade by value and 70 % by volume take place through maritime transport.
reader is made by first
unloading facts & figures of
- India is lacking the high quantity of international trade via coastal line due to the lack of infra- this program and then to
structure facilities and advanced coastal technologies.
unfold the story of India
- The cost of shipping/evacuating goods through Indian maritime transport is quite high com- lagging behind the world is
pared to that of China, South Korea, Japan and other developed countries. This makes Indian brought out followed by
goods uncompetitive in the international market.
how the urgent need to
- China, South Korea and Japan have effectively used their coastline for 'port-led development'. catch up led to put
India has to replicate their model to stay competitive. Sagarmala swing into
So, a plan is needed to reduce logistics cost and strengthen India's EXIM industry. action in-order to herald
SAGARMALA PROJECT IS ONE SUCH PLAN growth to reach pinnacles
of economic freedom soon
Sagarmala project is a port-led development programme of Ministry of Shipping and a Shipping and be so in decades to
ministry study has claimed that the project could lead to an annual saving of ` 40,000 crore by
optimizing logistics.
come! (projecting to 2025).

competitive. the coastline is highly under- - Focus on modernization of port infra- - Engender port led development by
utilized and has significant potential for im- structure, transforming the existing promoting Port based SEZS / FTWZs,
provement. Further analysis of India's do- Ports to world class Ports and devel- ancillary industries such as Ship
mestic and port traffic movement indicates opment of new ports Breaking, Ship Building / Ship Repair,
the need to improve the transport infra- - Improve hinterland linkages through Bunkering facilities, Container
structure and intermodal linkages to achi- efficient rail, road and water (coastal Freight Stations, Warehousing, Tour-
eve optimal modal mix for port evacuation. and inland waterways) networks for ism and Waterborne Transport
efficient evacuations
Sagarmala vision (Figure 1)
The idea of 'port led development' is
core to the vision of Sagarmala (see Figure Reducing the Cost of Lowering logistics cost of
1) and focuses on logistics-intensive in- transporting domestic cargo bulk commodities by locating
Reduction of
dustries. The significance of logistics fac- through optimising modal mix future industrial capacities
logistics cost
tor weightage derives from the fact that in near the coast
for EXIM and
India, the logistics cost is 19% of GDP, domestic trade
which is one of the highest in the world. By with minimal Improving export
aiming to minimize it the Sagarmala Pro- infrastructure competitiveness by
Optimising time/cost of EXIM
investment developing port proximate
gramme, will enable a complete trans- container movement
discrete manufacturing
formation by unlocking the whole poten- clusters
tial of the country's coastline and water-
ways. The Project objectives & Recom- Figure 1
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

mendations undertaken of sagarmala

Port-led development focuses on - Augmenting operational efficiency of ports (more terminals for loading and unloading cargo)
logistics intensive industries. The syner-
gistic and coordinated development of - Optimizing logistics (rails, roads and inland waterways).
four components - Identify capacity additions (more ports wherever viable).

- Logistics intensive industries - Modernize India's Ports so that port-led development can be augmented.
- Efficient ports - Promoting coastal shipping of bulk commodities like coal.
- Seamless connectivity - Setting-up coastal clusters for bulk commodities like cement & steel.
- Requisite skill-base
- Providing last-mile connectivity of ports with National Highways and Railway network.
Will lead to unlocking of economic value - Establishing new transshipment port (transfer cargo from one ship to another).
(See Figure 3 Sagarmala Port led
- Creating dedicated coastal berth ports for coastal shipping.
development and figure 9 Pillars of
Sagarmala) - Setting up storage capacities at origin-destination ports to shorten turnaround time.
- Developing adequate ship-repair facilities in the maritime states.
The key components of Sagar Mala Pro-

ject hence need to be focused on: Figure 2


Sagarmala: Port-led development hance the share of coastal shipping and

inland waterways in the modal mix from
6% to 12%, as per a release.
“The programme envisions cutting
down the cost of generating the power by
` 0.50 per unit”, the study added.
It is expected that for power plants
which are situated 800 to 1,000 km around
the coal mines, the coal logistics cost can
contribute up to 35% of the power produc-
tion cost. Therefore it is imperative that the
power cost per unit will be greatly re-
duced if a fruitful intervention on logistics
is made. Thereby the cost of almost all
commodities & products will come down.
Particularly in the case of the coastal
power plants in Andhra Pradesh and Kar-
nataka, that currently receive coal from
Mahanadi Coalfields by Railways, signifi-
cant savings can be achieved by taking
Figure 3 SagarmalaPort led development coal through the rail-sea-rail (RSR) route.
"It is estimated that coastal move-
(See Figure 3 SagarmalaPort led by optimizing India's logistics modal mix.
ment of coal to these plants can result in
development) This flagship programme by the Ministry
annual savings of over ` 10,000 Crore to
of Shipping will help in reducing the logis-
Project success banks on the power sector," the Ministry noted.
tics cost for both domestic and EXIM cargo
In addition, up to 50 MT of coal can be
- Constructing new ports by securing with optimized infrastructure investment
moved via coastal shipping for non-power
private-sector participation through cutting down the logistics cost for domes-
thermal coal users (for example steel
PPP models. tic as well as EXIM cargo, with an esti-
plants). Other commodities like cement and
- Improving the port connectivity via var- mated overall cost savings of ` 35,000- fertilisers, and food grains could also be
ious rail corridors, freight friendly 40,000 crore per year by 2025. moved through coastal shipping to the
expressways and inland waterways. While the share of inland waterways
extent of about 80-85 MT by 2025. Addi-
These components, in turn, have to be and coastal shipping in India's modal mix tionally, an estimated 60-70 MT of cargo
supported by enabling policies and insti- continues to be low, emphasising on can also be moved over inland waterways
tutional linkages to foster collaboration coastal shipping to support road and rail by 2025.
between various agencies and ensure col- transport can result in overall cost sav- According to government estimates,
lective development. A National Sagarmala ings in logistics, a study points out. There diversion of 5 percent of cargo transpor-
Apex Committee (NSAC) combined with is considerable potential to move finished tation to a waterborne mode can result in
several coordination & control levels for- products and raw materials using inland an annual saving of ` 20 billion and a
med work towards the success of delivery waterways and coastal shipping, which is reduction of 6 per cent in harmful chemi-
foreseen by sagarmala (See Figure 4 about 60-80% cheaper compared to road cals and pollutants.
Sagarmala NSAC). or rail transport, said a study carried out Six mega ports are planned under
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

under the Sagarmala programme. Sagarmala project over and above port
Heralding growth by logistics revolution The Sagarmala programme is aimed modernization etc. (See Figure 5 Sagar-
The Sagarmala project 'Port-led at increasing the movement of coal via mala - New six mega ports).
development' in the country, is all set to coastal routes from 27 MTPA in the fiscal An overall distribution of the 'sagar-
change the logistics sector performance of 2016 to 129 MTPA by 2025 and to en- mala spread Ports, Industrial & Freight


APEX COMMITTEE (NSAC) Kerala Vizhinjam Vizhinjam International Seaport
A National Sagarmala Apex Committee Tamil Nadu Colachel Colachel Seaport
(NSAC) is envisaged for
Maharashtra Vadhavan (Near Dahanu) Vadhavan Port
- Overall policy guidance,
Karnataka Tadadi Tadadi port
- High level coordination, and
Andhra Pradesh Machilipatnam Machilipatnam Port
- To review various aspects of planning and
implementation of the plan and projects. West Bengal Sagar Island Sagar Island Port

Figure 4 Sagarmala - NSAC Figure 5 SagarmalaNew six mega ports


“Make in India” dreams among others.

SAGARMALA And as merchandise trade in India's GDP
The plan proposes increases to reach proportions as of dev-
to link 12 major and
`692 Crore `500 Crore
180 minor ports in
Funds require in Capital from special purpose vehicle, eloped countries India's ports will have to
2016-18 for initial subscribed share capital of 100
India with the implementation of crore funded by 12 major parts and RVNL improve their operational efficiency and
hinterland to build projects in first capacity well in advance of the need.
robust water
navigation systems
phase 12 Centrally operated ports
to be delivered A study of China's export profile and
trends in coastal development reveals
6 State
that China has the sea-borne traffic of 9 bil-
lion tonnes with a coastline of 15,000 km
and port based SEZs / FTWs dominate
EXIM trade (figure 8).
On the other hand, India has a total sea-
borne traffic of only 950 million tonnes with
a total coastline of 7,500 km. Therefore,
with a vastly underdeveloped coastline
and sub-optimal traffic / coastline ratio,
India has a significant potential of devel-
oping its maritime capabilities.
Is this not a compelling need to
urgently improve by shifting to top gear?
Major cities
Major ports
Water is the best solution to these
Non major ports woes. It is a known fact that water-borne
Industrial corridor transport is much safer, cheaper and
Freight corridor cleaner compared to other modes of
Petroleum, chemicals
and petrochemicals transportation. And the scope available
investment region for India is huge because it has never uti-
Major inland waterways
lized this avenue despite having a huge
Source: Ministry of Shipping
available resource of coastline, water-
Figure 6 The Sagarmala Spread- Ports, Industrial & Freight Corridors,Waterways, Road/Rail linkages for
ways, canals and more.
National Prosperity Based on the global comparison, the
percentage domestic cargo transported
Corridors, Waterways, Road/Rail link- carry more than 90% of India's total trade by coastal shipping in India is only 7%
ages for National Prosperity' is shown in by volume. This current proportion of which is far lower than comparable coun-
Figure 6. to get the feel of the gigantic job Merchandize Trade in terms of India's tries with long coastlines .
at hand. The great results projection is GDP is just 42% as compared to some of Further, the optimal modal share for
given graphically at a later stage to show the developed countries in the world such traffic evacuation at major ports through
the huge benefits the program promises as Germany and European Union where it coastal / inland waterways in India is 2%
to deliver in boosting the economic growth. is 75% and 70% respectively (figure 7). whereas it should be 10% .
This is how much we are lagging and the
India vs World status - Compelling need So what is Indian Maritime Sector's chal-
gap India has to cover if it intends to in-
to improve lenge?
crease its merchandize trade. And improve,
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

As already seen on the date, our ports it has to, if it really intends to realize its The growth of India's maritime sector

China's Export by Location of Exporters

4% 4%


Hinterland + River
Hinterland, adjacent
to Coastal

Figure 7: Merchandize Trade as a percentage of GDP Figure 8: China's Exports by Location of Exporters year

Source: World Bank data, 2012 Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, KPMG analysis

has been mired in many developmental, - An Integrated Development Appro- integrated infrastructure cum policy ini-
procedural and policy related challenges. ach that focuses on the following: tiative that will provide a three pronged
Some of them have been enlisted below: - Undertake a comprehensive study to approach for development of India's Mari-
assess the port capacity requirements to time Sector focusing on port-develop-
- Involvement of multiple agencies in promote trade and encourage economic
ment, port-led development and inland/
development of infrastructure to pro- activity
mote industrialization, trade, tourism - Mechanization and modernization of coastal shipping supported by enabling
and transportation across country existing port infrastructure and systems to policies, institutional framework and fund-
- Presence of a dual institutional struc- improve efficiencies ing mechanism to ensure inclusive
ture that has led to development of - Plan capacity augmentation projects in growth. Therefore, from the development
existing ports and develop new ports perspective, the Sagar Mala concept has
Major and Minor ports as individual
where required three key deliverables listed below:
- Lack of infrastructure for evacuation - Design and implement efficient Port Modernization: Transform exist-
at major and minor ports leading to multi-modal evacuation ing ports into world class ports by the mod-
sub-optimal transport modal mix - Development of industrial clusters / SEZs
ernization of port infrastructure and exist-
- Limited hinterland linkages that in in the vicinity of the port and its hinterland
that will power the economic activity in the ing systems. Also ensure inter-agency
turn increases the cost of transporta- coordination for synergistic development
tion and cargo movement - Promote Tourism in coastal cities at both major and minor ports
- Limited development of coastal cen- - Streamline inter-departmental co-ordi- Efficient Evacuation Systems: Dev-
ters for manufacturing, urban and nation in ports to promote seamless and elop efficient rail, road and coastal / IWT
economic activities efficient interface for the trade. networks to the hinterland and promote
- Low penetration of coastal and inland - Promote synergistic planning and devel-
opment across major and minor ports
Inland / Coastal shipping as a most pre-
shipping in India due to limited facilities, ferred mode of transportation
higher costs and policy constraints - Build world class ports with all-en- Coastal Economic Development:
- Presence of selective mechanization compassing infrastructure, modern Encourage coastal economic activity in
and procedural bottlenecks at ports and mechanized facilities and deep coastal regions by: w Development of
- Lack of scale, deep draft and other drafts Coastal Economic Zones (CEZ), port based
facilities at various ports in India - Promote inland/coastal shipping by SEZs / FTWZs, captive ancillary industries
What needs to be done for Maritime Sec- building dedicated channels, vessels and w Promotion of coastal tourism
tor Development? and facilities These three outcomes will in turn be
- Simplify policies and promote usage supported by enabling policies, robust
In order to promote India's Maritime of online channels for information institutional structure and appropriate
sector, there is a need for certain initia- exchanges leading to seamless and financing & funding mechanism to
tives that would enable inclusive growth hassle free cargo movement ensure inclusive growth.
of coastal areas by stimulating economic - Provide enabling policies, institu- Fig. 9 depicts the complete view of the
activity, promoting modernization of ports tional framework and appropriate key components of Sagar Mala concept.
& port-related infrastructure and ensur- funding mechanism for promoting
ing the development of efficient hinter- collaborative development Port Modernization
land linkages.
What can Sagar Mala do? “Port Modernization” here is about up-
Some of such initiatives have been enlis- gradation of port and port-related infra-
ted below: Sagar Mala is being envisioned as an
structure that would increase operational
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

efficiency of ports and facilitate trade,

SAGAR MALA industrial activity and tourism in the hin-
terland. This could be enabled by:
Develop India's economic strength along the coastline by transforming ports
to become the economic driver of activities in the region -Automating and increasing use of
1 2 3 Information Technology
Port Modernization Efficient Evacuation Coastal Economic
- Enhancing the capability of the Port
w Transform existing ports Systems Development Community System (PCS) to cover a
into World Class ports by w Develop efficient rail, road w Promote Coastal
infrastructure moder- and coastal / IWT Economic Zones (CEZ),
larger group of user communities
nization and streamlining networks to hinterland port based SEZs/FRWSz - Undertaking a Business Process Re-
systems / processes w Promote inland / coastal & captive industries
w Ensure inter-agency shipping for cargo w Promote ancillary
Engineering exercise in all Major Ports
coordination for movement industries to simplify, modify and eliminate re-
synergistic development w Promote Tourism
dundant processes and procedures
- Cost-effective and efficient mechani-
4 Institutional Framework, Policies, Programs and Projects for coordinated regional development zation of ports ensuring inter-modal
cargo handling at ports and direct
5 Financing and Funding Mechanism
port to plant transfers through con-

Figure 9: Pillars of Sagar Mala veyors and pipelines


- Setting-up of Hub Ports that would could be enhanced through a mix of infra- sed industrial parks, promotion of captive
facilitate the creation of a cooperation structure and policy initiatives. Some of industries and ancillary facilities would
mechanism linking ports, industrial such initiatives have been enlisted below: drive economic activity in the port hinter-
clusters and cities with highly efficient land. The key industries in such industrial
- Provide Green channel for coastal car-
rail/road and coastal networks that areas would include Ship Repair, Ship-
facilitate efficient and secure distribu- building clusters, Ship Breaking indus-
- Simplify procedures on manning
tion of cargo. tries, Bunkering facilities, Container Freight
norms, fuel taxes and compliances
Stations, Dry Ports and Warehousing
World class ports and Hub Ports will for coastal/ inland vessels
- Incentivize commodities to use coas- facilities, industries requiring significant
facilitate better, smoother and efficient
tal mode import of raw material and industries will
port operations by:
- Promote research and manufactur- large export potential. This economic ac-
- Making ports capable of handling all tivity would be supported by the modern-
ing of equipment and vessels for
types of cargoes ization of ports and efficient hinterland
coastal/ inland use
- Providing logistics & value added ser- linkages and will ultimately result in an
- Provide provisions for setting up a
vices increase in cargo movement at ports.
Coastal shipping promotion fund for
- Providing deep draft berths
development of coastal shipping 5. Coastal Tourism
- Development of Transshipment cen-
- Provide provisions for a proportionate
ters Tourism is another major service ori-
reduction in CSR obligation for every
- Providing a regional shipping freight ented economic activity in a region that is
unit of lowered carbon emission
system for hub and sub-ports sup- affected by the movement of people to a
through coastal shipping and IWT .
ported by coastal/ feeder operations particular location for leisure, recreation,
- Allocate PSU cargo for coastal ship-
- Providing allied services such as Ship- religious or any other special purpose.
ping and IWT usage
building & repair and bunkering etc. Development of certain coastal cities into
- Modernize port infrastructure for dev-
- Development of Cruise and Yacht world class tourist destinations with the
elopment of coastal and inland water
marinas dedicated port infrastructure to handle
transport by:
- Facilitating paperless & seamless both local people movement and cruises
w Building segregated facilities for coastal /
transactions inland vessels can result in economic growth and devel-
- Encouraging Education, Research & w Integrated connectivity of IWT / coastal opment of the area.
Development activities facilities with rail/ road network
The following are some categories for
Efficient Evacuation System 3. Coastal Economic Development tourist destinations in India:
Building efficient port evacuation sys- “Coastal Economic development” is - Specialty destinations
tem and hinterland linkages would ensure achieved by development of port hinter- - Cruise destinations
seamless and hassle free cargo move- land through an increase in economic - Cultural heritage destinations
ment through: activity at a port and vice versa. This hap- - Sports and recreation destinations
1. Efficient Rail, Road and Coastal/IWT pens as a result of modernization of port
In addition to cruise and circuit-based
Networks and port-related infrastructure, which
tourism for domestic and international
promotes more cargo movement and trade
High-speed rail, road, coastal and tourists, similar to road and rail tourism,
due to efficient logistics and lower trans-
inland waterway networks would inte- coastal tourism can also be incubated by
action costs. This in turns facilitates the
facilitating ownership of individual boats
grate Industrial Corridors, economic cen- growth of the port and the vicinity into a
and yachts and weekend getaways. This
ters, port-based SEZs and inland cities by: major economic hub and trade center
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

would comprise the provision of marinas

- Providing dedicated roads/ lanes for with the multiplication of ancillary and sup- for parking the boats, ease of issue of
domestic cargo movement port services. licenses (such as obtaining driving license
- Facilitating hinterland linkages to The development of port hinterland would for driving cars etc.), registration norms
avoid unnecessary transaction costs include: for boats, fueling and allied services for
The above will ensure an optimal facilitating individuals to use waterborne
- Establishing industrial clusters or SEZs
modal mix for transporting cargo in and transport for their casual trips to locations
or FTWZs and captive industries in the
out of ports. In order to ensure a faster along the coast.
port hinterland and coastal cities
development of such networks and link- - Development of ancillary industries in Developing tourism destinations
ages it would be beneficial to integrate port hinterland The port cities could be developed into
such projects with existing Rail/Road/ - Increase in Coastal Tourism below categories of tourist destinations:
IWT/Airport development projects such - Collaborative growth and development
as DFC, NHDP etc. - Specialty destinations
of major and minor ports in the region
- Cruise destinations
2. Promotion of Coastal Shipping and 4. Industrial Clusters/Port-based SEZs - Cultural heritage destinations
Inland Water Transport (IWT) / FTWZs and Ancillary Industries - Sports and recreation destinations
Coastal Shipping and IWT facilities Systematic development of Port ba-

Indian ports have a huge competitive


advantage as coveted cruise ports due to etc. At the end of their visit in India, the the MER with the capacity and modern-
their: cruise leaves for other destinations. ization requirements at the ports and
align the freight system (road/rail/IWT/
- Strategic locations 6. Regional “Port System”
Coastal) evacuation linkages with these. It
- Abundance of tourist delights
A Regional “Port System” comprises will also identify institutional/ capacity bot-
- Excellent connectivity options
multiple ports that are structured in a net- tlenecks that impede seamless EXIM/
Leveraging on the above factors, work such that it affects the comprehen- domestic trade.
some of the cruise options which could be sive development of all the ports (both The CER serves as the integrating
developed are w Allahabad-Haldia w Hal- major and minor) within a state or a re- mechanism to implement the various in-
dia- Paradip- Vishakapatnam- Chennai gion. It envisages the creation of port and terventions for promoting the maritime
w Cochin - Marmugao - Mumbai shipping infrastructure in the form of Hub sector by planning, coordinating, financ-
There are various types of cruise pack- ports that are supported by coastal / in- ing and executing the projects across the
ages which could be developed like w Fly- land feeder shipping and sub-ports, offer- various state and central agencies on a
Cruise-Fly Package ing a single seamless interface to the cus- larger regional basis. The CER plan will
w Cruise-Fly-Cruise Package w Back- tomer and cargo in a coordinated manner. cover Modernization of existing ports (both
waters Cruise w Culinary Adventure Further, it fosters the development of Major and Non-major) and an establish-
Cruise w Ayurveda Rejuvenation Cruise a Regional Transport System connecting ment of new ports, efficient hinterland
w Heritage Cruise all ports and economic centers in CEZ(s) linkages and evacuation system and port
through land and sea/water networks. led development of new/ existing indus-
Developing India into a major cruise des- trial and maritime clusters.
tination would require: The Broad 'delivery-means' for 'key
deliverables' Modernization of Ports and New Ports
- Extensive brand building exercise to
promote India as a cruise destination To put precisely In summary, the 3 key The first pillar of Sagar Mala Project
- Dedicated cruise cell for seamless deliverables of Sagar Mala ie Port Mod- would include modernization of existing
inter-agency integration ernization, Efficient Evacuation Systems Ports to world class Ports. This involves
- On board and on shore facilitations and Coastal Economic Development are mechanization, the creation of new ca-
- Dedicated infrastructure proposed to be delivered by 2 broad deliv- pacity, passenger, cruise facilities, tour-
ery means that shall drive Sagar Mala to ism and recreation related projects and
Cochin port had successfully under- realize objectives. These are: also seamless systems cutting across dif-
taken several initiatives in the past to ferent agencies in the Ports such as Cus-
develop Cochin as one of the major cruise 1. Development of Coastal Economic toms, Port Authorities, Health and Secu-
ports. These initiatives not only helped to Regions (CER)
increase the traffic of cruise tourists arriv- 2. Policy initiatives to promote coastal rity Agencies.
Developing deep drafts wherever nec-
ing at Cochin but also facilitated in estab- shipping and seamless operations in
essary to handle future generation ships
lishing Cochin as one of the major tourist Ports
is also an integral part of this component.
destinations in India and across the world. Sagar Mala Project is based on a per- The Operational efficiency of ports
These initiatives as undertaken by Cochin spective plan prepared for the entire Indian would be enhanced by undertaking busi-
port are w Assured clean berths for cruise coastline. This plan identifies the best loca- ness process re-engineering to simplify
ships w Priority berthing w Concessional tions for developing new Ports from a processes and procedures. Increased
tariff w Fast track clearances w Pre-paid techno-economic feasibility point of view. use of information technology and auto-
taxis, coaches etc. w Tourist facilitation Based on the requirements of the Trade, mation to ensure paperless and seam-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |
centers w Upgraded tourism infrastruc- development of new ports would be taken less transaction for the port users is ano-
ture w Excellent security arrangements up either as Major Ports or Non Major ther important area for implementation.
on land and waterside. Ports. Modernization includes environment-
Some of these could be replicated to friendly initiatives such as Solar/ green
Coastal Economic Regions (CER)
other ports to develop them as cruise power, deploying shore power for ships at
ports and major tourist destinations. A CER is an adjoining region compris- berth to reduce emissions, appropriate
ing Major and Non Major Ports and their discharge of ship waste and sludge etc
One Illustration of a potential cruise option
hinterland. thereby attempting to evolve green ports
A cruise arrives in Cochin and tourists The development of a Coastal Eco- for sustainability.
get down to experience Ayurveda spa ther- nomic Region has three components i.e., Coastal communities and eco-sys-
apy, houseboats, backwaters, festivals etc. Modernization of Ports and New Ports, tems sustainability have been taken care
post which the cruise moves to Marmugao Hinterland Connectivity and Port Led Dev- of and modern fishery harbours are on the
where the tourists can enjoy its pristine elopment. A Regional plan identifies the anvil for the sustainable growth of coastal
beaches, museums, forts, cuisine, adven- business potential of the MER, infrastruc- communities while providing distinct busi-
ture sports etc. From Marmugoa, the ture gaps inhibiting growth and barriers ness impetus to the fishing industry.
cruise moves to Mumbai where the tour- to trade. The plan proceeds to integrate
ists visit the Elephanta caves, hanging gar- the growth potential of the industrial clus- Efficient Hinterland Connectivity

dens, Gateway of India, beaches, film city ters, smart cities and economic centers in The second focus area is providing

adequate road and rail connectivity and the European Union. The total cargo mo- coastal/ inland vessels
also connecting through water transport. ved (in tonne kilometres) by the inland - Incentivize commodities to use
Development of Inland Waterways, con- waterway was just 0.1% of the total inland coastal mode
necting Ports to the hinterland and also to traffic in India, compared to the 21% figure - Promote research and manufactur-
coastal shipping would be integral part of for the United States. Cargo transporta- ing of equipment and vessels for
this pillar. tion in an organised manner is confined to coastal/ inland use
The Sagar Mala Project would also a few waterways in Goa, West Bengal, - Provide provisions for setting up a
focus on policy initiatives at national level Assam and Kerala. Inland Waterways Coastal shipping promotion fund for
to promote coastal shipping by eliminat- Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory development of coastal shipping
ing complicated procedures and ensur- authority in charge of the waterways in - Provide provisions for a proportionate
ing seamless inter-agency co-ordination India. It does the function of building the reduction in CSR obligation for every
for efficient ports operations. necessary infrastructure in these water- unit of lowered carbon emission
ways, surveying the economic feasibility through coastal shipping and IWT
Port Led Development - Make allocations for coastal shipping
of new projects and also administration
The third focus area is Development and regulation. and IWT usage for PSUs
of Port based industrial parks, promoting The right mix of infrastructure and pol- Institutional Framework, Funding & Im-
captive industries and ancillary facilities. icy initiatives are being recognized as plementation
This means equipping ports' region with essential for Coastal Shipping and IWT
Ship Repair, Ship Building clusters, Ship growth. The development and infrastruc- The Union Cabinet chaired by the
Breaking industries, Bunkering facilities, ture modernization initiatives need to be Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has
Container Freight Stations, Dry Ports and supported by conducive policies and regu- approved the incorporation of Sagarmala
Warehousing facilities. The aim is to power lations that foster growth and develop- Development Company (SDC) under the
the CER with all these facilities around ment of Coastal Shipping and IWT. Companies Act, 2013. SDC will be under
Ports so that 'all task at minimum cost' is the administrative control of the Ministry of
Some of the policy initiatives have been Shipping. It will provide equity support to
locally achieved ensuring tangible sup-
enlisted below: the project Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs)
port to economic growth in the CER.
- Provide Green channel and easier and funding support to the residual pro-
CER - Physical Characteristics jects under the Sagarmala Programme.
ingress/ egress from ports
A CER will have the following charac- - Simplify procedures on manning nor- SDC will be incorporated under the Com-
teristics: ms, fuel taxes and compliances for panies Act, 2013, with an initial Authorized
- Single state based economic region
that will encompass both major and
minor ports within a state
- Can extend along 300 to 500 km of INDIA
coastline and 10 to 30 km inland / off-
- Enable identification of new ports and
industrial / economic clusters within
a state, as required
- Foster development of maritime eco-
system and extended supply chain
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

e.g. logistics, shipping agencies, ser-

vice providers, education & training,
etc. through institutional and/or in-
frastructure mechanisms
- Enable sustainable growth of the ru-
ral communities by providing employ-
ment opportunities and ensuring eco-
nomic development of the region
Currently, 10 CERs have been identi-
fied as depicted in Figure 10.
Coastal Shipping and Inland Waterways
Freight transportation by waterways
is highly under-utilised in India compared
to other large countries and geographic

areas like the United States, China and Figure 10: Concept and Indicative view of CERs in India

Share Capital of ` 1,000 Crore and a Sub-

PROJECT PROPOSAL scribed Share Capital of ` 90 Crore.
Implementation of the identified pro-
1) One key issue faced by coastal movement of cargoes is the non-availability of
jects will be taken up by the relevant Ports,
dedicated berthing facilities at ports resulting in long waiting times, inefficient cargo
State Governments / Maritime Boards,
handling causing high turnaround time of the vessels. To promote coastal shipping as
Central Ministries, mainly through private
the preferred mode of transportation of domestic cargo, the MoS proposes developing
or PPP mode, provide equity support for
requisite cargo handling infrastructure at the Indian Ports with dedicated berths,
the project Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs)
efficient handling systems and warehousing facilities.
set up by the Ports / State / Central Minis-
2) Key locations / ports along the coastline identified and based on the cargo potential tries window and /or implement only
dedicated coastal cargo berths will be developed on PPP basis. The berths will be those residual p cannot be funded by any
equipped to handle cargo-specific needs such as bulk (coal, iron ore, fertilizer,
other means / mode.
cement) break bulk (steel coils, pellets, timber, project cargo etc), containers, SDC will Identify port-led develop-
automobiles or liquid based on regional requirements
ment projects and assist the project SPVs
3) The private developer shall be responsible for the development, financing, in project development and structuring
construction, operations and maintenance of for the project at the landlord port. The activities, bidding out projects for private
waterfront and land for the backup area may be provided by the landlord port authority. sector participation, putting in place suit-
However, the berths for the project would need to be developed by the developer unless able risk management measures for stra-
such a facility is available with the landlord port authority, in which case suitable tegic projects cutting across multiple Sta-
arrangements with the authority shall be made. The developer will be required to tes / Regions and obtaining requisite app-
provide the necessary cargo handling equipments and utilities and undertaken rovals and clearances.
operations and maintenance of the same along with those of the berth. The project Since the Identified projects will be
components shall include undertaken by multiple agencies, SDC
a) Berth of 250-300 m length, b) Cargo handling equipments, c) Backup area with will also work as the nodal agency for coor-
parking facilities, d) Warehouse, e) Rail siding, f) Port buildings and utilities, g) dination and monitoring of all the cur-
Necessary equipment, electrical systems, water supply and disposal, and IT system rently identified projects as well as other
4) The project may be developed in either of the following models by a party projects emerging from the master plans
a) Public Private Partnership Model, b) Any other model based on draft guidelines to be or other sources.
followed by major ports for private sector participation issued by Ministry vide letter SDC will undertake the preparation of
No.PD-24015/2/2004-US(1) dated 24th June, 2005. the detailed master plans for the Coastal
Economic Zones (CEZs) identified as part
Commodity Origin* Destination* of the NPP and provide a framework for
POL JNPT, Kandla Mundra Mormugao, New Mangalore, Cochin ensuring the integrated development of
Indian maritime sector.
Iron ore and steel Mormugao New Mangalore, Cochin,
As part of the coastal community the
Tuticorin, Mundra, Kandla
development objective of the Sagarmala
Fertilizer and fertilizer Paradip, Haldia Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin, Programme, the Ministry of Shipping is
raw material Vizag, taking up a number of initiatives/projects.
Kandla, Mundra, JNPT Mormugao, New Mangalore, Cochin Notable among them are the coastal com-
Coal Haldia, Kolkata Paradip munity skill projects and projects for
development of marine fisheries sector.
Cement Paradip Tuticorin
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Skill development projects taken up'

* Only Major Ports have been mentioned. In addition to the theses there is significant movement include coastal district skill gap analysis
amongst smaller minor hubs and captive port/ jetties
study/ cutting-edge skill training in the
5) The locations for the projects are proposed anywhere alongside the long coastline of ports & maritime sector, safety training in
India, wherever, the entrepreneur would feel confident to establish a viable project ship-breaking & repair sector, coastal dis-
yielding revenue to them as well as to the respective 'public' partner and that the project tricts skill training as part of Deen Daygl
would be able to act as a catalyst to further maritime and economic development of the Upadhyaya Grarneen Kaushalya Yojana
region. (DDU-GKY) and marine fishermen skill
The locations proposed at or near an existing Major Port would involve agreement(s) development projects.
with the respective Major Port Trust / Authority as per the appropriate PPP Model. Ministry of Shipping, in collaboration
Similarly, the locations proposed at or near a Minor Port would involve agreement with with the Department of Animal Hus-
the respective state govt./maritime board/ municipal authorities and the Ministry of bandry, Dairying & Fisheries (Ministry of
Shipping, Govt. Of India. Agriculture), will part-fund select fishing
The Major Port locations, where, coastal movements would be preferable to support harbour projects under the Sagarmala
existing deep sea movements are : a) Kolkata/Haldia, b) Paradip, c) Vishakhapatnam, Programme. While identifying the pro-
d) Chennai, e) Kochi, f) Mormugao, g) New Mangalore, h) Kandla, i) Any other location jects, priority will be given to those pro-
jects which are nearing completion. Min-

Project Number of

of Total Cargo Traffic handled at Indian Ports

Total Cargo Traffic handled at Indian Ports

5000 Coastal as % of Total Cargo Traffic 25% Archetype Projects

Coastal Cargo Traffic as percentage

4500 handled at Indian Ports Port Modernisation 53
4000 20%
Port Connectivity 83
(Million Tonnes)

3500 15%
3000 9.60% 15%
2500 CAGR
11% Port Led 29
2000 9% 10% Industrialisation
8.35% 7%
1000 5% Coastal Community 8
419 723 934 1,476 2,334 3,301 4,668 development
0 0%
2002-03 2007-08 2012-13 2017-18 2022-23 2027-28 2032-33
Figure 13 NPP Identified Projects
Cargo Traffic Cargo Traffic Cargo Traffic
(Actuals) (Projected 2.5xgrowth (Projected 2 x growth 5. Reducing Transaction costs: The use
over first 10 years) over next 10 years)
Source: IPA E-magazine - December, 2013; KPMG Analysis of simplified processes and seamless
Based on GDP projection for 2D years, overall cargo traffic will increase by 5 times from current levels information and goods movement is
Based on global benchmarks, it is assumed that the cargo movement will increase up to 3 times from current 7% to 21% in the next 20 years
expected to reduce transaction costs
Figure 12 Preliminary /Indicative Projections of Coastal Cargo for next 20 years due to increased Economic Activity and enable businesses and trade to
become more competitive.
istry of Shipping is also preparing a coas- terland movement of which the NW-1
tal community development scheme, in is a critical component. Further, Sagar How India Benefits by Sagar Mala
convergence with the existing Cen- Mala envisages a holistic development Sagar Mala is an integrated infra cum
tral/State Government schemes. of riverine trade, transport and tour- policy initiative to develop India's maritime
One of the important roles assigned ism. It will leverage the ongoing pro- sector that will contribute to the inclusive
to SDC is to manage the coastal commu- jects for the cleanup of the Ganga and growth of the Indian economy. The key pre-
nity development scheme and fund coas- its beautification to develop tourism liminary/indicative benefits of Sagar Mala
tal community development projects iden- circuits and support organized indus- initiative have been enlisted below:
tified under the Sagarmala Programme. trialization in the inland CER in order
The projects considered would be specific to reduce the impact of pollution. Infrastructure and Developmental Be-
time-bound local interventions and inno- 3. Good governance: Sagar Mala aims nefits:
vative in nature. to move all transactions online, re- - 3-4 modern world class Mega ports of
SDC will be raising funds as debt/equity engineer processes and effect seam- 200 MT capacity each
(as long term capital), as per the project less administration through the use - Transhipment terminal as a Regional
requirements/ by leveraging .resources of IT and organization enablers to offer Container Hub
provided by the Government of India and betterservicestousersandcustomers. - Establishing 10 state - specific Coas-
from multi-lateral and bilateral funding 4. Make In India: As this report elabo- tal Economic Regions that will foster
agencies. SDC will also aim to increase rates, the Indian coastline is under- economic growth in ports and their
the scope of private sector participation in utilized for purposes of export. The dev- hinterlands
project development. elopment of CERs integrating existing - Better integrated connectivity in a
(see Figure 11- for sample on 'devel- and new coastal industrial clusters, CER and hinterland
opment of berths for coastal shipping on SEZs, FTWZs and port infrastructure - Fully integrated coastline through
PPP basis) will enable export oriented manufac- inland and mega waterways (National
turing in India. navigation channels)
Sagarmala Aligned to key national priori-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

ties IMPACT FROM SAGARMALA 2025 (Figure 14 )

The SagarMala project is also aligned
with to the other national priorities of the
Government and dovetails the program
deliverables into those namely:
1. Development of Smart Cities: Cities
such as Vizag, Krishnapatnam are
likely to be focal points of the CER in
Andhra Pradesh. Similarly, the other
CERs will work towards the planned
growth of other port towns / clusters
into smart cities.
2. Ganga Waterway and Clean-up pro-
jects: The Sagar Mala envisages seam-
1 Saving from Coastal shipping of Coal= 17k-18k Crores; Saving from Coastal shipping of Steel, Cement,
less connectivity of the sea-borne Food grains & Fertilizersl= 11.5k-13.5k Crores; Saving from Modal shift & time and Variability reduction of
cargo with Inland Waterways for hin-

Containers= 7k-9k Crores


Figure 14 Merchandise Export Growth Figure 15 Infrastructure Investment Growth

- Greenfield / brownfield options for development of the coastal cities and Boards, Central Ministries, mainly
river & coastal ports tourism through private or PPP mode. Sagar-
- Shift of modal mix to an optimal mala Development Company (SDC) is
(See Figure 12: Preliminary /Indica-
modal mix (increase of coastal ship- to be set up by the Ministry of Shipping
tive Projections of Coastal Cargo for next
ping and inland water transport) to provide equity support to the pro-
20 years due to increased Economic Ac-
- Seamless dedicated backward link- ject SPVs and funding support for the
ages with key Transport / Infra projects residual projects under Sagarmala.
e.g. DMIC, AKIC, CBIC,DFC, PCPIR To sum up today's status the NPP for The Sagarmala consultants have pro-
- 3-4 Coastal Tourist circuits to position Sagarmala with Facts & Figures is show- jected that the identified industrial
India as a prominent tourist destination cased herein (also see figure 13) cluster projects will enable the cre-
Economic Benefits - The National Perspective Plan for the ation of approximately 1 Crore new
Sagarmala programme was prepared jobs, including 40 Lakh direct jobs in
- 15 X growth in Coastal / IWT traffic the next 10 years.
and approved by the National Sagar-
increase over next 20 years
mala Apex Committee on 9th April See Figures 14 to 16 that show multi-
- Capacity augmentation to handle 5X
2016 and released at the maiden Mari- ple-time growth in Infra Investment,
ports traffic increase over next 20 years
- Coastal Economic Regions (CER) time India Summit 2016, on 14th April Export & Jobs
leading to increased GDP/ EXIM 2016, by the Hon'ble Prime Minister. Sagarmala could prove to be a game
- Significant employment creation in - Total of 173 projects have been ini- changer in the India growth story to
ports, shipping and ancillary areas / tially identified under four projects maintain it at the pinnacle in a sustained
ecosystem archetypes of Sagarmala in National manner.
- Structured urbanization of coast/ri- Perspective Plan, April 2016. The Pro-
vers and development of riverine/ ject archetype and the number of pro-
coastal communities jects identified are given below (Fig- Author's Bio
- Revenue generation through increa- ure 13): The author leads our Delhi bureau. An
sed economic activity due to all round - 26 Port rail connectivity projects were Engineer and qualified ADR professional
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

identified under NPP, of which 2 have (NALSAR alumnus), Sadagopan

been completed and 18 are under Seshadri has been a senior Contract
40 lakh potential new direct jobs Management Pro-fessional in large
implementation by Ministry of Rail-
through Sagarmala national & Inter-national Companies.
ways. Most of these projects will be His domain experience is in Building
# new direct jobs
completed by 2019-20. For 1 project, Products, Cement plants and Mega
1 Indian Port Rail Corporation Limited Power project execution. He has been an
5 expert visiting faculty and univ. examiner
34 has awarded the PMC work and 1 pro-
ject is being implemented by the Port for Contract Mana-gement at the SSAA,
Total -1 cr
jobs itself. Remaining 4 projects are for IP University, New Delhi. Being passion-
including ate about Environment he has now
direct and implementation through JV/Non Gov-
indirect turned to Landscape Projects design
jobs ernment Rail (NGR) model. teamed with like-minded architects &
- The implementation of the projects engineers for sustainable landscapes
identified under the National Per- development He is vocal with his views
Discrete Steel & Others Total spective Plan, at an estimated invest- on these areas through his writings.
manu- multiplier
facturing ment of ` 4 Lac Crore, will be taken up He can be reached at:
clusters Source: ASI data used for projections
starting FY 16-17 by the relevant

Figure 16 Job Growth Ports, State Governments/ Maritime


-Part II (of III)
Subu Venkataraman
Strategic Advisor & Consultant, Startups and SMEs

In the eighth part of our 12-part series on entrepreneurship, author and

strategic advisor for startups and SMEs Subu Venkataramanan
explains why external validation of the startup idea is extremely critical.

Recap munication. Succinct is not just about be- sending the elevator pitch by email to a po-
ing brief but about being “brief and clear”. tential investor whom you have never met.
Let us recap the crucial elements
Persuasive is to tempt the listener to get All the above rules are applicable to such
from the last article on what a potential in-
interested in the communication. email communication.
vestor looks at:
In this short space of time, you have to
First Detailed Communication
a. The team; communicate the 3E. Do not lose a pre-
b. The business model or offering; what cious minute or two in just explaining who If the elevator pitch is successful, you
problem it solves; you are or the existing problem or your so- will get an invitation to send in more de-
c. Scalability; lution. You need to cover all three in a tails, normally by email or on a confer-
Every pitch has to always keep the structured manner. ence call.
The objective of your communication In this communication, you get an-
above three in mind all the time and weave
now is “not” to get investment. It is just to other opportunity to explain the 3E of your
the communication around it. So we will
get the investor's consent for one more op- business more clearly. You have to as-
call these the “3 Elements” or 3E from
portunity to either meet him/her or get his sume that the is not going to devote more
now onwards.
/her email id so that you can send some than 3 to 5 minutes for reading the email
Opportunities to Pitch more details about your business proposal. or 15 minutes on a conference call. There-
An elevator pitch is the most critical fore, this communication too should be
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

When we say, “pitch deck presenta-

tion”, immediately we start visualising a and most difficult of all pitches. Making a succinct and persuasive.
conference room full of people. A startup long report or dozens of power point If it is an email, do not attach your full
will be lucky if it gets to that stage. There slides is easy. Communicating effectively pitch deck presentation in this communi-
are a few more steps before you reach the in few words is difficult. cation. Even if you have to attach a brief
conference room. It is not just the words; it is about how document (generally a power point pre-
So let us look at the various opportu- you say it and what is your body language. sentation), you explain the 3E in the body
nities, which a startup gets to pitch. Even a good business idea may not get the of the email itself. There is a possibility
response it deserves if it is not communi- that the recipient is going to read your
Elevator Pitch cated well. email on his hand-held device while being
The term elevator pitch is fairly well Do not wait to meet someone to prac- on the move.
known to all. You get a minute or two be- tice your elevator pitch. Prepare well in ad-
Given below is a suggested sequence of
fore the elevator stops and the person vance and rehearse as many times as
topics to be covered:
whom you are speaking with will walk out. may be needed. Practice as if your life de-
In that short time, you have to communi- pends on it. The future of your business a. The problem definition and the solu-
cate your business proposal effectively to definitely depends on it. tion provided by you;
arouse the interest of the listener. The elevator pitch need not be verbal b. The team and why this team is capa-
ble of providing this solution;

So it is a succinct and persuasive com- and could be written too. Maybe you are

each other and not spread all over the
e. Avoid chit-chat as you have limited
1 Objective of the pitch is to get consent for one time to tell your story and you do not
more meeting wish to fritter away that time in unpro-
2 Don't waste time explaining who you are or the ductive talk. This is not the forum to
existing problem to you solution show off your knowledge of current af-
fairs or sense of humour;
3 Be Brief and Clear about your product, team status
f. Be ready with all your facts. Even if
& scalability potential
your memory is sharp, keep a note of
4 Dawn a positive body language all factual data, which may not be part
of presentation;
5 Prepare & Rehearse multiple times
g. Time your presentation well. Unless
the host had indicated otherwise, as-
c. How big is the market for this solution, Pitching Face to Face sume you have only twenty minutes.
which directly decides the scalability This means your story cannot extend
Reaching this stage is the dream of all
potential. beyond ten slides.
startups. We will look at the subject of the
h. Keep additional slides on each critical
In addition, mention the current sta- presentation itself in the next article, but
aspect of your business ready, in case
tus of the venture. Is it just an idea; or we will look now at few tips on how to han-
the host gives you additional time to un-
whether the operations have already star- dle the meeting.
derstand some aspects in more detail.
ted; and if yes, what traction has been
a. Basic requirements of any business i. You should have conducted a mock
achieved till date. meeting apply to the pitching meeting pitch session earlier with your co-
Let us also look at what not to include in too. These are: founders and if possible, with your
this communication: - Be on time for the meeting. Arrive at mentors. The mock session should
least ten minutes early; be as close to the real session as pos-
a. Valuation of your business, the amount
- Play safe and dress formally. Wear sible. The mentors or others in the au-
of money you are looking for and the
only that you feel comfortable with. dience should be of such a type that
percentage holding you are willing to For example, if the weather is hot and
offer for these funds. You are at a very they would challenge your assump-
you are not comfortable with wearing tion and conclusions. This will help
preliminary stage to even talk about a jacket, avoid the jacket;
this subject; you to sharpen your approach for the
- Prepare for Murphy's Law in opera- real session.
b. Do not over-hype your model by stat- tion. In addition to the presentation on
ing, say, “we will be the next Uber for your laptop, keep the file in a memory In the next article, we will look at the pitch
blah blah,” unless your business mo- stick. If possible even have the pre- deck presentation itself in more detail.w
del is exactly the same as Uber and sentation loaded on a second laptop
you are confident of successfully de- as a further backup;
fending your claim; - Keep printouts of your presentation Author's Bio
c. Do not mention competition scenario handy, to be given only if asked;
unless you have a very well known ma- - If a laser pointer is needed, take two
jor competition for that model. If that with you with new batteries already loa-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

be the situation you can mention a ded. Keep additional set of batteries;
word about that competitor, but you - Reach the location of the meeting by
also have to mention very briefly how using a comfortable method of trans-
you are going to be different than that portation;
well-entrenched competitor; b. Ideally, all the co-founders should be
d. Do not bad mouth competition; present at the meeting. Decide well in Subu Venkataraman is a finance and
general management professional with
Do conclude the communication with advance who will be leading the pre- close to three decades' international
a request for a face-to-face meeting sentation. Such leader should have the business experience. He is also a bud-
wherein you can explain in more detail the working knowledge of “all” aspects of ding e-book author on leadership and
various aspects of your venture. Indicate business, irrespective of what his ma- management subjects and has created
jor role is. Usually, the CEO of the start- a book series, Sixty Minute Series. He is
your preparedness by communicating
up should be the lead presenter. currently Strategy Advisor to Startups
clearly that you are ready for such a meet- and SMEs.
ing anytime. c. All co-founders should speak the He can be contacted at
The above is good enough for a po- same language, in a sense there
tential investor to decide whether he should be no disagreements or con-
would like to pursue this opportunity fur- flicts between them at the meeting.
ther or not.

d. The co-founder should all sit close to



Mandar Chitre, Consultant, Trainer & Writer

Masterbuilder in collaboration with Baton Consultants brings you a feature on 'Cement', the third in its line of series to help
students crack interviews. The article is written towards improving the thought process & making the students ready for the
real world.As usual, the article will feature a small 'QnA' for students to follow up on and interact with us. The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

The real world; what is so different about reality?

At the college level, many students do not get enough exposure to material, equipment & projects. There are several gaps
between the curriculum and actual working. In fact, I will not mince my words in calling the real world a cruel person, who
expects civil engineers & architects to be well prepared & knowledgeable from day one.

CEMENT - A BASIC ELEMENT IN ins & homes. Lime and Clay combina- In the year 1824, a man called Joseph
CONSTRUCTION tions, as well as some cement like sub- Aspdin after conducting a lot of research
stances, were utilised in the earlier days. finally developed a consistent binder which
During the stone age, homes or shel- It is said that the Romans found a was tested & finalised. He then created its
ters were built by carving rocks. This was materialthat could be made to set under patent. It was done by calcining fine clay &
a cumbersome and time-consuming water and this was used for the construc- limestone. The mix appeared very similar
exercise. Cutting blocks of stone and lay- tion of harbours. This was made by adding to a stone in Portland. Therefore it was
ing them together with lime or burnt gyp- crushed volcanic ash to lime and was called Portland cement. Isaac Johnson is
sum was also employed. Wood was also a later called a "pozzolanic", named after 1845 further improved the process &

very common material used to build cab- the village of Pozzuoli near Vesuvius. standardised it to what we use today.
Queryand Rejoinder
The process of making cement is cal- idols, primers, etc. Colour also can be ad-
cination. It is derived by heating limestone Can you give us crisp ded to white cement based building mate-
& clay to over 1400 degrees to form clink- accurate & smart answers rial products giving it better value & cre-
ers. These clinkers are stones which are for the following interview ativity.
grounded with gypsum to form a fine pow- questions on Cement ? The strength of cement is described
der called Ordinary Portland Cement. in the grade. 53 or 43 is what is mentioned
IS 269 2016is the code for cement 1. What gives white colour to in the bag as per the IS code. 53 Grade
which sets parameters on composition, white cement? cement is used for fast paced construc-
packing, labelling, marking storage, etc. 2. What is the meaning of tion where an initial strength is to be
When water is added, the reaction achieved quickly. The grade 43 and 53 in
“Ordinary” in OPC?
which occurs is exothermic, thus leading cement mainly corresponds to the aver-
to the generation of heat. By the process 3. Which cement will you age compressive strength attained after
of hydration (reaction with water) Portland prefer to use in wall 28 days (6724 hours) in megapascals
cement when mixed with sand, gravel and plasters? (Mpa) of at least three mortar cubes (area
water produce a synthetic combination, of face 50 cm squared).
which we call concrete. This was a basic article covering the
PPC is made by adding pozzolanic fundamentals of cement, the inorganic
material to OPC. Pozzolan is a siliceous Conditions of the Contest: glue that binds all materials to form a
material, which is not cement but in the strong solid material in a shape that we
presence of moisture will chemically re- a. All answers should be desire to build. Therefore we can say that
act with calcium hydroxide at ordinary original & crisp the journey from stone-age to concrete
temperature to form compounds having b. Your answers are to be emailed age happened due to cement. It is the
cementitious properties. The material on or before 30th January 2017 main compound that has made our life
has to be in finely grounded condition to comfortable.
react with calcium hydroxide (liberated by c. The decision of the contest
organisers shall be treated as final The Open Book Contest
the hydrating Portland Cement) in the
presence of water to form stable calcium d. Email: / This contest allows you to read books
silicates which have cementitious prop- or search the internet for answers. What
erties. Volcanic ash, shales and a particu- we are looking for is the writing style espe-
lar type of clays have pozzolanic proper- cially the explanation part which needs to
ties. But in our country (In India) Fly ash is (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag). be crisp & smart. Please take part in this
the main constituent used in PPC. And The amount of energy needed to produce contest. It will give you a chance to interact
moreover, this kind of cement is used more a kilogramme of slag cement is much with the author as well as help brush up
than 80% for construction purposes. less than for ordinary Portland cement your knowledge for that special interview
Fly ash is a by-product of the coal com- because the slag is essentially a waste & get your dream job.
bustion process. It is made of fine parti- material which can be used beneficially in
cles that are driven out of the boiler with making cement. So, slag cement is envi-
flue gases. In the past, fly ash was gener- ronmentally friendly, cheaper, less reac- Author's Bio
ally released into the atmosphere, but air tive, corrosion resistant, smooth surface
pollution control standards now require but possess lesser strength.
that it be captured before release by fitting White cement is a colour variant of
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

pollution control equipment. Worldwide, OPC. It is finer by nature& gives a smoother

more than 65% of fly ash produced from finish to surfaces. However, due to lesser
coal power stations is disposed of in land- availability of raw material & slightly more
fills and ash ponds complicated manufacturing process, it is
The advantage of PPC is that it gives expensive than OPC. The colour is white & Mandar Chitre is a Consultant, Trainer
slower but higher compressive strength. It can be used for many decorative pur- & Writer. He comes with a 20 years of ex-
also has better workability, lower heat of hy- poses. The surface finishing products such perience in the construction & building
dration,highertensilestrength&ischeaper. as putty are made out of white cement. material industry. Mandar is an engineer-
Slag Cement is also a very commonly The primary use is for architectural beauty, ing graduate with masters in marketing.
used cement. It is made from GGBS He also holds a diploma in business
floorings, ornamental concrete products,
management & indirect tax. He is one of
the very few marketing professionals who
also holds a diploma in corporate laws.
Mandar has a completely diversified
portfolio ranging from multinational to
owner driven companies & sales to sup-
ply chain. As a writer, he has won a few
national prizes.

FibreFix forays into the Indian market

uct Tape fixes everything right? Not like steel, and provides a permanent fix. It household settings, it can help fix furniture,
quite. Have you ever tried to patch is also more than a 100x stronger than duct utensils, tools, pipes- the opportunities are
a water line, repair a load-bearing tape. Using FiberFix™, consumers can fix unlimited, metal and wood alike.
steel bar, or fix the broken handle on a things that either could not be fixed before Simple to use, FiberFix involves sand-
shovel with tape? Your results will be far less or could not be fixed inexpensively. ing the affected area, dipping the wrap in
than stellar. Spearheaded by Spencer Quinn and water for 5-10 seconds, wrapping the
The vast majority of adhesives on the Eric Child, FiberFix was started in late 2012, product to the affected area and applying
market are only designed for cosmetic or post which, they entered Shark Tank. the vinly strip to tighten the wrap. Being
minor repairs. They certainly aren't Backed by Lori Grenier, queen of QVC, they self-adhesive, no other products are
designed to deal with heavy forces. If you found the funding they were looking for, required in the process of using FiberFix.
do need to repair something that's sub- after proving the concept of this ground- It uses a combination of fiber and resin to
merged in water or needs to hold weight, breaking product. It is now a household name have a steel-like grip on the affected area,
you have to resort to an epoxy or other heavy in the US and it is Goodwill Retails Private securing your assests. It takes about 2-5
duty adhesive. These products are messy Limited's endeavour to make it so in India. minutes to use, cutting down downtime
and take 24 hours or more to dry. With its wide base of application, it can dramatically, and can turn the average
FiberFix a revolutionary product to deal be used in both industrial and residential Rajesh into a handyman. It is waterproof,
with a number of problems. Gaining trac- settings. A number of industries can bene- making its application widespread. It is
tion from Shark Tank, this product has fit from its usage as it fixes motor pipes, resistant to heat and cold, so it is perfect to
been brought to India by Goodwill Retails water pipes, high pressure pipes, vehicle fix industrial breaks in machinery and
Private Limited. It can fix an array of prob- parts, breaks in machine parts, garner hardware. Being sandable and paintable
lems ranging from fixing pipes to broken hoses, etc. The beauty of the product lies it seasmlessly blends into your existing
hardware. As the name suggests, FiberFix in the fact that, if kept at hand, it can dras- setting. It is also an inexpensive way to
uses industrial grade fibre and resin to tically reduce down time in industrial set- repair and fix things that you would have to
repair and fix products from mixed media tings, not only saving money, but also break the bank rehabilitating. It is resis-
that will bond to almost anything, hardens resulting in productivity and efficiency. In tant to climatic changes and is a long-term
solution for a number of problems that
It comes in two variants- the wrap and
the patch. The wrap is available in four
sizes 1”x12”, 1”x40”, 2”x50”, 4”x60”. Each
roll is considered a single use item. Each
roll comes in an air-sealed pouch. Once
this pouch is opened, the wrap needs to be
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

used right away. Each roll comes with a

pair of gloves, which adds convenience in
working with FiberFix™. The patch comes
in three sizes- 3”x3”, 2”x8” and 5”x5”.
FiberFix is present in over 24 coun-
tries and now this game changing product
is in India. With ample advantages and fea-
tures, every household and industrial set-
ting can benefit from having this product
readily at hand.w

For further details:

call: 9619997115/3115
E-mail: ,

Emancipation of acotec SEMI wall plant

established in India

lematic is the house of precast, one
of the leading one-stop-supplier
for precast concrete technology.
They specialise in the manufacturing pre-
cast floors, walls, frames and foundations
or even all of them. In the past few years, the
company has put significant effort into
serving Indian precast customers. A sales
and services unit was established in New
Delhi, and a local manufacturing unit
focusing on molds was opened.
Recently, BN Precast Pvt. Ltd. acquired The benefits of Acotec are unques- In larger construction projects with
the first Acotec line in India. BN Precast is tionable. The production process, with a tower cranes, the walls are easy to lift to
an Indian pioneer in using Acotec technol- verylowenergyconsumptionof55kWh/hour, each floor. “When a tower crane is not
ogy to manufacture non-load bearing con- is completely automated, engaging fewer available, a mechanical pulley system can
crete hollow-core walls under its own than five people. “We appreciate the small lift two to three panels at a time,” explains
Walltec brand. Acotec wall technology was amount of production space and low man- Parth Patel, Senior Engineer, BN Precast.
developed in Finland. The first deliveries power required to operate the Acotec line. After reaching the desired floor, the wall
took place in the late 1980s. Today, the only The machinery takes up only 900 m2 of fac- panels can easily be tilted into place manu-
original Acotec line is available from tory space,” says Nishant Patel, Director, ally or by a special hydraulic installation
Elematic. BN Precast. The line is also suitable for machine provided by Elematic.
installationintoexistingproductionfacilities. The hollow-core slabs have passages
Quality construction with speed
Complete precast lines for manufac- for water pipes and electrical wiring, heat-
The Acotec line, based on a stationary turing concrete wall panels have a typical ing, ventilation, and air conditioning, as
extruder, offers a compact and highly auto- payback time of 1.52 years. Opting for an well as hydraulic installations there is no
mated way to manufacture light, non-load Acotec line can result in substantial sav- need to make holes or chases. If any modi-
bearing partition walls. The line is simple ings in construction costs compared to fication is needed, the wall panels can eas-
to install, run, and maintain, and is con- traditional on-site methods. ily be cut or drilled.
structed of standard components utilizing Environmental conditions may be The light, non-load bearing partition
the latest technology. challenging for the construction industry Acotec walls offer immaculate quality
Automated production process Acotec due to factors such as seismic activity or without plastering. The walls have a finish
walls are suitable for use in several envi- rainy seasons. Precast elements are man- with an option of either a fine or coarse sur-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

ronments. They are mostly used as inter- ufactured in a factory environment and the face. Unlike with brick or block walls con-
nal partition walls in residential, com- negative effects of weather conditions can sisting of red bricks, fly ash bricks, or AAC
mercial, institutional, and industrial build- be eliminated. The walls are proven to work blocks, plastering is not required. The
ings. BN Precast's walls are currently in countries with the strictest standards quality is consistent due to factory pro-
being installed in all of these building types and requirements for seismicity, moisture, duction and strict quality control before,
as well as sheds. Acotec walls are also a and fire resistance. during and after production. The walls,
good choice as a boundary or compound with a thickness of 68140 mm, are strong
Wall panels with fast installation
walls or for use as an anti-noise screen. and durable. The desired strength can be
Construction with light, non-load bear- chosen by specifying the concrete mix.w
ing partition walls can be up to six times
faster than traditional brick-work and
twice as fast as blockwork. “The walls For further details:
enable extremely fast installation of up to Elematic India Pvt. Ltd.
40 square feet per hour. In comparison, H-26, First Floor, Bali Nagar,
New Delhi,110015
traditional brickwork proceeds at a pace Ph: +91-11-25979311, 47320220
of 10 square feet per hour before plaster- E-mail:
ing is done. Our walls can be installed by Web:

teams of five workers,” explains Mr. Patel.


Analysis of 110 meter high air traffic

control tower (ATC)

Subhash Mehrotra1, Deepak Thakur2, Sakshi Mehra3

M. Tech. (Structural Engineering) I.I.T. Delhi
B.E. (Civil Engineering) from N.I.T. Nagpur
M. Sc. (Structural Engineering) University of Glasgow& Edinburgh
Managing Director Mehro Consultants New Delhi

his paper discusses the design and analysis of Air Traffic
Control Tower planned for one of the major metropolitan
city of India. An Air Traffic Control Tower comprises of 2
main parts - The Core (that goes from the ground level to the
top level) and the Visual Control Cabin (the topmost levels above
the Core) from where the Air Traffic is managed. The visual Con-
trol Cabin is designed to have frameless glazing using laminated
chemically toughened heated glazing panels, specifically de-
signed for the topography, height and size of the glazing to reduce
the visual distortion during night time operation and to reduce the
effect of condensation during humid conditions. The tower offers
360degree unobstructed visibility not only to the air space but also
at the Aircraft movements at Apron level.
This paper explains the changes made in the initial design
proposed by the Architect in order to control both static and dy-
namic effects of wind on Human Discomfort and distortion of
images to Traffic Controllers, while doing their work at control
room. The intent includes design for serviceable behaviour during
frequent winds and limit the acceleration at the Visual Control
Cabin Level to acceptable levels. For the design of ATC with 50
year return period, the intent is to resist wind loads with no ex-
cessive deflection of structure. The tower has been designed for
Earthquake Zone-IV Seismic loads (IS 1893 – 2002 Part -1) with
importance factor of 1.5 and for a basic wind pressure of 50m /
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

second as per I.S. 875 Pt – III.

The Tower has been modelled using two different softwares
commonly used all over the country to compare and verify the
analysis results in terms of the Base Shear, Deflection, Bending
Moments and Shear Forces in various members. This paper also
discusses the results of dynamic analysis for wind conditions
subjected to ATC as per I.S. Codes.
ATC tower has core structure with staircase as well as floors
at every 3rd floor level. These are in R.C.C. Top four floors are with
structural steel.
The shaft is elliptical in shape having maximum base dimen-
sion of 12 meter in one direction and 14 meter in other direction.
At visual control room level the dimension becomes 28 and 30
meter thus there is cantilever of about 8 meters all around.

the tower (Visual Control Room) due to vibrations on a Windy day.
The original design concept comprised of smooth semi-cir- The structure was modified such that the wind path is broken
cular cores all around. This design was revised based on the pre- and the deflection at the top is reduced. Stiffeners were added all
liminary analysis to avoid the discomfort for persons at the top of around the core with varying length.

Original design of core


The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |

Original Elevation Structurally Modified Design After

Adding Stiffeners

Input Parameters 6. Deflection at Top due to WIND in Y direction : 200mm

7. Story Drift due to EQX 0.0005475 ( Well within the limit of 0.003)
RCC structure with typical core upto height of 86m above which is 8. Story Drift due to EQY : 0.00146 (Well within the limit of 0.003)
structural Steel upto 105.6m 9. Modal participation achieved greater than 90% in first 30 modes.
Basic wind pressure of 50m / second as per I.S. 875 Pt – III. 10. Torsion is under control
Importance Factor 1.5
Earthquake Zone III, Z = 0.16 Modal
Time Period of the structure calculated as per IS 1893: 7.6.2 = participation X direction Y direction
0.09h/√d Software 1 (%)
Time Period of Structure in X direction: 2.86 sec Mode 1 0 65.9
Time Period of Structure in Y direction: 2.32 sec
Mode 2 65.1 0
SoIl type 1 (hard)
Response Reduction Factor 4 Mode 3 0.0002 0.75
Modal Combination Method: CQC
Analysis has been carried out using Two Softwares to verify and Graphical Plot of various parameters vs Story Height is
compare the results in terms of Base Shear, Deflections, bend- shown below:
ing Moments and Shear Forces.

Base Story Shear in EQ X Base Story Shear in EQY

Direction: 2475 KN Direction : 2840 KN

Base Story Shear in WIND Base Story Shear in WIND

X Direction : 15972 KN Y Direction : 14840 KN
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Computational Model Screenshots

Analysis Results

A brief summary of the Analysis results from Software 1 is Maximum Story Drift in EQ X : Maximum Story Drift in EQ Y :
0.0005475 0.00146
given below:

The in plane horizontal direction is X Axis and in plane vertical The results quoted above are for Software 1.
direction is Y axis. The output results of Software 1 and Software 2 are tubulars
1. Base Shear in X direction EQx : 2475 kN below:
2. Base Shear in Y direction EQy : 2840 kN Total Load Software 1 Software2
3. Base Shear Wind X : 15972 kN
4. Base Shear Wind Y : 14840 kN DL 181380 KN 185698 KN
5. Deflection at Top due to WIND in X direction : 130mm LL 32600 KN 40619 KN

Software 1 Software2 Live Load Deflec-

Base Shear EQ X 2475 KN 2940 KN tion at Visual
Software 1 Software2
Control Room
Base Shear Other (VCR)
2840 KN 2655 KN
In Plane ( X) 0.4 mm 0.05 mm
The base shears are also comparable in both directions for In Plane (Other
0.2 mm 1.8 mm
both Softwares. Direction)
The modal participation factors for the first three modes have Perpendicular to
also been compared: 21.1 mm 10 mm

Modal Wind Load

participation X direction Y direction Deflection at
Software 1 Software2
Software 1 ( %) Visual Control
Mode 1 0 65.9 Room (VCR)

Mode 2 65.1 0 In Plane ( X) 130 mm 160 mm

Mode 3 0.0002 0.75 In Plane (Other
200 mm 180 mm
participation X direction Y direction Perpendicular to
23.8 mm 23 mm
Software 2 (%) Plane
Mode 1 63.8 0
Wind Forces Software 1 Software2
Mode 2 0 66.0
Mode 3 0.0001 0.0001 WX 15972 KN 15816 KN

Other Direction 14840 KN 15063 KN

Dead Load De-
flection at Visual
Software 1 Software 2 (mm) Software 1 Software 2
Control Room Deflection
(VCR) and Loading Deflection Force Deflection Force
In Plane ( X) 1.5 mm 0.06 mm
15972 15816
In Plane ( Other WX 130 mm 160 mm
1.8 mm 2 mm KN KN
Perpendicular To Other 14840 15063
19.3 mm 14.9 mm 200 mm 180 mm
Plane Direction KN KN


The analysis results from both the Softwares are studied and the output results are reasonably matching. The analysis results show
that the Torsion, Inter-storey Drift, Deflection at top are within allowable limits. w
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Stabilization of expansive soil with industrial

solid waste

Prof. P V Sivapullaiah
Pro Vice-Chancellor, Gitam University,
Bangaluru Campus, Nagadenahalli

Abstract: The stabilization of different types of problematic soils vibro replacement stone columns improve the bearing capacity
such as expansive soil, soft soil, contaminated soils etc. by us- of soil, vibro displacement method which displaces the soil, elec-
ing various chemical stabilizers such as lime and cement is well tro osmosis which makes water flow through fine grained soils,
known techniques in the field of geotechnical engineering and electro kinetic stabilization by the application of electro osmosis,
ground improvement and has been practiced since last several reinforced soil steel for retaining structures, sloping walls, dams
decades. Lime and cement which are used to bind problematic etc., seismic loading for construction in seismically active regions
soil particles are found to be ineffective in soils containing signif- have been used to improve the properties of soils. Mechanically
icant amount of sulfate in them due to alteration of cementitious stabilized earth structures create a reinforced soil mass. Other
compounds. Further, stabilization of soils with lime is not seemed methods such as geo-methods (use of geosynthetics, geogrid,
to be an environmental friendly. Hence, efforts have been made geotextiles etc.), soil nailing, grouting, micro-pile are also been
to utilize the waste by–products such as fly ash, ground granulat- practiced to increase the shear strength, rigidity of the in-situ
ed blast furnace slag etc. in large scale to stabilize soils; proper soil and to restrain its displacement. However, soil stabilization,
utilization of waste materials reduces the higher cost of calcium particularly by using chemical and waste stabilizers, is different
based additives, and is fruitful to embrace sustainable develop- from all these ground improvement technique in which the soil
ment and safe ecosystem for environmental friendly construc- properties are improved by blending of soil particles by mixing
tion operations. These stabilization methods can be effectively other materials. Soil stabilization depends mainly on chemical
used for various geotechnical applications such as base course reactions between stabilizer and soil minerals (pozzolanic stabi-
for flexible pavements, construction of embankments, as cush- lization) to achieve the desired effect. The purpose of stabilization
ion between expansive soils and foundation, improve properties is to improve the strength and volume stability but may be to en-
of marine soils, foundations on expansive soils and waste dumps, hance or reduce permeability of soils. This facilitates construction
as liner applications for waste disposal facilities, stabilization of of pavements, embankments, reinforced earth structures, rail-
slopes, etc. Hence, the aim of present paper is to review pozzo- ways, bulk fill applications, housing and industrial units on soils
lanic agents, such as fly ash, GGBS, alone or in combination with where they were not technically feasible or not economically via-
various chemical additives such as lime, cement and gypsum, in ble. Further, stabilization can often reduce significantly the time
order to assess their effectiveness in improving the properties of taken to complete a project and reduce tipping or need to import.
soils. It has been observed that utilization of waste binders along The process also enables wet ground to be dried and strength-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

with minimal use of chemical lime and gypsum lead to improve ened for immediate use. Soil stabilization has transferred into
the strength behaviour of soils with curing periods. Use of the the most cost effective and viable method for preparation of sites
waste materials not conserve the natural resources but also for all most all construction projects. Several types of techniques
have several technical advantages. It can suppress the negative and stabilizers such as traditional ones (hydrated lime, Portland
effect of sulphate, can enhance the properties beyond optimum cement, and fly ash), byproducts (cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust,
lime content. and other forms of by product lime), and non–traditional (sulfon-
ated oils, potassium compounds, ammonium chloride, enzymes,
Introduction polymers) and their combinations, are widely used to improve
Several ground improvement techniques such as mechani- the properties of expansive soils to meet specific design criteri-
cal stabilization, chemical stabilization, columnar injection, pre- on (Chen, 2012; Cokca, 2001). Soil stabilization using lime is the
loading, asphalt stabilization and use of reinforcing materials are most widely used method for drying a wet site and improve their
practiced frequently to modify and stabilize the soils for suitable engineering behaviour. Historically lime stabilization is in vogue
construction purpose. Vibro-compaction which increases the from early Raman period for construction of roads. Cement and
density of the soil by using powerful depth vibrators, vacuum lime are consistently used to stabilize soils rapidly for road and
consolidation which can improve soft soils by using a vacuum airfield applications by military, but recent developments showed
pump, preloading which can be used to remove pore water over several nontraditional stabilizers have been used successfully.
time, heating to form a crystalline or glass product by electric There are significant developments in stabilization of soils not for
current, ground freezing which converts pore water to ice to road construction and is not restricted to conventional stabilizers.
increase their combined strength and make them impervious, With advancements in the applications of stabilizers by deep

injection technique, there are several innovative applications of or temperate climates, clay minerals are fairly stable and are an
stabilization. But there are certain types of problematic soils important component of soil. There are many types of known clay
which do not respond well to conventional stabilizers. All there is minerals (Fig. 1) (Madejová, 2003; Mitchell, 1986).
an urgent need to use solid industrial wastes (fly ash, GGBS, rice Some of the more common types are:
husk ash) to reduce the cost of their disposal apart from reduc- Kaolinite: This clay mineral is the weathering product of feld-
ing the land area requirement and environmental issues. This spars. It has a white, powdery appearance. Because kaolinite is
also can reduce the cost of stabilization. The use of these wastes electrically balanced, its ability of adsorb ions is less than that of
requires knowledge about the soils as well as the properties of other clay minerals.
waste materials. Efforts made to stabilize different problematic Illite: Resembles muscovite in mineral composition, only
soils such as expansive soils with different types of binders and finer-grained. It is the weathering product of feldspars and felsic
binder combinations and optimize their proportions are present- silicates.
ed in this paper. Chlorite: This clay mineral is the weathering product of mafic
Fundamental Behind Clay Behavior silicates and is stable in cool, dry, or temperate climates. It oc-
curs along with illite in mid-western soils. It is also found in some
The behavior of fine grained soils is much more complex and metamorphic rocks, such as chlorite schist.
variable compared to coarse grained soils. The fine grained soil Vermiculite: This clay mineral has the ability to adsorb water,
systems undergoes more volume changes, i.e. swell or shrink but not repeatedly.
on wetting and drying, and is influenced by ionic concentration Smectite: This clay mineral is the weathering product of
or composition. Very often fine grained soils exhibit unexpected mafic silicates, and is stable in arid, semi-arid, or temperate
properties/behavior. Four such cases - (1) The aging of quick climates. It was formerly known as montmorillonite. Smectite
clay after sampling, in which the remolded strength increased has the ability to adsorb large amounts of water, forming a wa-
in samples maintained at constant water content; (2) time effects ter-tight barrier, and the chemical industry. There are two main
in freshly densified or deposited sand, in which natural sand de- varieties of smectite, a) sodium smectite (the high-swelling form
posits can lose strength if disturbed but regain strength over time of smectite, which can adsorb up to 18 layers of water molecules
periods of weeks to months; (3) apparently sound lime‐stabilized between layers of clay) and b) calcium smectite (the low-swelling
soil that swells and disintegrates starting a few years after con- form of smectite adsorbs less water than does sodium smectite).
struction; and (4) the failure of excess pore pressures to dissipate Attapulgite: This mineral actually resembles the amphiboles
as predicted during the consolidation of soft clays - are described more than it does clay minerals, but has a special property that
by Mitchell (1986) and reinforced that soils are not inert materi- smectite lacks - as a drilling fluid, it stable in salt water environ-
als and they can change with time and sensitive to environmen- ments. When drilling for offshore oil, conventional drilling mud
tal changes. To understand and also overcome the problems falls apart in the presence of salt water.
created by unexpected changes in soil behavior, it is necessary In humid tropical climates, clay minerals are unstable and
to consider the factors that influence their behavior, not only to break down under intense chemical weathering to become hy-
deal with them and even forecast well in advance. An attempt is drated oxides of aluminum (bauxite) and iron (goethite).
made to present briefly the factors that control the behavior of Schematic structure of most common clay minerals are giv-
fine grained soils more particularly those of the clays. en in Fig. 1.

Clay Minerals

Three mechanisms for clay mineral formation (inheritance,

neo-formation and transformation) operating in three geological
environments (weathering, sedimentary, and diagenetic-hydro- The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |
thermal) yield nine possibilities for the origin of clay minerals in
nature. The mineralogy of clays neoformed in the weathering
environment is a function of solution chemistry, with the most
dilute solutions favoring formation of the least soluble clays. After
erosion and transportation, these clays may be deposited on the
ocean floor in a lateral sequence that depends on floccule size.
Clays undergo little reaction in the ocean, except for ion exchange
and the neoformation of smectite; therefore, most clay found on
the ocean floor is inherited from adjacent continents. Upon burial
and heating, however, dioctahedral smectite reacts in the diage-
netic environment to yield mixed-layer illite-smectite, and finally Fig. 1: Schematic Structure of Some common clay minerals
illite. With uplift and weathering, the cycle begins again.

Clay Mineral Structure Interstratification in Phyllosilicates

The properties and compositions of some mineral colloids
Clay minerals are layer silicates that are formed usually as are intermediate between those of well-defined minerals such
products of chemical weathering of other silicate minerals at as kaolinite and smectite as described in above. Such minerals
the earth’s surface (Wilson, 1999). They are found most often in are referred to as mixed-layer or interstratified minerals. Most
shales, the most common type of sedimentary rock. In cool, dry, mixed-layer clays contain smectite or vermiculite as a swelling

component (Srodon, 1999). Partial removal of interlayer potas- connection with road, pavement and foundation construction to
sium from micas or of interlayer hydroxide from chlorite is one improve the Strength, Volume stability and Durability of the soil.
way that interstratification minerals can form in soils (April, 1980). The basic principles of soil stabilization consists of evaluating the
Other possibilities include i) fixation of adsorbed K+ by some ver- properties of given soil, deciding the lacking property of soil and
miculite layers to yield mica-like layers, and ii) the formation of choose effective and economical method of soil stabilization and
hydroxide interlayers to produce chlorite- like layers. Interstrat- designing the stabilized soil mix for intended stability and durabil-
ification of layers can be regular or random [8] as given below: ity values. Regardless of the purpose for stabilization, the desired
result is the creation of a soil material or soil system that will re-
1) A periodic alternation of layers of two types A and B re-
main in place under the design use conditions for the design life
fers to regular or ordered mixed-layers: ABABAB…. or
of the project.
2) A random alteration of each type of layer corresponds to Soil stabilization finds its way to a number of applications
irregular and randomly mixed-layered clays: AABABB- like increase of bearing capacity for foundation requirements,
BAAABAABA. improvement of sub-grade properties for road constructions,
increasing stability of slopes, embankment constructions etc.
Illite-smectite is the most interesting mixed-layer clays (Fig. Weak compressible soils deposits are often found near the
1). They are quite ubiquitous, well known from a chemical stand- mouths of rivers, along the perimeters of bays, and beneath
point and exhibit a mineralogical variation that responds to pres- swamps or lagoons. Soil deposits with high organic content are
sure–temperature variations during diagenesis. often found in these low lying types of locations and can be es-
Clay minerals act as “chemical sponges” which hold water pecially troublesome for construction activities. Their compress-
and dissolved plant nutrients weathered from other minerals (Al- ibility needs to be decreased and strength increased to perform
Ani and Sarapää, 2008). This results from the presence of unbal- construction activities on such soils.
anced electrical charges on the surface of clay grains, such that A successful construction of highways requires the con-
some surfaces are positively charged (and thus attract negatively struction of a structure that is capable of carrying the imposed
charged ions), while other surfaces are negatively charged (at- traffic loads. One of the most important layers of the road is the
tract positively charged ions). Clay minerals also have the ability actual foundation, or subgrade. Where the subgrade is founded
to attract water molecules. Because this attraction is a surface in an inherently weak soil, this material is typically then removed
phenomenon, it is called adsorption (which is different from ab- and replaced with a stronger granular material. This “remove
sorption because the ions and water are not attracted deep inside and replace” technique can be both costly and time consuming.
the clay grains) (Al-Ani and Sarapää, 2008). Clay minerals resem- An alternative to the “remove and replace” option is to chemically
ble the micas in chemical composition, except they are very fine stabilize the host material. This eliminates the requirement to re-
grained, usually microscopic. Like the micas, clay minerals are place the material, and ensures the engineering characteristics
shaped like flakes with irregular edges and one smooth side. and performance of the host material is enhanced to allow for
The composition of individual particles in an element of soil its use within the pavement structure. However, method of sta-
is an important characteristic of soil. This belief is true as far as bilization particularly with chemical stabilizers depends mainly
a fundamental understanding of soil behaviour is concerned. The on the mineralogical and chemical composition of soils. Proper
nature and arrangement of the atom in soil particle– i.e., compo- precautions should be required prior to use of different chemical
sition– has a significant influence on the permeability, compress- stabilizers alone or in the combination of various waste binders
ibility, and strength and stress transmission in soils, especially in such as fly ash and GGBS. The stabilization of some of the chal-
fine-grained soils. Thus, it is needed to study soil composition if it lenging soils and their mechanism are explained briefly in the
is needed to understand the fundamentals of clay behaviour and following sections.
particularly the dependence of this behaviour on time, pressure,
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

and environment. Pozzolanic Stabilization

Stabilization of Soils A pozzolan is a siliceous material, which will react with lime
The stabilization or, treatment of problematic soil generally to form cementitious compounds. For production of cementi-
refers the conversion of soil particles to rigid granular materials tious compounds, silica in amorphous or non crystalline form is
that can resist the internal swelling pressure of the clay, and re- more effective. Lime, cement and fly ash have been extensively
striction of the movement of moisture within the soil to control the used to improve the properties of expansive soils. While lime re-
seasonal variations (Al–Rawas & Goosen, 2006). The long-term acts with soil silica to produce cementitious compounds, these
performance of any construction project depends on the sound- compounds are readily available in Portland cement. However,
ness of the underlying soils. Unstable soils can create significant cement is mainly used as pre-treatment before lime stabiliza-
problems for pavements or structures. Hence, there is a great tion of expansive soils. Fly ashes often contain both lime and
need to stabilize these unstable soils to improve its engineering reactive silica and produce cementitious compounds in the pres-
properties due to limited financial resources and to utilize the lo- ence water. There are three different types of fly ashes from the
cally available soil to the full extent. Soil stabilization means the consideration of pozzolanic nature - self pozzolanic, pozzolanic
improvement of stability or bearing power of the soil by the use of and non pozzolanic. The reactive silica content of fly ash plays an
controlled compaction, proportioning and/or the addition of suit- important role in the pozzolanic properties of fly ash. Fly ashes
able admixture or stabilizers. Broadly, it refers to any chemical or with good reactive silica content and sufficient lime content are
mechanical treatment given to a mass of soil to improve or main- called self pozzolanic (Sivapullaiah et al. 1998; Sivapullaiah et al.
tain its engineering properties. Soil stabilization is widely used in 2000). Fly ashes containing reactive silica but in adequate lime

content are pozzolanic and develop good strength with addition of

lime. Methods are available for optimizing lime content (Sivapul-
laiah et al., 1996). Fly ashes without reactive silica cannot develop
strength even with addition lime and are called non pozzolanic.

Strength of Fly Ash and Fly Ash-Lime and Fly ash-Lime-

Gypsum Stabilization

Silica, alumina and secondary oxides of calcium, magne-

sium, iron and sulfur are the most common minerals found in
fly ash. Further, fly ash generally contains silty sized particles and
with addition of fly ash to soil causes replacement of clayey sized
particles of soils. This results an improvement in gradation of soil
matrix and thereby, improving strength of soil with increase in fly
ash content (Class “F) in combination with lime and gypsum (Fig.
2). Calcium oxide is the important chemical component of fly ash
for soil modification. Calcium oxides in presence of water disso- Fig. 4 Mixing and shaping of fly ash stabilized soil
ciates into calcium cations and hydroxide anions. On dissociation
calcium cations pozzolanically react with chemical compounds these oxides can react in presence of sufficient amount of cal-
found in soil to form cementitious materials. In pozzolanic reac- cium cations to form cementitious materials. The formation of
tions siliceous material reacts in presence of moisture and cal- cementitious compounds leads to the improvement in strength
cium to form compounds having cementitious properties. The in expansive soils (Fig. 2). However, addition of small gypsum to
more the calcium cations is available the greater the degree of lime treated soil with fly ash causes acceleration in pozzolanic
soil modification. Silica, alumina, magnesium and iron oxide are reactions and thereby drastically increase in short term strength
the non calcium oxides found in fly ash are inert material. But (Sivapullaiah and Jha, 2014). The addition of gypsum to soil caus-
es formation of ettringite crystals along with cementitious com-
pounds, which reinforce the soil matrix together and thereby,
enhancing the strength of soil at shorter curing periods (Fig. 3).
The method of mixing of fly ash with soil is shown in Fig. 4.

Strength of Expansive soil with waste Granulated Blast Fur-

nace Slag (GGBS)

GGBS is an industrial waste obtained by quenching molten

iron blast-furnace slag in water or steam. GGBS, with an annual
production of about 15 Mt, is mainly used in concrete manufac-
turing plants for partial replacement of cement in concrete. How-
ever, this utilization rate for GGBS only amounts to 55% (Singh et
al., 2008).
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Fig. 2: Strength behaviour of expansive soil with fly ash, lime and gypsum

Fig. 5: Variation of UCS with GGBS content

The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of expansive

soil (Fig. 5) increases with the addition of small amount of GGBS
up to about 10% GGBS and remains constant up about 40% and
Fig. 3: SEM images of a) soil, b) soil+10 % fly ash+6 %Lime+1 % gypsum, thereafter decreases with further increase in GGBS content. The
14 day, c) soil+10 % fly ash+6 % lime, 28 day, d) soil+10 % fly ash+6 % variations in strength can be explained by the factors: 1. Decrease
lime+1 % gypsum, 28 day in the cohesion of the soil due to addition of frictional materials;

2. Improved strength due cementation of pozzolanic compounds

produced; 3. The variations in compaction parameters as the soil
GGBS mixtures are compacted to their respective Proctor’s op-
timum conditions; 4. Coating of GGBS by soil particles (Sharma
and Sivapullaiah, 2012).
Fly ash has been used successfully in several projects to
improve the compressive and shear strength soils for stabilising
bases or subgrades, to stabilize backfill to reduce lateral earth
pressures and to stabilize embankments to improve slope sta-
bility. Typically stabilized soil depths vary between 15 and 46 cms.
The compressive strength of fly ash treated soils is dependent on:
- In-place soil properties
- Delay time
- Moisture content at time of compaction
- Fly ash addition ratio
Another important reason for using fly ash over cement in
stabilisation is its advantages of delay time, which is time time
lapsed between wet mixing and compaction (sivapullaiah et al 1998).

Ground granulated blast furnace slag amended fly ash as an

expansive soil stabilizer Fig. 6: Variation of UCS with binder content (no lime)

Both fly ash and GGBS possesses reactive silica and lime.
Though both are pozzolanic materials, for the reaction products
to gain maximum strength an optimum ratio of reactive silica to
lime is required. Thus the attempt is made to mix two pozzola-
nic materials which individually have different amounts of reac-
tive silica and lime. The possibility is that one component pres-
ent in excess in one material will be utilized by the other which
is in need of the same and vice-versa. However, there is a wide
variation in the chemical properties of fly ash and GGBS. Fly ash
is low in calcium oxide content but rich in silica and alumina
while GGBS is relatively high in calcium oxide. The combination
of these two materials can be more beneficial when used as a
stabilizing agent than using them individually. Each can provide
sufficient lime or silica to support pozzolanic reaction, thereby re-
quiring lower amounts of chemical activators. Studies relating to
the alkali activation of slag/fly ash mixtures in blended cements
and concretes have been carried out by few researchers (Bijen
and Waltje, 1989; Puertas et al., 2000; Shi and Day, 1999).
Fig. 6 shows the variation of the unconfined compressive
Fig. 7: X-ray diffraction patterns of the soil stabilized with 20% binder The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |
strength (UCS) of treated expansive soil (without lime) for dif-
cured for 28 days (a) no lime (b) 1% lime
ferent curing periods in relation to the percentage of the binder
(mixture of fly ash and GGBS) (Sharma and Sivapullaiah, 2016). It
can be seen that strength increases up to 20% of the binder con-
tent and then decreases thereafter. This trend is similar for all the
curing periods. For the same percentage of binder, the strength
of the samples was found to be directly proportional to the curing
period. The formation of cementitious compounds [such as cal-
cium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H), calcium–aluminate–hydrates
(C–A–H), and calcium-aluminium–silicate–hydrates (C–A–S–H)]
in the soil–binder matrix is responsible for the increase in the un-
confined compressive strength of the stabilized soil (Fig. 7 and
8). However, the addition of binder beyond 20% gave a reduction
Fig. 8: Results of SEM analysis for soil stabilized with 20% binder cured
in strength. For stabilized soils with greater binder contents, the for 28 days. (a) No lime. (b) 1% lime
pozzolanic reaction does not occur and the added binder parti-
cles act as unbonded particles that reduce the overall strength of Fly ash and GGBS (constituents of the binder) have very little
the material (Bell, 1996; Kate, 2005). However, the strength of the self-hardening properties in the absence of any chemical activa-
stabilized soil with high binder contents is still greater than that tors such as lime or cement (Kaniraj and Havanagi, 1999). This is
of untreated soil. best illustrated in Fig. 8 where 1% lime is added along with the

- Bijen, J., Waltje, H. (1989). “Alkali activated slag–fly ash cements.” In:
Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on the Use of Fly Ash, Sil-
ica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Trondheim, Norway,
SP114- 76, pp. 1566–1578.
- Chen F. H. (1975). Foundations on expansive soils, Elsevier.
- Cokca E. (2001). “Use of class c fly ashes for the stabilization of an expan-
sive soil.” J. Geotech Geoenviron Eng. 127(7):568–573.
- Kaniraj, S.R., Havanagi, V.G. (1999). “Compressive strength of cement
stabilized fly ash–soil mixtures.” Cem. Concr. Res. 29 (5), 673–677.
- Kate, J. (2005). “Strength and volume change behavior of expansive soils
treated with fly ash.” In: Proceedings of Geo-Frontiers-2005: Innovations
in Grouting and Soil Improvements, Austin, Texas, pp. 24–26.
- Madejová J. (2003). “FTIR techniques in clay mineral studies.” Vibrational
spectroscopy 31 (1):1-10.
- Mitchell, J. K. (1986). “Practical problems from surprising soil behavior.”
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 112(3), 259–289.
Fig. 9: Variation of UCS with binder content (1% lime)
- Puertas, F., Martınez-Ramırez, S., Alonso, S., Vazquez, T. (2000). “Alkali
activated fly ash/slag cements: strength behaviour and hydration prod-
binder. The samples attain significant strength and the gain de- ucts.” Cem. Concr. Res. 30 (10), 625–1632.
pends on the amount of the binder and curing period (Fig. 9). The
- Sharma, A. K., & Sivapullaiah, P. V. (2012). “Improvement of strength of
addition of lime enhances the pozzolanic reaction that provides
expansive soil with waste granulated blast furnace slag.” In Geo Con-
extra strength to the soil–binder mixture due to the formation of
a cemented matrix (Fig. 7 and 8). The strength of the samples is
again found to decrease slightly beyond 20% of binder content. - Sharma, A. K., & Sivapullaiah, P. V. (2016). “Ground granulated blast
However, unlike in the earlier case where the strength continu- furnace slag amended fly ash as an expansive soil stabilizer.” Soils and
ously decreases, the sample regains strength after the addition Foundations, 56(2), 205-212.
of 30% of binder. This implies that the addition of lime helps in - Shi, C., Day, R. (1999). “Early strength development and hydration of al-
binding the unbonded silt particles that were responsible for kali activated blast furnace slag/fly ash blends.” Adv. Cem. Res. 11 (4),
strength reduction. Therefore, based on the unconfined com- 189–196.
pressive strength behaviour with and without lime, the addition of
- Singh, S., Tripathy, D.P., Ranjith, P. (2008). “Performance evaluation of ce-
20% binder is recommended as an optimum content to effective-
ment stabilized fly ash–GBFS mixes as a highway construction material.”
ly stabilize this expansive soil.
Waste Manag. 28 (8), 1331–1337.
Conclusion - Sivapullaiah, P. V., Jha, A. K. (2014). “Gypsum induced strength behaviour
of fly ash-lime stabilized expansive soil.” Geotechnical and Geological En-
Several industrial solid waste materials can be advanta-
gineering, 32(5), 1261-1273.
geously be used to improve the properties of problematic soils.
They also can be used to improve the properties of soil be- - Sivapullaiah, P. V., Prashanth, J. P., Sridharan, A., Narayana, B. V. (1998).
yond what can be achieved with conventional binders. “Reactive silica and strength of fly ashes.” Geotechnical & Geological En-
Fly ash has been widely used to stabilize soils for construc- gineering, 16(3), 239-250.
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

tion of pavements and embankments. - Sivapullaiah, P.V., Prashanth, J.P. Sridharan, A (1998), Delay in compac-
Fly ash has also advantages in stabilisation of soils contain- tion and importance of lime fixation point on strength and compaction
ing sulphate etc. characteristics of soil, Ground Improvement, 2, 1998, 27-32.
Fly ash has favorable delay in curing period.
- Sivapullaiah, P. V., Sridharan, A., Raju, K. V. B. (2000). “Role of amount
GGBS can also be used to stabilize soils. Use of combina-
and type of clay in the lime stabilization of soils.” Proceedings of the ICE-
tions of Fly ash and GGBS reduces lime requirement for fly ash
Ground Improvement 4(1): 37-45.
in stabilizing soils.
- Sivapullaiah, P.V., Prashant, J.P., Sridharan, A. (1996). “Effect of fly ash on
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ical Properties and Industrial Uses Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland. formation and alteration.” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Scienc-
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vances in characterization and treatment.” Taylor & Francis. - Vali H., Koster H. (1986). “Expanding behaviour, structural disorder, reg-
- April R. H. (1980). “Regularly interstratified chlorite/vermiculite in contact ular and random irregular interstratification of 2: 1 layer-silicates studied
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present and future perspectives.” Clay Minerals 34 (1):7-7.w


Behaviour of unsaturated soils and significance

of physico-chemical effects in clays

Amiya Prakash Das, M.S., PhD

Student, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
Hong Kong SAR

Introduction figure also indicates the changes in the pore water pressure due
to the environmental factors where the negative pore water pres-
Terzaghi in 1943 stated that “the theories of soil mechanics sure reduces near ground surface due to precipitation or flooding
provide us only with the working hypothesis because our knowl- of desiccation cracks which increases the pore water pressure
edge of the average physical soil properties of the subsoil and the ori- and thus reducing the net negative pore water pressure.While
entation of the boundaries between the individual strata is always the excessive desiccation due to evaporation would increase the
incomplete and often utterly inadequate.” Geotechnical engi- net negative pore water pressures. Compacted fills in engineer-
neering encompasses a vast spectrum of soil ranging from fine- ing applications such as earth dams, railway embankments and
grained soils like clays and silts to coarse-grained soils like clean other compacted fills arealso usually placed in an unsaturated
sands. These soil types are often saturated with water or have state as complete compaction and closure of all air voids is gen-
other fluids (e.g. water and air) which partially fill their voids. The erally impractical (Murray and Sivakumar, 2010). Thus, the neg-
classical soil mechanics dealsin understanding the behaviour of ative pore water pressure plays a central role in understanding
such soil types which are either fully saturated or dry. However, unsaturated soil behaviour and controls the overall mechanical
there are numerous geomaterials encountered in common ge- behaviour.
otechnical engineering practices whose behaviour are not con-
sistent with the fundamental concepts of classical soil mechan-
ics as they often have more than one fluid phase (i.e. water and
air),which makes the understanding of such materials complex
and problematic. The increasing complexity in solving the field
problems restricted toclassical saturated soil mechanics led to
the emergence of unsaturated soil mechanics. Since the earlier
experiments carried out by Bishop in late 1950’s, the unsaturat-
ed soil mechanics has become significantly important and has
Figure 1:Total stress, pore-air pressure, and pore-water pressure distri-
developed from a laboratory scale to theoretical and constitutive
butions in unsaturated soil(After Fredlundet al., 2012)
formulations for solving geotechnical engineering problems with
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

appropriate boundary conditions (Clifton et al. 1999). In contrast to the saturated soil behaviour, unsaturated soils
Unlike the saturated soils (two-phase system) where all the are associated with typical geotechnical engineering problems
pores are filled with water, the unsaturated soilis a four phase such as slopes instability involving unsaturated soils that are
system which comprises of soil solids, water, air and a fourth susceptible to failure during rainfall owing to the reduction in
phase which takes into account the interaction between the air strength associated with the increase of degree of saturation.A
and water phase. The interpretation of the unsaturated soil be- different but a very general problem involving unsaturated soils is
haviour basically involves the differences in the air and water the damage to structures either caused by the swelling or collapse
pressures, the phase compressibilities and their interactions. of the foundation soil due to wetting (Gens, 2010). As discussed
These interactions between the air and water phase commonly earlier, toaccount for thetypical behaviour of unsaturated soils a
known as contractile skin gives rise to a surface tension effect new variable, soil suction ( ) i.e. negative pore water pressure
which is responsible for creating an aggregated like structure would be introduced in the unsaturated soil mechanics framework.
in fine-grained soils. Both natural soils and engineered ground Thus, based on the above discussion the present article fo-
are liable to be in an unsaturated state. Natural soils in arid or cuses on presenting a brief introduction to soil suction and typical
semi-arid areas are in an unsaturated state where the water ta- geotechnical engineering problems associated with unsaturated
ble is often very deep. However, in a dry environment,any soil near soils upon wetting i.e. swelling and collapse phenomenon. Also,
the ground surface is also liable to have a negative pore water the role and significance of osmotic effects on the swelling and
pressure (i.e. unsaturated state). Figure 1 illustrates the changes collapse phenomenon are also briefly discussed. Since, the os-
in pore water pressures from a positive value below the water ta- motic effects are of prime importance in typical applications of
ble to a negative pore water pressure above the water table. The unsaturated soils as alinerand engineered barrier material for

landfill usage and nuclear waste repositories, respectively. The charge on the clay particle surfaces which strongly attract the
article also discusses the fundamentals involving thechemo-hy- water molecules. The types of clay mineral also play a crucial
dro-mechanical behaviour of clays in thecontext of a double role in the adsorption of water by clay surfaces. For example,
structure model. soils with high activity clay minerals, such as montmorillonite,
are able to retain a greater amount of water around their par-
Soil suction ticles and remain saturated even at higher suctions. They also
The soil suction theory was initially developed in soil physics, have a tendency for greater shrinkage and expansion upon drying
mainly for understanding the soil-plant-water system, and sub- and wetting, respectively.
sequently, it was extended to explain the mechanical behaviour Matric suction (ua - uw) can be expressed in terms of surface
of unsaturated soils by Road Research Laboratory in the UK tension as:
(Croney and Coleman, 1948; Barbour, 1998;Fredlundet al., 2012).
The soil suction is defined as the total water potential or the free
energy state of the soil. The soil suction can be expressed by a whereT is the surface tension of water, r is the radius of the
thermodynamic relationship in terms of thepartial vapour pres- soil pore and is the angle of contact between menisci and wall
sure of pore water as (Fredlundet al.,2012). of soil pore.

Osmotic Suction

The osmotic suction, is a function of salt concentration

where = soil suction or total suction (kPa), R = universal within the soil water, which increases the affinity for water. The
gas constant {8.31432 J/(mol K)}, T = absolute temperature in vapour pressure of a solution is less as compared with the va-
Kelvin (T = 273.16 + to), to = temperature (oC), vwo = specific vol- pour pressure of pure solvent. This implies that the relative hu-
ume of water or inverse of density of water {i.e. 1/ w (m3/kg)}, w midity reduces with the increase in dissolved salts concentration
= density of water (998 kg/m3 at to = 20 oC), wv = molecular mass and can be attributed to the osmotic suction. Osmotic suction for
of water vapour (18.016 kg/kmol), uv = partial pressure of pore solutions can be calculated by using Morse equation derived by
water vapour (kPa), uvo = saturation pressure of vapour over a flat van’t Hoff (Nelson and Miller, 1992; Mata et al., 2002) as:
surface of water at the same temperature (kPa). The term uv/uvo
is called relative humidity; soil suction is called as total suction = iMRT
as it comprised of two components, namely, matric suction and whereπ is the osmotic suction (kPa) of the solution, R is uni-
osmotic suction. versal gas constant (8.32 litre. kPa/mole. K), T is absolute tem-
perature (K), M is molarity of the dissolved salts in the solution
Matric suction (mole/litre) and iis the van’t Hoff factor. The van’t Hoff factor is a
measure of the effect of solute and accounts for the deviations
Often the soil above the groundwater table is either partial-
from the ideal solutions which include (i) finite volume occupied
ly or wholly saturated with water within the soil pores. This soil
by solute molecules, and (ii) their mutual attraction (Glasstone,
water above the groundwater table is normally under a tensile
stress or a negative pore water pressure. This tensile stress is
known as matric suction. The matric suction, s, is defined as the Swelling and swelling mechanism
excess of pore air pressure, ua, over pore water pressure, uw, as
expressed by theequation: Swelling in expansive soil occurs due to changes in moisture
S=ua-uw content and effective stress. The changes in effective stress may
be due to alteration in external applied load or due to changes
It thus becomes the negative pore water pressure at an at- in environmental conditions like changes in water table, seepage
mospheric air pressure (ua = 0). The matric suction is caused by The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |
forces, leaching action, temperature and humidity, etc.
the two main physical phenomena, namely the capillarity, and the The mechanism of swelling in expansive clays is complex and
surface adsorption. has been explained using several theories based upon capillari-
Ridely and Burland (1993) gave an alternative definition for ty phenomenon and elastic theories. Due to negative pore water
matric suction which is directly related to physical processes pressure in unsaturated soil, they have a strong affinity towards
within the soil: absorbing water which results in reduction in capillary tension
“Matrix suction is the stress existing on the water molecules and thus facilitates swelling in the elastic region. Schofield (1946)
in the liquid phase of the soil matrix (i.e. the ability of the soil to explained swelling due to loss of capillary potential energy on ab-
resist the loss of water without the latter changing its state from sorption of water. Whereas, Means (1959) reported that the volu-
liquid to vapour phase).” metric change associated with swelling are elastic in nature. The
The phenomenon of capillarity is directly related to the sur- soil suction which is measurable using psychrometers can be
face tension of water. This capillary force and, thus, the suction used as a fundamental parameter rather than water content and
are proportional to the curvature of the water meniscus. The index properties to measure the extent of potential swelling or
smaller the tube radius, the greater is the curvature, and the shrinkage (O’Neill and Poormoayed, 1980). Soil suction compris-
higher the water rise within the tube. Similarly, the capillary rise es of two components: matric and osmotic suction. The matric
above the groundwater level within a soil depends on the pore suction component is the negative pressure exerted on the free
size. Fine textured soils normally have a higher capillary rise than water surface and it depends mainly on degree of saturation and
the coarse textured soils. The surface adsorption is principally surcharge pressure. Whereas osmotic suction depends on the
relevant to clay minerals and occurs as a result of the negative relative concentration of soluble salts in pore fluid and the free

water, and is independent of degree of saturation as well as sur- phenomenon (Barksdale and Blight, 1997). Compacted silt clay
charge pressure. Though the effect of matric suction component mixtures and compacted sand clay mixtures which contain vary-
governs the volume change in expansive soils, Rao et al. (2006) ing amounts of montmorillonite clay are known examples of un-
showed that osmotic suction dissipation during swelling controls saturated clay soil that exhibit collapse on wetting under a given
the volume change. Lambe and Whitman (1979), Jennings and vertical stress (Jennings and Burland, 1962; Dudley, 1970; Law-
Burland (1962) and Fredlund (1975) have explained swelling in ton et al., 1989; Lawton et al., 1992; Rollins et al.,1994).
terms of effective stress and matric suction. Barden et al. (1973) and Mitchell and Soga (2005) attributed
Physico-chemical concepts which involve the property of the following reasons for collapse to occur in soils:
clay minerals to absorb water on the clay surface can aid to un-
derstand the swelling mechanism in expansive clays. The high 1. An open, partially saturated and unstable fabric.
activity of colloidal size clay particles is due to their large specific 2. A high enough total stress that the structure is metastable.
surface area which increases the adsorption of water on the clay 3. A bonding or cementing agent that stabilises the inter-aggre-
surface. Dakshanamurthy (1977) and Madsen and Muller-Von- gate or inter-granular bonds in unsaturated state reduces on
moos (1989) explained the swelling process in two stages of in- theaddition of water and causes the bonds to fail in shear.
teraction between the clay particles and free water. In the first Alonso and Gens (1994) provided the microstructural inter-
stage of hydration the dry clay particles adsorb water in succes- pretation of loading and collapse deformations which is depicted
sive monolayers and push the unit layers of the montmorillonite in Figure 2.1. In unsaturated state, the initial soil structure at a
clay apart. This happens within the clay particles and is termed as particular void ratio is stabilised by matric suction, s which en-
the interlayer or crystalline swelling. The second stage of swell- ables the soil structure to sustain a load P1. Upon inundation with
ing occurs due to double layer repulsion between the surfaces of fluid, the matric suction becomes zero, and the soil structure col-
individual particles and is called as osmotic swelling. According lapses to a lower void ratio, shown by path collapse. However, to
to Gouy-Chapman double layer theory, the swelling of clays is get the same void ratio as that upon collapse without any change
due to the osmotic pressure difference between the mid-plane in suction, the load P1 needs to increase up to P2, where P2 is very
of adjoining particles and the external solutions. Gouy-Chapman large in comparison to P1.
theory is based on highly idealized case of parallel particle ar-
rangement and the limitations of this approach are discussed in
detail by Bolt (1956), Mesri and Olson (1971), Yong and Warkentin
(1975). Yong and Warkentin (1966) stated that swelling requires a
force of repulsion which separates the clay particles to increase
the volume of clay as the water content increases.

Collapsible soils and collapse mechanism

Collapse is defined as the densification of soil caused by

addition of water at constant vertical stress. A collapsible soil
Figure 2: Microstructural interpretation of loading and collapse deforma-
can withstand relatively large applied vertical stress with small
tions(AfterAlonso and Gens, 1994)
settlement at low water content but the same soil can exhibit
large settlement on wetting without any additional increase in Chemo-mechanical behaviour of compacted soils(After Das
the vertical stress. Hydrocompression and hydrocompaction are and Thyagaraj, 2016)
few terms which are synonymous with collapse. It is highly rec-
ognized that a soil can either collapse or swell depending on its Compacted soils in geoenvironmetal engineering applica-
placement condition and over burden pressure. High void ratio tions (e.g. clay barriers, nuclear waste repositories) often come
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

and open fabric structure are few factors which influence the col- in contact with the chemical contaminants from the hazardous
lapse phenomenon in unsaturated soils (Dudley, 1970; Barden et waste, which alters their engineering behaviourdue to the physi-
al., 1973; Lawton et al., 1991; Wheeler, 1994; Rao and Revansid- co-chemical interactions at the clay microstructural level. Com-
dappa, 2000). pacted clays are characterisedwith a double structure, wherein
The collapsible soils exist at a very high void ratio in an unsat- the intra-aggregate voids are referred as microstructure, and
urated state as a result of matric suction and clay bonding and the inter-aggregate voids constitute the macrostructure (Gens
have metastable (open) structure which is characterized with rel- and Alonso, 1992; Mussoet al., 2013; Sanchez et al.,2005). Gens
atively large individual void spaces (Wheeler, 1994; Blight, 1997). and Alonso (1992) and Sanchez et al. (2005) reported that the de-
Collapse settlements are not only restricted to natural de- formations occurring at the microstructural level are controlled
posits but also a major issue for utilizing compacted fills in various by physico-chemical changes at the clay particle level, which
civil engineering applications such as high earthen dams, deep are reversible and can be considered elastic and volumetric in
compacted highway embankments, other thick compacted fills, nature. These deformations may cause a rearrangement of the
etc. (Dudley, 1970; Lawton et al., 1989; Rollins et al., 1994).Under- macrostructure, leading to irreversible volumetric strains. The
standing of collapse phenomenon in sands and silts have been significance of physico-chemical interactions on the engineering
well covered in the literature but the recent studies have shown behaviour of active clays, in particular, the compressibility, the
that even collapse can occur in all types of compacted soils and swelling and the hydraulic behaviour, has been long recognized
even in pure clays including montmorillonite and kaolinite under and extensively studied in the literature (Barbour and Fredlund,
certain conditions (Lawton et al., 1991; Reddy, 1996; Jotisankasa, 1989; Di Maio, 1996; Mesri and Olson, 1971; Mokni et al., 2014;
2005). Residual soils in semi-arid regions also exhibit collapse Musso et al., 2003).

Lately, the works of Sanchez et al. (2005), Guimarãeset al. behaviour of matric and osmotic suction dissipation affecting the
(2013) and Mussoet al. (2013) have extended the double-struc- volumetric response of compacted clays in such applications are
ture framework for unsaturated expansive clays by incorporat- beyond the scope of the present article. For further reading and
ing thermo-mechanical and chemo-hydro-mechanical effects. understanding, the interested readers may refer to various re-
The experimental investigations of Musso et al. (2013) support search papers cited in the present article.
the hypothesis proposed by Mesri and Olson (1971) and Di Maio
(1996) on the evolution of microstructure upon exposure to phys- References
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valence), which further evidenced the influence of double struc- soils. Proceedings of 1stInternational Symposium on Engineering Char-
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The physico-chemical changes (specifically the pore fluid
2. Barbour, S.L., andFredlund, D.G. (1989). Mechanisms of osmotic flow and
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Report,91 (01), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.


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The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |


Slope Protection for the Abutment of

Minor Bridge at NH-91

trata India is a leading provider of Given below is a project analysis
Location: NH-91, Aligarh - Ghaziabad, Uttar
soil reinforcement technology and wherein the group played a pivotal role. Pradesh
many Geotechnical solutions in India
Project Background: Principal Client: National Highway Authority of
for over a decade now. Customers count India (NHAI)
on them for sustainable, eco-friendly and Galfar Engineering & Contracting
Client Name: Galfar Engineering & Contracting
cost-effective Geotechnical solutions. India Pvt. Ltd. (GALFAR) was constructing India Pvt. Ltd.
It is their constant endeavor to build the extension of the Aligarh - Ghaziabad
Independent Engineer: SNC Lavalin
trust and surpass customer expectations Section of the National Highway NH-91 in
Engineering (I) Pvt. Ltd.
with high-quality geosynthetic products Uttar Pradesh. The extension converts
Application: Slope protection with StrataWeb®
for the infrastructure sector. They contin- the existing two-lane carriageway into a
geocells infilled with soil
uously aid the customers with a broad modern four-lane highway. The side
Maximum length of protected slope: 27mts
spectrum of innovative solutions for any slopes of the highway embankments
required protection against erosion from System used: StrataWeb® Geocell
Geotechnical challenge. Strata Geosys-
rain water runoff flowing down the slopes. Slope height: 12 mts (maximum)
tems' committed team of experienced
Since the right side was restricted, the Date of Completion: February, 2015
and dedicated civil engineers, supervisors
slopes were steep as much as 1.5H: 1V
and technicians ensure the customers
with a maximum height of 12m. more practical and long-term solution
receive individual attention and focus lead-
ing to timely and infallible installation. Conventional Method of Slope Protection under the circumstances.
Geocells are an effective way to pro-
Stone pitching is the conventional ero-
tect the soil along a slope from erosion by
sion control for bridge abutments. Stone
providing a stable layer of confined mate-
may not be easily procured in many areas
rial over the surface. StrataWeb® geocells
and there can be quarry restrictions.
of 75mm depth with local soil infill were
Besides, placing stone pitching requires
proposed to support vegetation growth
skilled masons and even wet pitching may
and provide a green finish so that the infill
require regular maintenance. With defor-
does not get washed away.
mation of the earth embankment, the
joints of the pitching may open up and soil Technical details
Initial Site condition
may pipe through.
Stone was not available near this site
and was required to be brought from quar-
ries with long leads and transport costs
were prohibitive. Also, considering that
the slopes were as steep as 1.5H:1V, it
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

would not have been feasible to have sta-

ble pitching. Value Addition to the Customer:

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compared to stone pitching
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tion as compared to stone pitching
- Cost effectivew

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Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Sabnam House, Plot No. A-15/16, Centeral
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Mumbai - 400093
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Infilling of StrataWeb® Completed site with green fascia


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material industrial polymer based prod- soils for improving the strength of the soil The stabilizing polymers are elasto-
mers, which gain strength from mechan-
ical compaction and do not become brittle
when cured. The elastomers are flexible
in nature and allow a certain amount of
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

flex under load and do not become brittle

unlike cement stabilization, will not crack
under excessive loading one aspect in
reducing layer work in design phases.
These Polymers are the forefront of
binding marginal soils and turning these
materials into useable road construction
aggregate. SoilTech Mk. III has been
extensively tested with in-situ materials in
various parts of the world. SoilTech Mk. III
has been extensively utilized in base and
subbase stabilization using in-situ mate-
rials, throughout the developing world.
SoilTech Mk. III stabilizer has been pur-
posely designed to penetrate through the
road's base layer, into the sub-base layer,

Application of Polymer Road Stabilizer via capillary action and bind otherwise

loose particles to one another, providing

strength and cohesion.
This specialized polymer is mixed
with water which acts as a means of
transport and facilitates the polymer in
coating the soil particles. Once the water
disperses, the polymers interlock and
form a bond which gains strength under
mechanical compaction.
These Polymer is used for stabilizing
base and subbase layers of sealed and
unsealed roads; mine haul roads, railway
embankments, hard stands, parking lots
and airstrips. SoilTech Mk. III Polymer
offers solutions for Asphalt Roads, Rural
Application in Container Depots & Parking Lots & Feeder Roads (Sealed or Unsealed),
Mine Haul Roads, Container Depots &
Parking Lots to name a few.
Advantages of the specialized Polymer
- Reduce the consumption of quarry
aggregate in road construction and
thereby minimize the significant envi-
ronmental impacts.
- Extensively tested with in-situ materi-
als in various parts of the world
- Decreases Road Crust resulting in
speedy construction
- 20% Savings in cost of construction
- Reduced maintenance
- Increases the strength and stability of
base & sub-base layer
Applications for Road Construction using
SoilTech Mk. III
Government Sector
- National Highways
- State Highways
Application in mines - Border Roads
- Rural Roads
Private Sector
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

- Real Estate Projects

- Industrial Layouts
- Mines
- Smart Cities
- Power Plants
- Container Depots
- Railways
- Warehousing w

For further details:

Kaveri Ultra Polymers P. Ltd
107, Multi Tech Centre, Bommasandra
Industrial Area, Hosur Road, Bangalore - 99.
Ph: 080-41663444
Mob: 98860 28888 / 99865 37775

Application in Asphalt Road


Specilalised Concrete Recycling

Plant RA 12 / RA 20

herever concrete is produced
and moved, where you will find
Schwing Stetter Machinery.
With Plants in India, Germany, Austria,
USA, Brazil, Russia, China as well more
than 100 sales and service facilities, this
group of companies are always close to
the customer. Their wide range of prod-
ucts with something for every application
is what makes their system supplied for
concrete machinery worldwide.
Schwing Stetter’s Concrete Recycling
Plant: Ecological Obligation - Economical
Concern for our environment, guide-
lines from legal authorities and above all,
an increased awareness of costs are the
main reasons for worldwide efforts to
solve the concrete industry's disposal and Recycling Plant RA 20
recycling problems. Profiting from exten-
sive experience gained with sieve / used for recycling of concrete Separation & water. The minimum payback period
Cyclone separation system, The company of the surplus materials into mixed gravel of capital investments from Ra12.
had already developed and implemented from 0.2 to 63 mm and waste water, con- - Low operational costs thanks to auto-
the concrete recycling plant by 1976. taining cement, fine sand and washable matic operation
Since then, their systems have proved to elements up to 0.2 mm The washing pro- - According to site limited space condi-
be unusually reliable, economical and cess in the drum works according to the tion, RA-12 plant can be positioned
highly wear-resistant. Their permanent reverse flow principle. Solids from 0.2 - Low replacement part costs
development efforts have made the mm to 63 mm are transported against the - Low-noise operation
Stetter concrete recycling plant, an flow of water using continuous spirals. - Water conservation due to closed water
exceptionally strong product. Materials from 0.2 to 63 mm are extracted circulation during washing operation

Washing Procedure According to the using a scoop on the vibrating chute, while
Reverse Flow Process: the finer particles up to 0.2 mm are trans-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

ported with the water through the drum

The washing drum principle used by overflow. Flushing water for the washing
the company provides you with numerous drum can be drawn directly from the
benefits: slurry tank using a centrifugal water
The design concept (spirals con- pump. The overfill warning for the wash-
nected directly to the drum) guarantees ing drum is released by measuring the
the least possible wear. Slurry water is power consumption of the drive motors
and automatic switch on/off control of the
feed hopper vibrators. This safety feature
is possible with the free feed system used
in the Stetter washing drum.
Benefits of the Concrete Recycling Plant
- Environmental concern
- Satisfying Legal authorities guide-
lines. (PCB)
- No waste concrete disposal costs

The washing drum - Fresh aggregates and Recycled sand Concrete Recycling

- Protection against overflow and auto- SYSTEM TYPE Uni RA 12 RA 20

matic drum-feed cut off
Washing Capacity for normal concrete M³/h 12 20
Installation Methods Screen cut Mm 0.2 0.2
Flushing water quantity (adjustable) M³/h 7 - 12 8 - 15
Settling Tank System Rinsing water connections for washing drum DN 50 50
Flushing water connection for water boom DN 80 80
Slurry water drain line DN 200 200
Water capacity in drum M³ 2 4
Quality of flushing water for water boom M³/h 18 18
Motor rating washing drum KW 2 x 2.2 2x3
Charging hopper vibrator KW 2 x 0.34 2 x 0.34
Discharge chute vibrator KW 2 x 0.34 2 x 0.34
Rinsing water pump to drum KW 2.2 2.2
Flushing water pump to boom KW 2.2 2.2
Connected load of base system approx KW 10.16 11.76
Benefits of the Concrete Recycling
In this method, Slurry tank with Agita- Drive power of agitator motor KW 10.16 10.16
tor system is eliminated. There will be 3 Dimensions of agitator basin M 5 x 5 x 3.5 5 x 5 x 3.5
tanks, in which 1st tank will receive slurry Agitating interval approx. (Adjustable) Min 3 min runtime, 3 min runtime,
water from the RA-12 plant. High density 15 min pause 15 min pause
water will settle in tank 1st and 2nd tank Technical Data
will get slight Slurry water. In this 2nd
tank, 95% of slurry will get settled and In this method, Slurry tank and agita- - TM(Transit Mchine)Washing extends
finally we will get clear water in clear water tor is used to recycle the slurry water as the life of spirals and minimizing the
tank. The slurry pump is not required, shown in the picture. In this method, set- replacement costs
standard motor can be used for handling tlement of sludge will be less, since the - Labour cost for chipping the settled
clear water. In this method, settlement of Agitator keeps slurry water always in concrete from TM drum will be eli-
slurry in the pipeline can be avoided. motion. Same slurry water is used for minated.w
cleaning of aggregates in the drum.
Agitator Tank System
Return On Investment: For further details:
Investment in installing a RA -12 Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd.
F71, F72, SIPCOT Industrial Estate,
could be taken back in a couple of years Irungattukottai, Sriperumpudur,
through direct saving by way of Kanchipuram Distict - 602117, TN
- Aggregates / Water recycling. Phone: +91 44 71378100/106, 37178100/106
- Slurry water could be used in th pro- Web:
duction of concrete

Based on the decision taken on November 11 Indo-Japan annual Summit, Japan

Skill India: Japan to
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

has stepped in to boost Narendra Modi’s pet project — ‘Skill India’ to create
create world class skilled world class skilled workers in India. The project is expected to significantly
workers in India improve skill sets in the country’s manufacturing sector. Japan will train 30,000
persons over next 10 years with Japanese style state of the art manufacturing
skills and practices. The initiative will begin with the establishment of the Japan-
India Institutes for Manufacturing (JIIMs) and the Japanese Endowed Courses in
engineering colleges designated by Japanese companies in India. The first three
JIMs under the Programme would start for 3,000 persons in summer of 2017 in
Gujarat, Karnataka and Rajasthan. Currently, there are over 1300 Japanese firms
in India, and the figure could increase to 2,000 or more by 2019 employing
hundreds of Indians. There are also as many as 3961 establishments of
Japanese businesses operating in India. During the annual, Summit Abe
appreciated the actions taken by India on improving the business environment in
India and creating an enabling environment for Japanese investments. Delhi and
Tokyo have also agreed to continue to engage in consultation and cooperation in
the development of Japan Industrial Townships (JITs).

Sustainable Handling of Construction

and Demolition ( C & D ) Waste
Ms. Vidya Rezin Nair
Chief Executive Marketing
M/s. Picson Construction Equipments Pvt. Ltd
Vadodara Gujarat

onstruction activities and demoli- into a useful product. The items which are care that is put into the quality, the better
tion activities are like sightseeing usable directly are screened out from the product you will receive. With sound qual-
for a tourism industry. Both are debris and put into the possible use with- ity control and screening you can produce
going hand in hand. Whereas construc- out further processing. material without having to wash it as with
tion is due to the rebuilding of old struc- 2.Recycling of C&D Waste: Once the virgin aggregate which may be ladened
tures or new structures, demolition is waste generated from construction and with clay and silt .
growing due to old structures needs re- demolition activities has been segregated Usually demolished concrete were
placement with time and growing needs and reusable items are taken out, the left- shipped to landfills for disposal, but due to
of the society. All such activities are gen- over is available for further processing i.e. greater environmental awareness, the
erating the huge amount of waste, called recycling into next useful stage. concrete is being recycled for reuse in con-
the Construction and Demolition waste. crete works. There are a variety of bene-
Process & advantages of C & D waste
Disposal of such debris in a safe envi- fits in recycling concrete rather than
ronment is a big challenge for the build- dumping it or burying it in a landfill. Keep-
ers, developers, and owners. When on Crushing and screening systems ing concrete debris out of landfills saves
one hand the disposal of debris is a chal- start with primary jaws, cones and/or space there. Other benefits of recycling of
lenge, then, on the other hand, there is an large impactors taking rubble from 30 concrete are (a) Local product local
acute shortage of naturally available ag- inches to 4 feet . A secondary cone or sources. (b)Reduces truck traffic. (c)
gregates for the construction of buildings. impactor may or may not need to be run, Alternative to a non-renewable resource.
Reduction of this demand is possible only and then primary and secondary screens (d) Cost savings. (e) No disposal fees. (f)
with the reusing or recycling of waste gen- may or may not be used, depending upon Better trucking utilization (reduced
erated from the construction activities. the project, the equipment used and the costs).
The paper gives an insight into the final product desired. A scalping screen Using recycled material as gravel
streaming utilization, market condition will remove dirt and foreign particles. A reduces the need for gravel mining. There
potential products and machinery of fine harp deck screen will remove fine are also economic benefits. Recycled con-
C&D waste. material from coarse aggregate . Further crete is a construction material that the
cleaning is necessary to ensure the recy- community does not need to pay for;
cled concrete product is free of dirt, clay, those who generated the concrete waste
wood, plastic and organic materials. This pay a fee to have it recycled.
is done by water floatation, hand picking, The strength of recycled aggregate is
air separators, and electromagnetic sepa- same as compared concrete with fresh
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

rators. Occasionally asphalt overlay or aggregate. However suitable mix designs

patch is found. A mixture of asphalt and may be made and reliable results obtai-
concrete is not recommended but small ned. The mix requires slightly higher quan-
patches are not detrimental. The more tity of cement or using admixtures to reduce
Plant Working in Gujarat water requirement. Recycled aggregate
concrete can be safely used as plain con-
crete. With proper corrections in mix de-
sign, it can be used for R.C.C. works also.
Machineries For Recycling
Once the structure is demolished as
per the planned and in an Engineering
Plant Working in Leh Border Road Organisation India manner use of appropriate equipment
and machinery is essential in the recy-
Two Pillars of Waste Stream Utilization :
cling process. Such equipment may be
1.Reusing of C& D Waste: It does not jaw crushers, magnetic separators,

require any further processing to convert Process of Waste Concrete Recycling vibratory screens, washing equipment .

Material Potential Use Dewatering Screens

Asphalt Road sub-base fill These are used for dewatering, rins-
Concrete Crushed and mixed to make new asphalt cement blocks; crushed ing, scrubbing and washing. There are
and screened aggregate can be used in asphalt concrete many applications for Dewatering Screens
Dirt Landscaping landfill cover in the aggregates market including de-
Metal Scrap Metal Dealers watering after Sand Classifying Tanks
and Fine Material Screw Washers,.
Wood Timber/wood pulp: shredded for fuel, animal bedding,
landscaping, manufactured building products, and compost Indian Market Overview:
Brick Masonry crushed for omamental stone
Stone crushing industry is an impor-
Glass Fiberglass insulation, sand blast, aggregate in asphalt reflective beads tant industrial sector in the country, en-
Gypsum Soil amendment, gypsum board, absorbent media gaged in producing crusher stone, used
Plastic ABS: Plastic lumber; PVC: highway barriers as raw material for various construction
Polyethylene: traffic cones activities such as roads, highways,
Polystyrene Insulation bridges ,buildings, canals etc. The Indian
Porcelain Crushed for aggregate construction and infrastructure sector
Corrugated Cardboard Paper mills, fuel pellets was estimated to grow @ 8% per annum
we can say the construction industry in
Carpet Landfill cover
India is growing at twice the world aver-
Roofing Shingles Asphalt paving age. This creates sizeable C & D waste .
Potential Uses for Materials Commonly Found in Concrete Debris
An opportunity

Portable Concrete /Asphalt Crushers edge of a spinning rotor. These machines Building materials account for about
are available in stationery & trailer half of all materials used and about half
It crushes concrete into coarse / fine the solid waste generated worldwide. They
mounted They are used in recycling, hard
aggregate, which can be recycled onsite. have an environmental impact at every
rock and materials in wet and dry applica-
After pulling down the structure, the con- step of the building process extraction of
tions. It is used on soft materials and non-
crete slab is cut into smaller pieces to run raw materials, processing, manufactur-
abrasive materials, such as limestone,
through the crusher. The machine then ing, transportation, construction and dis-
gypsum etc. They are used as primary and
crushes it into gravel-sized aggregates, posal at the end of a building's useful life.
secondary crushers for size reduction.
which can be used for road compaction, Governments worldwide have res-
These Crushers offer operators a very
structural fill, pipe bedding and other ponded to the need to reduce waste with
high ratio of reduction and can accept
application. Mobile jaw crushers are regulation and legislation that have framed
larger feed
suited for small to medium sized and have a market for building materials and prod-
hydraulic adjustments for changing the Screens ucts derived from the construction and
size of finished products. These are equipment that are used demolition (C&D) waste stream.
Horizontal Shaft Impactors (HSI) crushers for the separation of material into 2 4 dif- There are now, more than ever, clear
ferent sized products. The material is sep- opportunities for business and industry to
It breaks rock by impacting the rock invest in activities that will create profit
arated by passing it through a vibrating
with hammers that are fixed upon the outer and improve environmental outcomes by
'screen box.
extracting valuable resources from the
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

C&D waste stream.

The built environment of the future is
being constructed at the beginning of a
new ecological era where governments
are framing markets with regulation and
legislation that respond to the challenges
of environmental sustainability, and where
industry must respond to the challenges
of low-carbon economies and resource
Businesses that are profiting and
growing are adapting to these new chal-
lenges and responding with innovations
that turn waste into valuable resources to
supply the construction industry, which
has traditionally been averse to behav-
ioural change.

Plant Working in M/s. SC Jain Construction Madhya Pradesh


M/s Wade Adams Dubai United Arab Emirates

Environmental Engineering Organization prising organization who wish to invest in

(CPHEEO), the Indian Real Estate Industry a profitable venture from Waste recycling.
alone is facing a shortage of aggregates to
Specialized Supervision:
the extent of 55,000 million cum. An addi-
tional, 750 million cum of aggregates There are some specialised firms
would be required to achieve the targets such as Picsinternational that special-
of road construction sector, which will izes in this type of work. The firm is a re-
lead to tremendous pressure on natural nowned advisory, consulting, training,
resources. and awareness-raising organization
The Clean India campaign of Govt. of active in waste-to-energy and waste man-
India further reinforces the need for facil- agement segments. They specialize in
ities across all major cities, to get rid of ille- producing OEM for Recycling Equipment
A simplistic perspective on the building supply chain
gal dumping of C&D Waste either in lands for C&D waste, Asphalt & Crushing In-
or in rivers or blocking large stretches of dustry. They also have rich experience in
Present Scenario
land resources. The ever growing needs project studies, project management, tech-
India produces 25-30 million tons of of construction land and construction nology evaluation, training programs.
Construction, Demolition and Excavation material close to the heart of the city are Expertise matters!w
waste material annually. The traditional going to be in high demand. Establish-
practice in India is to dispose of this waste ment of multiple numbers of small to
in landfills or illegally dump in rivers and medium capacity C&D Waste recycling Author’s Bio
water bodies. Faced with growing envi- facility within close proximity of demoli-
ronmental concerns and lack of landfill tion and construction site should be an
space. excellent economically viable solution for
As per the Central Public Health & City Municipalities as well as to any enter-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

The author is a promoter and provides

planning services with a focus on
recycling and sustainable materials
management. She has more than 5
years of experience in implementing
onsite recycling projects in various
places in UAE and accross pan India.
She has become recognized as the
expert source for information on C& D
waste, Asphalt recycling, and plays a
vital role in educating policymakers,
corporate groups, and the general
public regarding the social and
environmental impacts of recycling.

M/s Wade Adams Dubai United Arab Emirates


Waterproofing: Bridge Deck Protection

Sika's Advanced Solutions for Fast Application, Excellent Durability and Increased Safety

Arunabha Dey
National Manager: Waterproofing & Roofing
Sika India Pvt. Ltd.

Protection Overview - Resistance to chlorides and aggres- ment System build-up with different
sive chemicals such as fuel, oils and protection and bonding solutions
Bridges are an essential part of the
hydraulic fluids
modern infrastructure and are often sub- - ETAG 033 and BBA HAPAS certified
- Easy and safe to install under different
ject to the harshest weather that climates - Improved adhesion reduces mainte-
weather conditions and suitable for
have to offer. To maintain the durability over nance costs & increases safety for
various substrate conditions
its design life, special attention should be vehicles
- Fast application to reduce downtime
given to the protection of exposed elements - Global technical support
- Maintaining strong bond when vehi-
and critical areas such as the bridge deck Case Study
cles break hard
itself, to prevent serious damage to the
concrete and structural reinforcement. Sika Solutions Bridge Deck Waterproofing at
Due to constant movement, the deck Sunken Plaza Aerocity, Delhi
New technology with Sikalastic®
waterproofing system must be able to waterproofing membrane (e.g. Sikalastic®-
accommodate dynamic traffic loads and
851 / Sikalastic®-841 ST / Sikalastic 821 LV)
bridge cracks while still maintaining a
strong bond with both the substrate and - Liquid-applied membrane based on
asphalt road surface. Bonding failure can Polyurethane or Polyurea
lead to loose or rucked road surfaces - New innovative Sikalastic®-827 pellets-
allowing water, chlorides and chemicals to systemforhighbondandshearstrength
attack the structure, reducing the design Sika's Advanced System
- Light-weight system
Requirements - Customised solution with Sika expert
- Elastic crack-bridging properties under competence
a wide range of temperatures - For new construction or refurbish-
100 The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Project Requirements
The basement of four buildings on four
ends of an important road was connected
at -1 level by a crossing and the top road
was connected to form a bridge. This was
a crucial structure in the middle of a high
profile retail street and hub of well-known
4 & 5-star hotels in Aerocity. The struc-

Asphalt concrete Tack coat Sikafloor-161

T140 C Hot melt glue: EVA-Pellets
Sikastic -827HT

Waterproofingliquid membrane
Sikalastic -821 LV (PU)

Primer Sikafloor -161
Concrete deck

ture and its waterproofing were critical due scratch coat. It was then broadcasted with Sika Products
to the surrounding areas. Hence a long- quartz sand 0.7-1.0mm to provide effec- Sikafloor®- 161, Sikalastic®- 821 LV,
lasting, watertight solution to the bridge was tive adhesion. Sikalastic®- 821 LV - 2mm Sikalastic®- 827 HT w
required. thick was employed as the waterproofing
membrane spray. Sikalastic®-827HT pel- For further details:
Sika Solution
lets were used as adhesion promoters for
Sika India Pvt. Ltd.
Minor repairs were achieved with the bonding the polyurethane membrane with 601, A Wing ,Infinity Tower, Off. Link Road,
Sikadur range of products. High abrasive bitumen wearing course, followed by Malad (W), Mumbai- 400 064.
grinding was done with the help of Sikafloor®- Asphalt Concrete (in the scope of Road Ph: +91 22 40384038
161 primer, while Sikafloor®- 161 mixed Contractor)., Web:
with fine sand (0.1-0.3mm) was used as

The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

China's Sany Group to invest $2 bn at various infra projects in Gujarat

Chinese conglomerate, Sany Group inked a pact with the Gujarat Government to invest a $2 billion over the next five
years in various energy and infrastructure projects in the state. This is one of the biggest single MoU signed by any state
government in India. As per the MoU, Sany Group will invest in five different projects, including development of a 1000-
MW wind energy project, another 1000-MW of wind-plus-solar power generation project, setting up facility to
manufacture wind turbines, developing one small size smart city and setting up a factory to produce pre-cast concrete
for the mass housing projects and other real estate Projects. As per the MoU, which was signed ahead of the Vibrant
Gujarat Global Summit to be held next year, the state government will provide necessary support to Sany Group in
obtaining necessary permissions, registrations, approvals, clearance, etc. from the concerned departments of the

A Session on Concrete Waterproofing

and Affordable Housing The show graced by Sameer Sularkar, Dr. Ajoy
Mullick, Er. Ashwin Mooge, Ar. Sameep Padora,
Dr. Raje, Mr. Luv Sha, Mr. Chetan Shah

n 19th November technical lec- over 50 specialty and performance chem- Padora, Dr. Raje, Mr. Luv Shah, Mr. Chetan
ture on Concrete Waterproofing icals, including a wide range of Organic Shah, were few of the personalities that
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

and Affordable Housing was held Titanates, Zirconates, Phosphates, Phos- graced this session. The lecturers were wel-
in Mumbai. It was the accumulation of phites and Calcium-Zinc Compounds comed with an open heart by the presence
three technical lectures. The topic of the (Organometallic Chemicals), for applica- of like-minded people across the sector.
lectures were: alternatives to natural fine tions such as Catalysts for polymer indus- The show highlight was the discus-
aggregate in concrete, the evolution of tries, Printing Inks, Paints and Coating sion of simultaneous topics that would
affordable housing in Mumbai city and industries, Polymer compounding, Lubri- promote concrete. The session gave an
applications of facades, designs, and ele- cants , Glass coatings, Emission control, insight into the development of the con-
ments in pre-cast concrete The session Oleochemicals & Oil fraccing. The Tech- crete technology along the countryside,
was organized by the collective initiation nology platforms that Polygel Operates in the development in the raw material,
of Indian Concrete Institute, Mumbai Cen- are Catalysis, Cross-Linking, Adhesion good and scientific construction attribu-
tre and Polygel Industries Pvt. Ltd. Promoters, Anti-corrosion and Perfor- tion and the need for the improvement of
The rising demand for Cable Gels and mance Additives, Moisture Scavengers, construction quality. The event high-
the need for import substitution in India in Anti-oxidants & Surface Active Agents. lighted the need for joint effort across the
1997, inspired the creation of Polygel In- The show organised by Polygel and construction industry sector for innova-
dustries Pvt Ltd. Polygel is a fast growing ICI received participation from dignitaries tion. Be it housing, irrigation or infrastruc-
diversified Performance and Specialty across the sector. Sameer Sularkar, Dr. Ajoy ture project innovation and new concrete

Chemicals business company. It offers Mullick, Er. Ashwin Mooge, Ar. Sameep technology is the need of the time.w


- A continued tradition with a new identity!
Nigel Narayan

he 4th International trade fair for the Construction Machinery, Building Material Ma-
chines, Mining Machines and Construction Vehicles Industries is all set to open its doors
to the Indian Construction sector from December 12 to 15, 2016 at the HUDA Ground in
Gurgaon/Delhi.With over 750 estimated exhibitors and over 30,000 business visitors expected,
the event promises to be a plethora of innovations and products designed to provide the neces-
sary impetus to further entice an already buoyant market.
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

From 2014 to 2016 ernment will enact necessary amend-

HUDA GROUND ments to the Motor Vehicles Act and open
BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA has under- Gurgaon/Delhi up the road transport sector in the pas-
gone a lot of cosmetic changes since its
senger segment. He further added that
predecessor, bC India 2014.With the new § North India is still a highly an enabling eco-system will be provided
name, organisers Messe München and attractive region
the Association of Equipment Manufac- for the states to adopt the new legal
turers (AEM) have established a brand § The venue is highly accessible framework, should they choose too. Such
with a metro station located policy reforms coupled with India's demo-
and consolidated their co-operations for
directly within graphic profile and structural situation
heightened management. A new demon-
stration area that will enable exhibitors to § Exhibitor space of 1,50,000 gives investors opportunities that are tan-
showcase their new and latest products square meters gible, making India one of the strongest
will also feature at the event for the first emerging markets.
time. BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA will also The Road Sector
be shifting venues. Having previously con- "Rural InfraBringing Bharat clo-ser to In-
ducted the event at the India Expo Centre dia", and "Holistic equipment solutions India's road network is the second
in Greater Noida/Delhi, the organisers Current need of the hour for Infra growth" largest in the world servicing over 60 per
have opted for the HUDA Ground in cent of goods and 85 percent of passenger
Resurgent Market
Gurgaon/Delhi this time around. traffic. By 2017, the Indian road and bridge
With the government's continued industry is expected to be worth US$ 19.2
Key Events of BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA thrust to the development of infrastruc- billion. Under the National Highways Au-
2016 ture in the country in the form of GST and thority of India (NHAI), the government
Igor Palka, CEO of bC Expo India, iter- other initiatives like 'Make in India', '100 launched the National Highways Devel-
ates the importance of BAUMA CONEXPO Smart cities', and increased focus on opment Project (NHDP) which saw the de-
INDIA to international markets and play- roads, ports and railways, investor senti- velopment of a record high 6,029 km dur-
ers. He reported, “Joint booths from China, ment has been on the up-and-about mak- ing FY 15-16.
Germany, Great Britain, Italy, North and ing India once again a bright spot in the Identifying the importance of private
South America, and Spain are already cur- world economy. Positive investor senti- participation in the development of India's
rently registered and we still expect more ment received a further boost through Fi- road infrastructure, a slew of policies / re-
to follow.” At the event, an iCEMA confer- nance Minister Arun Jaitley's announce- forms aimed at raising funds through Tax-
ence on 'Infra Redux' - New and Sustainable ment of a financial outlay to the tune of Free bonds, project fast-tracking, 100 per
Horizons, will be held on December 13th. ` 97,000crores for the road sector in his cent foreign direct investment (FDI) were
The conference will address topics like "Re- Budget 2016. In his prevailing speech, the launched. Additionally, the Government
viving infrastructure New paradigms", minister went on to mention that the gov- plans on introducing a new framework

The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Strong and proactive measures from the government has put India back amongst the top emerging markets in the world. BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA provides the

perfect opportunity for serious investors to take stock and drive business further.

Set an objective 2014 - KEY TAKEAWAYS

of building 6,029 km of
highways was Over 26,000 business visitors
30 km of road a developed during
day from 2016 from 54 countries
FY 15-16
635 exhibitors from 25
POLICIES countries
Increase in demand
for roads due to • Raise money through A successful show amidst a
Tax-Free bonds
rising number of sluggish market
• Fast-tracking road &
vehicle owners highway projects
• 100% FDI through mineral concessions was also increased
automatic route from 30 years to 50 years, further exciting
The government expects
prospective investors.
to approve nearly
However, the process of obtaining ap-
10,000 km of national Better quality provals and clearances still remains long
highways in 2016-17 roads the need drawn with varying policies from state to
of the hour state. To expedite the process, and reduce
the time required for operationalisation of
mineral concessions, these choke points
need to ironed out.
that renegotiates Public Private Partner- beneficiary of the government's infra- Also, Environment and Forest clear-
ship (PPP) contracts based on sector- structure development drive. In a high ances continue to pose a challenge. The
specific issues, especially for national growth scenario, India's mining sector government remains challenged in find-
highways and ports, providing greater flex- has the potential to add up to US$ 70 bil- ing solutions that are respectful to the
ibility to the parties involved. lion to the GDP while creating some 6 - 8 non-negotiable norms set forward for the
Through numerous such initiatives, million jobs, according to the new Mining sustainable development of the country.
the government is working to attract sig- Opportunities 'Realising Potential' report Until then, slow clearance rates can con-
nificant investor interest. With plans to de- from CII. tinue to be expected.
velop a total of 66,117 km of roads; multi- With the onus on the government to
ple programmes such as the National stimulate the Indian mining sector, struc-
Highways Development Project (NHDP), tural measures to expunge stagnation Albeit a slowing down in spending
Special Accelerated Road Development have been put into effect. One such signifi- power, and deferring purchases in the
Programme in North East (SARDP-NE) cant step was the enactment of the Mines real estate, construction and FMCG sec-
and Left Wing Extremism (LWE) have and Minerals (Development and Regula- tors, due to the demonetization scheme,
been announced. tion) Act, 2015.The act effectively made BAUMA CONEXPO continues to corus-
The Mining Sector the process of mine allocation transpar- cate as a growth driver for the construc-
ent by introducing an auctioning system. tion industry. Economists estimate the
The road sector has not been the only According to the CII report, the tenure of slowdown would last for a maximum of
two-quarters; thereafter propelling
growth at an even higher rate. bC India,
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

with its host of industries and participants,

would shed more light on this. By identify-
ing the trends that prevail at the event, ana-
lysts are sure to gain insight into the cur-
vature of the Indian Construction Industry
for the coming year. Overseas manufac-
turers and first-time participants would
be keen to utilise the event to showcase
their latest products and technologies
while existing players will strive to consol-
idate their positions. With the previous edi-
tions of bC constantly raising the bar, the
world's eyes will be on BAUMA CONEXPO
INDIA as it attempts to push the limits fur-
ther. In all, the show has the making of a
With over 700 registered exhibitors from cross sections of the industry, the show promises to be a gala event
gala event poised to set the tune for the In-

attracting a multitude of visitors. The world will be watching as the re-coined BAUMA CONEXPO INDIA kicks-off. dian Construction Equipment sector.w


The high activity levels in the road sector have given a fillip to the construction
equipment segment, and the push is expected to continue in the long term.

Agith G Antony
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

he Indian government plans to dev- FY1217. The country's roads and bridges World Bank, India is still the 'bright spot,'
elop a total of 66,117 km of roads infrastructure, which was valued at US$ and Asian economies led by India will be a
under different programmes such 6.9 billion in 2009 is expected to touch US$ major growth driver in the years to come.
as National Highways Development Pro- 19.2 billion by 2017. The construction of The ministry of road transport and high-
ject (NHDP), Special Accelerated Road highways had reached an all-time high of ways has been playing an aggressive role
Development Programme in North East 6,029 km during FY 2015-16, and the in- - mobilising investment from various
(SARDP-NE) and Left Wing Extremism creased pace of construction is expected sources for development of basic infra-
(LWE), and has set an objective of building to continue for the coming years. The structure; adopting an Integrity Pact (IP)
30 km of road a day from 2016. Through a financial outlay for road transport and to be incorporated in tender documents
series of initiatives the government is highways grew at a CAGR of 12.5 per cent for future projects, especially highway
working on policies to attract significant between FY2010-2016.The plan outlay for development; taking significant steps in
investor interest. FY2016-17 stepped up budgetary support ensuring development of management
As per available data, the value of roads for Road Transport and Highways to Rs competencies of its technical and mana-
and bridges infrastructure in India is pro- 97,000 crore (US$ 14.46 billion). gerial manpower; developing web based
jected to grow at a Compound Annual 'The last man standing' among the application systems for monitoring of pro-

Growth Rate (CAGR) of 17.4 per cent over emerging economies as endorsed by the jects; the proposed separate, transparent

regulatory framework for the construc-

tion, mining and earthmoving equipment;
launching of Highway Advisory Services;
- the Roads & Highways Ministry is abuzz
with activities that will go a long way in gal-
vanising the pace of growth. And the CE
sector in general, specifically, road equip-
ment manufacturers will be the major
CE Sales Trends
The sales of construction equipment
that witnessed a marginal increase in
2015 are expected to grow by 12% in 2016
to 54,970 units, however in the long term;
market will be driven largely by the sheer
scale of work yet to be done in the infra- The country's roads and bridges infrastructure, which was valued at US$ 6.9 billion in 2009 is expected to
structure sector, according to Samir touch US$ 19.2 billion by 2017.
Bansal, General Manager India, Off-
loss to contractors in form of blocking of equipment manufacturers. It's a sub-
Highway Research. Throwing light on the
funds as well as paying interest on loans. stantial amount, almost 1/3 of the total out-
current and expected sales trends of
The allocation of funds will help the road lay for roads, (` 97,000) and half of the
major equipment segments Bansal had
sector to grow faster and deliver projects ` 55,000 crore earmarked for National
this to say, “Almost all types of construc-
on time. Highways! PMGSY will raise the need for
tion equipment are expected to grow in
According Anand Sundaresan, Presi- mechanization in the rural sector and that
the future, though the market will con-
dent, iCEMA, the road sector started will keep the tempo up in road machinery
tinue to be dominated by the six most pop-
showing recovery in the beginning of 2015 manufacturing, especially for smaller ca-
ular products: backhoe loaders, crawler
and picked up momentum in the second pacity equipment. Major players have
excavators, mobile cranes, mobile com-
half and it will continue. The Budget is moved away from smaller capacity equip-
pressors, compaction equipment and
quite positive and is expected to galvanize ment to larger ones and there is a huge
wheeled loaders. Together these prod-
the pace of growth for the construction dearth in availability for high quality smaller
ucts are expected to account for 94% of
equipment industry. The budgetary outlay capacity equipment. PMGSY has given huge
the total market in 2020.”
of ` 97,000 crore which includes 27,000 opportunity for existing small equipment
Bansal suggests, “Road is one sector
crore for PMGSY scheme is sure to add manufacturers. It is upto them to adopt
that has already witnessed a major
more stability to the road sector which is advanced design technology and scale up
increase in the activity level since the new
good for the road machinery manufactur- capacity to meet the spurt in demand.”
government took over. This is supported
ers. He added, “The ` 27,000 crore allot-
by the growth in sales of equipment with
ted to PMGSY is a great fillip to small
motor graders demand nearly doubling in
2015, while compaction equipment,
crawler excavators and wheeled loaders
growing by nearly 16% each.” According
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

to him demand for equipment that had

sold only in small numbers in the past,
such as mini excavators, rough terrain lift
trucks and skid-steer loaders, may also
increase considerably.
Road Sector Outlook
The Union Budget 2016-17 has an-
nounced a significant increase in alloca-
tion of funds to the roads segment. While
investments in national highways have
been increased by 49%y-o-y, investment
in the PMGSY scheme has also been
increased by 26% y-o-y. The road infra-
structure sector was moving very slowly
in past few years due to delay in decision The construction of highways had reached an all-time high of 6,029 km during FY 2015-16, and the increased

making and disputes resulting in heavy pace of construction is expected to continue.


The financial outlay for road transport and highways grew at a CAGR of 12.5 per cent between FY2010-2016.

Says Dimitrov Krishnan, Vice Presi- manufacturing industry should benefit will grow at 12.5% in the next 5 years - (The
dent and Head, Volvo CE India, “The past from the investment in infrastructure and pessimistic No. is 8%, realistic No. is 12.5%
year or more has been broadly positive for particularly in roads. He says, “We can feel and the optimistic No. is 18%). The mo-
the construction sector in India. Infra- a slight trend of recovery after 3 years of mentum in other sectors like ports and air-
structure, specifically road building has downturn in the market. We think that we ports, power - especially hydro and nuclear
seen a noticeable pick up in interest lev- will be back at the 2011 levels by 2018. The projects, real estate can trigger the de-
els. The latest budget was very assured gigantic levels of investment required to mand for a variety of equipment and ma-
which gives people confidence that the fulfill the governments promises for infra- chinery. We are sure that if all the sectors
government has a plan and is sticking to it. structural and affordable housing as well fall in the same trends like road sector,
For road building the government has as the very aggressive timelines can only be then the growth will be more than 18%.
been quite clear in its targets for expand- realised by a substantial increase in mecha- As far as road sector is concerned Mr.
ing the sector and our experience sug- nisation in the construction industry.” Gadkari and his team has been able to
gests that is being reflected in the projects “The present government has defi- infuse fresh blood into the system. Lots of
that are rolling out. In light of the budget, nitely put a lot of focus on the road sector activities are happening. In order to meet
we are maintaining our view that the out- by reviving the stalled projects and also the huge requirement we need to scale up
look is good for our industry sector in the awarding a lot of new projects. The lack of the capability - managerial and executing
short to medium term.” Krishnan adds, liquidity and the financial condition of the capability; upgrading the skill set and
“Overall we expect sales growth in 2016 contractors is a little deterrent to convert availability, trained people and equip-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

for road building machinery and certainly this demand into actual uptake. However, ment, upgradation of specs and technol-
we're seeing stronger levels of demand the enquiries are up and there is a huge ogy used in road construction etc. Even
from the market so far. In general terms, demand of used crushers in short term. today some of the specifications used are
we're seeing a shift towards larger equip- Eventually we will find a surge in actual quite old. We can start using bigger ca-
ment as projects get bigger and custom- uptake as well. We are fully geared up to pacity highly productive equipment. So we
ers look for stronger output. Also, cus- tap the growth in terms of our production need to overhaul the whole system.
tomers today are far more focused on plan as well as aftermarket plan is con- According to Bansal, Off-Highway
lifecycle cost than at any time previously. cerned. I hope that the crushing and Research remains bullish about the long
The level of detail that's put into under- screening segment will see a sustained term prospects, and he forecasts sales to
standing operating costs, spare parts and growth in the next three years, ” said Viraj grow to 71,650 units in 2020. “The outlook
service, fuel efficiency and anticipated Parthi, Terex India, (Crushing & Screen- to 2020 is still very bright,” confirms
residual value reflects the level of sophis- ing Division). Krishnan of Volvo CE India. He says, “In-
tication in India of today's buyers of con- dia's potential is clear, and the drive to
Road Ahead
struction machinery.” improve infrastructure and energy supply
According to Wilfried A Theissen, Looking forward, iCEMA's survey on will unquestionably facilitate further
Managing Director, Putzmeister Con- the growth trends of the CE sector is quite growth in the economy and the construc-

crete Machines the concrete machine positive. As per the study the CE industry tion equipment industry.” 

JCB India Diversifying for

Evolving Landscapes!

ne of the world’s foremost equip- ment industry has grown by 45 percent
ment manufacturers, J.C. Bamford since Jan 2016 w.r.t corresponding period
Excavators Limited, famously of last year. The year 2016 has been posi-
known as JCB, since it started operations tive and eventful thus far for JCB, with a
in India, has been one of the leading play- slew of products and technology, making
ers in the earthmoving and construction their way to the Indian market. We hope
equipment space. To explore the year that this upward trend continues.
was, and the plans and products JCB have
How has the backhoe loader performed
lined-up, Nigel Narayan caught up with
in 2016?
Mr. Jasmeet Singh, Head-Corporate
Communications and External Relations, The Backhoe loader continues to be
JCB India Limited. The excerpts of the the most popular machine at the con-
Jasmeet Singh
interview are below. struction site. JCB Backhoes offer the Head-Corporate Communications and
best in class fuel economy, functionality, External Relations, JCB India Limited
How has 2016 been thus far for JCB?
and affordability. JCB has spent a consid-
The last four and a half years saw a erable amount of time on research and a machine in India is 2,500 to 3,000 hours.
down cycle for most industries including development, understanding the custo- Our range of ecoXellence backhoe load-
the earthmoving and construction equip- mer needs through interactions and ana- ers is the most fuel efficient in its class in
ment industry. However, since mid- lysing job sites to develop a product that these conditions.
October 2015 the de-growth bottomed meets and conquers every challenge What are JCB's immediate plans for the
out and starting of 2016 the industry has faced on the job. The Indian market is an Indian market?
experienced an increase in demand. The extremely tough and competitive market.
earthmoving and construction equip- The average number of working hours for The Indian market is constantly evolv-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

JCB 220LC Xtra Tracked Excavator


JCB 30Plus

ing. Projects are getting bigger and more 455ZX Wheel loader will cater to the needs condition of their JCB machines. Overall,
challenging by the day. Catering to this of large projects. JCB Livelink strives to deliver construc-
changing landscape requires a broad port- tive, real-time information to increase pro-
What are the advantages of telematics
folio and hence our focus has been on fits and improve productivity of the ma-
and 'LiveLink' in particular?
expanding our product lines on both ends chines.
of the spectrum; the compact equipment JCB introduced a state-of-the-art
Whatfactors have contributed to the rise
and the larger equipment. telematics technology called JCB Livelink
in demand for the earth moving and con-
Here at JCB, we want to transform the for its customers to remotely monitor and
struction industry?
way in which material is handled at the var- manage their machines. It maximises the
ious job sites. Three new innovative prod- productivity of the machines by providing Several factors have contributed to
ucts have been launched in the material real time alerts on Service, Operation and the increase in demand. The govern-
handling space; the Robot series of Skid Security benefits to the machines owners. ment's focus on road & highway develop-
steer loaders, the Load all range of Tele- Both, the equipment owners and oper- ment has provided a strong impetus.
scopic Handlers, and the new 2DXL Super ators can look for information real-time Moreover, with India being a bright spot in
Loader. such as fuel consumption, idle time, ma- the world economy and with major infra-
A new 3-tonne mini excavator called chine location, fluid levels and service structure development programs like
the 'JCB 30PLUS' is also being made alerts on their mobile devices or laptops 'Make in India,' the overall sentiment in
using the internet. It also helps in inform- the market has improved.
available to our customers. At the other
end of the spectrum, the new 5.5-tonne ing users via SMS alerts, the location and What makes the ecoMAX the most pre-
ferred engine for OEMs in India?
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

JCB started manufacturing the

ecoMAX engine in 2011. Our goal then was
to integrate backwards and reduce our
dependency on engines from other manu-
facturers. Currently, the ecoMAX is a Tier 3,
engine compliant with emission stan-
dards in India. JCB is both equipped with
the capacity and capability to make the
leap to service newer and more regulated
emission standards. However, the ecoMAX
has itself undergone various upgrades
that make it more compact, lighter, and
the most fuel-efficient engine in its class
in the earth moving and construction equip-
ment segment. The ecoMAX can help
backhoe operators save upto ` 2 lakh on

JCB 220LC Xtra Tracked Excavator fuel in one year.w


Underlining Full Line Capabilities at

BC India 2016

he Volvo Group is one of the world’s range of applications in India. From road- has what it takes to get the job done in a
leading manufacturers of trucks, ways and large parking lots to airport run- low-stress, high-performance way —
buses, construction equipment and ways, the versatile performance of the every time.
marine and industrial engines. The Group DD90B double drum asphalt compactor Increased power and digging force, as
also provides complete solutions for provides flexibility to handle varying con- well as faster cycle times, offer operators
financing and service. The Group which ditions, widths, and flexible pavement the prospect of greater productivity. The
employs about 100,000 people, has pro- compaction applications. The Volvo DD90B excavator is equipped with a powerful six-
duction facilities in 18 countries and sells is built in India and powered by an engine cylinder diesel engine, rated at 138 kW
its products in more than 190 markets. which adheres to the country’s Bharat (188 hp). For greater productivity, the
New launches and the latest technol- Stage-III (CEV) emissions regulations. EC250D comes equipped with the latest
ogies feature strongly on the Volvo CE This compactor is engineered to deliver generation cab, which offers excellent visi-
booth, where the company also wants to the compaction performance necessary bility and ideally placed controls in a qui-
highlight its industry-leading productivity. to accommodate the heavy volumes of eter, more spacious, and safer work envi-
Dimitrov Krishnan, vice president and traffic that the subcontinent's roads often ronment.
head of Volvo CE India, said the company carry. Using extensive knowledge and
will highlight its unique position in the New P5320B ABG paver makes its first
country’s construction equipment sector. show appearance
There are five machines from three Powerful and efficient EC250D from goes New P5320B ABG paver will make its
product lines on show, while information on show first appearance at a trade show when it
on dozens of more machines will be avail- One of two D-Series excavators on appears at bC India 2016. The unit pro-
able, plus are a range of activities planned show at bC India 2016, the EC250D is not vides outstanding performance, durabil-
for visitors. only more powerful than its predecessor ity and ease of operation in paving widths
The products in focus: – it also has up to 10% greater fuel econ- of up to 7 m.
omy. The EC250D from Volvo’s D-Series The new Volvo P5320B ABG paver is
The new DD90B will be one of the high- designed to achieve optimal power, effi-
excavators has the strength and durability
lights from the company at bC India 2016 ciency and quality in medium and large-
to take on a range of challenging worksite
The unit is designed with versatility in tasks. With faster cycle times, excellent scale projects where paving widths range
mind, offering unbeatable fuel efficiency digging and lifting capabilities, and a from 2.5 to 7 m. The best-in-class power
and powerful performance across a capacity for greater productivity, the unit of the 88 kW (118 hp) D5 engine is capable
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

of pushing 25-ton trucks and pulls the

Volvo screed with ease, even at maximum
paving width. Furthermore, this high
power is delivered with minimal noise and
low fuel consumption, making the
P5320B ABG paver an environmentally-
conscious choice.
The hydraulic system is perfectly
matched to the engine as well as all other
components, from hopper to screed, to
deliver consistent levels of flow and a
smooth mat finish. This also ensures a
long life, low maintenance, and high trac-
tion performance. The hassle-free load
sensing system is powered by a variable
displacement axial piston pump.
EC210D comes to bC India 2016 responsive, accurate control in grading Even in challenging environments, oper-
The EC210D crawler excavator is and combined operations. Operators ben- ators can count on the Volvo SD110BA to
designed with Volvo’s extensive experi- efit from smoother, easier movement stand its ground. The well-balanced
ence and expertise for ultimate productiv- when traveling and lifting simultaneously machine features a center joint with a +/-
ity and efficiency in a wide variety of tasks. as well as better grading quality from the 40 degree angle of articulation and +/-17
This machine features a robust frame harmonized boom and arm movement. degree [SR1] of oscillation, improving sta-
combined with optimal engine power and A new single-drum compactor at bC India bility, maneuverability, and safety. When
hydraulic pressure to provide superior dig- 2016 combined, these features allow for a
ging forces and fast cycle times. greater volume of work at a higher quality
The EC210D features increased The updated SD110BA single-drum and in less time.
hydraulic flow for responsive, accurate compactor is designed with productivity
in mind, combining powerful perfor- Out of box activities:
control in grading and combined opera-
tions. The Volvo EC210D is designed for mance, quality compaction and versatility Aside from the products on show,
optimum profitability. Featuring best-in- to adapt to earthwork compaction appli- Volvo CE will be running a variety of activi-
class fuel efficiency and Volvo’s ECO cations in India. The robust Volvo ties over the course of bC India 2016, mak-
mode, this excavator lowers fuel con- SD110BA provides equal measures of effi- ing it a must-visit destination for atten-
sumption and reduces operating costs. ciency, versatility, and stability to ensure dees. To underline the company’s indus-
To facilitate a one-stop solution for cus- superior compaction, shift after shift. try-leading customer support program,
tomers, Volvo CE and Volvo Financial Ser- Delivering an efficient, powerful perfor- there will be a dedicated area showcasing
vices will be launching competitive mance, the 11-ton class SD110BA com- the aftermarket products and services
financing schemes and on-the-spot bines dynamic drum forces and a heavy available. Elsewhere there will be quiz-
credit approvals at bC India. The EC210D drum weight to produce the energy nec- zes, with the opportunity to win amazing
features increased hydraulic flow for essary to achieve material target density prizes, while a selfie contest will run for
in fewer passes. The Volvo SD110BA not the duration of the show. The best selfie-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

only increases output levels, it also photo taken on the company’s booth and
enables operators to access hard-to- posted to its Facebook page will get a gift,
reach areas of the job site thanks to the plus the opportunity to take an additional
fully integrated traction control system. commemorative selfie, this time with
Dimitrov Krishnan.
Volvo CE will have a1,100 sq m display,
located at Stand 233 in the outdoor area.w

For further details:

Volvo India Pvt. Ltd.
Volvo Construction Equipment
7&8, Phase 1, Peenya Industrial Area,
Peenya, Bangalore 560058, India
Toll Free No. 1800 108 6586
Ph: 080 – 41291711

Launch of Products Targeted at the Value

Segment and Robust Performance on Site

handong Lingong Construction The G9138 motor grader: - The highly maneuverable machine
Machinery Co., Ltd., (known as gives the operator precise control
This year’s BC India 2016 will mark the
Lingong) is one of China’s leading through a fully digital instrument panel
official launch in the country of the G9138
manufacturers of construction equip- that includes electronic monitoring.
motor grader from SDLG. The new unit will
ment, which it produces under the SDLG The integrated panel also offers
help India meet fast-rising demand for
brand. It is one of the world’s leading sup- straightforward inspection and main-
road building equipment, giving contrac-
pliers (by volume) of wheel loaders. The tenance. Adding to the motor grader’s
tors a lighter and more economical option
company’s headquarters are in Linyi, operability is its swing frame, which
to help them beat project deadlines.
China, and it has an additional manufac- delivers greater flexibility in a variety
Against the backdrop of rapid infra-
turing facility in Pederneiras, Brazil. of work scenarios.
structure development and increased gov-
The firm's products are targeted at - The articulating swing frame’s move-
ernment drive for road building, motor ments allow the blade to generate
the value segment and are known for their
graders have become one of the fastest- more power and carry a heavy wind-
reliability and robust performance on site.
selling equipment categories in India as row. It also allows the unit to make
The company has an established and
contractors plan to gear up for project turns at more acute angles for close-
experienced dealer network in the export
schedules. While the form established a quarter work or smaller roads. For
markets in which it operates. This network
larger G9190 which has enjoyed notable greater durability and easier opera-
is dedicated to providing excellent parts
success in Asia, rural development pro- tions over, the swing frame’s com-
availability. The company was founded in
jects have prompted the need for smaller posite bearing is lifetime lubricated
1972 and currently employs 3,150 people.
and lighter motor graders for narrower and maintenance-free.
New launches and the latest technol-
road constructions. This is where SDLG’s - With an overall working weight of
ogies feature strongly on the SDLG booth,
new G9138 will really appeal. 12,100 kg, the G9138 is powered by a
where the company also wants to high-
“The well-publicized increase in the Deutz BF4M1013-15T3R/2Tier III
light its industry-leading productivity. The
road building program has seen a signifi- engine that has an output of 111 kW at
products on display from SDLG at this
cant pick-up in activity levels. Contractors 2100 rpm. Complemented by a fully
year's BC India 2016 exhibition will show-
in the road building industry are under Automatic ZF 6WG 200 transmission
case the company's strength in depth and
greater scrutiny than ever before,” said system which has 7 forward and 3 re-
their superior productivity. There are
Sanu George, business head SDLG India. verse gears, the G9138 is able to reach
three machines from two product lines on The firm’s machines are known for their maximum forward and backward
the show, while information on dozens of reliable operation, robust performance velocities of 39 km/h and 24.5 km/h
more machines will be available, plus are and fast return on investment and the respectively. It can deliver up to
a range of activities planned for visitors. G9138 offers all of this and more. Some of 75.4kN of traction force.
Sanu George, Business Head, SDLG
the basic features of the product are: - In combination, this delivers power to
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

India, said the company will highlight its

unique position in the country's construc-
tion equipment sector. Two new
machines will be formally launched at bC
India, both of which are built at the SDLG
manufacturing facility in China. The new
L933wheel loader and G9138grader fea-
ture a number of updates to make them
even more attractive to Indian customers.
The introduction of the units is timely, with
pressure growing on contractors to
ensure projects stay on schedule as the
Government of India targets 30 km of new
road construction per day.
The launches that embark the journey a
notch further: Unveiling of new machines

at BC India 2016

operation through a fixed-shaft

powershift transmission. This offers
four forward and two reverse gears
transmission with a single-stage, sin-
gle-phase three-element hydraulic
torque converter. The axis-fixed
semi-automatic transmission makes
full use of the engine’s power to
increase torque and deliver greater
traction. The single-plate rear frame
and a four-plate front frame uses joint
bearings to ensure flexible operation
and a small turning radius.
LG958L on show
Appearing next to the L933 new-
comer at BC India, will be the LG958L, one
of two well-established SDLG models in
the moldboard, which is a hefty3048 ing or quarrying. To facilitate a one-stop the Indian market. The LG958L is well-
mm x 565 mm x 16 mm. The G9138’s solution for customers, SDLG and SDLG liked for its ease of operation, value pric-
blade can cut depths of up to 575 mm Financial Services will be launching com- ing and fast return on investment, and is
and create bank slopes of up to 90 petitive financing schemes and on-the- popular with users in construction, utility
degrees. The sliding range of the spot credit approvals at bC India. Some of works, farming, industrial applications
blade is 500 mm, while it can be the basic features of the product are: and ports.
inclined up to 47 degrees forward and The success of LG958L has helped
5 degrees backward. Maximum - Equipped with a WeichaiDeutz
raise the profile of the SDLG brand in
gradeability in travel is 20 degrees. WP6G125E331 turbo charged BS III
India,” said Sanu George.“It will be great to
engine, the 3 ton-rated L933 satisfies
The new L933, alongside an LG958L: see it alongside the new L933at bC India,
the regional requirements for emis-
underlining our strength in the Indian wheel
At this year’s bC India SDLG will also sions levels in India, while offering
loader market.”
introduce another new model for the mar- users reliable performance and
ket, the new L933, showing it alongside an excellent durability. With a power out- Opportunity Calling:
LG958L. In India, SDLG currently offers put of 92kW at 2,300 rpm, the L933 can
“India is a major area of focus for
two wheel loaders: the 3-ton rated handle material handling tasks with
SDLG and we are continually growing our
LG936L and the 5-ton rated LG958L, both ease while its maximum gradeability
presence in the country,” said George.
of which are popular in applications such is 30 degrees.
“Reliability and uptime are more important
as general construction, port applications - Overall working weight for the unit is
10,200 – 10,250 kg and the machine than ever, given the work pressures on job
and mining. “We’re seeing rising demand sites. We’ve worked hard with our exten-
for wheel loaders in India, particularly in can deliver up to 96 kN of breakout
and traction force. It’s steep 45 degree sive network of dealers to ensure we have
the 3-ton class,” said Sanu George, busi- the parts and the processes in place to pro-
dump angle and high 45 degree bucket
ness head SDLG India. The new L933 for vide necessary and timely support when
rollback allows for more efficient load
India is ideal for handling ready mix con-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

carrying and quicker cycle times. our customers need it.” “The success of
crete, or applications such as road build- LG958L has helped raise the profile of the
Bucket options for the loader vary from
1.4 m3– 3 m3, and the design includes a SDLG brand in India,” said Sanu George.
thickened anti-friction plate which “It will be great to see it alongside the new
minimizes wear of cutting edges. L933 at bC India, underlining our strength
- The load-sensing fully-hydraulic sys- in the Indian wheel loader market.”
tem reduces power consumption and This year’s BC India exhibition will take
improves working efficiency through place between December 12thand 15th at
the use of a single-pump design. The the HUDA Ground exhibition space in
enlarged radiator also optimizes the Gurgaon, Delhi. Visit us at Stall 233.w
use of inlet and outlet air chan-
nels to lower the temperature
of water and oil in the hydraulic For further details:
system, making the machine SDLG
Sanu George
highly energy efficient and
Business Head
reliable. Phone: +91 8105909900
- Aside from high energy effi- E-mail:

ciency, the L933 offers ease of


Formwork Applications
Avishek Ghosh

cute shortage of labour is amongst formwork suppliers in India. The crane in- for the construction of both commercial
the key factors that have been driv- dependence culture has this system a reli- and high rises. It comparatively new in India.
ing forward the demand for form- able factor and clients across the world The Aluminium Formwork panels can be
work and scaffolding systems. Labour are loving it. designed for any condition/component of
shortage has added to the pressure on The Formwork should have sufficient buildings and special architectural fea-
contractors, who are already grappling strength to carry a dead load and live load tures. This system is unique as all the com-
with issues of construction costs being on coming on it during casting operation and ponents in a building, starting from slabs
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

the rise. In this day and age of lean con- after that till concrete gets hard and gain to floors. The periphery of resulting struc-
struction methods, featuring tightened some percentage of design strength. ture is concrete therefore we can control
purses, semi-automated and automated the concrete quality, the durability of the
Different types of formworks:
formwork systems have come as a boon. structure increases. The formwork sys-
Project delays have now gradually be- The modernization of formwork sys- tem gives form to finish, eliminates the
come a thing of the past in India. The in- tems was essential to keep pace with con- need for external and internal plaster and
crease in the scale of the projects is ano- crete advancement. As construction sys- through the system, the walls can be di-
ther key factor that has led to the increa- tem have gradually emerged to be the rectly painted with a minimal skim coat.
sed use of formwork systems. Another modern trend, similarly the formwork sys- Aluminium Formwork System is the apt-
heartening factor has been the spread of tems have also developed. The journey est to load bearing wall construction. This
the real estate construction boom deep from timber-based to pre-engineered type of formwork is also being used for the
into the interiors of the country. Adding to structures have been quite upheaval. creation of nuclear plants.
the demand for specialized formwork and Aluminium Formwork The implementation of this formwork
scaffolding systems has been the rapid in load bearing design is highly cost sav-
increase in high-rise projects around the Aluminium Formwork has been in ing. Moreover, results in savings on over-
country. Affordable mass housing is ano- operation across the globe in countries head expenses. There is an availability of

ther area that offers immense scope for such in Japan, Singapore to name a few Monolithic crack free structures and cast-

ing of walls and slabs possible simulta- pared to the traditional formwork. The ini- climbing: in this type of climbing form-
neously. tial investment of system formwork is hi- work, the formwork around the structure
gher than the conventional one. The main is displaced upwards with the help of one
Fibre Formwork
components of the system formwork or more cranes. Self-climbing: In this type
Fibre concrete, fibre cement accounts include plywood, beam, waler, false work, of formwork, the structure elevates itself
for a variety of formwork applications. joint parts, bracing and operation plat- with the help of mechanic leverage equip-
Through the system, it is possible to be form. System formwork is applied in a spe- ment (usually hydraulic). Gliding form-
used for permanent edging formwork. cialized kind of job. It supports the in-situ work: This type of formwork is similar to
Which could be used as formwork in RC contractors by providing services of the self-climbing type above. However, the
semi-precast and precast elements: The design, delivery, site support and buy-back climbing process is continuous instead of
system can be used for inner surfaces of after job completion. intermittent, and is usually only inter-
doors and windows for structural wall sys- rupted for a very short time (for example
Climbing Formwork
tems. When it comes to the shutter panel to fix the mounting mechanisms to new
.This shutter panel is used as a floor edge Climbing system is best known in the anchoring points).
formwork and as a covering for formwork construction of towers, skyscrapers and
Jump Formwork System
joints in in-situ concrete constructions. other tall vertical structures, it allows the
Not only that this system formwork ele- reuse of the same formwork over and Jump Form is the type of the system
ment with bevelled edges is used as per- over and over for identical (or very similar) formwork that is used for vertical struc-
manent formwork for the edge beams of sections / stories further up the structure. tures that require the cranage to lift it up
bridges. Shutter panels made of fibre It can also enable very large concrete for each cycle. Jump Form systems com-
cement are used as permanent in fill form- structures to be constructed in one single prise the formwork and working plat-
work between steel beams for bridge con- pour (which may take days or weeks as forms for cleaning/fixing of the formwork,
struction. The fibre systems are a cost effi- the formwork rises with the process), thus steel fixing and concreting. The formwork
cient permanent floor edge element with- creating seamless structures with enhan- supports itself on the concrete cast ear-
out insulation properties. ced strength and visual appearance, as lier so does not rely on support or access
well as reducing construction times and from other parts of the building or perma-
Timber and Plywood Formwork material costs (at the joints which would nent works.
Along with fibre , timber and plywood otherwise require extra reinforcement / Jump Form, here taken to include sys-
formwork is also timber and plywood is connectors). The climbing formwork tems often described as climbing form, is
also sorted after option. Timber used for structure normally does not only contain suitable for construction of multi-storey
shuttering for exposed concrete work the formwork itself, but also usually pro- vertical concrete elements in high-rise
should have smooth and even surface on vides working space / scaffolds for con- structures, such as:
all faces which come in contact with con- struction crews. It may also provide areas
- Shear walls
crete. Resin bonded plywood sheets are for machinery and screens for weather - Core walls
attached to timber frames to make up pan- protection, up to being fully enclosed while - Lift shafts
els of required sizes. yet staying modular around a changing - Stair shafts
building structure. - Bridge pylons
Plastic Formwork There are several types of this form-
work namely, to be specific three. Crane- These are constructed in a staged pro-
Plastic Formwork make building con-
crete walls, storm cellars, basements, and
pillars quick and with easiness. The plas-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

tic formwork come in different sizes that

interlock by means of nylon handles to
make up the wall. The speed and simplic-
ity of setup make it much handier and
practical than conventional wood or steel
frameworks. Wall thickness ranges from
10-40 cm in view of various blends of the
different elements.
System Formwork
The System formwork t has the stan-
dard prefabricated modular components
along with casting panel. The system
formwork can suit the required shape of
concrete structures. The System form-
work has good casting quality, speedier

erection and more recycle times com- Formwork emancipation


of which have gone on to become major

successes. A good example is available in
the form of Epic Eco fiberglass formwork
systems. This fiberglass shuttering build-
ing systems represent a revolution in the
area of shuttering because of their light-
ness, simplicity, durability, solidity, resis-
tance to temperature changes and their
price competitiveness. One of the major
advantages with these systems is that
they offer simplification of shuttering with
the same mechanical properties of other
The fiberglass formwork systems
from the company display excellent
mechanical qualities since they can hold
60kN /m2, 1200 psf of paneling. They are
LGW: Galvanised Modular Formwork
made up of a composite mixture of poly-
propylene, special fibers and chemicals
cess. It is a highly-productive system form elements. Slip forming relies on the which enables the construction to hold
designed to increase speed and efficiency quick-setting properties of concrete, and such high pressure. Moreover, the speed
while minimising labour and crane time. requires a balance between quick-setting of paneling with these systems is very fast
Systems are normally modular and can capacity and workability. he new concrete and abundant palette of elements allows
be joined to form long lengths to suit vary- as well as resist collapse caused by the for best possible paneling composition.
ing construction geometries. Three types vibration of the compaction machinery.
of jump forms are in general use: Continuous slip formed gravity- Heavy Structure Formwork
based structure supports under con- Not only project based but now form-
- Normal jump/climbing form: units are
struction in a Norwegian fjord. The visible works are being created for specified
individually lifted off the structure and
jib cranes would each be delivering buck- heavy structures across the globe. These
relocated at the next construction
ets of concrete to the support cylinders are those forms that are specially desig-
level using a crane. Crane availability
during the continuous pour of concrete ned and manufactured for heavy struc-
is crucial.
creating seamless walls. In vertical slip tures. This demand needs for a special
- Guided-climbing jumpform: also
forming the concrete form may be sur- formwork dimensional tolerance. Some-
uses a crane but offers greater safety
rounded by a platform on which workers times the formwork shape required be-
and control during lifting as units re-
stand, placing steel reinforcing rods into comes uneconomical or impracticable
main anchored/guided by the struc-
the concrete and ensuring a smooth pour. for site fabrication. Table Form, Ganged
In horizontal slip forming for pavement Panel Form , Tunnel Form are some the
- Self-climbing jumpform: does not
and traffic separation walls concrete is most famous sorted kind of formwork in
require a crane as it climbs on rails up
laid down, vibrated, worked, and settled in
the building by means of hydraulic this regard. The increasing pace of the
place while the form itself slowly moves
jacks. construction of multi-storey and massive
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

concrete structures, and the have made

Slip Formwork
Specialised Formwork Technology the need of creating specified formwork in
The slipform is usually using its own demand.
hydraulic power to lift itself up and is Project Formwork
suited for no-change section of the tall Apart from the already available tech- Conclusion
structure. Slip forming, continuous nologies in this age of innovation the com- Formwork market in India is yet to be
poured, continuously formed, or slipform panies are going a step further and creat- tapped. The current share of this market
construction is a construction method in ing their specified formwork technology is around INR 15 million, that means more
which concrete is poured into a continu- to suit the requirements of a specified pro- than 75 percent market is yet to be tapped.
ously moving form.[ Slip forming is used ject. Individual Formwork stands for solu- With almost every leading global player in
for tall structures (such as bridges, tow- tions is the recent trend.Now there are the field in the fray, it is an eventful period
ers, buildings, and dams), as well as hori- firm that individually plans and pre- for the Indian formwork industry.
zontal structures, such as roadways. assembles forwork systems for project-
Slipforming enables continuous, non- specific solutions, what is meant here is References
interrupted, cast-in-place "flawless" (i.e. formwork which undergoes stationary -
no joints) concrete structures which have prefabrication before use. -
superior performance characteristics to Several new innovative technologies tages-of-using-plastic-formwork-system-

piecewise construction using discrete have made inroads into the market, a few specifically-for-walls-and-slabs/.

“Value Engineered Formwork Suited for

Indian Conditions”

ith development and innovation This has led to the increase in the sales of
happening in the construction housing units and assurance for timely
industry the scope of the market delivery,Modern Construction Technolo-
size is expanding with each passing day. gies like “MFS Aluminum Formwork Sys-
Among several innovative strategies and tem” has become the need of the hour.
process developed so far, formwork and With substantial increase in the volume of
scaffolding are perhaps the most in- inquiries and timely finalization have
demand one. Formwork and scaffolding enabled us with sound order book, which is
are extensively used in the construction key for the sustainable growth of organiza-
industry for very specific functions and it tion & related industry. At the same time, Mr. Rohitt Sharma
needs expert pioneers to implement the we have to focus on timely & quality deliv- Director
actualisation of this technique. erables to ensure repeat orders from MFS Formwork Systems Pvt. Ltd.
Masterbuilder had an exclusive inter- existing customers and positive reference
view with Mr. Rohitt Sharma (Director) of for new customers which is required to
MFS Group, one of the Pioneer and Leader maintain the decent rate of growth. usage of the system & educates them for
in the field of “Formwork and Scaffolding” Greatest achievement during last One efficiency leading to faster slab cycles,
Industry gave an insight on the current mar- Year has been that we have left a Mark in which is required for timely completion of
ket response, their specialized servicing the Construction Industry with Quality of the project. We have set up an audit
and marketing strategies being adopted. our Products, User-friendly Design & Cus- department who is directly in touch with
Here are few excerpts of the interview. tomer Orientated Technical Services. site team ensuring smooth progress. Any
Today we see this as an achievement that missing items or corrections are done
How has the market response so far this
our brand “MFS” has been viewed by the within 72 Hours from the reporting time.
Industry at Par with any International
The year 2016 has been one of the best Which has been the most challenging pro-
Brand which no another Indian player has
years for overall growth with many positive ject so far?
achieved due to their short sightedness.
changes in Policies benefitting the end We have secured orders and are associ- Every project is challenging & unique
user. With implementation of RERA, con- ated with major projects due to our Techni- with various bottlenecks.
struction activities in Affordable & Medium cal Competence & not only because of "MFS Aluminum Formwork System"
segment have taken a lead, which shall Price Benefit. is associated with various “Mass Housing
enable the actual user to buy a home at rea- Construction Projects” where Quality and
Give an insight on servicing strategies;
sonable price with on time possession. Speed can be maintained at a reasonably
after all it’s the service that renders for the
high level. We are associated with
“Telangana Housing Projects” where
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Rightly said, “Efficient services can Delivery of Housing Units is required in

make up for any delays or substandard very short span. With“ MFS Aluminum
quality and lack of proper services can ruin Formwork System” we are able to Com-
best of the deliverables”. With this philoso- plete One unit per day due to Speedy Con-
phy, we at “MFS” are focused on providing struction, Consistency in Architectural
our customers best of our services at each Dimensions, Excellent Finish, Less
stage & each level. This requires dedica- Dependency on Skilled Workers and Sim-
tion, intense planning at grass root level, plicity in Erection & De-Shuttering makes
exploring opportunities at an early stage & "MFS Aluminum Formwork System"
capitalizing on the same by providing the more Viable. & Preferred Formwork Tech-
technical & economical solution. From the nology for the construction of Mass Hous-
initial stage, we propose our client's opti- ing Projects.
mum quantity of Formwork required To name a few we have been associ-
based on their timeline & construction ated with MY Home – Bhooja Project –
sequence ensuring minimum investment Hyderabad, LansumEtania Project –
making overall project cost effective & via- Hyderabad, SNN – Water Edge Project –
Onsite pictorial of the MFS Aluminium Formwork ble. Our Execution team provides ade- Bangalore, Godrej Infinity Project – Pune,

System Application quate training to the site staff for proper SuyogNavkaar Project – Pune,

Onsite pictorial of the MFS Aluminium Formwork System Application

SupertechHilltown Project – Gurgaon, ity, Commitment & Customer orientated in India. With a positive frame of mind and
SupertechBasera Project – Gurgaon, services. vision for long term growth construction
Supertech Eco village Project – Noida, equipment industry has geared them for
Your take on the impact on demonetiza-
Suncity Avenue Project – Gurgaon. this realistic market where growth has to
tion on the sector?
be earned. This is a great opportunity for
What are marketing steps adhered to
It is too early to comment. Having said everyone associated with the construction
reach out to more people?
that it is surely going to boost the primary & industry. With new regulatory bill where
The only way for maximum reach & affordable market. Projects will be com- timely completion of the project is essence
regular orders is positive reference from pleted in time as the number of actual “MFS Aluminum Formwork System” will
existing customers. For sustainable users will increase which will result in the play a vital role. Present Government is
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

growth, 80% of the target must be achieved demand for modern construction technol- very keen to develop the infrastructure
from 20% of the customers. This is possi- ogies like “MFS Aluminum Formwork Sys- across regions and new ground reality poli-
ble only if all the deliverables are to the cus- tem”. Apart from Demonetization, there cies are being made to give the boost to the
tomer satisfaction, which shall lead to are clear signs of overall economic revival entire construction and infrastructure
repeat orders & Orders from the customer since last Quarter particularly into the con- industry. These steps are very encourag-
who is known to the existing customer. We struction sector, has excelled the perfor- ing to the industry as a whole. Unlike the
at “MFS” have achieved this with our Qual- mance of construction equipment industry past, Infrastructure & real estate sectors
are no more hesitant in using advanced
construction techniques. Over the period,
increasing awareness of advanced tech-
nology have made developers realized the
potential of Aluminum Formwork System,
even small developers & contractors have
started using the same & Considering the
vital benefits it has been accepted widely
and has become the necessity of the con-
Onsite pictorial of the MFS Aluminium Formwork Onsite pictorial of the MFS Aluminium Formwork struction and infra industry which has

System Application System Application resultedintheincreaseinthesalesrevenue.


- A Speed Breaker?
Across the segments the adverse impact
of demonetization is clearly visible.
However, the CE industry feels, the script
of the long term growth story is
unalterable. The growth momentum is
expected to pick up within two quarters.

Agith G Antony

speed breaker - that is what the It is a plain fact that impact of de- ment. As per reports M&HCV cargo sales
original equipment manufactur- monetisation has been felt across the seg- have registered a sharp drop of 42 per
ers least expected. That too, ments, including the road sector which cent over last year. Tata Motors posted a
when after a prolonged and chilly winter has given a much-awaited boost to the fall of 17% due the cash crunch faced by
of three years, the reforms in the road sec- construction equipment manufacturers. the long haul cargo operators; Mahindra
tor melted the ice, slowly but steadily, and The mining sector has also been hit as & Mahindra's sale slid by 15% and sales of
green shoots in the economy infused many mine owners and contractors are VECV has dropped by 17%. 'Despite high
hopes of a spring. The initial signs of the forced to defer mining and overburden financing penetration in the CV space the
U-shaped recovery, slowly triggering activities due to severe shortage of cash. impact of tight liquidity is likely to cripple
greater momentum; and CE sector According to the analysis by S&P Global the road logistics sector in the near term
eagerly expecting 'sustaining the growth on the impact of demonetisation the pro- and would prompt the transport commu-
momentum' by booster shots given to other duction at mines has gone down. Espe- nity to put their vehicle replacement or
sectors as well. And there comes the bolt, cially, activity levels in quarrying of gran- addition plans on the back burner,' ac-
least expected. ite, marble and dimensional stones where cording to recent report by CARE Rat-
India could well lose its 'world's fastest-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

lion's share of the transactions are through ings. According to ICRA weak industrial
growing economy' tag, thanks to the impact cash, have come down drastically. This may activity, uncertainty of impact of GST has
of the de-monetisation of high-value cur- adversely impact the intake of new equip- been the major factors for declining trend
rencies on its economy. This is so because ment such as excavators, wheel loaders, in commercial vehicles (especially heavy
real estate, gold and the informal sectors dumpers and heavy duty mining trucks. commercial vehicles) sales. The trend
that see a high element of cash transac- The realty sector which already has might have reversed from April 2017 due
tions are expected to slow down, accord- been under tremendous pressure has to application of BS-IV emission and end
ing to India Ratings (Ind-Ra). "The sudden been the hardest hit. The industry feel it of the fiscal year. The dip in sales may last
decline in money supply and a simulta- may take longer time for the sector to for a longer period due to Demonetization.
neous increase in bank deposits are going wake up from its slumber, specifically, for However, the OEMs and suppliers of
to adversely impact consumption demand new projects on a wide-scale is expected components and aggregates are hopeful
in the economy in the short term. This cou- only after 2-3 quarters. This doesn't augur that the impacts may not be able to really
pled with the adverse impact on real estate well for many equipment manufacturers dent the growth story. Bauma India, a mega
/construction and in-formal sectors may manufacturing man and material hoists, platform for construction equipment man-
lead to lowering of GDP growth," However, tower cranes, concrete pumps and bat- ufacturers, suppliers, end-user segments,
on a positive note, the impact will be felt more ching plants etc. will be able to testify the relentless spirit,
in Q3FY17 and the system is expected to The adverse impact has been more of the CE Industry yet again coming back

readjustthereafter,accordingtothereport. visible in the commercial vehicle (CV) seg- with more flexibility and resilience. 


MB Bureau
Bureau Report

rowing exploration around the of technological advancements for en- and communication.
world will drive mining equipment ergy efficient alternatives. The sales ser- Surface Mining Equipment Market
market size in times to come. vice and maintenance activities are cru- share accounted for over 35% of the over-
Moreover, policy and measures initiated cial for gaining competitive advantage in all revenue in 2015 and will grow at 3.4%
to revive the mining sector are a positive the ecosystem. The requirement to cope from 2016 to 2024. Growing demand for
sign. The permission Government of In- with lower ore grade and more remote lo- technically advanced solutions and in-
dia for 100 per cent foreign direct invest- cations is driving the need for innovation creasing activities mainly in developing
ment (FDI) in the mining sector under the and automation. countries will drive consumption. Increa-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

automatic route has further enhanced the sing disposable income and living stan-
The equipment market report and the ex-
market. Furthermore, steps such as the dards of consumers have fueled demand
pert opinion:
Mining lease being granted for a long dura- for copper, aluminum, gold and other com-
tion of minimum 20 years and up to 30 'Is growing very fast and with the im- modities. Mining drills & breakers seg-
years has impacted it further. As the levels port cost going up, the domestic produc- ment will benefit from rising demand for
of project development are being pushed tion is bound to go up in the future', re- underground mining of metals, coal &
upon, there is a growing demand for the marked Mr. Sandeep Agarwal MD, minerals and evolution of effective solu-
mining equipment market. The metal and Ariando Infra Machines and his claim tions with the help of robust technological
mining industry of India has recorded a seems to be right. The smart mining mar- support.
strong 19.8 per cent expansion in 2011 to ket is estimated to grow from USD 3.84 Bil- Multi-function machinery is increas-
touch US$ 141.9 billion and is expected to lion in 2015 to USD 9.98 Billion by 2020, at a ingly being adopted for their cost-saving
reach 305.5 billion by 2015. Production vol- Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) versatility over single function equipment.
umes have also been growing steadily of 21.0% during the forecast period. The These advancements enable operators to
over the years - during the period 2007- deployment of smart mining solutions significantly reduce the time & labor re-
2011, it registered a CAGR of 5.2 percent. helps mining companies to minimize quired to complete the tasks with exten-
Mining equipment market share may their labor expenses and increase the pro- ded productivity and improved efficiency.

witness considerable growth on account duction efficiency by real-time monitoring Quick-change attachment couplers, cab

designs, and joystick controls have made try along with the entire earthmoving and
Heavy Construction Equipment
machinery more feasible for operation si- construction equipment industry is grow-
Market Share, by Region, 2014
multaneously reducing operator fatigue. ing at around 45 percent', said R C Mangal,
(USD Million)
'If you see backhoe machines statis- Sr. Vice President Sales & Marketing.
tics you will find out that for coming 2 The global construction equipment
years or so it is going to be an upward rise market is growing steadily with improving
of 25000 machine market all put together. economic conditions and increasing in-
Plus it might be exceeding that. In this re- vestment in construction sector globally.
spect, we are targeting for 10 to 15 per- Emerging economies across the world
cent. We're trying to get exclusivity. Out of are investing the significant amount of en-
these 25000 , 23000 would be on soft ergy, transportation and other construc-
strata in which only 10 people are com- tion projects to support their economic de-
peting in which there is a distinctive ad- velopments. In the excavator categories
vantage which is lacking in general cate- the machines above 30 tons, have enjoyed
gory. We are trying to establish in this mar- huge success over the years.
ket', said Rajinder Raina, General Man- Asia-Pacific North America According to the industry experts, the
ager-Marketing, Escorts Construction Europe RoW overall slowdown in global market had
Equipment. He further adds, 'If you see Source: Secondary Research, Expert Interviews
taken a toll on infrastructure investments
backhoe machines statistics you will find and Markets and Markets Analysis in India as well, especially in the last few
out that for coming 2 years or so it is going years. To counter this issue, the govern-
to be an upward rise of 25000 machine ket is worth 166.05 Billion USD by 2020. De- ment has set ambitious targets as part of
market all put together'. pending on the project application, sev- the ongoing Twelfth FYP (FY12FY17), pro-
Metal mining equipment market size eral heavy types of equipment is used in posing INR 56 lakh crores of investment in
was valued at over USD 29 billion in 2015 different The heavy equipment could be di- infrastructure. These targets are heavily
and will grow at 5% CAGR over the fore- vided into four major types: Earth-moving weighted toward the second half of the
cast timeline. Increasing demand for met- equipment, Construction vehicles, Mate- plan, with 52 percent of total investment
als, particularly precious metals such as rial handling and Construction Equip- expected in the last two years of the plan
gold would fuel demand. The demand for ment. Equipment starting from Skid steer period. Moreover, the Union Budget of the
gold has been supported by the cultural, loaders to Backhoe loaders, Excavators new government has earmarked ` 2 lakh
emotional and financial value of the cus- to Bulldozers, Crawler Loaders to Motor crores for investment in infrastructure.
tomers. Increasing demand for coal in Graders, the demand is rising with each The investments are allocated for a broad
electricity generation, cement manufac- passing day. range of infrastructure projects such as
turing, and steel production will propel This year's BC India is a primary exam- the mining sector. We can look forward to
coal mining application growth. Asia Pa- ple of it, with new launches and an- more growth in 2017, with a further pick-
cific mining equipment market size was nouncements happening. up in 2018 and 2019.
valued at USD 40 billion in 2015. Rising de- 'The entire earthmoving and con- The demand is increasing very rap-
mand for higher energy efficiency, low struction equipment industry saw a down- idly. The economic growth and increased
cost, and lower emissions will offer po- ward spiral for about 4 to 4 and half years. spending on infrastructural activities
tential growth opportunity in the Chinese However, over the past two years, the tip- have played a huge part in providing the
industry from 2016 to 2024. Dimitrov per industry has been slowly recovering necessary boost to the global heavy con-
Krishnan, VP, and Head Volvo rightfully and growing. Currently, the tipper indus- struction equipment industry. The global
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

said in this year's April that there was

huge demand from the mining sector for
the machinery of mining projects espe-
cially for the capacity excavators and the
trend seems to continue.
The government initiative such as
'Sagarmala Program' has further enhan-
ced the pathway for manufacturers. Firms
are trying to create a market but mining
owners should also b willing to try out new
innovations. Places such as Jharkhand
pertaining to government initiation is an
area that would open up even more in two
years time.
Demand of Earth Moving Construction
Heavy Equipment

Heavy Construction Equipment Mar- Mahindra ExarthMaster VX


JCB 220 LC Xtra

heavy construction equipment industry is paid for by the incremental benefit. The will only aid the overall sales of the mining
projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.80% from business is so busy making money that it equipment and contribute to an overall
2015 to 2020. The earthmoving equipment is not possible to justify stopping it simply growth. The simultaneous increase in
is the fastest growing segment of the to make a little more. Unfortunately, coal and mineral production would surely
heavy construction equipment market when times are bad, the business cannot require new and updated machinery.
across the globe justify the increased capital investment
that it needs to run at lower costs and
Coming succesfull in technological inno- -
higher efficiency. Attracting investment in
vation moving-construction-heavy-equipment-
a business that is showing poor returns at 844586
Once a new mine is successfully and that point is very difficult. The net effect of have-earth-moving-construction-heavy-
profitably operating with its tried and true all of this is that the mine starts with con- equipment-844586
equipment, the impetus for technological ventional technology and runs it through earth-moving-construction-heavy-equipment-
change can be relatively small. If accept- good and bad times until it absolutely 844586
able returns are being generated with con- doesn't work anymore or is hopelessly ob- -
ventional technology, then justifying capi- solete. Short of serious crises or major de- html
tal expenditure on new technology in velopments, minor tweaks to operations ket-Reports/connected-mining-market-
these profitable operations can be very and equipment are often all that happens 210875078.html
tough. -
technologically until the mine closes.
In fact, this is a component of a gen- html
eral improvement paradox which we of- Moving Forward
ten see in mining. When times are good, it The allocation of budget and govern- /mining-equipment-markethttps: //www.gmin- mining equipment-
is often not possible to justify technologi- ment constant awareness will surely im-
cal improvements to an operating pro- pact the mining sector immensely and in
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

cess because the downtime cannot be a really positive way. The growing interest analysis/mining-equipment-market
/inno-vation-in-mining/http s://www.ausim feature/innovation-in-mining/
- /in-
-Reports/heavy-construction- equipment-
- /must-have-ear-
- /must-have-ear-

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The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

MB Bureau Report

one are the days of manual pro- utes nearly 7 per cent to India's GDP. Fur- has been a special focus on road con-
cessing of concrete. The advent of ther, by 2025, India's construction market struction and concrete equipment mar-
concrete handling and process- is expected to emerge as the third largest ket in India. Government's initiation of con-
ing equipment has been one of the most in the world. According to the report, the crete bridges has further enhanced the
important happenings of the recent few government vertical is the leading reve- overall demand for the concreting equip-
decades. If today, virtually no engineering nue generating segment for the con- ment. According to RNCOS report, the
feat is considered impossible, a lot of cre- struction market, led by various public main focus of the concrete equipment mar-
dit should go to the concrete handling and infrastructure projects. Indian construc- ket India is currently focused on urban dev-
processing equipment. tion industry has been contributing 7.5- elopment, infrastructure projects, power
India Construction Equipment Mar- 8.0% of National GDP for past many years. project,portprojectsandirrigationprojects.
ket (2016-22), India has become a key As a result, construction equipment This write up talks about various con-
global market for construction equip- sector in India, which has been witnessing creting equipment available, the major

ment. The construction market contrib- robust demand in the recent years. There market players and the market reaction.

Concrete Batching Plants

The gradual growth of the RMC in-
dustry from the 1990s to the present
decade is another factor behind the rise in
the number of concrete batching plants in
the country. The gradual increase in pro-
ject sizes along with other key factors such
as greater emphasis on quality and in-
creasing pressure to stick to project
schedules has meant boom time for con-
crete batching equipment suppliers in
recent times. Except for a brief period of
lull experienced during the global eco-
nomic slowdown, the market for concrete
batching plants is estimated to be grow-
ing at an estimated 25%-30%, according
to industry analysts and expected to more
than double in another five years time, dur-
ing the 12th Five Year Plan period during
which investments to the tune of US $ 1 tril-
Ajax Fiori Argo 2000 4 x 4 Easy Drive
lion is expected to be pumped into infra-
structure development in the country. The demand for concrete pumps var- demand for higher capacity concrete bat-
The good showing of the realty sector, ies with the performance measures as ching plants. Similarly, with the Indian in-
although amidst certain intermittent hic- well as the type of pump. Currently, boom frastructure development, as well as realty
cups, has also come as good news for the and line pumps are the most common boom spreading to the deep interiors of
segment. pumps. The demand for these products the country, a spike in demand for mobile
One of the key shifts that have taken
varies in different markets with most com- concrete batching plants is also on the
place in recent times has been in the
panies in the developed and developing cards. The automatic concrete machine
ingredients that go into making concrete
world using these pumps in high invest- is in high demand in this regard.
nowadays. From silica fumes to fly ash,
ment projects. In addition, a lot of time is
chemical admixtures and a variety of Semi-automatic concrete machine
wasted in this process. Concrete boom
other construction chemicals means that The rising emphasis on precast com-
pumps have the capacity to pump large
concrete batching plants have become ponents has been one of the important
volumes of about 150 m3/hour at dis-
imperative for attaining that “optimum driving factors behind the demand for con-
tances of about 50m to 200m.
mix”. Whether it is “special” or “lean” mix crete block making machinery. Semi-
that clients demand, the contractor of to- Automatic concrete machine automatic vibrating table type machines
day is dependent on the concrete bat- The increasing scale of projects in the are widely used for making cement con-
ching plant to fulfill it. Adding to their popu- near future could trigger a fresh spurt in crete hollow blocks. The machine con-
larity is the fact that most of the latest mod-
els feature the modular design, which The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |
enables relatively easy installation.
Concrete Pump
The worldwide demand for the con-
crete pump is rising steadily due to their
application in many upcoming construc-
tions in the real estate and infrastructural
projects. Large constructions companies
with huge investments projects that are
time constrained require concrete pumps
and this creates a demand for them.
This year Government focus diverted
from traditional bitumen road to durable,
low maintenance concrete road projects.
For making concrete road continuously
huge amount of ready mix concrete is re-
quired. This is possible with the help of

higher capacity batching plants. Apollo Carmix


an increased awareness of costs are the

main reasons for worldwide efforts to
solve the concrete industry's disposal and
recycling problems. Profiting from exten-
sive experience gained with sieve / Cyclone
separation system, Stetter had already
developed and implemented the concrete
recycling plant by 1976. Since their sys-
tems have proved to be unusually reliable,
economical and highly wear-resistant.

Going Forward
The increased impetus to develop
infrastructure in the country is attracting
both domestic and international players.
Universal Wheel Batching Plant of 60 CuM/Hr
The private sector is emerging as a key
player across various infrastructure seg-
sists of an automatic vibrating unit, a lever Portable concrete batching plant
operated up and down metallic mould box ments, ranging from roads and commu-
Portable concrete batch mixing nications to power and airports. There-
and a stripper head contained in a frame
plants comes with with a reversible drum fore firms are concentrating a lot on the
work. Manufacturers in India have been
mixer type mixing unit. The specialty of utilisation of the concrete technologies
offering a mix of compact and bigger mod-
these concrete mixing plants is that they 'We that is Universal Construct Equipment
els of this kind to garner their shares in the
can be towed easily by towing it with a trac- Pvt. Ltd. is focused on concrete equip-
tor. The control panel is on the chassis of ment. We have got a range of concrete
The cheaper semi-automated mod-
els with environment-friendly attributes the plant making the controlling of the por- equipment, starting from small portable
are gaining demand b because of an table concrete equipment very easy. Con- machines of different cubic meters de-
increased emphasis on sustainability. crete mixing is done in the clockwise pending on the demand of the client. We
direction and concrete discharge is in an have ranges varying from 100 to 200-liter
Pipe casting machines anti-clockwise direction. No special ramp mixers. We focus on technology, even on
The market for concrete product ma- is required for feeding the material into the smallest machine that we produce
chinery is growing at a rapid pace of 20%- the aggregate feeders. The discharge are technology sounded and crafted even
25% presently and is expected to increase height of these concrete mixers enables European manufacturers are lagging
exponentially once the next phase of discharge of materials directly into the behind;, says, Ranjit More, the Managing
infrastructure development begins dur- concrete pump. A load out belt can also be Director, Universal.
ing the 12th Plan Period (2012-17). Among supplied so that the concrete can be fed India's construction equipment mar-
the latest entrants into the market have into the transit mixer. ket is projected to reach 131 thousand
been pipe casting machines that are in units by 2022. The market declined during
Concrete Recycling Plant
demand from the various water supply 2012 to 2014 owing to factors such as de-
projects, apart from fulfilling the needs of Concern for our environment, guide- lay in project clearance issues and land
civic authorities around the country. lines from legal authorities and above all, acquisition delays. However, in coming
years, owing to several construction pro-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

jects in the pipeline, the market for con-

struction equipment is expected to wit-
ness growth led by the surge in construc-
tion vehicle segment, followed by earth-
moving segment.

Schwing Stetter Nimo lysis.html 


Evolvement of Advanced
Concrete Solutions

pollo Inffratech Private Limited is These targets are heavily weighted
one of India's premier infrastruc- toward the second half of the plan,with 52
ture backbone companies. The percent of total investment expected in
firm’s ready mix concrete solutions the last two years of the plan period. More-
including ready mix concrete plant (RMC over, the Union Budget of the new govern-
Plant) are cost-effective, user-friendly ment has earmarked ` 2 lakh crores for
and easy to maintain. Now with growing investment in infrastructure. The invest-
distribution & dealership network across ments are allocated for a broad range of
India, all Apollo products are backed by infrastructure projects including roads,
strong after sales services. airports, rural infrastructure, and urban Mr. Mitul A. Patel
In an interview with Masterbuilder, infrastructure. The construction equipment Managing Director, Apollo Inffratech
Mitul Patel, MD, Apollo Inffratech shared market has improved tremendously in
insight on the market scenario and inno- the last 8-9 months due to the huge road For making concrete road continuously
vations that go in making the firm a force and other infrastructure projects. We can huge amount of ready mix concrete is
to be reckoned with. Here are few ex- look forward to more growth in 2017, with required. This is possible with the help of
cerpts from the discussion. a further pickup in 2018 and 2019. higher capacity batching plants.
In the coming year Apollo Inffratech In accordance with demand, the firm
How is the current concrete equipment has started manufacturing batching plant
aims at a tremendous growth in higher
market response in India and as a firm up to 160cu.m/hr capacity range. Slip
end batching plant sales, pipe making
what are your expectations from the com- form and Fixed form paver are widely
machines and self loading mixers as well
ing year ? used in concrete road and Irrigation pro-
as other products.
The overall slowdown in global mar- jects. Apollo manufactures fixed form pav-
Aligning with the recent government pol- ers from 3.75m to 7.5m width for catering
ket had taken a toll on infrastructure
icy how is Apollo preparing to become a concrete roads and irrigation projects. We
investments in India as well, especially in
total solution provider for concrete roads recently became an exclusive business
the last few years. To counter this issue,
and irrigation projects? partner of HEM,USA which offers the com-
the government has set ambitious targets
as part of the ongoing Twelfth FYP This year Government focus diverted plete range of Slip Form Concrete Paving
(FY12–FY17), proposing ` 56 lakh crores from traditional bitumen road to durable, Equipment. This partnership will enable
of investment in infrastructure. low maintenance concrete road projects. us to cater to the needs of the contractors
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

working on various projects including and 4 cu.m/batch capacity) facturing sector will be seen giving a push
national highways, state highways, air- - Block Making Machine to the economy. The most important for
field runways, and canals. - Cage Welding Machine our industry is that GST will make a hassle
We are not planning to add any new free transportation system. Supply of
How is the strategy of tie-up with multi-
product in near future. Our main focus is goods from one part of the country to the
national working out? Elaborate on the
on penetrating the market for existing other will be hassle free.
strategy behind having myriad product
products. GST will reduce the cost of procure-
range and how it’s helping in branding?
How does the firm enable smooth func- ment/ Production of Goods. It will break
In alignment with MAKE IN INDIA the cascade of tax at all stages and there
tioning of telematic/remote monitoring
strategy Apollo tie-up with multinationals will be no retention/disallowance of stock
support to its customers and maintaining
for bringing advanced technology in India. transfer of goods. It will make India an
a standardised quality?
The firm strictly follows all norms and pro- even and seamless market, the current
cess of manufacturing for bringing world We have developed our own ERP sys- area based exemptions and hike will
class product in India. Customers are tem which maintains each and every become irrelevant.
highly satisfied with the performance of detail of customers and machines. We
have a detailed parts manual and product What are the products and services pro-
the product. Due to vast product range
manual for easy of usage. Customer are posed to be launched/displayed at
customer can get complete range of con-
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

able to order parts as per requirement bauma ConExpo India 2016?

crete products from single source of sup-
ply and it obviously contributes in brand- without any hassle through parts manual. Apollo’s prime focus on participating
ing. We are also providing customer care num- at bauma conexpo India 2016 is to
ber to our customer for 24*7 supports. enhance brand awareness as well as
Specify on the product offerings? Are Apollo is process oriented company building a good relationship with custom-
there more in line awaiting for introduc- and strictly adhering to it. We purely focus ers. It is the one of the leading platforms
tion? on quality of products. It will never com- for tapping into this important growth mar-
Our Wide Range of Products promise in quality. The equipments are ket. Market leaders, global players and
- Concrete Batching Plants (20cu.m/hr designed in such a manner that it will con- decision makers are present at this event.
to 120cu.m/hr Capacity) sume less energy. To nullify this opportunity we are partici-
- Transit Mixers pating in bauma conexpo india every year.
What are the steps that you as firm
- Fixed Form Concrete Paver (Available We will be displaying higher capacity
adhering to, for knowledge sharing and
width 3.75m to 7.5m) concrete batching plant, Self loading tran-
training for the Indian customers to
- Slip Form Concrete Paver (Available sit mixers and Fixed form paver at bC
tackle jobsite challenges?
width 2.75m to 13.5m) India. We will first time introducing HEM
- Concrete Pipe Making Machines As the new government has proposed slip form paver and QGM small block

- Self Loading Mixers (2.5 cu.m/batch the implemented of GST, impact of manu- making machine at the show. w

BKT - An Indian Manufacture

with a Global Presence

alkrishna Industries Ltd. (BKT) is an experienced team that have been
an Indian based tire manufactur- instrumental in rising profits by 30 per-
ing company. The group offers an cent over the past five years.
extensive and always updated production BKT's foray into the global tire indus-
range of Off-Highway tires specially de- try was strategic and well planned for. Their
signed for vehicles in the agricultural, in- diverse range of tires services both the Ori-
dustrial, earthmoving, mining, all-terrain ginal Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)
vehicles (ATV) and gardening sectors. and the replacement market. However, Arvind Poddar Rajiv Poddar
BKT's innovative solutions are designed BKT's core lies in its extensive range of Chairman & Jt. Managing Director
with the customer's needs at the fore- tires for the Off-Highway industry. Over 2300 Managing Director (BKT) BKT

front. With more than 2,400 products sold products service the needs of users and
in over 130 countries worldwide, BKT has vehicle manufacturers in this industry. ern industrial plant is spread over 300
become prolific in the art of customising In the Earthmoving and Industrial tire acres and is capable of producing 120,000
their products for the client's, industry's, sector, BKT offers solutions for every type tons per year at full capacity. The Bhuj
and job's requirements. of equipment employed in the construc- plant has an entire area dedicated for the
BKT was founded in 1987. Since its tion, building and mining space. Solutions OTR segment's all steel radial tires.
inception, the group has developed into a for wheel loaders, diggers, wheeled doz- BKT are all steel radial pioneers in
global player in the specialized Off-High- ers, scrapers, backhoe loaders, trailers, India in the OTR segment. The group star-
way tire industry with a 6% market share and loaders are available. In the Material ted manufacturing all-steel radial tires in
and a sales volume of 850 million US dol- Handling and loading sector, BKT offers a 2008. Coined Earthmax SR, BKT offers an
lars. The five state-of-the-art production host of products for dumpers, forklifts, extraordinarily large family of tires that
sites, all located in India at; Aurangabad, stackers, cranes, scrappers, backhoes are suitable for the most specific earth-
Bhiwadi, Chopanki, Dombivali and and for equipment used in port container moving applications. These tires are spe-
Bhujemploy more than 7,000 people and handling. cifically designed for heavy load haulage -
are responsible for the manufacturing of featuring outstanding resistance to cuts,
All Steel Radial
the group's products. Under the leader- abrasions and punctures.
ship of Arvindkumar Poddar - Executive Stepping up focus on R&D activities The latest addition to this series has
Chairman and Managing Director, and and propelling innovation in India; BKT set- been the Earthmax SR 45 Plus. At 2.70 m
Rajiv Poddar - Joint Managing Director, up is latest factory in Bhuj, Gujarat. This diameter, this new giant of a tire has been
Executive Director the group has acquired state-of-the-art, self-contained, and mod- specifically designed for rigid dumpers and
long-haul transport operations. Extraor-
dinary grip and resistance in adverse con-
ditions is one of the many features of this
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

behemoth. The all steel casting of the tire

attributes to its extraordinary strength
and stability. The special extra-deep tread
design minimizes vibrations and noises
on the road while also making mainte-
nance easy. The deep treads give the tire a
self-cleaning property that aims at effec-
tively ejecting rubble and stones.w

For further details:

Balkrishna Industries Ltd
BKT House,C/15, Trade World, Kamala Mills
Compund,, Senapati Bapat Marg,
Lower Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra - 400013.
Phone: 022 6666 3800

Infrastructural Alignment with

Quality Equipment

nfrastructure Development involves GJJ Director, Liu Yue Jin also con- trib- famous and proven for their reliability, and
fundamental structures that are uted us with his insights. Here are few they ensure flexibility without major break-
required for the functioning of a society excerpts of the conversations. down for 20 years.
as a whole. One needs expertise for provid-
SYM: What about the topless cane? Specify on
ing products and services on time. Herein
the safety control system used the prod-
comes experienced and qualified profes- What makes SYM your first preference?
sionals. To answer this in one statement I
One such name is Everest Engineer- SYM have flat-top cranes also to be
would say history. We as service pro-
ing Equipment Pvt Ltd. The key aim of the specific 8t to 80 ton. Flat top cranes used
viders were very confident on them. SYM
firm is to provide quality products, on time for Power Plant Boiler House, Natural Draft
is a 65 yrs old company, they were in a joint
service support and spare parts to the fast cooling tower, can be produced according
venture with French Potain for about 35 -
growing infrastructure projects in India. 40 years, now they are independent brand. to the requirement.
They supply quality and economical equip- Safety measures vary according to the
They have ranges starting from 8 ton to 64
ments like tower cranes, passenger hoists, tons topkit and flattop cranes up to 80 tons. proximity, They use the Siemens PLC from
spare parts to existing machines, service They have an variant capacity. Germany, as well as variable frequency
/ AMC support, up gradation of existing con- They started supplying in Indiafrom drives from Schneider, Siemens, Yaskawa
ventional technologies with the latest tech- 2004. About 120 to 125 units are working in varying from country to country. The safety
nology which are economical in terms of India right now including 50t and 32 ton. device they use hi-tech safety systems,
power consumptions, safety etc. They specialised in Cooling towers (NDCT) load indicators as well as they can supply
To facilitate the above support to tower crane. One of their most distinguish- the anti-collision devices. And moreover
industry, the firm has sole sales and ser- ing product is the rope guying type tower they use electronic monitoring system as
vice tie-up with the best brands like SYM, crane for NDCT. These towers are working well as the load indicating system , road
Fine Hope for tower cranes, GJJ for pas- with rope support at a height of 180 to radius display system, everything is there
senger hoists, material hoists . 200mtrs. and the system is quite safe. Recently they
In an exclusive interview with the SYM have supplied 25ton tower crane sold 25t to Chicago, USA. They supply to the
Masterbuilder the mastermind behind to Lanco Infratech Nagpur, 3 units, it's a Middle East, Europe, South American
EEE, Mr. P.V. Ramdev M.D. gave us an huge capacity. It is being used for the countries Iran-Iraq, Indonesia, almost all
insight rather a closer outlook on what NDCT work of 185 mt height. Natural over the world.
makes him select SYM and GJJ and about draft cooling towers two are completed What about the remote operating system
their specialization. He acts as an indicator the third one is about to complete. SYM
and can you identify the failure in the crane?
and narrator The questionnaire is divided also delivered others to such as L & T,
among two sections pertaining to two dif- Shapoorji, Lodha group. All are working Most of the countries are demand- ing
ferent tie-ups of the Everest Engineering. well from last 12 yrs in India. They are remote operating system. It is quite possi-
ble to provide them with this sys- tem.
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Some European countries are asking for a

remote control system from the ground,
that can also be supplied. However, it is an
optional item.
A failure can be evaluated through digi-
tal radio control and it can also be done on
the ground for the monitoring system, that
is possible AND all optional. Their design
focuses on operator sitting on the top and
operating because of the visibility. He can
have a visibility for picking and dropping
especially for high-rise building.
What is the highest capacity sold?
In India, 50-ton cranes are their best
work so far. The height they have sold up to
Mr. PV Ramdev, M.D, Everest Engineering (Left) & Mr. Wang Jianli, Director, SYM 280 mt height. They have a capacity of

at SYM stall in Bauma China delivering 80-ton cranes.


GJJ: shift from one lift room to another lift

room horizontally & automatically. This
new technology was also introduced in the
GJJ started their journey in India in 2007. Bauma China Exhibition. It is a horizontal
It's been almost 10 years and they have got transfer of passenger hoist from one lift
hold of the Indian market very well. They room to another. They are doing excellent
have provided good products and via our sales, good technology is developed.
impeccable ser- vice, we have done a good
job in the Indian market so far. It can be
stated as a very good relationship so far. They are available in countries like UK,
Mr.Liu Yue Jin, Director, GJJ (Left) & Singapore, Ethiopia, Qatar, Germany, France,
Mr. PV Ramdev, MD, Everest Engineering (Right) What is the highest crane sold in India and with different brand names according to
what is unique about these products? country design standard. For example, they
What is the USP that makes you distribute GJJ specialize in the passenger hoist use the brand name of Hercules in the
SYM? and have sold more around 150 units in USA, Avro in Canada, Orbit in Middle east to
India, including L&T, Lanco, Lodha, name a few, they are present almost
SYM have taken the basic technology
HEBEN, Paharpur, to name a few. many everywhere in the world.
from French Potain in 1984 during their JV
more corporate houses. This year we are What is the USP of GJJ Passenger Hoist
which is advanced, they have developed a
planning to come out with 30 to 40 unit compared to others and How are the oper-
R&D section with engineers who develops
sales. Only GJJ can offer high-speed hoist
the structural strength with improved ators trained?
from China which has the speed of 120
material. This is one of the USP. meter per minute. that means to step out The life of the passenger hoist is 15 to
However, their biggest advantage lies to 2 meter per second. that is per- haps the 20 yrs without any major breakdown, as it is
with the free standing height. Every tower highest speed in the world. reputed in the world market, because of
crane after certain height you have to lesser vibration, high durability and
anchor with the building and every tower Elaborate on the safety angle in the pas-
smooth functioning. That is the USP.
crane have a free standing height of 40-50 - senger hoist?
During the installation GJJ train the
60 mts, but SYM has cranes with free- Safety systems such as high speed cut engineers and technicians.. Trained oper-
standing capabilities of 80 mts to 100 mts. off, full cutoff, upper and lower cut-off, safety ators are also picked from market & trained
With specialized material and design. Cer- device with an electronic sensor, Over load again on GJJ products.
tain models which only few can offer, they device, Rack sensing, siemens floor selec- The technology is also a big plus for
have developed. They are specializing and tion system, are available with the prod- GJJ, which makes them stand out. More-
exporting compared to the previous time ucts. This year they have introduced a new over, there is no problem with spare parts.
where vice-versa used to happen. technology of passenger hoist, which can Most of the parts of the products are avail-
able in India, if any crisis comes we have al-
ready kept all spare in New Bombay it will
hardly take 24 hrs to reach any part of India.
What is the highest passenger hoist work?
Highest passenger hoist currently
working in Tianjin, China. It is 650 mt high,
skyscraper some of the custom- ers from
India visited it, for reference.
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Features of GJJ Tower Crane and elabo-

rate on some their projects on the pipeline?
They have taken the biggest order in
the Tower crane history of India of 74 units
from one of the companies. That is every
one of them has the 6-ton capacity. The
firm is capable of delivering up to 32 tons
delivery. They have supplied around 200
units in India in last few years with ease.
Are they facing any crisis situation in India?
In China domestic market has come
down many have closed down, but they are
still working but have reduced some work-
ers and products but they are still the big-
gest exporter. the problem is quite normal

GJJ stall on display in Bauma China and nothing.w


The Automatic Four Station Press

arijatha Machinery- one of the Pio- vidual stations for the face mix, pressing
neers and Leading Block and Paver and ejection. The main frame structure is
Making Machine manufacturers robust in design with integrated heavy duty
has introduced the most modernized, cylinder capable of handling very high
sophisticated and Automatic Four Station pressing force required to produce quality
Paving Block/ Slab Press APM-416 ED. products which can meet the most
It incorporates the most advanced tech- demanding conditions.
nologies and latest systems for achieving The Parijatha four station press has four
higher production, ease of maintenance stations, one for pressing, ejection, face mix
and longevity. and for main back layer dosing.
Parijatha Machinery has been credited The heavy duty hydraulic power pack is Jayaram Ramesh
Managing Director, Parijatha Machinery
for introducing many new and innovative specially designed to handle the high pres-
products such as Block Master-I™, Wet sureandthetoughworkingconditions.
- Vibration system for both hopper and
Press Technology, Automatic and Semiau- The integrated cylinder which ensures
dosing bucket.
tomaticConcreteBlockMakingMachine, Ter- lifelong service and very low Maintainance
- Variable speed setting option for back
razzo Tile Making Machines etc. has polyurethane seals to ensure longer
layer dozer and vibration systems
The company's best in class equipment, life
enabling the controlled raw material
machines and services have been turning The back layer dozer has a variable
the gears of progress since 1990. speed option and vibrations systems for
- HydraulicallyoperatedEjectionsystems.
Parijatha machinery over the years has both hopper and the dosing bucket. The
- Heavy Duty power pack for handling high
successfully developed and reinvented to vibration systems come with variable speed
cater specifically to the needs of their cus- option for the filling station making it able to
tomers, to suit their specific needs and adjust according to the raw material and Technical Specifications:
demanding conditions required for this other requirements to ensure best com- Max.WorkingArea :600x600MM
industry. paction before it enters the pressing sta- Production Capacity
The hall mark of Parijatha machines is tion. per 8 Hour Shift : 1200
that they are designed for simplicity, ease of The ejection systems are fully operated Power Required : 22HP
operation and maintenance and most hydraulically to ensure smooth and seam-
importantly very low working and owner- less ejection of even thicker products with- Parijatha's Product Range:
ship costs out damaging the edges or corners - Semi-Automatic (PBM-06 & PBM
The PARIJATHA automatic four station Also, various types of handling and auto- PLUS) & Fully Automatic Block Making
press 416 ED is designed to produce prod- mation options van be offered with the Machine- Block Master-I™.
ucts like heavy duty tiles/slabs, paving machines depending upon customers' spe- - Wet Press Technology-Linear Wet
blocks and other related products. cific requirement. Press for manufacture of heavy duty
The advantage of the four station press Kerbs, slabs, drain covers and other
Salient Features:
is that it has a separate station for the dos- related products.
ing the main backing layer apart from indi- - Separate Station for dosing the main
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

- Rotary Press-Two Station Automatic

Backing Layer apart from individual sta- Press APM 216 HD and Three Station
tions for the face mix, pressing and ejec- Press APM 316 ED.
tion. - Planetary Mixers of different capacities
with matching capacities of batching
- Vibratory Tables and complete Wet
Cast Plants.
- Feed Hoppers & Pallet Handling

For further details:

Sri Parijatha Machinery Works Pvt. Ltd.
1-D, II Phase, Peenya Industrial Area,
Bangalore - 560 058. Ph: +91-80-28394221,
28912875, Fax: +91-80-28392894,

Four Station Paving Block/ Slab Press APM-416 ED


Fly-ash Concrete and Block

Making Machines

Nitesh Modi
Director, Q Green Techcon Pvt. Ltd.

Green Tehcon is one of the lead- largest manufacturers of Concrete Block
ers of the quality range of brick Making Plants in Asia providing vibration
and block making machines. A based technology
stringent commitment to quality and strong
The product launch
customer focus made the company a pre-
ferred choice among consumers. When it Together with REIT, they are into a joint
comes to fly ash bricks and block making venture in India for the manufacturing of
machines they are one of the preferred machines in India. These machines man-
firms. Additionally solid and hollow con- ufacturing are made upon the principle of
crete machines and designer pavers are reduction of price as well for the easy ther moving ahead they plan for a bigger
also provided them. They are also provid- accessibility of the after sales services fully automated plant. This is their basic
ing complete Turnkey Projects for Fly Ash strength. A lack of accessibility is a common plan for 4 and 6 block machines. In
Bricks (Semi automatic & fully Automatic), problem that a client faces whenever he is upcoming exhibitions, they are coming up
Concrete Hollow/Solid Blocks, Concrete importing a machine from an outside with a new model known as RT 15 which
Paving Blocks /Interlocking Pavers, Kerb country, such as China. will be introduced in India but surprisingly
Stone, AAC Blocks, Designer Tiles etc. By the end of the year the company it already has a booking order. The major
They are also associated with M/s. will be manufacturing RT 4 machines focus for the firm will be RT 4, RT 6, and RT
Beijing REIT Technology Development starting with the 4 block machine and 15 machine. The product segregates will
Co. Ltd., China as the technical collabora- then they have a plan for 2017 to manufac- be exported to other countries like Nepal
tor in India. REIT is one of the leading and ture RT6 which is a 6 block machine fur- also.
They along with REIT are also dealing
with the manufacturing of concrete block
and brick laying machine. The company
150 The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Q Green Techcon pride in satisfying

all their customer need for the Fly Ash
Bricks. They are one of the leading manu-
facturers and after sales service provider of
machines to manufacture Fly Ash Bricks.
They are taking steps towards the waste
utilization as well as social liabilities
towards the society and our surroundings
and make the earth green.w

For further details:

Q Green Techcon Pvt Ltd
3232, GIDC Chhatral, Tal-Kalol Dist –
Gandhinagar, Gujarat - 382 729.
Mob: 09766102324, 09732035946
Email :

Innovation of Concreting Solutions

niversal has become more than
just being one of the lndia’s larg-
est engineering companies. it
has been a pioneer of new technology, a
prime mover at every stage, introducing
products and technologies that helped
take the construction industry a giant leap
forward. The state-of-the-art facilities of
Universal have rolled out over a million
construction and material handling
equipment for its high profile, quality-
conscious clients all over the world.
World-class manufacturing practices
coupled with a constant focus on
research and development.
In an exclusive interview with the
Mastebuilder, Ranjit More, the Managing
Director, of the company shared an
insight on the market potential and inno-
vations that go behind the company.
Kindly share your journey experience for
the past decade of the Indian market?
The journey has been quite upheaval
and constant. Universal has traveled from You have got several builders association We have ranges varying from 100 to 200-
a small field to a medium field to a large awards on lifting and mechanization solu- liter mixers. We focus on technology,
scale and finally to heavy industries. And tions and recognition what are the mar- even on the smallest machine that we pro-
here we are doing Mega Projects now.The ket potential of that market? duce are technology sounded and crafted
journey began from small scale industry even European manufacturers are lag-
We that is Universal Construct Equip-
in 1995 it then developed to medium scale ging behind. The technology that imple-
ment Pvt. Ltd. is focused on concrete
industry by 2001 and large scale industry ment are weighed upon so that quality con-
equipment. We have got a range of con-
in 2005. The government of India recog- crete can be produced. So that is why we
crete equipment, starting from small por-
nized us as semi industrialist by 2007 and are stressing highly on the technology
table machines of different cubic meters
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

then in 2009 we began Mega Project. part. Our batching plants are highly sus-
depending on the demand of the client.
tainable and simplified, the products and
machines are easy to use. There are even
specialized product system which only
requires water and electricity to get
started. We are focusing on rendering
those technologies which would be easy
to use on the construction sites.
We have a market share if you look at
wind sector we have close to 80 percent
market share in the sector. Our focus is on
developing and coming up with new robust
technologies for the market and finally we
aim to available at the updated style. In
regards to manufacturing, we are one of
the few companies in the construction in-
dustry that implement robotics fabrication.

We focus on quality and the procedure.


Kindly enumerate on the products? Kindly explain on the availability of tionally, quality and downfall time are fur-
repairing and spare parts for the dealer’s ther aggregating the matter.
We are into construction machinery.
accessibility and downtime? Is there any
We offer mixing solutions and we have Your company is also dealing with com-
technology innovation adopted by you in
got power cranes to Suspended Platform, pacting solutions like flow contractor, bar
this regard?
Work Platform, to variant types of Hoist, bending etc. what is the potential of this
Material Lift. We offer a complete solu- I will put this two categories. First is market?
tion for vertical material handling and the day to day use machines in regards to Bar Bending and the Portable market
climbing units. spare parts, we have a quality dealers. We is showing are showing fast growth. The
have trained dealers in regards to inputs reason why we went to have the complete
When it comes to sales and services are
of spare parts and all are components are solution compactor is that there is a
you guys adopting the hybrid model with
standardized. Moreover, in case any con- demand for these products on site. We
the dealers? Kindly enlighten.
fusion anybody could check our websites have a range of product like benders, com-
Yes, we are adopting the Hybrid regarding any complication. pactors, and related product line. The
model with the dealers. To be exact we are Secondly, the smart machines which potential is very good as in India there is a
the first company in India that started this are the higher capacity machines there shortage of labor so everybody is adopting
hybrid model way back in 1996. This the system are implemented wherein the mechanization more. So, the market
model is not adopted by many companies system gives out a signal to the user about potential is huge.
but those have adopted this one have been approximation problem in the machine.
quite successful in their venture. India is a What is your market share in the sphere
This is in a digital format. This helps in pre-
big country one cannot go every distant of the concreting solution?
ventive measurements. Therefore it is apt
place. But because of the universality of to say we have put in a smart system into I would like to add that Portable
the hybrid model, it is now possible to con- the products which give a better control. machines are in demand and is highly pop-
nect to every dot in India. We have incorporated smart corax sys- ular throughout the country. We are defi-
tem. Our system development has been nitely the market leader in the sphere with
such that through a centralized location having 60 percent of the market share. In
one can have control of several machines the case of batching plants if we catego-
together throughout the technology in the rize, such as mobile batching plant we
country, we are working towards its appli- are having a market share of almost 60
cation and innovation. percent but if we talk about general
batching plants we have around 20 per-
Are you continuing your tie-up with prod- cent market share.
ucts outside India?
Any plan of launching a product in the
We are continuing with Zoomlion future?
products but that in a small scale and
proximity factor, is impacting it to a bit. We are having a lined up product in
India used to be a lucrative market but batching plants - a computerized smart
overtime the companies outside India batching plant and also incorporating pol-
lution control system in that. That is plant
have realized that it is not an easy market
will be launched in 2017 in January.
to penetrate. Moreover, pricing and com-
mission factors are also impacting it. Addi- How has the market response been in
2016 pertaining to several innovation and
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

announcements by Government, will the

flow get hampered or it will continue
smooth running?
2016, June, the market started mov-
ing up. Basically, the road sector started
loosing up and market stated growth. The
market has almost increased by 30 per-
cent. Further initiation by the government
such as the project of 14 km road in
Bangalore will only help to enhance this
situation. Moreover, the government has
already announced on the vision of high-
ways made of concrete and projects like
Bharat mala and Sagarmala project
these are only helping it further. GST initi-
ation was good and the application will fur-

ther decide the near future.w


On a sustained robust growth path

tandt group was founded in 1974
by Sri Rajkumar Modi and cur-
rently led by Mr. Rakesh Modi
with a vision to provide sustainable growth
to all the stakeholders associated with the
group. The group is managed by Industry
veterans and professionals, with all India
presence, it has maintained itself as the
largest Aerial Work Platform rental com-
pany of India. Key Activity of the group is to
provide safe and economic solutions to the
industrial, infrastructure and government
segments. The group is proactive in enter-
ing into partnerships with international innovative products in India and neighbor- used to create access roadways, heli-
market leaders across the world, thus ing markets like Srilanka, Nepal, Bhutan copter landing pads, maintenance
drawing technological expertise and and Bangladesh. areas, motor pools, warehouse or
higher returns for its stakeholders. hangar floors, encampments, and
Collaboration and distribution:
The Group endured its qualitative even mobile medical facilities.
growth path in the current year 2016, - XCMG: Mtandt will be distributing Portadeck is the strongest modular
despite of weakness & volatility in exchange XCMG's Hydraulic Fire Trucks upto matting system Mtandt Group manu-
rates, markets and an uncertain global 102 meters reach height. Construction factures. Its unique composition of
economy. The company has come up with Machineries like Piling Rigs, Motor HDPE, UV protection, anti-static and
strong results and expects to close this Graders, Wheeled Loaders and All other additives makes it non-
financial year with an annual increase in Terrain Cranes are also sold and ser- absorbent, prevents degradation, and
turnover by 60% over the last financial year viced by Mtandt. eliminates warping and breaking due
2015-16. In first two-quarters of the cur- - Ruthmann: Mtandt joins hand with the to climate.
rent year, the Group has poised the increase world renowned aerial work platform - Mtandt have introduced innovative
in revenue by 35% as compared to previ- manufacturer RUTHMANN for their construction machineries like Rack &
ous year. Looking current Order status; truck mounted aerial work platform Pinion Passenger & Material Hoists from
Group is quite confident of achieving the business. Through this partnership, hand-picked manufacturers around
targeted revenue growth of 60%. Mtandt will have exclusive sales and the world into the Indian market.
service rights for entire product
Present plan and the prospective: The strive towards growth:
“Mtandt Group have plans to invest the territory of India. Mtandt Group plans to invest US $100
INR 7bn (100mi USD) over a period of two - Aardwolf Monzon: Mtandt Group, for million into manufacturing and rental
years in various verticals including last four decades, specialise in devel- equipment inventory over the next two
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

enhancement of rental inventory, its ser- oping, manufacturing and supply of year. The Mtandt Group, pioneer in bring-
vicing and refurbishing facility” announced Innovative Scaffolding solutions ing Aerial Work Platforms and Portable
Mr. Modi. This year Mtandt Group have tied under iconic brand Aardwolf Quickfit, Roads in India announced investment of
up with various OEM’s to promote their brings first time in India “No Limit – US $ 100m into setting up manufacturing
The Unlimited Scaffolding Solutions”. facility and enhancing rental equipment
Its unique ability to get fit into infinite inventory.
combinations makes it most effec- Mtandt is proactive in entering into
tive, convenient and time saving to partnerships with international market
install than conventional solutions. leaders across the world, thus drawing
- Porta Deck - Engineered and manu- technological expertise and higher
factured by Mtandt Group, Portadeck returns for its stakeholders.w
is the trusted choice for many indus-
tries – construction, drilling, mining,
shoring, utility/transmission, site For further details:
remediation and heavy-haul. The Mtant Group
same features prized by these indus- Contact: Shailendra Tiwari
Rakesh Modi, Pradeep Agarwal, Mob: 7718897739
Managing Director, Associate Director, tries make Portadeck mats ideal for Email:

Mtandt Group Mtandt Group military applications and they can be


In conversation with R C Mangal,

Sr. VP, Sales & Marketing – Mahindra
Truck and Bus Division

he construction equipment segment ucts. This same philosophy extends to our to avail these services after the 1st year on
has seen strong demand especially truck and tipper range. Our truck range is a reimbursement basis. We are constantly
in the first half of this calendar year. in the mid to premium segment, which working to design our customer servicing
This an indication of positivity in the busi- would take care of the problems being faced solutions to provide our customers with
ness sentiment which could lead to a revival by Indian customers who use the con- the best possible total cost of operation and
of economic activity. The sustained focus temporary range of products in India. Our profitability.
on roads and highway development have trucks are available to the Indian custom-
What advances has Mahindra made in
provided the necessary impetus to trigger ers at a marginally higher price of `1 to `2
the telematics space?
growth in the material hauling segment of lakh. By paying a little higher, customers
the country. Positive sentiment in the mar- can buy a Mahindra truck, which will per- Earlier this year, Mahindra launched
ket coupled with the expansion of mines form uninterruptedly for the next four to a new digital technology platform, ‘DiGi
has also contributed to this growth. five years.This is the basic design philoso- Sense 1.0,’ that is scalable across all its
With the onus now on OEMs to tap this phy of MTBD. vehicle segments. ‘DiGi Sense’ was con-
market, the Masterbuilder sat down with ceived to give operators and owners, maxi-
What after sales services does Mahindra
R C Mangal, Sr. Vice President – Sales & mum security and insight into the perfor-
offer its customers
Marketing to explore Mahindra Truck & Bus mance of their vehicles. With ‘DiGi Sense,’
Division’s (MTBD) year that was, their sup- Mahindra provides 100 percent on- owners can create virtual geofences. If the
port systems for customers, and their site support to Customer with 10 or more truck or construction equipment moves
advances in the recent past. The excerpts tippers. Currently, we maintain around 110 beyond this, owners are intimated via a
of the interview follow. large sites across the country. This unique notification on their phone, tablet or com-
service is also available to customers with puter. Apart from this, ‘DiGi Sense,’ comes
What are customers buying when they less than 10 machines if they have the packed with a host of other features which
invest in a Mahindra Truck? potential too, and are likely to purchase help in security and upkeep of the machine
Mahindra is a group that always goes in more in the near future. For customers with for maximum availability.
for cost effective, and outperforming prod- less than 5 tippers, we provide our work-
How does ‘DiGi Sense’ help customers
shop support which is spread across 80
Authorised 3S Dealers and 120 authorised maintain maximum availability?
service stations across the country. Addi- ‘DiGi Sense’ provides regular mainte-
tionally, for the benefit and convenience of nance information to the owner(s). Be it
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

our customers, we create service clusters for an air filter change, general health of the
like in the case of Asansol, West Bengal & machine or the next due service, ‘DiGi Sense’
Shivadi, Maharastra. These clusters are is constantly updating owner(s) on the
typically situated at large sites and cater health of the machine. Besides this, a ser-
to the needs of clients within a 2 km to 3 km vice engineer, located at the headquarters
radius. monitors the performance of trucks across
What makes MTBD’s on-site support the country. We have a manual system
unique for tipper range? where service engineers at the site, pres-
ent a report to the owner on a monthly basis.
MTBD’s on-site support ensures that This helps the owner keep track of the
their machines on average have an avail- vehicle in an organised manner while also
ability of 99.2 percent for the first four years. helping us maintain our promise of indus-
The industry average for a new truck’s try best availability.
availability is around 90% - 95% and as
these trucks age; their availability drops to Can ‘DiGi SENSE’ be retrofitted into exist-
about 60% to 65%. Our on-site support, ing vehicles?

R C Mangal, Sr. VP, Sales & Marketing –

for customers with 10 or more tippers is DiGi SENSE is only available on new

Mahindra Truck and Bus Division free for the first year. Customers can opt orders. This software integrates into the

entire system. DiGi SENSE provides real- What makes the ‘m-POWER’ engine a set of power & aggregates. Sensing this
time tracking optimising route and costs. trendsetter in the HCV truck segment? need, We have launched the BLAZO series
The service also runs vehicle diagnostics, which offer FUELSMART, a unique system
Mahindra’s m-POWER is a unique
which provides owner(s) enough time in where customers have the option of
engine in the industry. It is the largest engine
case of a breakdown. Such a system needs choosing the power of vehicles based on
in its class at 7.2 litres whereas the indus-
multiple other features to be upgraded and load & terrain thus optimising the operat-
try standard for the engine is 5.5 litres. Its
hence, retrofitting older machines with ing costs.
output of 202 HP and 920 Nm of torque gives
‘DiGi SENSE’ is not a viable option. it the best-in-class performance. Apart How has the tipper industry and Mahindra
from this, this in-line, 6 cylinder engine is performed in 2016?
What advancements has Mahindra made crafted to give its owner(s) least downtime
for emission control? The entire earthmoving and con-
if maintenance is required. For instance, if struction equipment industry saw a down-
a particular cylinder has a problem, that ward spiral for about 4 to 4 and half years.
As of April 2017, the entire country will
cylinder alone can be removed and replaced, However, over the past two years, the tip-
be BSIV compliant. At Mahindra, all our
reducing downtime, overall cost and per industry has been slowly recovering
trucks are already BSIV compliant. Apart
increasing profitability. Furthermore, our and growing. Currently, the tipper indus-
from this, the government has given us
engine has several unique safety measures try along with the entire earthmoving and
manufacturers a stiff target to become to help prevent lasting damage to the
BSVI compliant in the next three years. In construction equipment industry is grow-
machine caused either due to challenging ing at around 45 percent. However,
doing so, we will be contemporary to the working conditions or operator negligence.
global norm and even possibly overtake Mahindra, as compared to the last finan-
Road projects require a wide range of cial year has been growing at a faster pace
many international countries. inputs. Every application needs a different of around 60 percent. w
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

IIT-Kharagpur develops a new tool to prevent train from collision

Train journeys could soon be safer as scientists of IIT Kharagpur have successfully tested a new tool for electronic railway
interlocking system, which prevents trains from colliding into each other. The tool suite is developed by the Computer Science
and Engineering Department of the institute in collaboration with Research, Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO) and
Service Improvement Group (SIG) of the Indian Railways. Since errors in the application logic of interlocking systems may have
catastrophic consequences, this development has potential to minimize the chance of such errors. Researchers have
leveraged analytical tools used for verification of VLSI (very large scale integration) circuits to develop formal verification logic
for railway interlocking systems. Railway interlocking is a critical signalling system that prevents trains from conflicting
movements by only allowing one train to take a particular route which has been locked for it. The tool has already been
successfully tested in several railway yards. The Indian Institute of Technology researchers said this project has the potential
to be further extended to study and develop optimum traffic operation plans, alternative plans for emergencies. The next step
would be to further develop the products and technologies with an industrial partner for production.

Dynamic Analysis of Pile-Raft Foundation for

Site-Specific Earthquake

Buvaneswari C.1, Kamatchi, P.2

M. E. Project student, 2Principal Scientist , CSIR-Structural Engineering

Research Centre CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai

n this paper, a methodology for carrying out dynamic analysis raft of Kandla port with equivalent static loads[6] for serviceability
of pile-raft foundation for site-specific earthquake has been and seismic conditions are reported in the literature by model-
demonstrated with an example of pile-raft foundation of the ling the soil-structure interaction effects of elastic springs[5]. In
Customs office tower at Kandla port. Pile-raft foundation at the present study dynamic analyses of typical section of pile-raft
Kandla port had tilted due to lateral spreading under liquefac- foundation of customs office tower at Kandla port assumed to be
tion during January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake. Limited studies situated on the flat ground and ground with horizontal slope of
on this pile-raft are reported in the literature, however, no study one degree and five degree are carried out using computer pro-
for site-specific earthquake with numerical simulation of soil is gram Plaxis 2D for site-specific scenario earthquake.Due to the
reported in the literature. In the present study rock level ground non-availability of information on bedrock depth at Kandla port
motions for the site-specific scenario earthquake of Mw 7.6 with site,in the present study site-specific ground motion of Mw 7.6
seismological parameters of Bhuj earthquake 2001 are generat- is generated for hard rock site class with seismological param-
ed using extended finite source stochastic models. Surface level eters[7] of Bhuj 2001 earthquake using extended finite source
ground motions are obtained through one-dimensional equiva- stochastic models for the latitude and longitude of Kandla port.
lent linear wave propagation analysis. Two-dimensional numeri- Surface level ground motions are obtained through one-dimen-
cal modelling of pile-raft foundation and the sub-soil interactions sional equivalent linear wave propagation analysis through the 40
are using a finite element program PLAXIS 2D and the dynamic m soil overburden.
analyses are carried out for rock level and surface level ground
motions. Settlement of pile-raft and response of soil at different The 22m high six-floor custom office tower building at Kand-
depths in terms of the settlement, lateral displacement, excess la is located on the pile-raft foundation of size with 11.45mx-
pore pressure and acceleration are studied for rock and surface 11.9mx0.5m supported by 32 piles of 0.4m diameter. Each pile is
level ground motion. To account for the gentle ground slope re- of length 18m and embedded into 40m depth of soil. Subsoil con-
ported to be existing on site, dynamic analyses are carried out sists of the soft clayey soil of 10m depth, sandy soil of 12m depth,
for horizontal ground slopes of one degree and five degrees in brown hard clayey soil of 10m depth and clayey sand of 8m depth.
addition to the flat ground case and lateral spreading and set- Two-dimensional numerical modeling of a typical section of pile-
raft with the soil mesh of 151.45 m in the horizontal direction and
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

tlement of soil observed from the analysis is compared with field

observations reported during Bhuj earthquake. 40 m in the vertical direction is done and time history dynamic
analysis are carried out with rock and surface ground motions.
Introduction In order to account for the gentle ground slope reported to be ex-
isting on site, three slopes of ground viz., 0 degree, 1 degree and
As it is reported in the literature, Bhuj 2001 earthquake has
5 degrees are considered for the analysis which are designated
resulted in huge loss of lives and damage of infrastructure, in-
as case 1, case 2 and case 3 hereafter. Through the time history
cluding buildings, dams and bridges in different districts of Gu-
dynamic analysis, settlement of pile-raft and response of soil at
jarat [1,2]. It is reported in the literature [3] that severe ground
different depths in terms of the settlement, lateral displacement,
deformations in the form of lateral spreading, up to a meter up-
excess pore pressure, and acceleration are obtained for rock and
lift, and a meter wide and several meters deep ground cracks
surface level ground motion and the comparisons are made with
have occurred in between the Wagad fault and Kutch Mainland
the field observed values reported in literature for all the three
fault during Bhuj earthquake. During Bhuj 2001 earthquake,
twenty-two metre tall custom office tower building at Kandla
port had tilted due to lateral spreading caused by liquefaction Methodology
[4,5]. It is stated that[4], 12 m sand layer below the 10 m clayey
layer got liquefied and had tilted the entire building. From field Methodology for carrying out dynamic analysis of pile-raft
observations during Bhuj earthquake, settlement of the pile tip foundation involves the steps of generation of site-specific ground
of about 45cm for pile-raft of Kandla port and lateral spreading motion, numerical modelling of soil and numerical modelling of

of ground for about 80-100 cm are reported[4]. Studies on Pile- the pile raft as detailed below:

Generation of site-specific ground motion to absorb the increments of stresses on the boundaries caused
by dynamic loading. Horizontal fixities (ux=0) are applied at the
Due to the scarcity of recorded ground motions, generation vertical boundary and both horizontal and vertical fixities are ap-
of site-specific artificial strong motions using stochastic models plied at the bottom boundary (ux=0, uy=0).For cases 2 and 3 the
by identifying major fault zones and propagating seismic waves entire soil profile and pile-raft system are modelled with inclina-
generated at these potential sources to the sites of interest are tions of one degree and five degrees respectively with horizontal
well accepted in the literature [8-10]. In this process, path effects and the ground motion is applied at the bottom of the model.
and anelastic attenuation effects predicted by the empirical and The clay layers are modelled with Mohr Coulomb (MC) con-
theoretical models [10] are used. For source representation, stitutive relation and sand layers are modelled with hardening
point source models [11] or finite source models [12] are widely soil (HS) constitutive relation [15]. Yield surface of hardening soil
used. In this paper, artificial ground motions are generated for model and Mohr coulomb model are given in Fig. 2.
Mw 7.6 earthquake with parameters [7]of Bhuj earthquake us-
ing extended finite source stochastic model (EXSIM) proposed by
Motazodian and Atkinson [13]. Peak ground acceleration (PGA)
of ground motion simulated in the present study for rock level is
0.49g which is in close agreement with Amax value reported for
the main shock of Mw 7.6 for stress drop of 200 bars by Singh et
al. [7]. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analy-
sis has been carried out for the Kandla port site with the available
Fig. 2 Soil constitutive relation and yield surfaceadopted (a) Mohr-Cou-
information on soil overburden for a depth of 40 m(Fig.1) using
lomb model (b) Hardening soil model
computer program SHAKE2000[14]. The PGA of surface level
ground motion obtained for the present study is 0.187g. How-
Numerical modelling of pile-raft
ever, the surface level peak ground motion reported in literature
for Kandla port by Dash et al., [5] is 0.33g. This deviation may be The front view of six-floor customs office tower building is
due to the non-availability of information about soil layers below shown in Fig. 3a. Dimensions of raft slab, columns and pile are
40 m, hence, surface level ground motion obtained through wave given in Fig. 3b. The typical section of pile-raft foundation which
propagation in the present study is scaled to PGA of 0.33g and supports 12 columns of the building has a cut out for 7.7mx4.7m
adopted for dynamic analysis of pile-raft foundation. as shown in Fig.3c. As it is reported by Dash et al., [5] left and
middle columns are of size 0.25mx0.25 and right columns are of
size 0.45mx0.45m the entire pile raft system consists of 32 nos.
of piles and each pile is 18m long with the diameter of 0.4m. In
an earlier study, three-dimensional modelling of pile-raft with
all the 32 piles has been carried out by authors for static loads
and the axial force, bending moment and settlement variations of
pile-raft and individual piles were studied [6]. In the present study,
dynamic analysis has been carried out for a typical section of the
pile-raft of dimension 11.45mx0.5mraft with three equivalent
piles representing the rigidity of pile groups in the front row as
shown in Fig. 3c using Plaxis 2D Plain strain model. During anal-
ysis, axial loads from superstructure are assumed to be acting on
top of each pile group (equivalent pile) as shown in Fig. 3c in addi-
tion to earthquake load which is applied at 40 m level. Settlement The Masterbuilder | Decemebr 2016 |
response of the pile-raft has been observed for rock and surface
level ground motions and the comparisons are made with values
reported in the literature.

Response of Pile-Raft Foundation

Fig. 1 Typical soil profile adopted for Kandla port Settlements of the pile-raft at different points along the
length of the raft, are observed from dynamic analyses for rock
Numerical modelling of soil for pile-raft analysis and surface ground motions. The settlements and lateral dis-
placements at the left edge and right edge of the raft and the pile
The plain strain model of pile-raft foundation has been cre- tip for rock and surface level ground motions are given in Table 1.
ated by soil mesh of 151.45mx40mand the water table is located From the results it is seen that right edge settlements are more
at 1.5m from the ground level as per the bore log details avail- for all the cases compared to left edge settlements. The percent-
able in the literature [4]. The boundaries of the model are taken age differences in settlements between right edge and left edge
sufficiently far away to avoid the direct influence of the boundary are greater for surface ground motion than that of rock ground
conditions. The earthquake vibrations are induced by imposing motion. The percentage differences between right edge and left
a prescribed displacement at the bottom boundary. The vertical edge for case 1 and case 2 are similar even though the absolute
component of the prescribed displacement is kept zero. At the far settlements are more in case 2 than that of case 1. The right
vertical boundaries, absorbent boundary conditions are applied edge settlement for case 3 is in the order of 98% and 190% more

than that of left edge settlement for rock and surface ground Lateral
motions respectively. Tilting of pile raft by 1.5 degrees and 2.92 displace-
degrees is observed for RGM and SGM respectively in case 3. Settlement (mm)
Response of Soil Raft Pile tip raft
As mentioned in the sections above, dynamic response of soil Mid-
Left Right Left Right
is observed for three different cases viz., Case 1, Case 2 and Case edge edge pile pile
3. The deformed shape for the three cases for rock ground mo-
Case RGM 80.8 90.6 81.5 89.5 90 12.9
1 SGM 57 76 57 60.6 74.6 114.7
Case RGM 100 110 103 115 110 82.8
2 SGM 119 157 124 145 154 145
Case RGM 308 610 343 460 597 494
3 SGM 309 897 373 588 867 816
Table 1: Settlement and lateral displacement of raft and equivalent piles

tion (RGM) and surface level ground motions(SGM) are shown in

Fig. 4a-f. As it can be seen in Fig. 4, responses of soil is different
in different sections along the length considered for numerical
study. Other responses of soil viz., settlement, lateral displace-
ment, excess pore pressure and acceleration are observed typi-
cally along a vertical section next to the right edge of the raft foun-
dation indicated as a line in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4: Deformed mesh of pile foundation and soil for rock and surface
level ground motion(a) Case 1 – RGM (b) Case 1 –SGM (c) Case 2 –RGM
(d) Case 2 –SGM (e) Case 3 –RGM (f) Case 3 -SGM


Settlement time histories at different levels for rock ground

The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

motion and surface ground motion are shown in Fig5 (a) -(f) for
the three cases considered. Static load from superstructure is
applied at the top of the raft along with earthquake excitation.
Peak values of the settlement after the earthquake shaking are
given in Table 2. The percentage difference in peak settlement
at surface level for case 2 and case 3 with respect to case 1 are
10.5% , 452.6% for rock ground motion and 7.3%, 493.9% for sur-
face ground motion respectively.

Lateral displacement

Lateral displacement time histories at different levels of rock

and surface ground motions are given in Fig. 6 (a)-(f) for the three
cases considered. It is seen that for surface ground motions peak
values of lateral displacement are high and variation along the
height is less. This indicates that the entire strata experiences the
Fig 3: Details of Pile-raft foundation (a) Front view of Kandla port custom
lateral displacement of similar order for case 1 and case 2. Peak
tower after Bhuj earthquake (b) Structural details of foundation of custom
office building (c) Plan of piled raft showing location of columns, piles and lateral displacement for surface ground motion are observed to
plan and elevation of the chosen pile row with equivalent pile section for be higher compared to peak lateral displacement observed for

2D modelling for dynamic analysis rock ground motion. The percentage difference in peak lateral

displacement at surface level for case 2 and case 3 with respect

to case 1 are 8.7%, 212.8% for rock ground motion and 17.9%,
35.5% of surface ground motion respectively.

Excess Pore pressure

Excess pore pressure time histories at different levels for

rock and surface ground motions are given in Fig. 7 (a)-(f) for
the three cases considered. Excess pore pressure ratios (EPP) (e) (f)
are obtained and it is observed that in case 3 at the level of 10 m Fig 6Horizontal displacement time history at different depths of soil
where, fine sand is located below the clay layer, the EPP values (a)Case 1 –RGM (b)Case 1 –SGM (c)Case 2-RGM (d) Case 2-SGM
are more than 1 for both RGM and SGM which indicates the oc- (e) Case 3 – RGM (f) Case 3- SGM
currence of the phenomenon of liquefaction.

Peak ground acceleration

Acceleration time histories at different levels for rock and

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
(c) (d)

(e) (f)
The Masterbuilder | December 2016 |

Fig 5 Settlement time history at different depths of soil (a)Case 1 –RGM (e) (f)
(b)Case 1 –SGM (c)Case 2-RGM (d) Case 2-SGM (e) Case 3 – RGM (f) Case
3- SGM Fig. 7 Excess pore pressure at different depths of soil (a)Case 1 –RGM
(b)Case 1 –SGM (c)Case 2-RGM (d) Case 2-SGM (e) Case 3 – RGM
(f) Case 3- SGM

surface ground motions are given in Fig. 8 (a) -(f) for the three
cases considered. Peak ground accelerations observed at 10 m
level are found to be higher for rock ground motion compared to
other layers for all the three cases considered.

(a) (b)

(c) (d) (a) (b)


observed to be 31 and 61 cm respectively, for rock ground mo-

tion and 31 and 90 cm settlement for surface ground motions.
Settlement of pile tips of left and right edge piles is observed to
be 34 cm and 60 cm for rock ground motions and 37 cm and 87
cm settlement for surface ground motions respectively. Tilting of
piled raft by 1.5 degrees and 2.92 degrees is observed for rock
ground motion and surface ground motion respectively for the
(c) (d) five-degree ground slope model in the present study. It is report-
ed that lateral spreading of the soil of the order of 80 cm to 100
cm was observed from reconnaissance survey immediately after
the earthquake and lateral spreading of 83 to 91 cm has been
reported from analytical studies. In the present study lateral dis-
placement of the raft is observed to be 49.4 cm for rock ground
motion and 82 cm for surface ground motion. Lateral displace-
ment of the top most layer for the section chosen near the right
edge of the raft for case 3 is 60.7 cm for the rock ground motion
and 89.7 cm for the surface ground motion. Hence simulations
(e) (f) for case 3 are in closer agreement with the values reported in
Fig. 8 Acceleration time history at different depths of soil (a)Case 1 –RGM the literature from analytical studies and damage surveys for pile
(b)Case 1 –SGM (c)Case 2-RGM (d) Case 2-SGM (e) Case 3 – RGM (f) Case settlement and lateral displacement. Further, it is reported in the
3- SGM
literature that, the sand layer at 10 m depth at Kandla port got
liquefied during Bhuj 2001 earthquake. In the present study, the
Conclusions excess pore pressure ratio for case 3 at 10 m level is observed to
In the present study, a methodology has been demonstrated be more than 1 for both rock ground motion as well as surface
for carrying out dynamic analysis of piled raft foundation for the ground motion indicating the phenomenon of occurrence of liq-