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Tolentino, M. (2018).

Philippine Report on Employment Trends and Policies: Can the Duterte

Administration End Contractualization? Retrieved from:
ABSTRACT: Precarious employment has been lingering labor issue in many countries all over the world.
This is manifested in many forms: contractualization, subcontractualization and informal work. Since the
advent of globalization, these have become the trends putting into questions and doubts about the
gains of a globalized economy. The state as a principal actor in a tripartite industrial relations system,
intervenes to mediate between the conflicting interests of labor and management, to create the balance
among the actors. In the Philippines, companies and institutions, including government agencies follow
the global trends on employment. Issues about labor-management relations or the non-existence of
employer-employee relationships are rampant. This paper begins by presenting employment trends by
age distribution, by industry sectors and by size of enterprise. It proceeds to a discussion of relevant
laws in the Philippine Labor Code (particularly on regularization and contractualization), laws in support
of employment in micro, small and medium enterprises and policies such as the proposed Magna Carta
for Workers in the Informal Economy. The major issue addressed by this paper is sustainability of
employment and regulating contractual arrangements. The Duterte administration has enforced
stringent measures to reduce if not end short-term contractual work. The review of the Department of
Labor and Employment (DOLE) DO 18-A, the signing of the new DO 174, and inspection of
establishments practicing “endo” (end of contract) are important steps. According to news reports,
there have been a number of workers regularized by employers since the start of the Duterte
administration. Certain government agencies have also started to convert some “job order” employees
into regular employees. However, labor groups continue to urge the DOLE to eliminate all forms of

Miranda, H. (2017). A Study on the Effects of “End of Contract” Policy in the Morale and Productivity
of Contractual Employees. Retrieved from:

ABSTRACT: Contractualization is a form of employment globally used by firms, especially by commercial

and industry, to save costs. Firms may be enjoying the higher return on investment because of fewer
costs in training and not really requiring benefits to be given to the contractual employees, yet they
overwork or get underpaid. Philippines, as a country with cheap labor, investors are persuaded to vest in
the country to give jobs to people and to stabilize the economy. And in return, investments are being
returned to the business owners and investors as a fulfillment of their purpose in investing. Following
the statement of President Rodrigo Roa Duterte to end contract, Yamaha Motor Philippines, Inc., as a
manufacturing firm, might consider the instruction to avoid being closed or shut down, or if not, the
most possible thing to be done by the firm is to comprise their employees of 80% regular workers and
20% contractual because of its nature. As a result, contractual employees’ morale and human resource
management are affected by the “end of contract” policy in the country. Emotions, attitude,
satisfaction, and outlook that comprises employee morale; and hiring, training and development, and
compensation and benefits operations of the human resource, effects are presumed. The results of this
study will hopefully answer the basic argument of the researchers: if an effect, whether positive or
negative, will be felt in the morale and productivity of contractual employees of Yamaha Motor
Philippines Inc. This study will be formulated to adjust with the government’s remark regarding the
employment of the Filipino people.
Orbeta, A. (2016). Beware of the “End Contractualization!” Battle Cry. Retrieved from:

ABSTRACT: In the aftermath of the 2016 election, labor leaders and their political allies pushed for an
immediate end to so-called employment “contractualization”, a policy proposal currently popular with
voters and politicians. The idea is for the government to tighten and reduce, if not prohibit, the use of
temporary employment contracts (TECs) and job outsourcing. This paper analyzes the policy idea and its
potential economic consequences by looking at the roles of TECs and job outsourcing in the functioning
of efficient labor markets, the experience of European countries regarding TECs, and Philippine
employment data. The study finds that while the policy idea is undoubtedly well-intentioned, it can
undermine the goal of achieving rapid, inclusive and sustained economic growth. The realization of this
outcome depends on the nature of the policy design actually adopted. On this point, the paper suggests
a framework that can be useful in formulating a coherent policy on temporary employment and a
strategy for dealing with “endo” practices.