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Since May 2007

Volume 12 Issue 13 FREE September 28, 2018

Flooding from Tropical Storm Irma in September 2017 combined with high tides, flooded many of Kiawah’s streets.
Photo by Kelly Bragg.

Sea Level Rise report released

The Island Connection Sr. Staff Writer

ASA’s website credits Wallace Broecker of Perhaps the issue’s most easily visible component in SLRsc’s membership speaks to the depth of Kiawah’s
Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty the Lowcountry is the rise of sea level. The Lowcountry talent pool. John Leffler – Ph.D. in Zoology/Ecology
Geological Observatory with coining the term has witnessed three consecutive years of flooding agreed to chair the SLR, and he is joined by Robert Cheney
“Global Warming,” in a paper he wrote in 1975. His previously thought to be 1/1,000 year events. Projections – MS in Physical Oceanography, Jim Chitwood – Ph.D.
prescient study didn’t catch on outside the scientific from respected organizations like NOAA, NASA, in Chemistry, Jane Ellis – Ph.D. in Plant Physiology, Jack
community, and later attempts by others to morph and the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) suggest Kotz – Ph.D. in chemistry, David Pumphrey – B.A. and
the moniker into “Climate Change” didn’t help. The such events will get worse in years, not the lifetimes as M.A. in Economics, Lynette Schroeder – MBA, and James
apocalyptic issue he described warranted attention, but it originally thought. V. Sullivan – B.S. in Chemical Engineering, just to name
was dismissed by many as a nebulous, “someday/maybe” Responding to the threat, residents of Kiawah set a few. The group has spent the last year scrutinizing and
kind of problem left for science to solve. However, as about establishing the Sea Level Rise Sub-Committee responding to reports by the organizations mentioned above.
its component effects begin to manifest in plain sight, (SLRsc) with the help of Kiawah Town Councilmember
public awareness has turned to apprehension. Diane Mezzanotte. Sea Level Rise continues on page 2

Fleming Tournament Fantastic Fall Colors Mystery Plant

Page 6 Page 9 Page 11
2 September 28, 2018
marvel of technical writing you would “… [marshes] provide important
Sea Level Rise continues from cover expect, but somehow it remains equally protection for shorelines from erosion
“The results were sobering,” says an “readable.” The observation/opinion is by buffering wave action and trapping
excerpt from SLR’s response. “Coastal particularly noteworthy, given the topics’ sediments. Salt marshes reduce flooding
areas with known flooding problems fared complexity and the fact that dozens of by slowing and absorbing rainwater and
Lynn Pierotti the worst, such as Louisiana, Florida Keys, separate assignments were stitched into protect water quality by filtering runoff
Maryland Eastern Shore, and New Jersey. a single, 123-page document. Managing and metabolizing excess nutrients…
Kiawah-Seabrook may have 277 homes the task required a standard format be Marsh vegetation can raise land elevation applied to each topic/category including; by trapping sediment and adding organic
valued at $277 million suffering from
chronic inundation by 2030. [However], Significance, Current Status on matter. Kiawah has about 50 miles of
Katy Calloway their ranking of Kiawah-Seabrook as the Kiawah, Concerns, Recommendations, marsh front compared to 10 miles of
managing editor most vulnerable of all South Carolina Responsibilities and Partners, and beach,” said the document. communities is misleading because they Recommended Reading/Additional SLRsc members also recommend “The
used US Census Bureau tracts to define Information. The template was applied to Conservancy and other land-owning
communities... This means that their at least a dozen issues. entities should consider acquiring or
Jennifer Tuohy percent inundation calculations are higher Stormwater and Nuisance protecting strategic properties that will
contributing editor since there is no inland, higher land to offset Flooding Management included 17 provide future salt marsh migration the low coastal terrain. Despite these minor recommendations like; “Adapt our pond routes. The Conservancy could explore
details, the [SLRsc] can find no fundamental water-flow management, including the legal and practical possibility of
Alejandro Ferreyros errors in their analyses and conclusions.” outflow gates and valves… Identify acquiring tax-reducing easements on
SLRsc made the information more future tipping points as sea levels change portions of properties along the edge of
senior graphic designer and plan in advance for how those new salt marshes that will permit some future
personal to Lowcountry residents by using conditions will be addressed.” inland migration.”
“Mean Higher High Water (MHHW)
datum based on the Charleston tide gauge Roads Infrastructure included 11 The SLRsc has done all the heavy
Lori McGee station. MHHW is the average of… two recommendations highlighted by; lifting and research. The full document
sales manager daily high tides over a period of 19 years. “County roads were required to be is available by visiting It is essentially the boundary of salt marsh elevated, at a minimum, to… 2.4 feet and wp-content/uploads/2018/08/FINAL-
where it meets dry land. This is the average [later] 2.9 feet above MHHW. Currently Flood-Sea-Level-Rise-Report-clickable-
range of our current high tides every day. Kiawah has a few segments of roads links-1-1.pdf.
Carla Foxworth Flooding occurs when… sea water rises below the original… County standard, As of this writing, SLRsc members
sales executive above this boundary and spills out across and several additional areas below the are holding their breath in anticipation the landscape,” the report explains. [new] level. Normal, highest spring tides of a warm reception at a “stakeholders”
The SLRsc account warns that the may be 1.9 feet above MHHW, so it will meeting scheduled for Sept. 26.
Senior Staff Writer four feet of additional water brought in not require much sea level rise to cause
during Hurricane Irma would cover 73% frequent flooding problems.”
Gregg Bragg
of Kiawah, for example. The committee’s Emergency Management has 13
report pitches an interactive, web-based recommendations, Potable Water
Contributors tool developed by the city of Charleston. and Wastewater Management - 2
Colin McCandless It is available by visiting gis.charleston-sc. recommendations, Electricity Service had
Tiffany Gammell gov/interactive/slr/. “The baseline map a single recommendation – “… the ARB
Alan Armstrong shows the water line at MHHW. Sea level should work with BEC now to ensure that
can then be added in 0.5-foot increments. there is no delay in raising switch gear and
Dale and Patti Leibach
To simulate the predicted extent of transformer boxes [above MHHW] when
Betsy Turner chronic flooding by 2060, add 3 feet to it becomes necessary.”
Martha Zink the MHHW level, 1.25 feet for the minor The section on the Salt Marsh
Savannah Brennan flood level plus 1.75 feet for sea level Environment was particularly interesting.
Dimi Matouchev rise under the intermediate projection. Marshes migrate, and competition
Steven Bradley The inundation maps found [there between salt and fresh water inundation
were] produced by Dr. Norman Levine would halt that process and reduce the
Erica Taylor
and Lucas Hernandez of the College of marsh and its grasses. Less marsh would
John Nelson Charleston and are the highest resolution, exacerbate the effects of high water events,
i.e. most detailed, maps available,” says and one possibility SLRsc promotes is
the report. What to expect and how to to re-nourish the marshes in a fashion
handle it (e.g. likely things to plug into similar to what has previously been done
the tool) occupy the bulk of the report. to the beach.
The Sea Level Rise report is the The committee’s overview continued;

Civic Calendar
K iawah Island Town H all
Published by 21 Beachwalker Drive
Lucky Dog Publishing Kiawah Island, SC 29455
of South Carolina, LLC Phone: 768-9166
P.O. Box 837 Town of Kiawah Public Works Town of Seabrook Fax: 768-4764
Sullivan’s Island, SC 29482 Committee
Town Council Oct. 8, 10 a.m. Planning Commission Seabrook Island Town H all
Meeting Kiawah Town Hall Meeting 2001 Seabrook Island Road
Oct. 2, 2 p.m. Oct. 3, 2:30 p.m. Seabrook Island, SC 29455
Future submission deadline: Public Safety
Kiawah Town Hall Seabrook Town Hall Phone: 768-9121
October 3 for the Committee
October 12 Issue Fax: 768-9830
Planing Commission Oct. 10, 2 p.m. Ways & Means Email:
Meeting Kiawah Town Hall Committee Meeting
Op-Ed articles and letters to the editor do not Oct. 3, 3 p.m. Oct. 16, 2:30 p.m. Johns Island Council
necessarily reflect the opinion of Kiawah Town Hall Board of Zoning Seabrook Town Hall Meetings are held at the Berkeley Electric
Lucky Dog News or its writers. Appeals Co-op located at 3351 Maybank Hwy, Johns
Arts Council Oct. 15, 4 p.m. Town Council Island.
Meeting Kiawah Town Hall Meeting Chairman Chris Cannon: 343-5113
The Island Oct. 4, 2 p.m.
Kiawah Town Hall
Oct. 23, 2:30 p.m.
Seabrook Town Hall Charleston County Council
Connection 4045 Bridge View Dr, N. Charleston
Lucky Dog Publishing, LLC News Updates
Publishers of Island Eye News, Online at City of Charleston
The Island Connection 75 Calhoun St.
islandconnectionnews 724-3745
September 28, 2018
letter to the editor

Misplaced Priorities
y congratulations to the town for keeping us informed and
looking out for our interests as the hurricane approached. I
can't say the same for my experience with the POA. With
the storm threat looming I contacted my insurer to see if my $19,000
motorcycle would be covered for its loss in off island storage. Since it
would be better protected if it was on my own property I contacted
our Executive Director and POA President and asked for a one time
variance of the no motorcycles on Seabrook rule. Sorry I was told,
can't do it. Really, why not? When I was asked to participate in a 4th
of July parade it was OK, as it is every day when we see security staff
drive their motorcycles through the gate to their parking area.
The kindest words my neighbors could muster when told this
story were "you're kidding," or "ridiculous " or "asinine." I think this
reflects how Seabrookers think our POA should be looking out for us
with neighbors helping neighbors.
We would be better served by leaders who can be more flexible in
extraordinary circumstances and not constrained by slavish devotion
to inconsequential rules.

Harry Polychron
Seabrook Island

About Letters to the Editor / Opinon / Editorials

All letters and Opinions submitted to The Island Connection must bear a full name,
address and phone number for verification. Only the author’s name and city will be
printed. Submissions are accepted via email to
Submissions may be edited for length and readability. The Island Connection reserves
the right to reject submissions that are libelous, unseemly, not individually addressed
to The Island Connection or that have been previously published elsewhere. The Island
Connection will not publish letters endorsing political candidates. Op-Ed articles and
Letters to the Editor do not reflect the opinion of Lucky Dog News or its writers.

Tid e Char t
Date High Tide Low Tide
Sep 28 10:49am/11:13pm 4:38am/5:09pm
Sep 29 11:33am/11:58pm 5:21am/5:58pm
Sep 30 12:25pm 6:09am/6:53pm
Oct 01 12:52am/1:24pm 7:03am/7:54pm
Oct 02 1:55am/2:30pm 8:04am/8:59pm
Oct 03 3:04am/3:39pm 9:10am/10:05pm
Oct 04 4:13am/4:46pm 10:17am/11:07pm
Oct 05 5:19am/5:48pm 11:22am
Oct 06 6:20am/6:44pm 12:05am/12:22pm
Oct 07 7:16am/7:37pm 12:58am/1:18pm
Oct 08 8:09am/8:26pm 1:47am/2:11pm
Oct 09 8:59am/9:13pm 2:34am/3:02pm
Oct 10 9:47am/9:58pm 3:20am/3:51pm
Oct 11 10:33am/10:43pm 4:04am/4:39pm

Hurricanes, storms, etc., are NOT included in the predictions.

Tidal current direction changes and tide time predictions can be
very different. Tide predictions are PREDICTIONS; they can be
wrong so use common sense.
4 September 28, 2018 September 28, 2018 5
arts & events arts & events daily

Clara Yang performs at CofC Three Island Challenge is back Kiawah rescinds beach light violation
The Island Connection Sr. Staff Writer

For The Island Connection he Aug. 17 issue of The Island “We understand the impact artificial Town’s Environmental Committee held was rescinded,” Tillerson said.
Connection featured Timbers lights have on loggerhead sea turtles and the week following the incident. Kiawah resident Beverly Gholson

he College of Charleston Kiawah (TK) and its intent to want to assure the local community, Turtle Asked for confirmation, Town attended the Environmental Committee
Department of Music’s be good neighbors. That issue of the Patrol and the Town of Kiawah Island that Administrator Stephanie Tillerson said meeting. “I am on the Environmental
International Piano Series is newspaper had just gone to print, when complying with the Town’s ordinances for in an email, “Staff has some concerns Committee for the Town of Kiawah.
pleased to present pianist Clara Yang, who reports of lights on the beach started beach lighting is of the utmost importance with some of the wording in the current I brought Paula’s concerns about the
will be performing at the Sottile Theater arriving. Kiawah resident Paula Feldman to us. During construction, procedures Beachfront Lighting Ordinance (BLO), Timbers lighting to the committee. Jim
on Oct. 2 at 7:30 p.m. called the Town of Kiawah Island have been put in place to comply with and the enforceability of certain sections Jordan told us that the Timbers had
Praised by Fanfare as “a first-rate (TOKI) to report the latest incident on the ordinance until we open, and we are in said Ordinance. Therefore, the ticket been issued a ticket on that issue the day
pianist who isn’t afraid of challenges,” Monday, Sept. 13. It was the second time responding immediately to comply with that was issued to Timbers Kiawah was before… We worked on a revised Beach
Chinese-American pianist Clara Yang has she called this summer, and TOKI staff any infractions from the Town of Kiawah. voided. Lighting Ordinance. Later we were
performed in notable venues such as Weill member Bruce Spicher told her this was We want to go above and beyond to meet “The ticket was rescinded by Bruce sent another revision to the ordinance,
Hall at Carnegie Hall, the Forbidden City TK’s fourth time being reported. the Town’s ordinance. We will continue Spicher, Development Service Manager which was much stronger based on our
Concert Hall (Beijing), Remonstrantse “Sea Turtles Dig the Dark” makes a nice working with the proper parties to ensure who oversees Code Enforcement. Jim comments. That is really all I know
Kerk (The Netherlands), and the Seymour Team Wild Dunes poses with the Three Island Challenge trophy after winning the bumper-sticker and sends a vital message. the protection of Kiawah’s wildlife and Jordan is working with the Environmental firsthand. I have heard other things
Centre (Sydney, Australia). challenge in 2017. Photo provided. Mother turtles navigate by light, moving look forward to setting an example for Committee to strengthen and fix the about [past] tickets [also] being torn up,
In addition to being a master of towards moonlight reflected on the Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle conservation in BLO. The hope is the amended BLO will etc. but it is not firsthand and being a
traditional repertoire, Yang is also an avid as they leave their nest. If there are bright the community. We will be offering go before Council for consideration and lawyer, I take it with a grain of salt (or
BY COLIN MCCANDLESS five points. Second place receives three lights on the beach, the mothers can become loggerhead sea turtle education programs approval at the September or October maybe I remember playing telephone as a
new music interpreter. The distinguished For The Island Connection points and third place gets just one point.
composer Chen Yi composed the piano disoriented, and get lost in the dunes (or in for owners, which will be available on an Town Council meeting for First Reading,” child),” she said in an email to The Island
If everyone ties a hole, then each player one case, in a lagoon at the golf course.) ongoing basis once the property opens Connection.
concerto Four Spirits for her in 2016, and Tillerson continued.

scores three points. Ninety points is the Hatchlings also head toward light once they this October,” read the statement from
she performed the world premiere with he Three Island Challenge, an most you can score in a match and 18 is “Timbers Kiawah was cited for previous TOKI council meetings are held the
Maestro Huang Yi conducting the China annual golf event starting in emerge from the nest. Artificial light may TK spokeswoman Samantha Franco. The first Tuesday of each month. Contact
the lowest point total you can accrue. violations, but they all were related
Philharmonic in the Forbidden City October and continuing through send them to predators in the dunes, and lights continued to shine the following information for councilmembers is
If you manage to score in the upper to subcontractors not having business
Concert Hall. Her solo album Folding early November, will pit three teams from away from the relative safety of the Atlantic. week, and the reason may be a glitch in available, as well as a list of Environmental
50s and 60s during a round those are licenses and the matter was resolved. Your
Time was released to critical acclaim by Arts located at 161 Calhoun St. To RSVP Wild Dunes, Seabrook Island and Kiawah The Town’s light ordinance has been on the the Town’s ordinance. Committee members on the Town’s
considered good scores and the 70s is reference to Timbers being charged for
Albany Records in July 2015. for the reception and to purchase tickets Island against each other in a game called books longer than most can remember. It TOKI staff members Jim Jordan/ their fourth violation for TOKI Lighting website.
please email “Nines.” excellent, albeit rarer, said Gollobin. was always more of an insistent reminder Bruce Spicher later threw the ticket out
The concert will be followed by a Ordinance is not current. That was their For more information visit KiawahIsland.
This event is sponsored by the Lasting over the course of three Once all three rounds of the Three but this time, TOKI staff told Feldman saying the light ordinance was legally first ticket issued by the Town in possible org.
reception in the Hill Gallery at the Marion Island Challenge have been played and
and Wayland H. Cato, Hr. Center for the Remington Master Artist Series. matches, the first round of 18 holes will tee there would be a fine of $400. unenforceable, during a meeting of the violation of the BLO, and again that ticket
off at 9 a.m. at Seabrook’s Ocean Winds the cumulative points from each match
Course on Oct. 10. The subsequent two are totaled, a champion is crowned.
rounds are played at the Links Course The winning team earns bragging
Wild Dunes on Oct. 23, wrapping up rights and gets awarded a trophy that they
with Turtle Point at Kiawah on Nov. 7. keep for a year at their respective pro shop
Originating in 1991, the Three Island until the next Three Island Challenge.
Challenge was started to create a spirit Team Wild Dunes emerged victorious in
of camaraderie and friendly competition 2017 and they are excited to be sporting
among the three islands. new golf shirts this year as they look to
defend their title and maintain the trophy
The object of Nines, also called at The Links Course one more year.
5-3-1, is to play off of handicaps, basing
scoring around the largest handicap in a “It’s competitive, but friendly,” said
threesome, according to Mike Gollobin, Gollobin of the event. “It’s really well
president of the Men’s Golf Association done.”
at Wild Dunes, who helps coordinate the It costs $60 per person to participate
Wild Dunes team. in the Three Island Challenge. Kiawah
Each team supplies 18 players, (golfers players interested in the event may
of all different handicaps) which are contact Sara Youngner with any questions
broken up into threesomes. The idea is at or
to closely match players based on their 843.768.5825. Priority is given to the
handicaps, explained Gollobin. players who played in the first two events
and then to the players who are highest
As the game’s name implies, there are on the POY list as of one week prior to
nine points available on each hole. You the event.
want to win each hole or ‘game’ and earn
6 September 28, 2018

Fleming Tennis Tournament around the corner

For The Island Connection

ith Florence and the summer in the “players’ lounge” (handing out
behind us, attention on drinks, restocking the ice cream cooler
Seabrook Island now turns to and interacting with the players) to
the 35th annual Alan Fleming Tennis helping direct cars to a parking spot.
Tournament slated for Oct. 3–7. Volunteers can devote as little as an
The Alan Fleming Tennis hour or two to spending a day helping
Tournament began as a local Seabrook with this fun fundraising tennis event.
Island event in the early 1980s. Since As Co-chair, Cat Russo, said, “The
then it has grown into a premier Fleming is a wonderful way to spend
tournament in the Southeast and time with neighbors and make new
nationally attracting more than 200 friends in this very special place we
senior tennis players from as many as live while supporting a worthy cause.”
20 states. Spectator admission is open Past volunteer efforts contributed
to the public and free. to the Fleming being noted as “best
The tournament has become a key tournament of the year” by visiting
event for the Charleston region and players.
beyond and the US Tennis Association This year’s charitable beneficiary is
(USTA) has awarded the tournament Sea Islands Blessing Basket. Once a
its highest-level status for its mixed month, The Sea Islands Blessing Basket
doubles 40s, 50s and 60s events. The distributes food to approximately 510
Championship tournament joins residents of Johns and Wadmalaw
an elite class of tournaments in the Islands whose income is below the
Southeast awarding 200 points to the poverty level.
winners of the various divisions. The 2018 Fleming is expected to
As tournament time approaches, raise more than $40,000 which will
the need for volunteers to pull off the make a major contribution to helping
charity event moves into high gear. those facing food shortages and hunger.
With a growing number of players and
Interested in joining the effort? Please
spectators, volunteers are needed to help
contact: Cat Russo at cat.russo1990@
with everything from registering and
Carlos Gomez-Diaz from the 2017 Alan Fleming Tennis Tournament. Photo provided. handing out favors to players to assisting
September 28, 2018 7
arts & events daily

Seabrook Island Artists Guild K-S Exchange accepting

P A S T E L A R T I S T, A T O C T. M E E T I N G
public nominations
For The Island Connection

he Kiawah-Seabrook Exchange
Club is soliciting nominations
for its Angel Oak Award. The
annual award was first presented in 2012
and recognizes a person who performs
volunteer services, which contribute
significantly to the people and/or quality
of life of Wadmalaw, Johns, Kiawah, and/
or Seabrook Island. The award is named
after an historic tree on Johns Island,
which clearly represents the people, Dr. Victor Agusta, the 2017 Angel Oak
culture, and natural environment of the Award recipient. Photo provided.
on the Angel Oak Trophy, which is
The recipient need not live on the permanently displayed on the islands.
Artist Beth Williams. Photo provided.
aforementioned islands but the service
noted for the award must have been The Exchange Club is seeking
performed on the islands. The recipient nominations from the public. The deadline
BY BETSY TURNER will be recognized at a banquet to be for nominations is Oct. 19. Nomination
For The Island Connection held on Feb. 13, 2019. The recipient will information and forms can be found on
receive an honorarium of $5,000, which the Kiawah-Seabrook Exchange Club

he/she can designate for assignment to website at
he Seabrook Island Artist Guild is color and velvety finish, allowing her to
very excited to bring Beth Tockey capture a poignant atmospheric quality. a charitable organization servicing the Please contact Alan Armstrong at
Williams, a “Signature Member” Her work is influenced by Wolf Kahn, islands. The recipient will also receive a or 843.768.9252
of the Pastel Society of America and Childe Hassam, John Singer Sargent, J. memento and have his/her name inscribed with any questions.
an award-winning artist, to our next M. W. Turner and Winslow Homer.
meeting, on Tuesday, Oct. 16, from 2–4 Williams was awarded third-place
p.m. at the Lake House. honors for her overall body of work in
Williams earned her B.F.A. in Art the juried 2018 Piccolo Spoleto Outdoor
Education from Texas Tech University. Art Exhibit in Charleston. Her work can
She has been featured on One King’s also be found in the Charleston Artist
Lane, and in the Charleston Garden Collective Gallery, the With These Hands
and Gun Jubilee, Charleston Style and Gallery on Edisto Island, and in the
Design Magazine, Pastel Journal, and the Atelier on Bay Art Gallery and Studios in
Charleston edition of Art Mag. Beaufort, S.C.
Williams’ current work focuses on October will be our month to focus on
the diverse sea island landscapes that pastel art, as our own art guild member
surround her home and studio on Edisto and Pastel Society of America Juried
Island. Her marsh and dune scenes have Member, Brenda Tilson, will exhibit
been described as sweeping, soulful and “Roadside Cats” at the Lake House during
intuitive. Especially notable are her recent the month.
explorations in technique focusing on
The SIAG will meet Oct. 16 to see and
movement and textural quality of tidal
hear Beth Williams’ presentation, and also
and ocean waves.
visit Brenda Tilson’s exhibit in the front
Though currently expanding into oil, hall of the Lake House. To learn more about
Williams’ medium of choice is pastel, the art guild and upcoming events, visit our
which she prefers for its rich, luminous website at
8 September 28, 2018
arts & events daily

Kiawah Island Garden Club Charleston Moves’

annual Pedal & Panache
BY SAVANNAH BRENNAN economy. It means cleaner air and water,
For The Island Connection climate change mitigation, improved public
health, and reduced traffic congestion.

harleston Moves presents our Charleston Moves continues to expand
4th annual Pedal & Panache on the notion of what transportation can be,
November 7 at Cannon Green! This working with stakeholders in the greater
year’s gala features soulful, funky music Charleston area to ensure improved mobility
by Charleston’s own The Black Diamond options while conserving what we all hold
Band, an open bar stocked with local beer, so dear. We look forward to celebrating this
wine, and a special cocktail by The Rarebit, vision with you.
upscale hors d’oeuvres from Cannon Walking, riding a bike or taking transit
Green's kitchen, current donor perks with to the event is strongly encouraged. Free
Charleston Moves, a reusable gift bag of bike valet will be on site.
goodies curated by our generous sponsors, Charleston Moves encourages mobility by
Ikebana, the Japanese art of flower arranging. Photo by Joan Collar. and a silent auction boasting tickets to bicycle and on foot for the improved health
Charleston’s best events, original handmade and well- being of greater Charleston – our
BY MARTHA ZINK evolving today with both formal and goods and artwork, and much more.
For The Island Connection more natural designs. people, neighborhoods, business districts and
Your all-inclusive ticket will directly overall economic competitiveness. Join the
On Oct. 12 the Garden Club will support our vision for a safe and connected movement and support our work by visiting

have a special outing to tour the Citadel Charleston for those who walk, ride a
n September the Kiawah Island Herbarium. On Nov. 12 they will enjoy
Garden Club had its first meeting bike and take public transit. Enjoy a $10
a classic afternoon tea at the Cassique discount on tickets through October 4 at
of the year and was treated to a talk clubhouse and on Dec. 14 there will be a
and demonstration by Sue Lord, a master Pedal & Panache
fashion show held in the Sandpiper Room
of Ikebana, about the techniques and Every day, we work toward a vision Wednesday, November 7, 2018
at the newly renovated Sandcastle.
theories of this ancient Japanese art of of a connected Charleston, allowing the 6 — 9 p.m.
flower arrangement. 2019 will bring many other interesting community to choose among many safe
programs, one in conjunction with the Cannon Green (103 Spring Street)
Ikebana is also known as “kado”, the ways to travel. When we’re able to ride a bike, All-inclusive ticket plus a reusable gift bag:
Seabrook Island Garden Club. walk or use public transit, it means equitable
way of flowers, and dates back to the 7th $55 Pre-Sale Admission (through Oct. 4)
century. There have been many schools Interested members, and those who would opportunities and better access to affordable
$65 General Admission (through Nov. 7)
of design within Ikebana and it is still like to join the club, can check the club website food and housing, as well as job security for details. for citizens. It means an improved local
September 28, 2018 9

Despite Florence, Carolinas on track for

‘fantastic’ fall color
For The Island Connection

along with the cooler temperatures help And while fall color comes later in lower
bring out some of the brighter colors and places, an overlap in tree species occurs as
particularly the reds and the purples,” he elevation changes that can produce a richer
said. “If we can see that as we transition palette of colors due to the diversity of trees
into fall, I think this could really line up to found in the Piedmont region at the base of
be a fantastic fall color season.” the Blue Ridge Mountains mixed in with
From a perch near Devil’s Courthouse, more mountainous species.
Hagan pointed down to an elevation “Every tree kind of produces its own
around 5,000 feet where the trees characteristic color leaves,” Hagan said.
transitioned from such evergreens as red “Birches, for example, are going to be
spruces and Fraser firs that remain green yellow. Dogwoods are going to turn a
through the winter to deciduous trees that purplish color. Sourwoods and fire cherries
lose their leaves at lower elevations. are going to turn red. Red oaks tend to
“This is a really neat spot,” he said. turn red later in the year, as well. Really the
“This elevation is where you see the fall more species you have present, the more
color happening first, and you’re going to diverse that palette of colors that you might
see that change, that wave of color kind of see at a given point in time is going to be.”
working its way down the mountain, down Hagan said a good fall color season
in elevation as you move into fall.” typically is defined as a season with a
Hagan said the deciduous trees in the multitude of different colors across the
Photo courtesy Clemson University Relations. range of roughly 4,500 to 5,000 feet of landscape at the same time. He said all

s some sections of the Blue Ridge western Carolinas, but the majority of elevation would be the first to change signs pointed to that outcome being likely
Parkway reopened for the first time severe weather occurred closer to the coast, colors, noting that many of the tree species this fall — even if leaf-seekers might have
after being cleared from Hurricane leaving only remnants of the then-tropical are the same that one might find in New to wait a bit longer to see it.
Florence, there was little to suggest the storm in the southern Appalachians. England. “If it’s warm, moist and sunny, plants
storm would put a damper on a vibrant fall Hagan, who has been making fall “The species that make New England are going to hold onto the leaves as long as
color season in the southern Appalachians. foliage predictions at Clemson University famous for having such a beautiful fall they can,” he said. “So if we have a warm
While above average rainfall over the for six years, saw a stark contrast from the color season, we have them here too,” he fall, like it seems like we’re going to have,
summer months and warm temperatures 2017 effects of Hurricane Irma, which said. “You’ve just got to be up at this higher we could potentially have a later start to
continuing well into September could delay reached the area after leaves had already elevation to see them.” our fall color season and a longer fall color
the display slightly, Clemson University begun to turn due to residual stress from a season.”
forest ecologist Don Hagan reported few 2016 drought and blew many of them off
signs Florence should hinder an abundance trees with its strong winds.
of autumn hues. “There’s not a whole lot of color
Hagan ventured from Clemson’s campus happening yet, but it’s coming soon,” said
up to an elevation of almost 5,500 feet Hagan, an assistant professor in Clemson’s
near Devil’s Courthouse in Transylvania department of forestry and environmental
County, North Carolina, on Sept. 18, the conservation. “What a difference a year
first morning that portion of the Parkway makes. Every year we come up here for
was reopened, for an annual scouting my dendrology class, but I don’t think in
trip and found the foliage in the Pisgah the time that we’ve been doing this, there’s
National Forest relatively undisturbed. ever been as big a difference as we’re seeing
“We didn’t see the direct impacts here between 2018 and 2017.”
along the southern Blue Ridge Parkway As for when exactly the fall color season
like we could have seen,” Hagan said. “Had would begin, Hagan said that, given the
we seen a little bit more wind and a little prevalence of green still in the foliage
bit more rain, we could have seen leaves above 5,000 feet, it is too early to tell, but
getting knocked off before they ever had noted the vast majority of fall color in the
a chance to turn and we just fortunately southern Appalachians would be dictated
didn’t see that this year.” by the weather from mid-September
Many forecasts for Florence had through mid-October.
called for heavy winds and rain with the “You get some cooler weather and those
potential to dampen fall colors in the nice bluebird skies, and the clear skies
10 September 28, 2018

21st Century grants expand learning

For The Island Connection

earning does not stop when the afternoon bell the first year Combining all 21st CCLC grants involving
rings for dismissal. That is why Charleston County CCSD schools, including those sponsored by Wings for
School District’s (CCSD) Office of Expanded Kids and Charleston Promise Neighborhood, the District
Learning pursues funding through a federal grant receives over $2 million in support annually.
program, 21st Century Community Learning Centers "The 21st Century Community Learning Centers
(CCLC). The 21st Century grants support academic grant provides such a valuable service to the students,
enrichment through after-school opportunities for families, and schools of Charleston County School
children, particularly students who attend high-poverty District,” said Amy Bosch, Expanded Learning, 21st
schools. Century Program Officer. “The funding enables students
The 21st CCLCs help students meet state standards to receive expanded day services, meaningful academic
in core academic subjects, such as reading and math, instruction, and intentional enrichment programming at
provides students a broad array of enrichment activities no cost to the families. This is a wonderful opportunity
that complement their regular academic programs, that will benefit the entire community."
and offers literacy and other educational services to the “The addition of these new grants are part of a larger
families of participating children. plan by the Office of Expanded Learning to better align
This year, the Office of Expanded Learning applied for our work with the District’s goals for academics, 21st
and received three 21st Century grants for a total of four Century Skills, and social-emotional learning,” noted
schools; Angel Oak Elementary School, Edith L. Frierson Jason Sakran, Director of Expanded Learning.
Elementary School, Mount Zion Elementary School, and The 21st CCLC grants are awarded to schools and
W.B. Goodwin Elementary School. A fifth school, Mary non-profit organizations that partner with schools.
Ford Elementary, will be supported by a 21st Century While Mary Ford is partnering with CPN, the Office
grant received by the non-profit organization Charleston of Expanded Learning is working with Wings for Kids,
Promise Neighborhood. Charleston County Parks and Recreation, and the City
“Angel Oak Elementary School is very excited to be one of North Charleston Recreation Department to support
A classroom at Angel Oak Elementary School on Johns
of the school recipients of the 21st Century grant,” stated Angel Oak, Frierson, Mount Zion, and Goodwin.
Island. Photo courtesy of CCSD.
Principal Judith Condon. “Not only will this grant bring In the 2018-20198 school year, CCSD will have
more opportunity to our students both academically families with quality after school programming and we 15 elementary schools receiving 21st CCLC funding,
and through enrichment, but it will also help to foster are thankful to CCSD’s Office of Expanded Learning for which is the most in the state of South Carolina by any
the growth of our partnership with our Kaleidoscope supporting our school!” school district. An estimated 170 schools statewide are
programs. We know the importance of providing our The four-year grants provide $200,000 in funding for supported by these grants.
September 28, 2018 11
mystery plant

A tangled web she weaves

For The Island Connection

n ugly situation: England was a Probably the saddest aspect of this
mess, and being ravaged from aquatic weed business is that most of the
the competition among Richard plants we seem to be fighting have been
II and his rivals. In the garden of the introduced, whether unintentionally or
Duke of York, the gardener and his not, by humans.
servant are talking over the fretful One of the complicating factors in the
times, and the servant suggests that this continuing spread of these pests is that
garden, so neglected and full of weeds, is frequently, gardeners will not know what it
metaphorically much like England. I can is exactly that they are buying from a plant
just imagine the gardener saying to him, supplier, the supplier not knowing precisely
“Hey, I’ve been doing the best I can!” what they are selling. And in the case of our
The sad truth is that invasive and Mystery Plant, there are actually more than
persistent weeds are becoming increasingly one species, which can be involved, and they
commonplace at both international and are difficult to distinguish.
local levels. A tremendous amount of Every Southeastern state has developed
money is spent annually on their control, a list of potentially invasive plants and
with varying success. The damage caused you might want to investigate this link to
by weedy plants in agricultural settings is find out more information:
enormous, and figures heavily into crop publications.cfm. And don’t forget that if
yield, both now and in the future, and you need help with plant identifications,
especially as an effect of climate change. consult the nice botanists at your local
An unintended consequence of nuisance species. Like this one. spreads is, again, no doubt by vegetative herbarium.
chemical weed control, which seems to It really is a pretty one, but with a sort of means, the stems breaking apart and
terrible beauty. The stems flop and spread forming additional mats. These mats can John Nelson is the curator of the A. C.
be very popular, is that surrounding,
against each other, piling up, branching cause all sorts of problems in ponds and Moore Herbarium at the University of South
“non-target” species are impacted as
and forming dense mats of vegetation, and lakes, clogging up canals and waterways, Carolina, in the Department of Biological
well, along with the beneficial critters
large growths of it may break up and float thus hindering water flow, boating, fishing, Sciences, Columbia SC 29208. As a public
(such as pollinators) associated with
around in a pond, adding to the population. and other recreational activities. And of service, the Herbarium offers free plant
them. Introduced, non-native plants are
Flowers are produced single along the course, these weeds commonly displace the identifications. For more information, visit
actually taking up more of the landscape
stem, with 5-6 green sepals, topped by 5-7 native aquatic species to the point that the or call 803.777.8196, or
than the natives, and many of these are
bright yellow petals. Each flower is capable good guys disappear. email
indeed invasive. And, we must remember
that not all invasive weeds are on the of producing a small capsule with lots of [Answer: “Water primrose”, Ludwigia peploides (subspecies glabrescens)]
high ground: there are plenty of aquatic seeds…but the primary way that this plant
September 28 Island Connection Calendar October 7
ONGOING chorus, open for membership. Season runs Wednesdays Thursdays & Sundays Adaptive Sports and Recreation will provide WEDNESDAY, OCT. 3 THURSDAY, OCT. 4-18 locations throughout the day. Schedule
WHAT: Beachfront Lights Out October through March. For information WHAT: Kids Fishing Tournament WHAT: Live Music instruction and assistance in a controlled allows for individuals to sign up for a
WHERE: all seaward, beachfront contact Director of Music, Van McCollum at WHERE: Bohicket Marina WHERE: 48 A Wine Bar environment. Participants must meet WHAT: CPR/AED Training WHAT: 42nd Fall Tour of Homes portion of the day if the whole day is
properties 404.401.0678 or WHEN: 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. WHEN: 6:30-8:30 p.m. guidelines prior to registration, available at WHERE: The Lake House WHERE: Downtown Charleston not of interest. Register for any sections
WHEN: 9 p.m.- 8 a.m. MORE INFO: A Fishing Tournament just MORE INFO: Featuring 48 wines For additional WHEN: 9 a.m.-noon WHEN: throughout the month you will be attending. Full schedule at
MORE INFO: US Fish and Wildlife Tuesdays for kids ages 4-14. Two rounds of fishing. by the glass every day. For details visit questions, call 843.795.4386. MORE INFO: American Red Cross MORE INFO: The Fall Tours of Homes,
Service discourages the use of outdoor WHAT: Family Oriented Tours and Arrive at least 15 minutes before your Instructor will teach adult CPR and AED History & Architecture presented by
lights when not required, in order to Activities desired round. It’s only $7 per participant WHAT: Cast Off Fishing Tournament safety. Cost is $68.50. To register send the Preservation Society of Charleston. WHAT: Swanky Southern Soirée
protect nesting sea turtles. When on the WHERE: Nathaniel Russell House which includes all bait and fishing rods. Saturday WHERE: Folly Beach Pier your name and Club member account Curated Tours, Garden Walks and Talks. WHERE: Country Club of Charleston
beach at dark, use red filters on flashlights. WHEN: 10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Every tournament produces 3 winners WHAT: Johns Island Farmers Market WHEN: 7 a.m.-3 p.m. number to New this year is a series of tours that take WHEN: 6:30 p.m.
Artificial light such as flashlights without MORE INFO: Family tours start on the which will receive a tournament shirt, bait, WHERE: Charleston Collegiate SChool, MORE INFO: Prizes awarded for the guests into private gardens rarely open to MORE INFO: Charleston Symphony
filters are prohibited on the beach at night. half-hour between 10:30 am and 12:30 bucket and bragging rights. Questions call 2024 Academy Rd. three largest catches in the Big Fish WHAT: Piano Bar Series the public. For tickets and schedule visit Orchestra League, Inc. hosts cocktails,
This includes flashlights on phones as well. pm. Docent-led scavenger hunt tours, 248.719.0076. WHEN: 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. category. On-site registration begins at 6 WHERE: The Sandcastle a southern-inspired gourmet dinner,
historic games and toys in the garden. MORE INFO: Charleston’s only year- a.m. Tournament held rain or shine. An WHEN: 5-7 p.m. exclusive curated shopping opportunities
Mondays for information WHAT: Timbers Kiawah Concerts in the round farmers market, highlighting adult chaperone is required for participants MORE INFO: Kiawah Arts and Cultural SATURDAY, OCT. 6 and live music to benefit the Charleston
WHAT: Family Trees and to purchase tickets for the date and Courtyard produce and locally produced goods ages 15 and under. $10/$8 Senior and Events presents Robbie Madison Duo. Symphony. Tickets are limited, $225
Tickets available online at KiawahIsland. WHAT: Get to Know a Refugee,
WHERE: Walton Hall at St. John’s Parish, museum house you would like to attend. WHERE: The Courtyard between Hege’s and foods. Live music, kids activities. Youth ages 3-12/$5 Fishing Pass Holder. each, valet parking included. For info and
org/events or at the Municipal Center Bkemayi Mufuta
3673 Maybank Hwy. and Java Java (Freshfields Village) for details. for details. reservations visit
843.768.9166. Events are open to the WHERE: Johns Island Regional Library
WHEN: 10 a.m. - 12 p.m. WHAT: Kick-it at Bohicket WHEN: 6-8 p.m.
public, but Kiawah property owners have a WHEN: 2 p.m.
MORE INFO: Begin exploring the WHERE: Bohicket Marina MORE INFO: Join Timbers Kiawah in Third Saturday of WHAT: Butterfly Symposium
MORE INFO: Transformative local THURSDAY, OCT. 11
process of clearing title for heirs’ property WHEN: 6:30 p.m. The Courtyard every Wednesday for live the Month WHERE: Middleton Place 3-day lead time on tickets for Arts Council
events. series invites community to converse WHAT: Wide Angle Lunch
by defining the family tree. For more MORE INFO: Face painting, a balloon music with Chris Dodson, outdoor kids WHAT: Sea Islands Cars & Coffee WHEN: 9:30 a.m.-1p.m.
with individuals who have been exposed WHERE: Charleston Library Society,
information or to make an appointment artist, DJ and sand art bracelets. Co- games, local art and beverages provided WHERE: Freshfields Village, Kiawah MORE INFO: Charleston Horticulture
THURSDAY, OCT. 4 to prejudice or stigma, and engage in an Main Reading Room
for an initial assessment call 843.810.1036 sponsored by The Town of Seabrook Island by Timbers Kiawah. The series will run WHEN: 9-11 a.m. Society will host butterfly specialist,
open, honest and respectful dialogue. WHEN: 12:30 p.m.
& Bohicket Merchants Association. For through Wed., Aug. 29. MORE INFO: This free event will feature entomologist and past director of Cypress
WHAT: Shakespeare’s The Tempest Mufuta was born in the Democratic MORE INFO: Jeb Hallett, “Curiosity-The
WHAT: Farmer’s Market questions call Todd at 248.719.0076. antiques, classics, exotics, concepts and any Gardens, Dwight Williams. Presentation
WHERE: Simons Center for the Arts, 54 Republic of the Congo, raised and Key to Life.” Explore why curious people
WHERE: Freshfields Village WHAT: English Conversation Club other cool cars. Coffee and other refreshments includes morning coffee and Middleton’s
St. Philip St. educated in a refugee camp in Zambia
WHEN: 4 - 8 p.m. First and Third WHERE: John’s Island Regional Library available for purchase by Java Java Coffee famous buffet lunch following the program.
WHEN: 7:30 p.m. on 10/4 and 10/6, 2 and came to the US in 2017. For more
may be more engaged, healthier and happy
MORE INFO: Shop locally grown organic Tuesdays WHEN: 2 p.m. House. If you have any specific questions Attendees will also have the chance to win
p.m. on 10/7 information contact or call
with life. Admission $20 for members/$30
produce along with specialty food products, WHAT: The Charleston County Public MORE INFO: Practice speaking English about the event, please contact Bruce some plants and to tour Middleton that for non-members (including lunch). Lunch
MORE INFO: Directed by Paul Rolfes, 843.559.1945. will be available from 12:15 p.m., and talks
delicious treats, fresh seafood and Lowcountry Library Bookmobile with a small group. Beginners to advanced Stemerman at afternoon. Seating is limited. $85 per person
presented by the College of Charleston’s begin at 12:30 p.m. Seating is limited. For
crafts. Or come hungry and enjoy BBQ, take- WHERE: Parking lot behind Hege’s learners welcome. A children’s program ($65 for CHS members). For tickets and info
Department of Theatre and Dance. Tickets WHAT: Seabrook Island Birders - Oct. more information call 843.723.9912 or
away dinners, sweets and more. WHEN: 10-11 a.m. and/or craft will be provided during the FRIDAY, SEPT. 28 visit
$20/general admission, $15/seniors may be Big Day
MORE INFO: Bookmobile is back the club meeting. Registration is not required; visit
WHAT: SIB Birding Beyond Our purchased by calling 843.953.6306 or by WHERE: Seabrook Island
WHAT: Charleston Coastal Choir first and third Tuesdays of the month. The call 843.559.1945 for more information. WHAT: Identifying Native American Pottery
Backyard emailing WHEN: 7 a.m.-6 p.m., times vary
WHERE: Church of Our Savior schedule for the summer is June 19, July 3 WHERE: The Dill Sanctuary, 1163
MORE INFO: First ever October Big
WHEN: 1 p.m. & 17, August 7 & 21. Thursdays WHERE: Bears Bluff Fish Hatchery, Riverland Dr.
WHAT: A Night of Military History Day. Event involvea walks at various
MORE INFO: Local, mixed community WHAT: Family Oriented Tours and Wadmalaw Island WHEN: 1-2 p.m.
WHEN: 7:15 am-noon WHERE: Charleston Library Society,
Activities MORE INFO: The Charleston Museum’s
MORE INFO: Bears Bluff NFH has a self- Main Reading Room
WHERE: Aiken-Rhett House Archeologist Ron Anthony will explore
guided tour our group will take around the WHEN: 6-7 p.m.
WHEN: 10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Native American ceramics found in the
perimeter of the 31 acre facility. Bring binoculars, MORE INFO: Join award-winning,
MORE INFO: Family tours start on the area. Fee: 420 members/$35 non-members.
camera, hats, sunscreen bug repellant, snacks best-selling authors James Scott, Hampton
half-hour between 10:30 am and 12:30 Register online:
and water. Pack a lunch and stay longer to enjoy Sides, and Jim Hornfischer for a night of
pm. Docent-led scavenger hunt tours,
what the Bears Bluff NFH has to offer. Visit military history and story-telling. Seating
historic games and toys in the garden. TUESDAY, OCT. 2 is limited. $5 for CLS members, $10 for for information or send an email to for questions WHAT: Clara Yang, pianist non-members. For more information of to
and to purchase tickets for the date and
and details. WHERE: Sottile Theater purchase tickets call 843.723.9912 or visit
museum house you would like to attend.
WHEN: 7:30 p.m.
WHAT: Live Music at The Andell Inn SATURDAY, SEPT. 29 MORE INFO: Presented by the College
WHAT: Fall Back to Kiawah
WHERE: The Andell Inn Hotel, of Charleston’s Department of Music
WHAT: Adaptive Surfing and sponsored by the Remington Master WHERE: 4475 Betsy Kerrison Pkwy
Freshfields Village
WHERE: Folly Beach County Park Artist Series. Special discount tickets for WHEN: 4-7 p.m.
WHEN: 6-8 p.m.
WHEN: 9 a.m.-2 p.m. IC readers, $15. Reception to follow in the MORE INFO: Free fall event featuring
MORE INFO: Relax with cool jazz
MORE INFO: Pre-registration is required. Hill Gallery at the Marion and Wayland the Robbie Madison Band, food trucks
every Thursday evening in the lounge of
Adaptive surfing staff from partner H. Cato, Jr. Center for the Arts, 161 and drinks available for purchase. Bring
the Andell Inn Hotel. Drinks and food
organizations Ocean Cure, Adaptive Surf Calhoun St. To RSVP for the reception a chair. Leashed pets are welcome. For
available. No cover charge. 843.793.6050.
Project, Adaptive Expeditions, and Coastal and for tickets email details visit
14 September 28, 2018
financial focus

Understanding risk tolerance is essential for

investment success
For The Island Connection

o succeed as an investor, you might Initially, you may believe you have a On the other hand, if you believe yourself However, things can change once you
think you need to know about the high tolerance for risk, but if the financial to have a low risk tolerance, and you start off reach retirement. At this stage of your life,
economy, interest rates and the markets drop sharply, and you see that investing in a conservative manner, you may your overall investment focus may shift from
fundamentals of companies in which you’d you’ve sustained some sizable losses (at least indeed minimize short-term losses but you accumulation to income. This means you
like to invest. And all these things are indeed on paper, you haven’t really “lost” anything also might find yourself frustrated over the will need to start selling some investments
important. But it’s most essential to know until you sell investments for less than what slow growth of your portfolio. So you may to boost your cash flow and you won’t want
yourself. Specifically, you need to know you paid for them), how will you feel? If you decide that being highly risk-averse carries to sell when prices are down. (Remember
how much risk you are willing to tolerate to find yourself constantly fretting over these its own risk, the risk of not making enough the first rule of investing: “Buy low and sell
achieve your goals. losses, perhaps even losing sleep over them, progress to achieve your long-term financial high.”)
Of course, you’ve lived with yourself your you might realize your risk tolerance is not goals. To reduce this risk, you may need to To help avoid these “fire sales,” you may
entire life, so you probably have a pretty as high as you thought. In this case, you may tilt your portfolio somewhat toward more want to adjust your investment mix by
good idea of your likes and dislikes and what need to scale back the part of your portfolio growth opportunities. adding more income-producing vehicles and
makes you comfortable or uncomfortable. devoted to growth in favor of a more balanced In short, you may have to invest for a while reducing your holdings in growth-oriented
But investing can be a different story. approach. before you truly understand your response to ones. By doing so, you will be lowering your
risk. But even then, don’t get too locked in to overall risk level. Keep in mind, though,
one approach because your risk tolerance may that even in retirement, you will need some
evolve over time. exposure to growth investments to help you
When you are first starting out in your stay ahead of inflation.
career, and for many years after, you are Become familiar with your own risk
probably investing primarily to accumulate tolerance, it can play a big role in your
assets for retirement. Consequently, you may investment decisions.
need to include a relatively high proportion
Dimi Matouchev is a financial advisor
of growth-oriented vehicles, such as stocks, in
with Edward Jones, located at 1505 Palm
your portfolio. While stock prices will always
Boulevard, Isle of Palms. For more information,
fluctuate, you will have many years, perhaps
call 843.886.9229 or visit
decades, to overcome short-term losses, so
you can possibly afford to take on a greater
risk level in exchange for the potentially
higher returns offered by stocks and stock-
based investments.