Biology

Chapter 1 Notes (A View of Life)
1.1 Characteristics of life
-All living things are: • Organized
Organization begins with CELLS or Smallest, most basic units of life UNICELLULAR-a single cell, contain genes MULTICELLULAR-many types of cells, contain genes Organized on both microscopic and macroscopic levels

& can. . . •
1. Acquire Materials and Energy
We need energy to live Some organisms attain energy by means of photosynthesis Some organisms break down chemicals for energy Our energy=food METABOLISM-chemical reactions that occur in a cell ENERGY-capacity to do work HOMEOSTASIS-the maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries ♦ We must be stable in:   Temperature Acidity Moisture level, etc.

• 2.is the discipline of identifying and classifying organisms according to certain rules 1. made up of DNA • 4.the process by which species have changed and diversified since life arose 4. Respond Living things can respond to their environment.6 billon years ago Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life All living things share the same characteristics All living things have a common ancestor Each is adapted to a particular way of life • The Diversity of Life TAXONOMY. Adapt to environment ADAPTATIONS. Domain . Reproduce and Develop Unicellular organisms split in two to reproduce We reproduce sexually GENE-unit of heredity.2 Evolution: The Core Concept of Biology EVOLUTION. often through movement Responses make up BEHAVIOR • 3.adjustments that make an organism suited to life Small MoleculesLarge MoleculesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemComplex Organism 1.

Fungi—live on debris. ingest food 8. can live in harsh environments. complex structures enclosed within membranes Domain Archaea—prokaryotes. Plantae—multi-cellular photo-synthesizers 4. Order 6. molds and mushrooms 3. Protista—unicellular to multi-cellular organisms with various modes of nutrition 2. or unicellular organisms. metabolically complex. Phylum 4. Class 5.Species placed in different domains are most distantly related • • • 2. more closely related to the domain Eukarya. 1st to evolve in the primitive Earth Domain Eukarya— eukaryotes. AWWWWH MAN  There’s competition for resources &…    . Genus 1. lacking cell nucleus & membrane. Family 7. Domain Eubacteria—true bacteria. Kingdom Eukarya: • • • • 3. Animalia—multicellular organisms. Species • NATURAL SELECTION:   A key component of the theory of evolution Coined by Charles Darwin Populations produce a bunch of offspring—MORE BABIES! YAAAAYYY!  There aren’t that many resources. prokaryotes.

circle) POPULATION. and water at the surface of the earth where living organisms are found (Life.biological community together with the associated abiotic environment. those FIT organisms give off THEIR genetic characteristics Those unable to adapt. characterized by a flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients ♦ ♦ ♦ Characterized by chemical cycling Energy flow Beginning with photo-synthesizers 1.the zone of air.group of interbreeding individuals of the same species occupying the same area at the same time COMMUNITY.4 Science: A Way of Knowing BIOLOGY. Only organisms that are fit to adapt to the environment will retain the resources &…    From then on. land.science of lie  Observation • 1st component of scientific process We can observe with our senses We can observe through experience We can observe through reading or studying • • • . slowly become extinct as genetics from the most fit organisms are continually being passed down Results in a population fully adapted to the environment 1.3 How the Biosphere is Organized BIOSPHERE.assemblage of populations interacting with one another within the same environment ECOSYSTEM.

a series of procedures to test a hypothesis EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.the application of scientific knowledge for a practical purpose BIOETHICS. all scientist are testing what they want to test and result will be meaningful ALL conditions must be kept constant. which is deliberately changed One or more test groups are exposed to the experimental variable The control group is not exposed to the experimental variable The control group should never show the same results as the test group(s) MODEL. aka law • 1.branch of science concerned with the development and consequences of biological technology BIODIVERSITY.theory that is generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists.the manner in which a scientist intends to conduct an experiment ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ • • In a good experiment. except for the experimental variable.representation of an actual object DATA.the results of an experiment  Conclusions • Statement made following an experiment as to whether or not the results support the hypothesis ♦ Experiments and date must be repeatable  Scientific Theory • Accepted explanations for how the world works PRINCIPLE.variation of life on earth. number of species  Approximately 15 million species . Hypothesis • Supposition based on reasoning after consideration of available evidence Can be tested by obtaining more data. often through experimentation Inductive reasoning used • • ♦  ObservationPatternTentative HypothesisTheory Experiments/Further Observation • • EXPERIMENT.5 Scientific Study TECHNOLOGY.

named.death of a species or a larger taxonomic group  Human activities have increased extinction rate factor immensely .  Fewer than 2 mill identified.5 billion yrs of evolution EXTINCTION. and classified Today’s biodiversity = result of 3.

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