Haifeng Wang
Wenjuan Du
Analysis and
Damping Control
of Power System
Lowfrequency
Oscillations
Power Electronics and Power Systems
Series editors
Joe H. Chow, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA
Alex M. Stankovic, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA
David Hill, The University of Hong Kong, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/6403
Haifeng Wang Wenjuan Du
•
123
Haifeng Wang Wenjuan Du
Beijing Beijing
China China
v
Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 1
1.1 Power System Lowfrequency Oscillations . . . . . . ........... 1
1.2 Linearized Methods for the Analysis and Damping
Control of Power System Oscillations . . . . . . . . . ........... 3
1.3 FACTS and GridConnected ESS . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 5
1.4 Controllers to Damp Power System Oscillations . . ........... 7
1.5 Design of Damping Controllers to Suppress Power
System Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 10
1.6 Organization of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 12
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 13
2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed
with a Power System Stabilizer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 17
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine InﬁniteBus
Power System Installed with a Power System Stabilizer . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.1 General Linearized Mathematical Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.2 Heffron–Phillips Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2 Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.1 Basis of Modal Analysis Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.2 Applications of Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3 Damping Torque Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.3.1 Damping Torque and Synchronizing Torque . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.3.2 Damping Torque Analysis and Design
of PSS by Phase Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 47
2.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 53
2.4.1 Linearized Mathematical Models of an Example Power
System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ... 53
2.4.2 Modal Analysis of Example Power System. . . . ..... ... 59
2.4.3 Damping Torque Analysis of Example
Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 66
vii
viii Contents
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Chapter 1
Introduction
Power system oscillation was ﬁrst observed in the Northern American power
network in Oct. 1964 during a trial interconnection of the Northwest Power Pool
and the Southwest Power Pool [2]. The power oscillation occurred on the tie line
and was of a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Since then, many incidents of power system
oscillations have been reported in power transmission networks around the world.
Examples are as follows:
1. Between the late 1970s and early 1980s, power oscillations were observed in the
power transmission corridor from Scotland to England in the Great Britain
power network. Operational experience indicated that those oscillations were
related to the relatively high loading level of power transmission lines from
Scotland to England. A series of tests were carried out between 1980 and 1985.
Those tests demonstrated that the oscillations occurred when the power transfer
from Scotland to England reached a certain level and the typical oscillation
frequency was around 0.5 Hz [3].
2. Sustained power oscillations were reported in the Taiwan power network in
1984. Those oscillations happened typically when a large amount of power was
transferred along some particular highvoltage transmission lines. It was found
that reduction of the amount of power delivered along the highvoltage trans
mission lines can effectively improve the damping of power oscillations.
Installation of the PSSs (power system stabilizers) at selected locations worked
successfully to suppress the power oscillations. Further investigation indicated
that other factors, such as the gain value of automatic voltage regulator
(AVR) and characteristics of load, also affected the damping of the power
oscillations [4].
3. An outage of the Northern American Western Systems Coordinating Council
(WSCC) network on August 10 1996 was directly due to the power oscillations.
The power oscillations (with frequency between 0.2 and 0.3 Hz) were triggered
by the loss of a 500kV line when the system operated under depressed con
ditions (with overloaded lines and at low voltage level). The incident spread
quickly, tripping more lines, and generating units, which eventually led to the
separation of the WSCC network into four islands. The outage affected
7.5 million customers for up to 9 h, causing considerable economic loss [5].
Over the last halfcentury, many power system researchers and engineers have
worked on and contributed to the understanding and solution of the problem of
power system oscillations. It is now well recognized that the main cause of power
system oscillations is the poor damping of the socalled electromechanical oscil
lation modes of the power system. Poor damping could be brought about by the
(1) large amount of longdistance power transmission, (2) weak interconnection of
large power subnetworks, and/or (3) negative damping due to the fastacting
highgain AVRs. Power system lowfrequency oscillations can be classiﬁed,
according to the electromechanical oscillation modes of the power system, into two
types: (1) local power oscillations (associated with local oscillation modes) and
(2) interarea power oscillations (associated with interarea oscillation modes).
1.1 Power System Lowfrequency Oscillations 3
Local power oscillations associated with the local oscillation modes normally are
the oscillations of one or a group of local generators against a large power network.
Local generators send power over a long distance to the large power network.
Frequency of the oscillations often is about one or several Hz. Interarea power
oscillations related to the interarea oscillation modes are the oscillations between
two or more subnetworks in a largescale power system. A typical interarea
oscillation is the tieline power oscillation between two weakly connected areas in
the power system. The interarea power oscillation could involve many
subnetworks to oscillate against each other (which sometimes is referred to as an
intraarea oscillation). Normally, the oscillation frequency is lower, from 0.1 to 1 Hz.
A power oscillation could be engaged by one oscillation mode only (local or
interarea oscillation mode). This is the case referred to as the “singlemode power
oscillation” when there is only one electromechanical oscillation mode in the power
system being poorly or negatively damped. In the case that there are multiple poorly
or negatively damped electromechanical oscillation modes in the power system, the
power oscillation is participated by multiple oscillation modes. The power oscil
lation in this case is called the “multimode power oscillation”.
The DTA is established on the physical concept of electric torque and classic
control theory with the description of the system in frequency and Laplace s
domain. It is easy to be understood and simple to be applied. Often analytical
conclusions can be obtained under certain reasonable assumptions. In particular
later, an effective method, the phase compensation method, for the design of a
power system stabilizer (PSS) was developed on the basis of the DTA [9–11],
which has made the DTA a wellaccepted method for the analysis and damping
control of power system oscillations. Since the 1970s, considerable effort has been
spent to extend the DTA for the application in general multimachine power
systems.
Modal analysis (MA) is based on the modal control theory, a special branch in
modern control theory. It is established on the statespace representation of a power
system, i.e. socalled ABCD statespace model [12]. Applications of modal analysis
in the study of power system oscillations include the following: (1) computation of
eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors (socalled eigensolution) of the state
matrix of the system; (2) computation of controllability index, observability index,
and their product, residue. There is no much difference in the procedure to apply the
MA in a singlemachine inﬁnitebus and a multimachine power system.
Eigensolution is a very speciﬁc topic in mathematics. Examples of applying
eigensolution in studying power system oscillations are computation of power
system oscillation modes (i.e. computation of eigenvalues and identiﬁcation of
oscillation modes among all eigenvalues), eigenvalue sensitivity, and participation
factor [13, 14]. For a largescale power system, dimension of the state matrix could
become very high. This could lead to the extremely high computational complexity
and even numerical difﬁculty to calculate the eigenvalues of the state matrix. Hence,
it has been a special research topic to compute eigenvalues of interests of a
highdimensional state matrix considering the features of the largescale power
system.
Computation of controllability index, observability index, and residue is mainly
applied for the selection of installing locations and feedback signals of stabilizers in
the multimachine power system. Because computation of controllability index,
observability index, and residue usually needs to perform eigensolution, various
methods to reduce computational cost have been proposed in the literature.
Examples are the selective modal analysis [13–15], partial modal analysis [16], and
eigensolutionfree modal analysis [17].
The MA is a method based on the results of numerical computation. It can tell
whether a power system is stable at given system operating conditions. However, it
is difﬁcult to be used to draw general conclusions by performing numerical
eigensolution. Hence in many occasions, effort has to be spent to establish the
connections between the computational results from the MA and the physical
explanations in order to understand and explain the results of numerical
computation.
1.3 FACTS and GridConnected ESS 5
V1 V2
P12 ¼ sin h ð1:1Þ
x
where h is the phase difference between the voltage at the sending and receiving end
of the transmission line, V 1 and V
2 . A FACTS controller is to change in real time
the line impedance x, and phase and magnitude of line voltage V 1 and V 2 indi
vidually or simultaneously to regulate the power flow along the transmission line,
such that a great flexibility of power flow regulation is achieved.
In fact, the operational principle of the FACTS was known as early as in the 1920s.
Since then, mechanically controlled series and shunt capacitors have been installed in
power systems to control line power flow and regulate system voltage proﬁle. Power
electronics applications in highvoltage power systems were dated from early 1970s
when converters for highvoltage directcurrent systems began using thyristors to
replace mercury arc valves. This was the time when the FACTS technology really
emerged and was applied in power systems. The concept of the FACTS was formerly
introduced by Prof. Hingarani [18] when work to use power electronic switching
devices to replace thyristors began [19]. Hence normally, the FACTS controllers are
classiﬁed into two groups: (1) the conventional thyristorbased FACTS controllers
and (2) new generation of converter (power electronic switching devices)based
FACTS controllers. The following are three main types of thyristorbased FACTS
controllers which have been applied in power systems:
P12
6 1 Introduction
Vc Vdc
transformer
Variable AC DC
voltage voltage
Power switching A DC m φ
circuit capacitor
Stepdown transformer
Vc Vc
φ φ
ac/dc VSC
m m
Cdc ESS
nd
2 converter
Single stage circuit
ESS
Fig. 1.3 VSCbased power electronic circuit for gridconnected ESS or renewable generation
plant
of the systems in the near future with a fairly large percentage of gridconnected
renewable power generation. It can be foreseen that the highpower electronic VSC
will play even more important role in shaping the future power systems. Not only
the VSC will be used for the grid connection of many types of renewable power
generation, such as wind, solar, and fuel cell, but also it can be applied for the
energy storage systems (ESSs) to assist power system operation and control in
accommodating variable gridconnected renewable power generation. Hence in
future power systems, the VSC could become one of the mostly installed power
components like transformers to meet various purposes of power regulation, stor
age, and generation.
Figure 1.3 shows the conﬁguration of grid connection of an ESS device or a
renewable power generation plant by use of the VSCbased power electronics
circuits. The ESS device can be a battery ESS (BESS). The conﬁguration is also
applicable for the grid connection of a renewable generation source, such as a
photovoltaic (PV) power plant. In the twostage circuit, the second converter can be
a DC/DC converter to connect to a fuel cell (FC) power plant or a DC/AC converter
to a wind farm. In both circuits, the key component is the AC/DC converter
(VSC) which is connected to the highvoltage busbar via a stepdown transformer.
Power system
Vs
Is
Il Ic
x svcl
α0
Vs π
Vsref  x svcc
voltage α firing circuit
controller +
+
π/2
ysvc SVC
stabilizer
Fig. 1.4 An SVC stabilizer superimposed on the SVC voltage control function
s
V s
V
jxsvc ¼ ¼ ð1:2Þ
Is ðIl þ Ic Þ
where and in Fig. 1.4, V s is the voltage measurement at the location where the SVC
is installed, Vsref the reference signal of voltage control, jxsvc the equivalent reac
tance of the SVC, and ysvc the feedback signal of the SVC stabilizer. The SVC
voltage controller is to maintain the magnitude of voltage at the SVC installing
location close to V sref by controlling the variable equivalent reactance of the SVC.
Attachment of the SVC stabilizer contributes the control of variable equivalent
reactance jxsvc, hence the exchange of reactive power between the SVC and rest of
the power system. Thus, it affects the variations of active power flow along the
transmission line where the SVC locates. If designed properly, the SVC stabilizer
can help to suppress power oscillations. Attachment of the SVC stabilizer to SVC
normal voltage control function is very similar to the arrangement of a PSS being
superimposed on the voltage control loop of an AVR.
It was well reckoned that VSCbased FACTS stabilizers work as effectively as
the thyristorbased FACTS stabilizers in damping power system oscillations, as
conﬁrmed by case study of numerical calculation, computer simulation, and ﬁeld
tests [22, 23]. There is no fundamental difference between the mechanism of the
thyristorbased and VSCbased FACTS stabilizers, though examination of the
VSCbased FACTS stabilizers usually is sometimes more complicated as it
involves the VSC functions.
10 1 Introduction
accordingly. Hence, the selection of installing locations of the PSSs can mean to
choose the locations to install PSSs or to choose the PSSs among those installed to
be set, in order to damp the particular oscillation mode. As far as a FACTS sta
bilizer is concerned, justiﬁcation of installing an expensive FACTS device usually
is based on other applications rather than the damping function. Hence, the
selection of installing location of the FACTS stabilizer is carried out among the
installed FACTS devices and/or FACTS normal control functions to attach the
damping function. Even if a location in the power system is the best to have the
FACTS stabilizer, it often needs further justiﬁcation to consider the installation of
the FACTS stabilizer there.
Leaving the practical consideration about the candidate locations aside, there is
no difference in the strategy to select installing locations for the PSSs and FACTS
stabilizers. On the other hand, selection of feedback signals for the PSSs and
FACTS stabilizers normally is to determine the most effective and locally available
feedback signals for the design of stabilizers. Those signals can be the rotor speed
deviation of generators, active power, line current, etc. In the case that remote
signals can be used, of course, it also includes the choice of signals at different
locations in the power system.
Methods which have been proposed and developed so far for the selection of
installing locations and feedback signals are mostly based on the DTA and modal
analysis (MA). Examples are the induced damping and synchronizing torque
coefﬁcients (IDSTCs) index [28], damping torque coefﬁcient (DTC) index [29],
simple index [30], and damping index [31] derived by using the DTA. Sensitivity
calculation [32], the participation factors [13–15], the LIED (location index for
effective damping) [33], residue index [34, 35], the partial modal analysis [16], and
eigensolutionfree modal analysis [17] are established by use of the modal analysis.
Methods to set parameters of multiple stabilizers in a multimachine power
system can be classiﬁed into two categories, sequence setting and simultaneous
tuning. Sequence setting is the strategy to set stabilizers one by one in a sequence.
For example, suppose two stabilizers, stabilizers A and B, to be set. In sequence
setting, stabilizer A is installed in the multimachine power system ﬁrstly and its
parameters are set. Afterwards, stabilizer B is installed with its parameters being set.
The strategy of sequence setting ﬁts the practice of installing stabilizers in the
multimachine power system. It is simple and easy to be used. The wellknown
phase compensation method [9–11] is considered to be an approach of sequential
setting.
However, it was found that this strategy of sequential setting can cause a
problem of socalled “eigenvalue drifting” [36] due to the dynamic interactions of
multiple stabilizers.“Eigenvalue drifting” is that, for example, setting of stabilizer B
affects the setting results of stabilizer A which is designed previously. The con
sequence is that the sequential setting cannot complete the required setting of two
stabilizers, A and B, to move oscillation modes to their required positions simul
taneously. This phenomenon of “eigenvalue drifting” is also referred to as the
problem of dynamic interactions between multiple stabilizers.
12 1 Introduction
Linearized methods for the analysis and damping control of power system oscil
lations covered by this book are based on the linearized models of power systems.
Hence, a comprehensive introduction on establishing linearized models of power
systems is presented in the book. This includes the introduction of the Heffron–
Phillips model, a wellknown and relatively simpler linearized model of power
system for the study of power system oscillations. In addition, the establishment of
a more general linearized model of power systems is introduced where the fullscale
mathematical model of synchronous generators is used.
Two groups of linearized methods for the analysis and damping control of power
system oscillations are introduced in the book. They are the damping torque
1.6 Organization of the Book 13
analysis (DTA) and the modal analysis (MA). The basic concepts and theory of the
DTA and the MA are presented ﬁrstly for a simpler case of power systems, a
singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system. The introduction of the applications and
extensions of the DTA and the MA in a more complicated case of a multimachine
power system is then followed in the book.
Power system damping controllers are classiﬁed into three groups in the book,
the power system stabilizer (PSS), the thyristorbased FACTS stabilizers, and the
VSCbased stabilizers. Introduction of linearized methods for the analysis and
damping control of power system oscillations in the book is organized according to
the classiﬁcation of damping controllers (stabilizers) and their applications in the
simple singlemachine inﬁnitebus and complex multimachine power system. The
organization is illustrated in Table 1.1.
References
1. IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability Terms and Deﬁnitions (2004) Deﬁnition and
classiﬁcation of power system stability. IEEE Trans Power Syst 19(2):1387–1401
2. Schleif FR, White JH (1966) Damping for the northwestsouthwest tieline oscillations—an
analogue study. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 85(12):1239–1247
3. Gibson CM (1988) Application of power system stabilizers on the AngloScottish
interconnection—programme of system proving tests and operational experience. IEE Proc
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4. Hsu YY, Shyue SW, Su CC (1987) Low frequency oscillations in longitudinal power
systems: experience with dynamic stability of Taiwan power system. IEEE Trans Power Syst 2
(1):92–98
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disturbance report. www.bpa.biz
6. deMello FP, Concordia C (1969) Concepts of synchronous machine stability as affected by
excitation control. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 88(4):316–329
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underexcited operation of large turbine generators. AIEE Trans (Power Appar Syst) 71:
692–697
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Power Appar Syst 94(3):827–833
9. Larsen EV, Swann DA (1981) Applying power system stabilizers part I: general concepts.
IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 100(6):3017–3024
14 1 Introduction
10. Larsen EV, Swann DA (1981) Applying power system stabilizers part II: performance
objectives and tuning concepts. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 100(6):3025–3033
11. Larsen EV, Swann DA (1981) Applying power system stabilizers part III: practical
considerations. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 100(6):3034–3046
12. Rogers G (2000) Power system oscillations. Kluwer Academic Publisher
13. PerezArriaga IJ, Verghese GC, Schweppe FC (1982) Selective modal analysis with
applications to electric power systems, Part I. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 101(9):3117–3125
14. PerezArriaga IJ, Verghese GC, Schweppe FC (1982) Selective modal analysis with
applications to electric power systems, part II. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 101(9):3126–3134
15. Sancha JL, PerezArriaga IJ (1988) Selective modal analysis of electric power system
oscillatory instability. IEEE Trans Power Syst 3(2):429–438
16. Larsen EV, SanchezGasca JJ, Chow JH (1995) Concept for design of FACTS controllers to
damp power swings. IEEE Trans Power Syst 10(2):948–956
17. Wang HF (1999) Selection of robust installing locations and feedback signals of
FACTSbased stabilizers in multimachine power systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 14
(2):569–574
18. Hingorani NG (1988, Aug) High power electronics and flexible ac transmission systems. IEEE
Power Eng Rev 3–4
19. Gyugyi L (1992) Uniﬁed powerflow control; concept for flexible AC transmission systems.
IEE Proc Part C 139(4):323–331
20. Smith OJM (1969) Power system transient control by capacitor switching. IEEE Trans Power
Appar Syst 88(1):28–35
21. Webster RH, Mane AP, Smith OJM (1971) Series capacitor switching to quench
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22. Song YH, Johns AT (1999) Flexible AC transmission systems. IEE Press
23. Hingorani NG, Gyugyi L (1999) Understanding FACTS. IEEE Press
24. CIGRE TF 300108 Report (1999) Modelling of power electronics equipment (FACTS) in
load flow and stability programs
25. Hsu CS, Lee WJ (1993) Superconducting magnetic energy storage for power system
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10 MW battery energy storage system at Chino substation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 13(1):
145–151
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FACTS stabilizers in multimachine power systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 11(4):1920–1925
29. Swift FJ, Wang HF (1995) Static Var compensator to damp system oscillations in
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power system oscillations. IEE Proc Part C 143(4):359–364
31. Wang HF, Swift FJ (1997) The indexes for selecting the best locations of PSS or
FACTSbased stabilizers in multimachine power systems: a comparison study. IEE Proc
Part C 144(2):155–159
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References 15
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Chapter 2
A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power
System Installed with a Power System
Stabilizer
w_ d ¼ x0 ðvtd þ ra id þ xwq Þ
w_ q ¼ x0 ðvtq þ ra iq xwd Þ
w_ ¼ x0 ðvf rf if Þ
f ð2:1Þ
w_ D ¼ x0 rD iD
w_ Q ¼ x0 rQ iQ
where M is the inertia of the rotor, D the damping coefﬁcient of the rotor motion, d
the rotor angular position of synchronous generator to a reference axis, and Tm and
Tt the mechanical torque and electric torque applied on the rotor of generator,
respectively.
vf0 vf
Vt

Vtref
vf' TE(s)
+
+ u pss
AVR
synchronous generator
DC motor
slip ring
field winding of  Vt
dc motor Vtref
AVR
+
Based on the difference of the excitation power sources used, excitation systems
can be classiﬁed into three major types.
1. DC excitation systems
A DC excitation system uses a DC generator as the source of excitation power to
provide ﬁeld current and is connected to ﬁeld winding through slip rings. The
exciter may be driven by a motor or by the generator itself. The DC excitation
system represents the early application of excitation control. Figure 2.2 shows the
arrangement of the DC excitation system.
2. AC excitation systems
An AC excitation system uses an AC machine (alternator) as the source of exci
tation power to provide ﬁeld current. The AC excitation current is rectiﬁed to
provide the DC excitation to the synchronous generator. Usually, the AC exciter is
on the same shaft of synchronous generator. There are two major types of AC
excitation systems, depending on the difference of the arrangement of AC excitation
from either the stationary or rotating armature winding of the exciter, as shown in
Figs. 2.3 and 2.4, respectively. In a rotating rectiﬁer excitation system, the armature
windings of the AC exciter and the diode rectiﬁers rotate with the synchronous
generator ﬁeld. Thus, the need for slip rings and brushes is eliminated. Hence, such
a system is also called a brushless excitation system.
3. Static excitation systems
In a static excitation system, power supply is from the synchronous generator.
The DC excitation is provided to the ﬁeld of generator through slip rings after being
rectiﬁed. There are three major types of static excitation systems. They are
potentialsource controlledrectiﬁer systems, compoundsource rectiﬁer systems,
and compoundcontrolled rectiﬁed excitation systems. Figure 2.5 shows the
arrangement of a potentialsource controlledrectiﬁer excitation system.
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine … 21
slip ring
Vt
field winding of 
alternator
Vtref
AVR
+
Vt
field winding of − Vtref
alternator
AVR
+
controlled rectifier
Vt
−
Vtref
AVR
+
where vf0 is the constant excitation, upss the stabilizing signal of the PSS, and Vt
and Vtref the terminal voltage of generator and its reference setting value, respec
tively. Various forms of transfer function have been recommended for different
types of excitation systems and the AVR. In this book, the following simplest form
is used for the purpose of simple presentation,
KA
TEðsÞ ¼ ð2:5Þ
1 þ sTA
where KA is the gain and TA the time constant of the AVR. Hence, from Eqs. (2.4)
and (2.5), mathematical model of the AVR can be written as
vf ¼ vf0 þ v0f
1 KA ð2:6Þ
v_ 0f ¼ v0f þ Vtref Vt þ upss
TA TA
Figure 2.6 shows the conﬁguration of a power system where a generator sends
power to a large network. Capacity of the large network is much greater than that of
the generator such that operation of the large network is not affected at all by any
changes in the part of the power system on the lefthand side of busbar b in Fig. 2.6.
This effectively means that the voltage and frequency at busbar b are constant when
the focus of the study is the part of the lefthand side of the power system. Thus,
from the point of view of operation of the part of lefthand side of the power
system, capacity of the large network is “inﬁnite”. Hence, busbar b is called the
“inﬁnite busbar”, and the part of the power system on the lefthand side of busbar b
is a “singlemachine inﬁnitebus” power system. The singlemachine inﬁnitebus
power system is an approximate representation of a kind of real power systems,
where a power plant with a generator or a group of generators are connected by
transmission lines to a very large power network.
Vt Vb
xt
A large network
Pt It
busbar b
jxt I t
vq Vb
It
iq δ
d
id vd
For the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system shown in Fig. 2.6, it can have
t ¼ jxtIt þ V
V b ð2:7Þ
In the d–q coordinate of the generator shown in Fig. 2.7, Eq. (2.7) can be written
as follows:
where vtd ; vtq and id ; iq vd ; vq are the d and q components of terminal voltage of
generator, V t , line current, It , and voltage at the inﬁnite busbar, V
b , respectively.
Comparing the real and imaginary part on the both sides of Eq. (2.8), it can have
vtd ¼ xt iq þ vd
ð2:9Þ
vtq ¼ xt id þ vq
In per unit, the mechanical and electric torque, Tm and Tt , in Eq. (2.3), is equal to
the mechanical power input from the prime mover to the electric power supplied by
the generator, respectively, i.e. Tm ¼ Pm and Tt ¼ Pt . While Pt is equal to the
electric power received at the inﬁnite busbar, that is
Equations (2.1)–(2.3), (2.6) and (2.9)–(2.11) are the complete dynamic model of
the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system shown in Fig. 2.6 where Vb and Pm
are constant.
where preﬁx, D, and subscript 0 are used to denote small increment of a variable
(linearized variable) and value of the variable at the power system steadystate
operating condition where the linearization is carried out, respectively. This nota
tion will be used throughout this book.
Linearization of Eqs. (2.10) and (2.11) is as follows:
vtd0 vtq0
DVt ¼ Dvtd þ Dvtq ð2:14Þ
Vt0 Vt0
DPt ¼ vdt0 Did þ vqt0 Diq þ id0 Dvdt þ iq0 Dvqt ð2:15Þ
By using Eqs. (2.14) and (2.15), linearization of Eqs. (2.3) and (2.6) can be
obtained to be
Dd_ ¼ x0 Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ðDPt þ DDxÞ ð2:16Þ
M
1
¼ ðvdt0 Did þ vqt0 Diq þ id0 Dvdt þ iq0 Dvqt þ DDxÞ
M
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine … 25
Dvf ¼ Dv0f
1 KA vtd0 vtq0 ð2:17Þ
Dv_ 0f 0
¼ Dvf þ Dvtd Dvtq þ Dupss
TA TA Vt0 Vt0
Arranging Eqs. (2.12), (2.13), (2.16), and (2.17) in matrix form with all lin
earized current variables be cancelled, it can have
where
T
DXgdq ¼ Dd Dx Dvf Dwd Dwq Dwf DwD DwQ ;
T T
DVdq ¼ ½ Dvtd Dvtq ; DIdq ¼ ½ Did Diq
For the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system, the network voltage equation
is Eq. (2.9). Its linearization is as follows:
where
0 xt Vb cos d0 0
Fdq1 ¼ ; Fdq2 ¼
xt 0 Vb sin d0 0
2.1.2.1 Simpliﬁcation
For the study of power system oscillations, full mathematical model of synchronous
generator of Eqs. (2.1)–(2.2) can be simpliﬁed based on the following
considerations:
1. Effect of damper windings is not considered or directly included in the damping
coefﬁcient D in the rotor motion equation in Eq. (2.3). Thus, Eq. (2.1) is sim
pliﬁed to be
w_ ¼ x0 ðvtd þ ra id þ xw Þ
d q
2. Effect of fast transient and the resistance of d and q armature windings are
neglected. Equation (2.22) is further simpliﬁed to be
0 ¼ vtd þ xwq
0 ¼ vtq xwd ð2:23Þ
w_ f ¼ x0 ðvf rf if Þ
vtd ¼ wq
ð2:24Þ
vtq ¼ wd
To transform the third equation in Eq. (2.23) into a different form, it is deﬁned
that
xad xad vf
E0q ¼ w ; Eq ¼ xad if ; Efd ¼ ð2:25Þ
xf f rf
where E0q is called the qaxis transient excitation voltage, Eq the qaxis excitation
voltage, and Efd the excitation voltage. Multiplying both sides of the third equation
in Eq. (2.23) by xradf , it can have
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine … 27
0
T0d0 E_ q ¼ Efd Eq ð2:26Þ
where T0d0 ¼ xx0 rf f , which is the time constant of the ﬁeld winding.
Equation (2.26) together with Eq. (2.3) forms the simpliﬁed thirdorder model of
synchronous generator. Equation (2.2) becomes
wd xd xad id
¼
wf xad xf if ð2:27Þ
wq ¼ xq iq
vtd ¼ wq ¼ xq iq
ð2:28Þ
vtq ¼ wd ¼ xad if xd id ¼ Eq xd id
xad xad x2
E0q ¼ wf ¼ ðxf if xad id Þ ¼ Eq ad id ¼ Eq xd x0d id ð2:29Þ
xf xf xf
x2
where x0d ¼ xd xadf , which is called the transient daxis reactance. Thus, Eq. (2.26)
becomes
0
T0d0 E_ q ¼ Efd E0q xd x0d id ð2:30Þ
For the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system shown in Fig. 2.6, from Eqs. (2.9)
and (2.28), it can have
vtd ¼ vd xt iq ¼ xq iq
ð2:31Þ
vtq ¼ vq þ xt id ¼ Eq xd id ¼ E0q x0d id
Thus,
x dΣ (x dΣ ')
x qΣ vd vq
Eq (Eq ')
d winding
 
q winding
singlemachine inﬁnitebus EQ
power system
j(x q − x 'd )I t
Eq '
jx 'd I t
jx t I t
Vt b
vq Vb
δ
iq It
d
id vd
By substituting Eqs. (2.9) and (2.33) into Eq. (2.11), the electric power supplied
by the generator can be expressed as follows:
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine … 29
0
Vb sin d Eq Vb cos d
Pt = Vb cos d þ Vb sin d
xqR x0dR
0 ð2:34Þ
Eq Vb V2 xq x0d
¼ 0 sin d b 0 sin 2d
xdR 2 xdR xqR
E0q Vb cos d
Eq ¼ E0q þ xd x0d id ¼ E0q þ xd x0d
x0dR
0 0
ð2:35Þ
Eq xdR xd xd Vb cos d
¼ 0
xdR x0dR
Vb sin d xq Vb sin d
vtd = Vb sin d xt iq ¼ Vb sin d xt ¼ ;
xqR xqR
ð2:36Þ
E0q Vb cos d xt E0q Vb x0d cos d
vtq = Vb cos d þ xt id ¼ Vb cos d þ xt ¼ þ
x0dR x0dR x0dR
where
E0q Vb V2b xq x0d
Pt ¼ 0 sin d sin 2d
xdR 2 x0dR xqR
E0q xdR xd x0d Vb cos d
Eq ¼ 0
xdR x0dR ð2:38Þ
Efd ¼ Efd0 þ E0fd
xq Vb sin d xt E0q Vb x0d cos d qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
vtd ¼ ; vtq ¼ 0 þ 0 ; Vt ¼ v2td þ v2tq
xqR xdR xdR
30 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
By linearizing Eqs. (2.37) and (2.38) at an operating point of power system, where
Vt ¼ Vt0 ; Vtd ¼ Vtd0 ; Vtq ¼ Vtq0 ; d ¼ d0 ; x0 ¼ 1; E0q ¼ E0q0 ; Efd ¼ Efd0 , it can have
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ðDPt DDxÞ
M
0 1 ð2:39Þ
DE_ q ¼ 0 ðDEq þ DE0fd Þ
Tdo
0 1 KA
DE_ fd ¼ DE0fd ðDVt Dupss Þ
TA TA
DPt ¼ K1 Dd þ K2 DE0q
DEq ¼ K3 DE0q þ K4 Dd ð2:40Þ
DVt ¼ K5 Dd þ K6 DE0q
where
E0q0 Vb x0dR V 2 ð xq x0 Þ
K1 ¼ cos d0 bx0 xqR d cos 2d0
dR
K2 ¼ xV0 b sin d0
dR
K3 ¼ xxdR
0
dR
ðxd x0d ÞVb sin d0
K4 ¼ x0dR
X q Vb cos d0 V V x0 sin d0
K5 ¼ VVt0
td0
xqR Vtq0 b0 xd0
t0 dR
V
K6 ¼ Vtq0 xx0 t
t0 dR
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDxÞ
M
_ 0 1 ð2:41Þ
DEq ¼ 0 ðK3 DE0q K4 Dd þ DE0fd Þ
Tdo
0 1 KA
DE_ fd ¼ DE0fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0q Dupss Þ
TA TA
2.1 Linearized Model of a SingleMachine … 31
K1
ΔPt Δω ω0 Δδ
_ 1
Ms + D s
K4 K5
K2
_ _
ΔEq’ 1 + KA + Δupss
Td0's+K3 1+sTA _
K6
0
6 7
6 0 7
bpss ¼6
6 0 7
7
4 5
KA
TA
32 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
sX ¼ Ao X þ bo u
y ¼ cTo X ð2:43Þ
u ¼ HðsÞy
where Ao , bo and cTo is the state matrix, control vector, and output vector of
openloop system, respectively, and HðsÞ is the transfer function of feedback
controller. Transfer function of openloop system is as follow:
y
GðsÞ ¼ ¼ cTo ðsI Ao Þ1 bo ð2:44Þ
u
y GðsÞ
TðsÞ ¼ ¼ ð2:45Þ
w 1 GðsÞHðsÞ
Eigen solution is one of the basic techniques in the modal analysis, involving the
computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of state matrix, Ao . An eigenvalue of
matrix Ao , k, is a scalar parameter, which satisﬁes the following equation
Ao v ¼ kv ð2:46Þ
where I is an unity matrix. In order for Eq. (2.47) to have the nontrivial solution, it
should have
Avi ¼ ki vi ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; M ð2:50Þ
That is
V1 AV ¼ K ð2:52Þ
where
2 3
k1 0 0 0
60 k2 0 0 7
6 7
V ¼ ½ v1 v2 ... vM ; K ¼ 6 .. 7
40 0 . 0 5
0 0 0 kM
34 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
Denote
2 3
wT1
6 wT 7
6 2 7
V 1
¼6
6 ..
7 ¼ ½ w1
7 w2 . . . w M T ¼ WT ð2:53Þ
4 . 5
wTM
X ¼ VZ ð2:55Þ
sZ ¼ KZ þ WT bo u
ð2:56Þ
y ¼ cTo VZ
That is
szi ¼ ki zi ; þ wTi bo u i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M
X
M ð2:57Þ
y ¼ cTo vi z i
i¼1
According to Eq. (2.57), the system can also be shown in Fig. 2.12. This is the
modal decomposition representation of statespace model of openloop system.
1 z1
w1T b 0 c0 T v1
s − λ1
1 z2
w 2Tb0 c0 T v 2
s − λ2
u y
+
1 zM
w M Tb0 c0 T v M
s − λM
szi ¼ ki zi ð2:58Þ
X
M
xk ðtÞ ¼ vk1 z1 ð0Þek1 t þ vk2 z2 ð0Þek2 t þ þ vkM zM ð0ÞekM t ¼ vki zi ð0Þeki t
i¼1
ð2:61Þ
real part of the mode ni . The pair of conjugate eigenvalues of state matrix Ao are
often called the oscillation mode of the system.
The oscillation frequency f i (Hz) and damping fi associated with k i;i þ 1 ¼
ni jxi are normally deﬁned as follows:
xi ni
fi ¼ ; f ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2:63Þ
2p i n þ x2
2
i i
From Eq. (2.59), it can be seen that zi ðtÞ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M is related only with the
ith mode of the system ki . Hence, zi ðtÞ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M often is seen as the ith mode
of the system. Equation (2.57) is often called the modal decomposition of
statespace representation.
From Eq. (2.61), it can also be seen that the magnitude of vki measures how
much the ith mode ki contributes to the kth state variable xk ðtÞ. Thus, jvki j is a kind
of measurement of the “observability” of the ith mode in the kth state variable.
On the basis of above discussion, from Fig. 2.12, it can be seen that wTi bo is the
weight on how much the control signal u affects the ith mode of the openloop
system, the socalled controllability index, whereas cTo vi is the weight on how much
the ith mode is observed in the system output, which is called the observability
index. The product of controllability and observability index is called the residue.
That is
Z ¼ V1 X ¼ WT X ð2:65Þ
or
wki is the ith row kth column element of matrix W. Equation (2.66) indicates that
the magnitude of wki measures the influence of the kth state variable xk ðtÞ on the ith
state variable zi ðtÞ, or the ith mode ki of the system. It is a kind of measurement of
“controllability” of the kth state variable on the ith mode.
Let the realization of the transfer function of feedback controller HðsÞ be
sXf ¼ Af Xf þ bf y
ð2:67Þ
u ¼ cTf Xf
2.2 Modal Analysis 37
That is HðsÞ ¼ cTf ðsI Af Þ1 bf . Thus, from Eqs. (2.43) and (2.67), the
statespace representation of closedloop system can be obtained to be
sX Ao bo cTf X X
¼ ¼ Ac ð2:68Þ
sXf bf cTo Af Xf Xf
where Ac is the state matrix of closedloop system. Obviously, based on the dis
cussion above, eigenvalues of Ac or modes of closedloop system determine the
stability of closedloop system.
From Eq. (2.68), it can be obtained that
Hence, the residue measures how much the mode of closedloop system is
affected by the parameter of the controller.
In the above statespace model of the power system, the input to the openloop
system is DE0q , the output is Dd, and the transfer function of feedback controller is
Fdelta ðsÞ. Obviously, the statespace realization of Fdelta ðsÞ is as follows:
2 3 2 3
K0 3 1 0 K0 4
sDE0q 6 Tdo 0
Tdo 7 DE Tdo 5
¼4 5
q
þ4 Dd
sDE0fd K
TA K6
T 1 DE0
TA K5
K
A A
fd
A ð2:72Þ
0
DEq
DE0q ¼ ½ 1 0
DE0fd
According to Eq. (2.48), the modes of openloop system can be found by solving
the following characteristic equation
0 xo 1 0 k xo D K1
D k 0 1 ¼ K1 D k ¼ k þ M k þ M xo ¼ 0
2
K1 M M
M M
ð2:73Þ
The oscillation mode is related to the rotor motion of generator, i.e. state vari
ables Dd and Dx. It is often called the electromechanical oscillation mode of the
power system.
From Eq. (2.71), it can have
sDd 0 xo Dd Dd
¼ K K D ¼ Ac ð2:75Þ
sDx M M2 Fdelta ðsÞ
1
M Dx Dx
KA K6
TA sþ T1
TA K5
K
A A
2 32 3
s þ T1 1
K0 4
1 T0do Tdo 5
4 54
A
¼
½1 0 K K
s þ K0 3 s þ T1 þ KTA K6 10 TA 6 s þ K0 3 TA K5
K
Tdo A A Tdo A Tdo A
2 3
T0do TA h i K0 4
s þ T1 1 4 Tdo 5
¼ T0do
ðsT0do þ K3 ÞðTA s þ 1Þ þ KA K6 A
TA K5
K
A
ðTA s þ 1ÞK4 þ KA K5
¼
ðsT0doþ K3 ÞðTA s þ 1Þ þ KA K6
ð2:76Þ
The general linearized model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with
the PSS installed is Eq. (2.21) which can be rearranged as follows:
2 3 2 32 3 2 3
sDd 0 x0 0 Dd 0
6 7 6 a21 a22 aT238 76 7 6 7
4 sDx 5 ¼ 4 54 Dx 5 þ 4 0 5Dupss
M M M
sDx38 a138 a238 A33 Dx38 bpss3
2 3
Dd ð2:78Þ
6 7
y ¼ Dx ¼ ½ 0 1 0 4 Dx 5
Dx38
Dupss ¼ Tpss ðsÞDx
40 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
a 21
1 Δω ω0 Δδ
 Ms + a 22 s
ΔTe
ΔX 38
( sI  A 33 ) −1 + bpss3 Δu pss
Fig. 2.13 General linearized model of singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with PSS
installed
That is
2 3
0 x0 0
It can have
a21 i w
i2
w Ti3 a138 ¼ k
þw i1
M
a22 i w
x0 w i2
i1 w Ti3 a238 ¼ k
þw i2 ð2:81Þ
M
aT i w
i2 238 þ w
w Ti3 A33 ¼ k Ti3
M
2.2 Modal Analysis 41
Hence,
aT238
Ti3 ¼ w
w i2 ðki I A33 Þ1 ð2:82Þ
M
From Eqs. (2.64), (2.78), and (2.82), the residue can be obtained to be
2 3 2 3
0 vi1
6 7 6 7
Ri ¼ wi1 wi2 Ti3 4
w 0 5½ 0 1 0 4 vi2 5
bpss3 vi3
ð2:83Þ
¼ wTi3 bpss3 vi2
aT i I A33 Þ1 bpss3
¼ w i2 vi2 238 ðk
M
If the feedback signal and transfer function of the PSS to be designed is y and
TPSS ðsÞ respectively, Eq. (2.78) can be written more generally as follows:
sX ¼ AX þ bDupss
y ¼ cT X ð2:84Þ
Dupss ¼ Tpss ðsÞy
c ÞTpss ðk
1 þ Gðk c Þ ¼ 0 ð2:87Þ
42 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
By separating the real and imaginary part of the above equation, two equations
will be obtained which can be used to determine two parameters of the transfer
function of PSS. If the transfer function of PSS adopts the following format of a
lead–lag block,
ð1 þ saTÞ2
Tpss ðsÞ ¼ Kpss ð2:88Þ
ð1 þ sTÞ2
With a predetermined T, parameters of the PSS, Kpss and a , can be set according
to Eq. (2.87), thus completing the design of PSS via the pole assignment.
The damping torque analysis (DTA) was ﬁrstly introduced on the basis of the
Heffron–Phillips model for a singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system to examine
the effect of excitation control, such as the AVR, on power system smallsignal
stability [1–3]. It was developed based on the understanding that the dynamic of the
electromechanical oscillation loop of a generator decides the damping of power
oscillations in the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system.
In the Heffron–Phillips model shown in Fig. 2.10, the upper part obviously is the
linearized rotor motion equation and lower part is formed from the mathematical
description of dynamic of the ﬁeld winding of generator and the AVR. Figure 2.14
shows the upper part of the model which is called the electromechanical oscillation
loop. Signal DTe from the lower part in the Heffron–Phillips model is obviously an
electric torque. Hence, from Fig. 2.14, it can have
K1
Δω ω0 Δδ
_ 1
Ms + D s
ΔTe
D x0 K1 x0
s2 Dd þ sDd þ Dd þ DTe ¼ 0 ð2:89Þ
M M M
If ﬁrstly the contribution from the lower part of Heffron–Phillips model, DTe , is
not considered, the electromechanical oscillation loop of generator shown in
Fig. 2.14 is described by the following secondorder differential equation
D x0 K1
s2 Dd þ sDd þ Dd ¼ 0 ð2:90Þ
M M
DTe ¼ Td Dx þ Ts Dd ð2:92Þ
44 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
Obviously, from the discussion on Eq. (2.91), it is easy to understand that the
component in the decomposition of DTe , Td Dx, contributes to the damping of
power oscillation. This component is called the damping torque. In Eq. (2.92), Ts Dd
is called the synchronizing torque.
From Fig. 2.10, it can be seen that the electric torque contributed from the lower
part of Heffron–Phillips model is as follows:
where Fdelta ðsÞ and Fpss ðsÞ are the transfer function from Dd and Dupss respectively,
to form the electric torque contribution to the electromechanical oscillation loop of
generator.
The electric torque contribution from the PSS is as follows:
Figure 2.15 shows that the PSS contributes the electric torque, DTpss , to the
electromechanical oscillation loop of generator. Obviously, Fpss ðsÞ is the transfer
function of forward path from the stabilizing signal of the PSS to the
ΔΤpss
K2
ΔE q’ 1 KA + Δupss
Td0's+K3 1+sTA
K6
1 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA K
Fpss ðsÞ ¼ K2 ¼ K2 0
A ð2:96Þ
1 þ K6 1
0
K A K3 þ sT d0 ð1 þ sTA Þ þ K6 KA
K3 þ sTd0 1 þ sTA
For example, if the PSS is a puregain controller and takes the deviation of rotor
speed of generator as the feedback signal, i.e. Dupss ¼ Kpss Dx, the electric torque
contributed from the PSS to the electromechanical oscillation loop of generator is as
follows:
where Re F pss ðjxs Þ and Im Fpss ðjxs Þ denote the real and imaginary part of
pss ðjxs Þ, respectively (this notation will be used throughout the book). From the
F
ﬁrst equation in Eq. (2.41), it can have sDd ¼ x0 Dx, i.e.
jxs
Dx ¼ Dd ð2:98Þ
x0
In Eq. (2.78) or Fig. 2.13, denote DTe ¼ aT238 Dx38 . From Eq. (2.78) or
Fig. 2.13, it can have
a22 a21
s2 Dd þ sDd þ x0 Dd þ DTe ¼ 0 ð2:100Þ
M M
46 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
Taking the similar procedure of DTA presented above in Sects. 2.3.1.1 and
2.3.1.2, transfer function of the forward path of stabilizing signal of the PSS can be
obtained to be
At the angular oscillation frequency, xs , the electric torque contribution from the
PSS is as follows:
The electric torque can be decomposed into the damping and synchronizing
torque. The damping torque contribution from the PSS determines its effect on the
damping of power oscillation.
Assume that the installation of PSS brings about a change of damping coefﬁcient
Dpss Dx in the electromechanical oscillation loop of generator. The statespace
representation of power system with the PSS installed can be equivalently written
as follows:
2 3 2 32 3
sDd 0 x0 0 Dd
6 7 6 a21 a22 þ Dpss aT238 76 7
4 sDx 5 ¼ 4 M 54 Dx 5 ð2:103Þ
M M
Dx38 a138 a238 A33 Dx38
i
@k @Ac
Ti
¼w vi
@Dpss @Dpss
2 32 3
0 x0 0 vi1
@ 6 aT238 76 7
¼ w i1 i2
w i3
w T
4 a21
a22 þ Dpss
M 54 vi2 5 ð2:104Þ
@Dpss M M
a138 a238 A33 vi3
i2
w vi2
¼
M
From Eqs. (2.83), (2.102), and (2.104), it can be seen that the residue in fact
measures the effect of the PSS on the electromechanical oscillation mode of the
system. At the complex frequency k i , it is equal to the forward path of the PSS
multiplied by the sensitivity of the mode to the damping torque contribution.
2.3 Damping Torque Analysis 47
This section explains the theoretical basis of the damping torque analysis by use of
the Phillips–Heffron model as follows.
Firstly, the effect of PSS is not considered, i.e. Dupss ¼ 0. From Fig. 2.10, it can
have
2
Ms þ Ds þ x0 K1 DdðsÞ ¼ x0 DTðsÞ
ð2:105Þ
DTðsÞ ¼ Fdelta ðsÞDdðsÞ
where Fdelta ðsÞ is the transfer function from DdðsÞ to DTðsÞ. Combining two
equations above gives
2
2 þ Dk
Mk s þ x0 K1 þ x0 F s Þ ¼ 0
delta ðk ð2:108Þ
s
The second equation in Eq. (2.105) expressed in the complex frequency domain
is as follows:
s Þ ¼ F
DTðk s ÞDdðk
delta ðk s Þ ð2:109Þ
Also in the complex frequency domain, the ﬁrst equation in Eq. (2.41) becomes
s Þ ¼ ns þ jxs s Þ ¼ ns Ddðk
s Þ þ j xs Ddðk
s Þ
Dxðk Ddðk ð2:110Þ
x0 x0 x0
s Þ ¼ Ts1 Ddðk
DTðk s Þ þ Td1 Dxðk
s Þ ð2:111Þ
48 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
s ÞDdðk
delta ðk
F s Þ þ Td1 ns Ddðk
s Þ ¼ Ts1 Ddðk s Þ þ jT xs Ddðk
s Þ ð2:112Þ
x0 d1
x0
That is
F s Þ ¼ Ts1 þ Td1 ns þ jT xs
delta ðk ð2:113Þ
x0 d1
x0
The above derivation indicates that in the complex frequency domain, the
electric torque can be decomposed into damping and synchronizing torque
according to Eq. (2.111). Substituting Eqs. (2.111) into (2.108), it can have
2 þ Dk
ðMk s þ x0 K1 ÞDdðk
s Þ ¼ x0 Ts1 Ddðk
s Þ x0 Td1 Dxðks Þ
s
ð2:115Þ
¼ x0 Ts1 Ddðk s Ddðk
s Þ Td1 k s Þ
Thus,
Mk s þ x0 K1 þ x0 Ts1 ¼ 0
2 þ ðD þ Td1 Þk ð2:116Þ
s
D þ Td1
ns ¼ ð2:117Þ
2M
Equation (2.117) indicates that the damping torque affects the real part of
electromechanical oscillation mode, i.e. the damping of power oscillation.
Equations (2.16) and (2.39) include the following linearized rotor motion equation
of generator
:
D d ¼ x0 Dx
: 1 ð2:118Þ
D x ¼ ðDPt þ DDxÞ
M
2.3 Damping Torque Analysis 49
Obviously, Ddelta Dx and Dpss Dx are the damping torque contributed to the
electromechanical oscillation loop of generator from Dd and Dupss , respectively.
Function of the damping torque component in suppressing the power oscillation can
be explained graphically by the use of the linearized equalarea criterion as follows.
Without affecting the conclusions of following discussion,
it is assumed
that in
Eq. (2.120), Ddelta ¼ 0. When there is no PSS installed DPt ðDupss Þ ¼ 0 ,
The linearized DPt Dd curve is line a–f as shown in Fig. 2.16. In Fig. 2.16, the
operating point of system at steady state is d (Pt0 ; d0 ) and it moves to point a
(Pt1 ; d1 ) after the system is subject to a small disturbance. Hence, when the oper
ating point moves down from the initial point a (Pt1 ; d1 ) along line a–f, it will stop at
point f (Pt20 ; d20 ) with area a–d–c being equal to area d–g–f. Obviously, in this case,
jPt1 Pt0 j ¼ jPt20 Pt0 j; jd1 d0 j ¼ jd20 d0 j, power oscillation is of unchanged
magnitude and not damped at all.
When the PSS is installed to provide a pure positive damping torque,
When the operating point moves down from point a (Pt1 ; d1 ), power angle of
generator decreases and thus Dx\0. Dpss Dx\0 is added on Cdelta Dd as shown in
Eq. (2.123). Hence, the operating point should move below line a–f along curve
DPt ¼ Cdelta Dd þ Dpss Dx;. When the operating point stops moving, Dx ¼ 0. Thus,
it should stop on line a–f at point c (Pt2 ; d2 ) with area A1 being equal to area A2 .
50 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
ΔPt=CdeltaΔδ
A1
Pt0 g d e
A2
c
Direction of
f Δω < 0
δ
δ2' δ2 δ0 δ1
δ
Time response
with the PSS
time
Time response without the PSS
Obviously, jPt2 Pt0 j\jPt1 Pt0 j; jd2 d0 j\jd1 d0 j, indicating extra positive
damping is provided by the PSS to the power oscillation. A similar analysis can be
carried out to examine the case when the operating point moves up from point c
(Pt2 ; d2 ).
The above discussion explains the function of damping provided by the PSS in
suppressing the power oscillation. It is important to note that the explanation relies
only on the linearized rotor motion equation in Eqs. (2.118), (2.119), and (2.120)
without referring to any particular type of model of power system. This means that
for any type of linearized model of power system, including that of a multimachine
power system, if Eqs. (2.119) and (2.120) can be established on the basis of the
model, the above procedure can be applied.
If the rotor speed of generator is taken as the feedback signal of the PSS, transfer
function of the PSS is Tpss ðsÞ, that is
2.3 Damping Torque Analysis 51
pss ðjxs ÞT
DTpss ¼ F pss ðjxs ÞDx
¼ Re½Fpss ðjxs ÞT pss ðjxs ÞDx xs Im½Fpss ðjxs ÞT pss ðjxs ÞDd ð2:126Þ
x0
¼ Tpssd Dx þ Tpsss Dd
The damping and synchronizing torque provided by the PSS is Tpssd Dx and
Tpsss Dd, respectively. In order to achieve the most efﬁcient design, ideally the PSS
should provide only the damping torque, that is,
where Dpss is the coefﬁcient of the damping torque which needs to be provided by
the PSS. Hence, from Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127), it can be seen that design of the PSS
should satisfy that
pss ðjxs ÞT
Dpss ¼ F pss ðjxs Þ ð2:128Þ
According to Eq. (2.128), design of the PSS should set the phase of the PSS,
\T pss ðjxs Þ, to be equal to the minus phase of the forward path, \F
pss ðjxs Þ, that is to
design the PSS such that it can compensate the phase lag of the forward path and
ensure it to provide a pure positive damping torque. Hence, the method to design
the PSS based on Eq. (2.128) is called the phase compensation method.
If it is denoted that
pss ðjxs Þ ¼ Fpss \/; T
F pss ðjxs Þ ¼ Tpss \c ð2:129Þ
Often the PSS is constructed as a lead–lag block with its main part of transfer
function to be
where Kpss ¼ Kpss1 Kpss2 . Parameters of the PSS then can be set to satisfy
ð1 þ jxs T2 Þ Dpss /
Kpss1 ¼ \
ð1 þ jxs T1 Þ Fpss 2
ð2:133Þ
ð1 þ jxs T4 Þ /
Kpss2 ¼ 1:0\
ð1 þ jxs T3 Þ 2
c Þ ¼ F
DTdelta ðk c ðsÞDdðk
delta k c Þ ¼ C1 Ddðkc Þ þ D1 Dxðkc Þ
ð2:135Þ
DTpss ðkc Þ ¼ F c ÞT
pss ðk c ÞDxðk
pss ðk c Þ ¼ Cpss Ddðk
c Þ þ Dpss Dxðk
c Þ
Taking the similar procedure of discussion in Sect. 2.3.2.1, it can easily prove
c Þ affects the damping of the electromechanical oscillation mode.
that Dpss Dxðk
Hence, the PSS can be designed to satisfy
c ÞTpss ðk
Fpss ðk c Þ ¼ Dpss ð2:136Þ
When the PSS is being designed, if k c ¼ n þ jxc is given, the PSS can be
c
designed by using the phase compensation method deﬁned by Eq. (2.136) to move
c ¼ n þ jxc in
the electromechanical oscillation mode strictly to the position at k c
the complex plane. If only the amount of damping torque provision
Dpss Dx; Dpss [ 0 is given, the PSS can also be designed by the phase compensation
method introduced above from Eqs. (2.126) to (2.133).
2.4 Examples 53
2.4 Examples
where Qb0 is the reactive power received at the inﬁnite busbar and * denotes the
conjugate of a complex phasor. By choosing V b0 as the reference phasor, that is,
¼ Vb0 , from the above equation, it can be obtained that
b0 ¼ V
V b0
2sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3
2
Vb0 4 xt Pt0
Qb0 ¼ V2t0 Vb0 5 ¼ 0:3155 p:u:
xt Vb0
Thus,
Q
Thus, the qaxis of generator can be found by calculating the imaginary EMF E
Q0 ¼ V
E t0 þ ðra þ jxq ÞIt0 ¼ 1:2959 þ j0:4634 ¼ 1:38\19:68
Hence, d0 ¼ 19:68 . From the above equation about Eq0 and EQ0 , it can have
Eq
jx d I t
v tq
jx t I t
Vt b
Vb
δ ϕ
It
vtd d
Above computation can be shown by the phasor diagram of Fig. 2.17 where
subscript 0 is omitted. From Fig. 2.17, it can be seen that
Because
thus
Eq0
if0 ¼ ¼ 1:5624
xad
56 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
Because iD0 ¼ 0; iQ0 ¼ 0, thus according to Eq. (2.2), it can be obtained that
2 3 2 32 3 2 3
wd0 xd xad xad id0 1:0132
6 7 6 76 7 6 7
4 wf0 5 ¼ 4 xad xf xad 54 if0 5 ¼ 4 1:3001 5
wD0 xad xad xD iD0 1:0970
" #
wq0 xq xaq iq0 0:2844
¼ ¼
wQ0 xaq xQ iQ0 0:2187
Denote
2 31 2 3 2 3
xd xad xad a11 a12 a13 4:2331 1:8311 2:1640
6 7 6 7 6 7
4 xad xf xad 5 ¼ 4 a21 a22 a23 5 ¼ 4 1:8311 5:1570 2:9963 5
xad xad xD a31 a32 a33 2:1640 2:9963 5:5498
1
xq xaq b11 b12 3:6842 2:8653
¼ ¼
xaq xQ b13 b14 2:8653 3:7249
2 0 0 3 2 3
0 0
6 id0 iq0 7 6
6 M 7 0:0665 0:0521 7
6 M 7 6 7
6 KA Vtd0 KA Vtq0 7 6 2686:1 9632:5 7
6
7
6 T V T V 7 6 7
6 t0 7
6 7
6 x 7 6 314:1593
A t0 A
6 0 7
0 7
Bgdq ¼6 0 ¼
7 6 6 7
6 x 7 0 314:1593 7
6 0 0 7 6 6 7
6 7 6 7
6 0 0 7 6 0 0 7
6 7 4 7
4 5 0 0 5
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 a11 0 a12 a13 0
Cgdq ¼
0 0 0 0 b11 0 0 b12
0 0 0 4:2331 0 1:8331 2:1640 0
¼
0 0 0 0 3:4862 0 0 2:8653
0 xt 0 0:15
Fdq1 ¼ ¼
xt 0 0:15 0
Vb cos d0 0 0:9416 0
Fdq2 ¼ ¼
Vb sin d0 0 0:3367 0
Thus, state matrix and control vector of linearized statespace model are obtained
to be
According to Eq. (2.63), the oscillation frequency f i (Hz) and damping fi for the
electromechanical oscillation mode, k 6 and k7 , are as follows:
xi
fi ¼ ¼ 1:34 Hz
2p
ni
fi ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 0:0838; i ¼ 6; 7
ni þ x2i
2
With D and Q damping winding of generator being ignored, from the given
parameters of above example power system and results of calculation, it can have
x2
x0d ¼ xd ad ¼ 0:2951
x
f
E0q0 0
¼ EQ0 xq xd itd0 ¼ 1:1506
According to Eq. (2.63), oscillation frequency f i (Hz) and damping fi for the
electromechanical oscillation mode, k2;3 , are as follows:
xi
fi ¼ ¼ 1:315 Hz
2p
ni
fi ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 0:0014; i ¼ 2; 3
ni þ x2i
2
Hence,
¼ ½ v1
V v2 v3 v4
2 3
8:4781 106 0:9014 0:9014 0:0077
6 2:5091 106 j0:0237 7
6 j0:0237 0:0002 7
¼6 7
4 0:0022 0:0050 þ j0:0050 0:0050 j0:0050 0:0284 5
1 0:3868 j0:1930 0:3868 þ j0:1930 0:9996
60 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
T ¼ ½ w1 1
W 2
w 3
w w4 T ¼ V
2 3
0:2524 0:5554 j0:0001 0:5554 þ j0:0001 0:1773
6 0:8529 0:0312 j21:1226 0:0312 þ j21:1226 7:3269 7
6 7
¼6 7
4 38:0214 0:1626 þ j0:1475 0:1626 j0:1475 38:2206 5
1:0823 0:0003 þ j0:0003 0:0003 j0:0003 0:0827
szi ¼ ki zi ; þ wTi bo u, i ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4
Without considering the PSS Dupss ¼ 0 , solution of modal decomposition is
obtained to be
zi ðt) ¼ zi ð0Þeki t ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4
X
4 X
4
xk ðt) ¼ vki zi ð0Þeki t ¼ vki zi ð0Þeni t ½cos xi t þ j sin xi t
i¼1 i¼1
X
4 X
4
lim xk ðt) ¼ lim vki zi ð0Þeki t ¼ lim vki zi ð0Þeni t ½cos xi t þ j sin xi t
t!1 t!1 t!1
i¼1 i¼1
92:9741t
¼ lim fe vk1 z1 ð0Þ þ e0:0114t vk2 z2 ð0Þ½cosð8:2610tÞ þ j sinð8:2610tÞ
t!1
þ e0:0114t vk3 z3 ð0Þ½cosð8:2610tÞ j sinð8:2610tÞ þ e7:6008t vk4 z4 ð0Þg ¼ 0
T
Since XðtÞ ¼ DdðtÞ DxðtÞ DE0q ðtÞ DE0fd ðtÞ and
lim dðtÞ ¼ d0 ; lim xðtÞ ¼ x0 ; lim E0q ðtÞ ¼ E0q0 ðtÞ; lim E0fd ðtÞ ¼ E0fd0 ðtÞ
t!1 t!1 t!1 t!1
All the state variables return to their initial points Xð0Þ, the equilibrium point of
the system. Hence, the system is stable in terms of smallsignal stability.
State matrix, control vector, and output vector of Eq. (2.71) are as follows:
" #
0 w0 0 314:16
A0 ¼ D ¼ 0:2178
KM M
1
0
" #
0 0
b0 ¼ K ¼ cT0 ¼ ½ 1 0
M 2
0:1086
Thus
T ¼ ½w
W 1 w 1 ¼ ½ v1 v2 1
2 T ¼ V
T
0:9997 0:9997 1 0:5002 0:5002
¼¼ ¼
j0:0263 j0:0263 j18:9947 j18:9947
1 ¼ w
R T1 b0 cT0 v1 ¼ j2:0622
2 ¼ w
R T2 b0 cT0 v2 ¼ j2:0622
Above results indicate that increase of the gain value and time constant will
move the electromechanical oscillation mode towards the right on the complex
plane and hence is detrimental to the smallsignal angular stability of the power
system. It has been well known that the fastacting highgain AVR may be detri
mental to the damping of power system electromechanical oscillation modes. This
means that increase of gain value of the AVR could move the oscillation mode to
the right. However, increase of the time constant (slower action of the AVR) should
not.
In order to further clarify the results of derivative of the oscillation mode in
respect to the parameters of the AVR obtained above, Fig. 2.18 presents the loci of
movement of the electromechanical oscillation mode on the complex plane with the
change of gain value and time constant of the AVR. In Fig. 2.18, KA increases from
KA ¼ 50 to KA ¼ 100 with TA ¼ 0:01 and TA increases from TA ¼ 0:01 to TA ¼
0:1 with KA ¼ 100. From Fig. 2.18, it can be seen that although at the point
KA ¼ 100; TA ¼ 0:01 where the derivatives are calculated, the trend of loci
movement is towards the right with the increase of the gain value and time constant,
and the oscillation mode in fact moves towards left when the time constant of the
AVR increases. The trend of the loci with the increase of the time constant of the
AVR actually changes the direction at the point KA ¼ 100; TA ¼ 0:01.
2.4 Examples 63
Fig. 2.18 Loci of the movement of the oscillation mode on the complex plane with the changes of
parameters of the AVR
2.4.2.3 Design of the PSS by Pole Assignment for the Example Power
System
ð1 þ saTÞ2
Tpss ðsÞ ¼ Kpss
ð1 þ sTÞ2
64 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
238:8s
GðsÞ ¼ cT ðsI AÞ1 b ¼
1:1s4 þ 110:6s3 þ 854:5s2 þ 7563s þ 53020
From the characteristic equation of closedloop control system of Eq. (2.85), for
the electromechanical oscillation mode k c , it should have
c Þ ¼ 1 1
Tpss ðk c Þ ¼ 0:0753 j0:0996
Gðk
That is
c aTÞ2
ð1 þ k 1
Kpss ¼
ð1 þ kc TÞ 2 0:0753 j0:0996
In order to establish the statespace model of closedloop system with the PSS
installed, let
ð1 þ saTÞ
Dx1 ¼ Dx
ð1 þ sTÞ
ð1 þ saTÞ
Dupss ¼ Kpss Dx1
ð1 þ sTÞ
2.4 Examples 65
1 1
sDx1 ¼ Dx þ a sDx Dx1
T T
K1 1 D K2 1
¼ aDd þ a Dx aDE0q Dx1
M T M M T
1 1
sDupss ¼ Kpss Dx1 Dupss þ Kpss a sDx1
T T
K1 2 1 D K2 0
¼ Kpss a Dd þ Kpss að aÞDx Kpss a2 DEq
M T M M
1 1
þ ð1 aÞ Kpss Dx1 Dupss
T T
By writing the state equation of openloop system and the PSS together, the
statespace model of closedloop system is obtained to be
2 : 32 32 3
Dd 0 314:159 0 0 0 0 Dd
6 : 7 6
6 Dx 7 6 0:218 0 0:109 0 0 0 7 6
76 Dx0 7
7
6 0 7 6
6 DE_ q 7 6 0:134 0 0:597 0:200 0 0 7 76
6 DEq 7
7
6 0 7 ¼ 6 26:582 10000 7 6 0 7
6 DE_ 7 6
6 fd 7
0 3245:044 100 0 76 DEfd 7
4 Dx_ 1 5 4 0:528 10 0:263 0 10 0 54 Dx1 5
Du_ pss 3:352 63:432 1:671 0 37:281 10 Dupss
1 ¼ 93:4535
k
2;3 ¼ 0:8995 j5:2621
k
4;5 ¼ 9:4136 j5:0918
k
k6 ¼ 6:5176
40
30
20
10
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time (second)
Fig. 2.19 Simulation result of example power system without and with PSS installed
From Fig. 2.10, it can be seen that the electric torque provided by the AVR to the
electromechanical oscillation loop of generator is as follows:
K5 1 KA
sT0do þ K3 sTA þ 1
DTavr ¼ K2 Dd
1 þ 0 K6 sTKAþ 1
sTdo þ K3 A
K2 K5 KA
¼ Dd ¼ Favr ðsÞDd
K6 KA þ ðsT0do þ K3 ÞðsTA þ 1Þ
s ¼ Tsavr Dd k
DTavr k s þ Tdavr Dx k
s
Because
s Þ ¼ ns þ jxs s Þ ¼ ns Ddðk
s Þ þ j xs Ddðk
s Þ
Dxðk Ddðk
x0 x0 x0
thus
That is
xs s Þ
Tdavr ¼ ImFavr ðk
x0
Since
s Þ ¼ K2 K5 KA
Favr ðk s TA þ 1Þ
K6 KA þ ðks T0do þ K3 Þðk
K2 K5 KA
¼
K6 KA þ K3 þ ðK3 TA þ T0d0 Þk 2
s þ T0 TA k
d0 s
K2 K5 KA
¼
K6 KA þ K3 þ ðK3 TA þ T0d0 Þðns þ jxs Þ þ T0d0 TA ðns þ jxs Þ2
K2 K5 KA K2 K5 KA
¼ ¼ 2 ða jbÞ ¼ 0:0024 þ j0:0031
a þ jb a þ b2
where
a ¼ K6 KA þ K3 þ K3 TA þ T0d0 ns þ T0d0 TA n2s x2s ¼ 31:9695
b ¼ K3 TA þ T0d0 xs þ 2T0d0 TA ns xs ¼ 41:5426
x0 s Þ ¼ x0 K2 K5 KA b
Tdavr ¼ ImFavr ðk
xs xs a2 þ b2
¼ 0:0988
68 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
Since
@a @a
@ KA
¼ K6 ¼ 0:3245; @ TA
¼ K3 ns þ T0d0 n2s x2s ¼ 341:2561
@b
@ KA
¼ 0; @b
@ TA
¼ K3 xs þ 2T0d0 ns xs ¼ 23:7488
sensitivity of the damping torque provided by the AVR to its parameters can be
obtained to be
h
i
@Tdavr x0 K2 K5 b þ KA @@Kb a2 þ b2 KA b 2a @@Ka þ 2b @@Kb
¼ A A A
¼ 0:0003
@KA xs ða2 þ b2 Þ2
h
i
@b @a @b
x0 K2 K5 KA @ TA ða þ b Þ b 2a @ TA þ 2b @ TA
2 2
@Tdavr
¼ ¼ 0:9055
@TA xs ða2 þ b2 Þ2
The above results indicate that (1) with the increase of the AVR gain, less
damping torque will be provided by the AVR, detrimental to the system
smallsignal angular stability and (2) with the increase of the AVR time constant,
less damping torque will be provided by the AVR, also detrimental to the damping
of lowfrequency power oscillations.
The PSS to be designed is to provide a damping torque DTpss ¼ Dpss Dx; Dpss ¼ 15.
From Eq. (2.96), the forward path of stabilizing signal of the PSS can be obtained to
be ðjxs ¼ j8:44Þ
KA
Fpss ðjxs Þ ¼ K2 0
ðK3 þ jxs Td0 Þð1 þ jxs TA Þ þ K6 KA
¼ 0:8598 j1:1451 ¼ 1:4320\53:0989
The PSS adopts the deviation of rotor speed of generator as the feedback signal,
and its transfer function is as follows:
ð1 þ sT2 Þ ð1 þ sT4 Þ
Tpss ðsÞ ¼ K1 K2 with T1 ¼ 0:09 s; T3 ¼ 0:09 s
ð1 þ sT1 Þ ð1 þ sT3 Þ
2.4 Examples 69
According to Eq. (2.133), parameters of the PSS are set to compensate the phase
of the forward path and thus obtained to be
Let
ð1 þ sT4 Þ
Dx1 ¼ Kpss2 Dx ¼ ð9:3706 þ j4:6819ÞDx
ð1 þ sT3 Þ
ð1 þ sT2 Þ
Dupss ¼ Kpss1 Dx1 ¼ ð0:8946 þ j0:4470ÞDx1
ð1 þ sT1 Þ
1 Kpss2
sDx1 ¼ Dx1 þ ðT4 sDx þ DxÞ
T3 T3
1 Kpss2 T4
¼ Dx1 þ ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDxÞ þ DxÞ
T3 T3 M
Kpss2 T4 K1 Kpss2 T4 Kpss2 T4 K2 0 1
¼ Dd þ 1 D Dx DEq Dx1
T3 M T3 M T3 M T3
¼ 0:3230Dd þ 6:1672Dx 0:1224DE0q 11:1111Dx1
1 Kpss1 T2 Kpss1 Kpss1 T2 Kpss2 T4 K1
sDupss ¼ Dupss þ Dx1 þ Dd
T1 T1 T3 T1 T1 T3 M
Kpss2 T4 K2 0 Kpss2 T4
DEq þ 1 D Dx
T3 M T3 M
Kpss T2 T4 K1 Kpss T2 T4 Kpss T2 T4 K2 0
¼ Dd þ 1 D Dx DEq
T1 T3 M T1 T3 M T1 T3 M
Kpss1 T2 Kpss1 1
+ Dx1 Dupss
T1 T3 T1 T1
¼ 5:0182Dd þ 95:8026Dx 2:5018DE0q 108:0008Dx1 11:1111Dupss
By writing the state equation of openloop system and the PSS together, state
matrix of closedloop system is obtained to be
70 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
2 0 x0 0 0 0 0 3
6 K1 D K 0 7
6 0 0 7
2
6 M M M 7
6 K 7
6 K0 4 0 03 1
0 0 7
6 Td0 Td0 T0d0 7
6 7
A¼6 KA 7
6 KTA K5 0 KTA K6 K A
0 TA 7
6 A
A TA 7
6 7
6 Kpss2 T4 K1 Kpss2
1 TTM KT 20 T4 K2
K2 0 T1 0 7
6 7
4
4 T 3M T 3M
5
3 3 3
Kpss1
T 2 T 4 K1
T1 T3 M K PSS
T2 1 T4 D K
T1 T3 M PSS T 2 T 4 K2
T1 T3 M KPSS 0 T1 1 T2
T3 T1
1
2 3
0 314:16 0 0 0 0
6 0:2178 0:1086 7
6 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:1345 0 0:5977 0:2 0 0 7
¼6
6 26:5821
7
6 0 3245 100 0 10000 7
7
6 7
4 0:3230 6:1672 0:1224 0 11:1111 0 5
5:0182 95:8026 2:5018 0 108:0008 11:1111
k1 ¼ 93:6838
2;3 ¼ 1:2125 j8:0051
k
k4;5 ¼ 8:7171 j6:2080
k6 ¼ 9:2771
Fig. 2.20 Simulation result of power system without and with the PSS designed by use of the
phase compensation method
2.4 Examples 71
circuit occurred on the transmission line which was cleared in 100 ms. From
Fig. 2.20, it can be seen that the lowfrequency oscillation is damped effectively by
the PSS designed by use of the phase compensation method.
K2 ½K4 ðsTA þ 1Þ þ K5 KA
¼
K6 KA þ sT0do þ K3 ðsTA þ 1Þ
2 þ 0:1553k
7k s þ 477:7128 ¼ 0
s
This is the ﬁrst equation in Eq. (2.120). Figure 2.21 presents the Pt d curve
from simulation. At 1 s of simulation, the mechanical power input to the generator
72 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
without PSS
with PSS installed
Fig. 2.21 Pt d curve, corresponding variation of rotor angle and power output of the generator
of example power system
c ÞDd þ F
DPt ¼ K1 Dd þ Fdelta ðk c ÞT
pss ðk c ÞDxðk
pss ðk c Þ
¼ K1 Dd þ Ts1 Dd þ Td1 Dx þ Dpss Dxðk c Þ
¼ 1:5207Dd þ 15:1553Dx
¼ ½ v1
V v2 v3 v4
T ¼ ½ w1 1
W 2
w 3
w w 4 T ¼ V
Thus, according to Eq. (2.64), for the electromechanical oscillation modes, the
residue is calculated to be
2 ¼ w
R T2 bo cTo
v2
¼ ½ 0:5554 j0:0001 0:0312 j21:1226 0:1626 þ j0:1476 0:0003 þ j0:0003
2 3 2 3
0 0:9014
6 0 7 6 7
6 7 6 j0:0237 7
6 7½ 0 1 0 0 6 7
4 0 5 4 0:0050 + j0:0050 5
10000 0:3868 j0:1930
¼ 0:0633 þ j0:0822
3 ¼ w
R T3 bo cTo
v3
¼ ½ 0:5554 þ j0:0001 0:0312 þ j21:1226 0:1626 j0:1475 0:0003 j0:0003
2 3 2 3
0 0:9014
6 0 7 6 j0:0237 7
6 7 6 7
6 7½ 0 1 0 0 6 7
4 0 5 4 0:0050 j0:0050 5
10000 0:3868 + j0:1930
¼ 0:0633 j0:0822
2
@k 22 v22
w ð0:0312 j21:1226Þðj0:0237Þ
¼ ¼ ¼ 0:0715
@Dpss M 7
3
@k 32 v32
w ð0:0312 þ j21:1226Þðj0:0237Þ
¼ ¼ ¼ 0:0715
@Dpss M 7
2.4 Examples 75
At the complex frequency k 2;3 ¼ 0:0114 j8:2610, the forward path can be
calculated from Eq. (2.96) as
2;3 Þ ¼ K2 KA
Fpss ðk
2;3 T0 Þð1 þ k2;3 TA Þ þ K6 KA
ðK3 þ k d0
0:7602 100
¼
½2:9885 þ ð0:0114 j8:2611Þ 5½1 þ ð0:0114 j8:2611Þ 0:01 þ 0:3245 100
¼ 0:8845 j1:1493
Hence,
@k2;3
R2;3 ¼ Fpss ðk2;3 Þ ¼ ð0:0715Þ ð0:8845 j1:1493Þ
@Dpss
¼ 0:0633 j0:0822
Thus, it is conformed that the residue is equal to the forward path of the PSS
multiplied by the sensitivity of electromechanical oscillation modes to the coefﬁ
cient of damping torque contribution from the PSS.
In Sect. 2.4.1.1, state matrix and control vector of statespace model of example
power system are obtained to be
2 3
0 314:16 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0:045 0:09 0:104 0:39 7
6 0 0 0:20 0:47 7
6 7
6 714:29 0 100 6116:3 1404:6 2646 3127 1154:5 7
6 7
6 295:81 89:35 6:65 135:03 7
6 0 478:4 2:88 3:40 7
Agcdq ¼6 7
6 105:79 318:31 0 513:64 5:48 86:29 101:98 4:50 7
6 7
6 1:22 7
6 0 0 314:16 0:43 0 0:71 0 7
6 7
4 0 0 0 1:36 0 1:88 3:49 0 5
0 0 0 0 36:0 0 0 46:8
2 3
0
6 0 7
6 7
6 7
6 10000 7
6 7
6 0 7
6 7
bpss ¼6 7
6 0 7
6 7
6 0 7
6 7
6 7
4 0 5
0
76 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
¼ ½ v1
V v2 ... v8
¼ ½w
T 1
; left eigenvectors corresponding to
As W 1 w 2 . . . w8 T ¼ V
eigenvalues are calculated to be
2 3T 2 3T
1:2419 j0:4483 1:2419 þ j0:4483
6 0:0486 j0:262 7 6 0:0486 þ j0:262 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:4494 þ j0:0412 7 6 0:4494 j0:0412 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:2153 j3:8659 7 T 6 0:2153 þ j3:8659 7
T1
w ¼6 7 w ¼ 6
6 1:9686 þ j0:7712 7 2 6 1:9686 j0:7712 7
7
6 7 6 7
6 0:0188 þ j1:3997 7 6 0:0188 j1:3997 7
6 7 6 7
4 0:0288 þ j1:6542 5 4 0:0288 j1:6542 5
0:6025 j0:5408 0:6025 þ j0:5408
2 3T 2 3T 2 3T
1:6552 þ j0:1633 1:6552 j0:1633 0:7411
6 0:1388 þ j0:9214 7 6 0:1388 j0:9214 7 6 6:8756 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 0:1003 j0:0038 7 6 0:1003 þ j0:0038 7 6 0:000219 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 0:2788 þ j1:9563 7 T 6 0:2788 j1:9563 7 T 6 0:0934 7
T3 6
¼6 7 6
4 ¼ 6 7 6 7
w 7 w 7 w5 ¼ 6 0:0106 7
6 2:5805 j0:126 7 6 2:5805 þ j0:126 7 6 7
6 0:0246 þ j0:1141 7 6 0:0246 j0:1141 7 6 0:000045 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
4 0:0277 þ j0:1353 5 4 0:0277 j0:1353 5 4 0:00006 5
0:7412 j0:2714 0:7412 þ j0:2714 1:3311
2 3T 2 3T
0:7422 þ j0:06 0:7422 j0:06
6 0:2586 j27:632 7 6 0:2586 þ j27:632 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:000019 þ j0:00094 7 6 0:000019 j0:00094 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:0034 þ j0:0146 7 T 6 0:0034 j0:0146 7
T6
w ¼6 7 w ¼ 6
6 0:0004 þ j0:000131 7 7 6 0:0004 j0:000131 7
7
6 7 6 7
6 0:000019 þ j0:000298 7 6 0:000019 j0:000298 7
6 7 6 7
4 0:000139 þ j0:0002727 5 4 0:000139 j0:0002727 5
0:0499 þ j0:2027 0:0499 j0:2027
2 3T
0:0803
6 2:7921 7
6 7
6 0:0021 7
6 7
6 0:003 7
wT8 ¼6
6 0:0283 7
7
6 7
6 0:000637 7
6 7
4 1:5496 5
0:079
78 2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System …
According to Eq. (2.64), for the pair of electromechanical oscillation modes, the
residue is calculated to be
6;7 ¼ w
R T6;7 bo cTo v6;7
2 3T 2 3
0:7422 j0:06 0
6 0:2586
j27:632 7 6 0 7
6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:000019 j0:00094 7 6 10000 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:0034 j0:0146 7 6 0 7
6 7 6 7
¼6 7 6 7
6 0:0004 j0:000131 7 6 0 7
6 7 6 7
6 0:000019 j0:000298 7 6 0 7
6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7
4 0:000139 j0:0002727 5 4 0 5
0:0499 þ j0:2027 0
2 3
0:7004
6 0:0016 j0:0188 7
6 7
6 7
6 0:000061
j0:000914 7
6 7
6 0:1482 j0:0043 7
6 7
½0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 7
6 0:5516 j0:0283 7
6 7
6 0:0317 j0:0041 7
6 7
6 7
4 0:0077 j0:0284 5
0:413 j0:0977
¼ 0:1772
j0:0114
6;7
@k 62;72 v62;72
w ð0:2586
j27:632Þð0:0016 j0:0188Þ
¼ ¼
@Dpss M 7
¼ 0:0743
j0:0056
At the complex frequency k6;7 ¼ 0:71 j8:44, the forward path can be cal
culated to be
2.4 Examples 79
Hence,
6;7
@k
R6;7 ¼ Fpss ðk6;7 Þ ¼ ð0:0743
j0:0056Þð2:3823 j0:0253Þ
@Dpss
¼ 0:1772
j0:0114
It is thus conﬁrmed that the residue is equal to the forward path of the PSS
multiplied by the sensitivity of oscillation modes to the coefﬁcient of damping
torque contribution from the PSS.
References
x svcl
α0
Vs π
Vsref  x svcc
voltage α firing circuit
controller +
+
π/2
ysvc SVC
stabilizer
Its I sb
Is jb svc
t ¼ jxtsIts þ V
V s ð3:3Þ
s ¼ jxsb Its þ Vb
V ð3:4Þ
csvc
t ¼ jxlRIts þ V
V b =csvc ð3:5Þ
E0q Vb cos d
itsd ¼
x0dR csvc x0dR
ð3:8Þ
Vb sin d
itsq ¼
csvc xqR
where itsd and itsq are the d and q component of line current Its , respectively.
where
csvc x0dR ¼ csvc ðx0d þ xts þ xsb =csvc Þ ¼ csvc ðx0d þ xts Þ þ xsb
¼ ð1 xsb bsvc Þðx0d þ xts Þ þ xsb ð3:10Þ
csvc xq ¼ ð1 xsb bsvc Þðxq þ xts Þ þ xsb
xq Vb cos d0 xq Vb sin d0
Dvtd ¼ Dd þ xsb ðxsb þ xq ÞDbsvc
csvc0 xqR ðcsvc0 xqR Þ2
Vb x0d sin d0 xLR
Dvtq ¼ Dd þ 0 DE0q ð3:11Þ
csvc0 x0dR xdR
" #
xlR E0q0 x2 E0q0 x2 Vb x0d cos d0
þ 0 2 2sb þ 0 2sb þ xsb ðxsb þ x0d Þ Dbsvc
ðxdR Þ csvc0 xdR csvc0 ðcsvc0 x0dR Þ2
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 85
Hence,
vtd0 vtq0
DVt ¼ Dvtd þ Dvtq ¼ K5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kv Dbsvc ð3:12Þ
Vt0 Vt0
where
By substituting Eqs. (3.9) and (3.12) into the linearized equation of Eq. (3.6),
it can have
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ðK1 Dd DDx K2 DE0q Kp Dbsvc Þ
M
_ 0 1 ð3:13Þ
DEq ¼ 0 ðK3 DE0q K4 Dd Kq Dbsvc þ DEfd Þ
Td0
0 1 0 KA
DE_ fd ¼ DE_ fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kv Dbsvc Þ
TA TA
K1
1 ω0
 D + sM s
Δbsvc
K2 K4 K5
Kp Kq Kv
SVC
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
Fig. 3.3 Extended Heffron–Phillips model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system
installed with an SVC stabilizer
s , respectively. By using
where vsd and vsq are the d and q component of voltage V
Eq. (3.8), from Eq. (3.14), it can be obtained that
Vb sin d V b sin d
csvc xqR xsb 1 xsb Vb sin d
vsd ¼ ¼ Vb sin d
csvc csvc csvc xqR
0
1 xsb Eq Vb cos d ð3:15Þ
vsq ¼ Vb cos d þ 0 xsb
csvc xdR csvc x0dR
qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
Vs ¼ v2sd þ v2sq
where
@Vs vsd0 @vsd vsq0 @vsq
C1 ¼ ¼ þ
@d 0 Vs0 @d 0 Vs0 @d 0
vsd0 1 xsb Vb cos d0 vsq0 1 Vb sin d0
¼ Vb0 cos d0 þ Vb0 sin d0 þ x sb
Vs0 csvc0 csvc0 xqR Vs0 csvc0 csvc0 x0dR
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 87
@Vs vsd0 @vsd vsq0 @vsq vsq0 1 xsb
C2 ¼ 0 ¼ þ ¼
@Eq Vs0 @E0q Vs0 @E0q Vs0 csvc0 x0dR
0 0
0
@Vs vsd0 @vsd vsq0 @vsq
C3 ¼ ¼ þ
@bsvc 0 Vs0 @bsvc 0 Vs0 @bsvc 0
" #
vsd0 xsb vsd0 x2sb Vb sin d0
¼ ðxq þ xts Þ
Vs0 csvc0 csvc0 ðcsvc0 xqR Þ2
vsq0 xsb xsb E0q0 Vb cos d0
þ V b cos d 0 þ x
x0dR csvc0 x0dR
sb
Vs0 c2svc0
1 E0q0 x3 Vb cos d0
þ 0 2 2sb 2 0 2 x2sb ðx0d þ xts Þ
csvc0 xdR csvc0 csvc0 xdR
For the simplicity of discussion, it is assumed that both the SVC voltage and
damping controller adopt the proportional control law with a gain CV and CS ,
respectively. If the feedback signal of the SVC stabilizer is the rotor speed of
generator, from Fig. 3.1, it can have
1 1 C(aÞ
bsvc ¼ ð3:18Þ
xsvcc xsvcl
Hence,
_ 0Þ
Cða _ 0Þ
Cða
Dbsvc ¼ Da ¼ ðCV DVs þ CS DxÞ
xsvcl xsvcl ð3:19Þ
where
4 _ 0 Þ ¼ ð2 2cos 2a0 Þ [ 0
[ Cða
p p
By substituting Eq. (3.16) into Eq. (3.19), the following equation can be
obtained
:
Cða0 Þ
Dbsvc ¼ ðCV C1 Dd CV C2 DE0q CV C3 Dbsvc þ CS DxÞ ð3:20Þ
Xsvcl
Thus,
CV C1 Dd CV C2 DE0q þ CS Dx
Dbsvc ¼ x ð3:21Þ
: svcl þ CV C3
Cða0 Þ
88 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
K1
1 ω0
 D + sM s
SVC Cs
K2 C + C3 C V
−C 2 C V −C1CV
+
C + C3 C V C + C3 C V
Δbsvc
K4 K5
Kp Kq Kv
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' 1 + sTA

+
K6
Fig. 3.4 Extended Philip–Heffron model with SVC voltage and damping control function
included
By taking account of Eq. (3.21), Fig. 3.3 can be further extended to include the
SVC voltage and damping control function as shown in Fig. 3.4, where C ¼ :xsvcl .
Cða0 Þ
This section demonstrates how the initial compensation of the SVC installed in the
singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system shown in Fig. 3.2 can be calculated to
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 89
satisfy the requirement to maintain the voltage proﬁle of the system. The initial
conditions to compute the initial compensation, bsvc0 , of the SVC are the magnitude
of busbar voltage, Vt0 ; Vb0 ; Vs0 , and the active power supplied by the generator, Pt0 .
Figure 3.5 shows the circuit model of the system as shown in Fig. 3.2. From
Fig. 3.5, it can be obtained that
s0 V
V b
¼ Psb0 jQsb0
V ð3:22Þ
s0
jxsb
Since the resistance of the transmission lines is ignored, Psb0 ¼ Pt0 . By choosing
s0 as the reference phasor on xaxis, it can have V
V ¼ Vs0 . From
s0 ¼ V
s0
Eq. (3.14), the following equation can be obtained
I ts0 Isb0
Ps0 + jQs0
bsvc0
j Is
Fig. 3.5 Circuit model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed with SVC
90 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
t0 V
V s0
¼ Pts0 jQts0
V s0
jxts
it can have
2 2
xts xts
V2t0 ¼ Vs0 þ Q þ Pts0 ð3:25Þ
Vs0 ts0 Vs0
Hence,
Since
s0 jbsvc0 ¼ Is0
V
it can have
jbsvc0 ¼ Is0 V
s0 V
V ¼ Ps0 jQs0
s0 s0
ðPs0 jQs0 Þ Q Q Q
bsvc0 ¼ ¼ s0 ¼ sb0 2 ts0 ð3:27Þ
jV2s0 V2s0 Vs0
From Fig. 3.4, the forward path of the SVC stabilizer to the electromechanical
oscillation loop of generator can be established as shown in Fig. 3.6.
From Fig. 3.6, it can be seen that the SVC stabilizer contributes the electric
torque to the electromechanical oscillation loop through two paths. The electric
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 91
Δω

Cs
K2 C + C3 C V
−C 2 C V
+
C + C3 C V
Δbsvc
Kp Kq Kv
1
 KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' 1 + sTA

+
K6
torque through the block, KP , is called the direct electric torque, denoted by DTed .
That through the blocks, Kq and KV , is named the indirect electric torque, denoted
by DTei . According to the damping torque analysis introduced in Chap. 2, electric
torque can be decomposed into a damping torque and a synchronizing torque at the
angular oscillation frequency, xs , that is
where Tsd ; Tsi ; Tdd ; Tdi are direct, indirect synchronizing torque and direct, indirect
damping torque coefﬁcients, respectively. From Fig. 3.6, the transfer function of
forward path of the SVC stabilizer to the electromechanical oscillation loop of
generator can be derived to be
92 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
1 1 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA
Fsvc ðs) ¼ Kp K2 Kq K2 Kv
1 þ K6 1 KA 1 þ K6 1 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA
K2 ½Kq ð1 þ sTA Þ þ Kv KA
¼ Kp
ðK3 þ sT0d0 Þð1 + sTA Þ + K6 KA
ð3:29Þ
From Fig. 3.6, it can be seen that the signals are attenuated by the exciter and the
AVR before they form the indirect damping toque. Hence, normally Tdd Tdi .
From Fig. 3.6 and Eqs. (3.29) and (3.30), it can be seen that the coefﬁcient Kp is the
dominant weight parameter in determining the amount of damping torque contri
bution from the SVC stabilizer. Hence, in the following section, how the effec
tiveness of the SVC stabilizer is affected by various factors is examined by
checking the dominant weight parameter KP .
From Fig. 3.7 and Eq. (3.32), it can be seen that at a higher load condition,
difference between Pt0 and Pt20 is bigger. Thus, the higher the load condition is, the
bigger Kp is, the more damping torque is provided by the SVC stabilizer. Hence,
effectiveness of the SVC stabilizer should increase with system load conditions.
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 93
Pt10
Pt 20
π/2 δ0
π/4 π
Equations (3.32) and (3.33) indicate that Kp is affected not only by the load
conditions of the power system, but also by the parameters of the generator, x0d and
xq , such that:
1. If the difference between the values of x0d and xq is small (for example, for the
generator in a hydropower station, value of x0d is around 0.2–0.35 and that of xq
is around 0.45–0.7) or if the system operates at a higher load condition
ðxts þ x0 Þ ðxts þ xq Þ
(Pt0 Pt20 ), x0 d Pt0 [ xqR Pt20 such that Kp [ 0, the SVC stabilizer
dR
will provide the power system with positive damping.
ðxts þ x0 Þ ðxts þ xq Þ
2. If xq is much greater than x0d such that x0 d xqR ; (for example, for a
dR
generator in a thermal power plant, x0d is around 0.15 to 0.24 and xq is around
94 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
1.2–2.2) and when the system operates at a lower load condition such that the
difference between Pt0 and Pt20 is small, there is a possibility that
ðxts þ x0d Þ ðxts þ xq Þ
x0dR Pt0 \ xqR Pt20 such that Kp \0. This means that the SVC stabilizer
which supplies positive damping torque at a higher load condition may provide
the power system with negative damping torque at a lower load condition.
ðxts þ x0 Þ ðxts þ xq Þ
3. Around the operating point where x0 d Pt0 ¼ xqR Pt20 such that Kp ¼ 0,
dR
the damping torque provided by the SVC stabilizer is zero. At this operating
point, the SVC stabilizer will lose its capability to suppress power system
oscillation. This load condition is called the “dead point” of the SVC stabilizer’s
function.
Deﬁne z to be an index of the length of the transmission line and take z0 ¼ 1. The
reactance of the transmission line is proportional to its electric length, i.e., the index z.
Kp can be written as a function z as (see Eq. (3.32))
zxsb zxts þ x0d zxts þ xq
Kp ðz) ¼ Pt0 Pt20 ð3:34Þ
csvc0 x0d þ z(xts þ xsb =csvc0 Þ xq þ z(xts þ xsb =csvc0 Þ
It can have
@ zxts þ x0d zxts þ xq
Kp ðz) ¼ xsb 0 Pt0 Pt20
@z xd þ z(xts þ xsb Þ xq þ z(xts þ xsb Þ
(
xts zxts þ x0d ðxts þ xsb Þ
þ zxsb 0 Pt0 Pt0
xd þ z(xts þ xsb Þ ½x0d þ z(xts þ xsb Þ2
)
xts zxts þ xq ðxts þ xsb Þ
Pt20 þ Pt20
xq þ zðxts þ xsb Þ ½xq þ z(xts þ xsb Þ2
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 95
Hence,
@Kp ðz) xts þ x0d xts þ xq
¼ x P P
@z z¼z0 ¼1
sb to t02
x0d þ ðxts þ xsb Þ xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ
(
xts xts þ x0d ðxts þ xsb Þ
þ xsb 0 Pt0 0 Pt20
xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ½xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ2
)
xts xts þ xq ðxts þ xsb Þ
Pt20 þ Pt20
xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ½xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ x0d xsb xts xsb xts þ x0d ðxts þ xsb Þ
¼ 0 Pt0 þ 0 Pt0 Pt0
xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ðx0d þ xts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ xq xsb xts xsb xts þ xq ðxts þ xsb Þ
Pt20 Pt20 þ Pt20
xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ðxq þ xts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ x0d xsb xts xsb xts þ x0d ðxts þ xsb Þ
¼ 0 Pt0 þ 0 Pt0 Pt0
xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ xd þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ðx0d þ xts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ xq xsb xts xsb xts þ xq ðxts þ xsb Þ
Pt20 Pt20 þ Pt20
xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ xq þ ðxts þ xsb Þ ðxq þ xts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ x0d x0d þ xsb xts x0d þ xts þ xsb
¼ Pt0
ðx0d þ xts þ xsb Þ2
xsb xts þ xq xq þ xsb xts xq þ xts þ xsb
2 Pt20
xq þ xts þ xsb
xsb x0 xts þ x0d xsb xts xsb xq xts þ xq xsb xts
¼ 0 d P t0 þ 0 P t0 P
2 t20
Pt20
ðxd þ xts þ xsb Þ2 xd þ xts þ xsb xq þ xts þ xsb x q þ xts þ xsb
xsb x0d xts þ x0d xsb xq xts þ xq xsb xts xsb xts
¼ Pt0 Pt20 þ 0 Pt0 Pt20
x02
dR x2qR xdR xqR
xsb x0d xts þ x0d xsb xq xts þ xq Pt0 Pt20
¼ 02
Pt0 2
Pt20 þ xsb xts 0
xdR xqR xdR xqR
ð3:35Þ
Thus,
@Kp ðz) xsb x0d xts þ x0d þ xsb xts x0dR xsb xq xts þ xq þ xsb xts xqR
¼ P Pt20
@z z¼z0 ¼1
t0
X02
dR X2qR
2 2
xsb xts þ x0d þ xts x2sb xsb xts þ xq þ xts x2sb
¼ Pt0 Pt20
x02
dR x2qR
ð3:36Þ
When Kp [ 0
xts þ x0d xts þ xq
Pt0 [ Pt20 ð3:37Þ
x0dR xqR
96 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
Using Eqs. (3.36) and (3.38), from Eq. (3.35), it can be obtained that
@Kp ðz)
[0 ð3:39Þ
@z
Equation (3.39) means that for the SVC stabilizer designed to supply positive
damping to power system oscillations, it will be more effective when the electric
length of transmission lines increases.
If it is assumed that the total length of the transmission line is ﬁxed, that is,
xts xsb ¼ xt , from Eq. (3.32), it can be obtained that (assuming csvc0 ¼ 1)
xsb xt xsb þ x0d xsb xt xsb þ xq
Kp ðxsb Þ ¼ P P ð3:40Þ
xt þ x0d
t0 t20
xq þ xt
Thus,
@ xt 2xsb þ x0d
g(xsb Þ ¼ Pt0 ¼ 0
@xsb x0d þ xt
ð3:43Þ
@ xt 2xsb þ xq
h(xsb Þ ¼ Pt20 ¼ 0
@xsb xq þ xt
ðx0d þ xt Þ ðx þ x Þ
It can have xsb ¼ ¼ xsb1 and xsb ¼ q 2 t ¼ xsb2 . Hence, g(xsb Þ and
2
0
ðx þ x Þ ðx þ x Þ
h(xsb Þ achieve its maximum value at xsb ¼ d 2 t ¼ xsb1 and xsb ¼ q 2 t ¼ xsb2 ,
respectively.
3.1 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 97
K p (x sb )
g(x sb )
K p (x sb )
h(x sb )
x sb
0 xt x sb1 x sb2 xt
2
Fig. 3.8 Illustration on the most effective installing location of the SVC stabilizer
From Eqs. (3.42) and (3.43), the curve of Kp ðxsb Þ can be sketched as shown in
Fig. 3.8 (Pt0 Pt20 ). Figure 3.8 demonstrates that when xsb x2t , Kp ðxsb Þ achieves
its maximum value. This means that when the SVC is installed near the middle
point of the transmission line, the SVC stabilizer contributes the most amount of
damping torque and hence is most effective in suppressing power system
oscillations.
It was discovered decades ago that power oscillations along transmission lines can
be effectively suppressed by switching series capacitors in and out from the lines
after a fault [2, 3]. Nowadays, the highspeed thyristorcontrolled series compensator
98 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
d_ ¼ xo ðx 1Þ
1
x_ ¼ ½Pm Pt D(x 1Þ
M
0 1 ð3:44Þ
E_ q ¼ 0 ðEq þ Efd Þ
Tdo
0 1 KA
E_ fd ¼ E0fd þ ðVtref Vt Þ
TA TA
E0q Vb V2b xq x0d
Pt ¼ 0 sin d sin 2d
xdR 2 x0dR xqR
E0q xdR xd x0d Vb cos d
Eq ¼ 0
xdR x0dR ð3:45Þ
Efd ¼ Efd0 þ E0fd
xq Vb sin d xt E0q Vb x0d cos d qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
vtd ¼ ; vtq ¼ 0 þ ; Vt ¼ v2td þ v2tq
xqR xdR x0dR
where
Vt Vb
− jx tcsc
jx t
where
E0q0 Vb V2b xq x0d
K1 ¼ cos d0 cos 2d0
x0dR x0dR xqR
Vb
K2 ¼ 0 sin d0
xdR
0
@Pt Vb Eq0 sin d0 V2b ðxq x0d Þ sin 2d0 0
Kp ¼ ¼ 02
02
xdR þ xqR
@x tcsc 0 x dR 2x x 2
dR qR
xdR
K3 ¼ 0
xdR
xd x0d Vb sin d0
K4 ¼
x0dR
0
@Eq Eq0 xdR xd x0d Vb cos d0
Kq ¼ ¼ 02
@xtcsc 0 xdR x02
dR
0
vtd0 xq Vb cos d0 vtq0 Vb xd sin d0
K5 ¼
Vt0 xqR Vt0 x0dR
vtq0 xLR
K6 ¼
Vt0 x0dR
@Vt vtd0 xq Vb sin d0 vtq0 xL 1 0 Vb x0d cos d0
Kv ¼ ¼ þ 0 Eq0 þ
@xtcsc 0 Vt0 x2qR Vt0 x02
dR xdR x02dR
By substituting Eq. (3.46) into the linearized equation of Eq. (3.44), it can have
:
D d ¼ xo Dx
: 1
D x ¼ ðK1 Dd DDx K2 DE0q Kp Dxtcsc Þ
M
0 1 ð3:48Þ
DE_ q ¼ 0 ðK3 DE0q K4 Dd Kq Dxtcsc þ DE0fd Þ
Td0
1 KA
DE0fd ¼ DE0fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kv Dxtcsc Þ
TA TA
100 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
K1
1 ω0
 D + sM s
Δx t csc
K2 K4 K5
Kp Kq Kv
TCSC
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
Fig. 3.10 Extended Heffron–Phillips model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system
installed with a TCSC stabilizer
The phase shifters have been used to regulate the steadystate power flow in power
systems. The idea of applying online control of phase shifters was proposed dec
ades ago. However, the lowspeed mechanical tap changers precluded the use of
online control of phase shifters to improve power system dynamic performance.
With the advances in power electronics, highpower highspeed electronic switches
make it possible to realize realtime control of a phase shifter. The feasibility of a
thyristorcontrolled phase shifter (TCPS) as a means to adjust the value of
quadrature component of line voltage has been well recognized.
Figure 3.11 illustrates the arrangement of a TCPS installed along a transmission
line. Its function can be simply expressed as a phase shifting of line voltage as
shown in Fig. 3.11. Hence, for a singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed
with a TCPS as shown in Fig. 3.12, system dynamic Eqs. (2.37) and (2.38) need to
be modiﬁed only in the phase relationship as follows.
3.2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 101
a V V'
Vector diagram
Symbol
V V'
V
φ
V'
Converter
TCPS
Vt ∠δ Vt ∠δ + φ Vb
TCPS jx t
Fig. 3.12 The singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed with a TCPS
:
d ¼ xo ðx 1Þ
: 1
x ¼ ½Pm Pt D(x 1Þ
M
ð3:49Þ
_E0 ¼ 1 ðEq þ Efd Þ
q
T0do
0 1 KA
E_ fd ¼ E0fd þ ðVtref Vt Þ
TA TA
DPt ¼ K1 Dd þ K2 DE0q þ Kp D/
DEq ¼ K3 DE0q þ K4 Dd þ Kq D/ ð3:51Þ
DVt ¼ K5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kv D/
where
By substituting Eq. (3.51) into the linearized equation of Eq. (3.49), it can be
obtained that
:
D d ¼ xo Dx
: 1
D x ¼ ðK1 Dd DDx K2 DE0q Kp D/Þ
M
0 1 ð3:52Þ
DE_ q ¼ 0 ðK3 DE0q K4 Dd Kq D/Þ
Td0
1 KA
DE0fd ¼ DE0fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kv D/Þ
TA TA
K1
1 ω0
 D + sM s
Δφ
K2 K4 K5
Kp Kq Kv
TCPS
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
Fig. 3.13 Extended Heffron–Phillips model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system
installed with a TCPS stabilizer
For the simplicity of discussion, it is assumed that both the TCSC and TCPS
stabilizers adopt the deviation of rotor speed of the generator as the feedback signal.
Denote the transfer function of the stabilizers by Ktc Ttc ðs). The output control signal
of the TCSC and TCPS stabilizers is as follows
where Dutc is Dxtcsc or D/ for the TCSC stabilizer or TCPS stabilizer, respectively.
From Figs. 3.10 and 3.13, the forward path of the stabilizer can be obtained and
shown in Fig. 3.14.
From Fig. 3.14, it can be seen that the direct damping torque contribution, DTdd ,
is through Kp . It should be much greater than the indirect damping torque, DTdi ,
104 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
ΔTd

ΔTdd
ΔTdi
Δu tc
K2
Kp Kq Kv
1
 KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
because Dutc is attenuated by two ﬁrstorder lag blocks before it forms the indirect
damping torque. That is
From Eq. (3.54), it can be seen that coefﬁcient Kp weighs the amount of damping
torque contributed by the TCSC and TCPS stabilizers to the power system.
where
E0q0 Vb
Pt10 ¼ sin d0
x0dR
ð3:56Þ
V2 ðxq x0d Þ
Pt20 ¼ b 0 sin 2d0
2 xdR xqR
3.2 A SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power System Installed … 105
Hence, for the TCSC stabilizer, from Eq. (3.47), it can be obtained that
0
@Pt Vb Eq0 sin d0 V2b ðxq x0d Þ sinð2d0 Þ 0
Kp ¼ ¼ 02
02
xdR þ xqR
@xtcsc 0 xdR 2
2xdR XqR
0
1 Vb Eq0 sin d0 Vb ðxq xd Þsin(2d0 Þ
2 0
1 V2b xq x0d sinð2d0 Þ
¼ 0
xdR x0dR 2x0dR xqR xqR 2x0dR xqR
1 1
¼ 0 Pt10 Pt20
xdR xqR
ð3:57Þ
Kp [ 0 ð3:58Þ
Equation (3.58) indicates that when the load conditions of the power system
change, a properly designed TCSC stabilizer can always provide positive damping
torque to the power system.
At a higher load condition, difference between Pt0 and Pt20 is greater as shown
in Fig. 3.15 and hence Kp is bigger as shown in Eq. (3.57). This means that
Pt 20
π/2 δ0
π/4 π
106 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
Equation (3.59) indicates that the TCSC stabilizer is less effective when the
equivalent reactance of transmission line increases if the load condition keeps
unchanged.
where
Vb E0q0 cos d0
Kp1 ¼
x0
dR 0 ð3:61Þ
V xq xd cos 2d0
2
Kp2 ¼ b
2x0dR xqR
Kp1 and Kp2 are shown in Fig. 3.16. From Fig. 3.16, it can be seen that Kp [ 0.
Hence, when the load conditions of the power system change, a properly designed
TCPS stabilizer can always supply positive damping torque to the power system.
From Eqs. (3.60) and (3.61), it can have
!
@Kp Kp1 Kp2
¼ 02 2 \0 ð3:62Þ
@xt xdR xqR
Equation (3.62) indicates that the TCPS stabilizer is less effective when the
equivalent reactance of the transmission line increases if the loading condition is
unchanged.
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 107
Pt 0
a
K p1
K p2 b
π/2 δ0
π/4 π
The SVC is equipped with a proportional–integral (PI) voltage controller. The added
damping controller adopts the locally available deviation of line active power as the
feedback signal and the transfer function of a conventional PSS. That is (see Fig. 3.1)
Kvi
a ¼ a0 þ Kvp þ ðVsref Vs Þ þ usvcs ð3:63Þ
s
where usvcs is the output stabilizing signal of the SVC stabilizer, i.e.,
where
:
:
Cxða 0Þ
K vp þ Kvi
s 1 Cða0 Þ
Fsvc1 ðs) ¼
; Fsvc2 ðs) ¼
svcl
: :
1 þ C3 Cxða 0Þ
K þ Kvi 1 þ C Cða0 Þ K þ Kvi xsvcl
svcl
vp s 3 xsvcl vp s
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 109
K1
1 ω0

D + sM s
SVC
Fsvc2 (s)
K2 Δu svc −s
Δbsvc
K4 K5
Kp Kq Kv
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' 1 + sTA

+
K6
Fig. 3.17 Linearized model with SVC voltage control function included
From Eq. (3.67) and Fig. 3.3, linearized Heffron–Phillips model of the power
system with the SVC installed is shown in Fig. 3.17, where the SVC voltage
controller adopts a PI controller and usvcs is the stabilizing signal of the SVCbased
stabilizer.
:
where
0: 1 :
: Cða0 Þ K C Cða0 Þ K C
Cða0 Þ B xsvcl vp 3 C xsvcl vi 3
CA ¼ Kvi C1 @1 : A; CZ ¼ : ;
xsvcl
1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K C
vp 3 1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K C
vp 3
0 1 : 2
:
: Cða0 Þ K C Cða0 Þ K C
Cða0 Þ B xsvcl vp 3 C xsvcl vi 3
CE ¼ Kvi C2 @1 : A; CU ¼ :
xsvcl
1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K C
vp 3 1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
Kvp C3
where
: :
0
Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C1 0
Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C2
K1 ¼ K1 þ Kp :
svcl
; K2 ¼ K2 þ Kp :
svcl
;
1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K vp C3 1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K vp C3
:
C ða0 Þ
Kp xsvcl
Kp
Kpz ¼ 1
; K0p ¼ 1
: :
1þ
Cða0 ÞK C 1þ
Cða0 ÞK C
xsvcl vp 3 xsvcl vp 3
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 111
: :
0
Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C2 0
Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C1
K3 ¼ K3 þ Kq :
svcl
; K4 ¼ K4 þ Kq :
svcl
;
1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K vp C3 1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
K vp C3
:
C ða0 Þ
Kq xsvcl
Kq
Kqz ¼ 1
; K0q ¼ 1
: :
1þ
Cða0 ÞK C 1þ
Cða0 ÞK C
xsvcl vp 3 xsvcl vp 3
: :
Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C1 Cxða 0Þ
Kvp C2
K05 ¼ K5 þ Kv svcl
: ; K06 ¼ K6 þ Kv svcl
: ;
1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
Kvp C3 1 þ Cxða 0Þ
svcl
Kvp C3
:
Kv Kv Cxða 0Þ
Kvz ¼ 1
; K0v ¼ svcl
1
: :
Cða Þ
1 þ x 0 Kvp C3
Cða Þ
1 þ x 0 Kvp C3
svcl svcl
By writing Eqs. (3.71) and (3.72) together in matrix form, the state equation of
the system can be obtained to be
X_ ¼ AX þ bDusvcs ð3:73Þ
where
3 2
2 0 3
Dd 6 K 70
6 7 6 p 7
6 Dx 7 6 M 7
6 7 6 K0q 7
6 DE0 7 6 7
X¼6 q 7; b ¼ 6 0 7;
6 7 6 T do 7
6 DE0fd 7 6 7
4 5 6 KA K0v 7
4 T 5
Dzsvc A
CU
2 3
0 xo 0 0 0
6 K 0
K 0
K 7
6 1
MD M 2
0 Mpz 7
6 M 7
6 0 0 7
6 K K Kqz 7
A ¼ 6 T0 4 0 03 1
T0do
0 7
6 Tdo Tdo 7
6 7
do
6 KA K05 K K0
TA 6 T1 K
TA Kvz 7
4 TA 0
A A A
5
CA 0 CE 0 CZ
112 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
y ¼ cX þ dDusvcs ð3:75Þ
where
y ¼ DPt ; c ¼ K01 0 K02 0 Kpz ; d ¼ K0p
At the given steadystate operating condition, the voltage at the busbar where the
SVC is installed is Vs0 ¼ 1:0 p:u: This is achieved by an initial compensation from
the SVC at the operating condition, bsvc0 . This initial compensation can be calcu
lated as follows as introduced in Sect. 3.1.1.4.
From Eqs. (3.24) and (3.26), the reactive power injection at the busbar with the
SVC installed is as follows
2 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3
2ﬃ
Vs0 4 x
Psb0 5 ¼ 0:0377
sb
Qsb0 ¼ Vs0 V2b
xsb Vs0
2sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3
2
Vs0 4 x
Pts0 Vs0 5 ¼ 0:0377
ts
Qts0 ¼ V2t0
xts Vs0
Qsb0 Qts0
bsvc0 ¼ ¼ 0:0754
V2s0
Hence, a0 ¼ 42:0727 .
From the circuit model of the power system installed with the SVC in Fig. 3.5, it
can be calculated that
Thus, from Eqs. (3.9) and (3.12), parameters of the Heffron–Phillips model of
the example power system can be calculated to be
From Fig. 3.17 and Eq. (3.74), the forward path of the stabilizing signal of the
SVCbased stabilizer, D usvcs, can be drawn as shown in Fig. 3.18. Transfer
function of the forward path of the SVCbased stabilizer can be obtained to be
8
9
< Kq þ Kv 1 +KAsT C2 Fsvc1 ðs)Kp þ K2 =
Fsvcs ðs) ¼ Fsvc2 ðs) Kp
A
: K3 þ sT0d0 þ K6 1 þKsT
A
þ C2 Fsvc1 ðs) Kq þ Kv 1 þKsT
A ;
A A
ð3:76Þ
Hence, from Fig. 3.17, the electric torque contribution from the SVCbased
stabilizer can be obtained to be
DTet ¼ Fsvcs ðs)Tsvcs ðs)( DPt Þ ¼ Fsvcs ðs)Tsvcs ðs)(D þ sM)Dx ð3:77Þ
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 115
K1
−ΔPt Δω ω0
1

D + sM s
Tsvc −s (s)
K2
Δu svc −s
Δbsvc
Kp Kq Kv
1
 KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' 1 + sTA

+
K6
DTet ¼ Fsvcs ðjxs ÞðD þ jxs M)Tsvcs ðjxs ÞDx ¼ Dsvc Dx ð3:78Þ
Let
1 þ sT4 1 þ sT2
Dx1 ¼ Dx; Dusvcs ¼ K Dx1
1 þ sT3 1 þ sT1
Thus,
h
T4 K01
sDx1 ¼ T1 Dx1 þ T1 M Dd DT M
4
1 Dx
3
0
3
0
T4 K2 0 T4 Kpz T4 K
M DEq M Dzsvc M p Dusvcs ð3:79Þ
sDusvc s ¼ Ks1ð1þþsT
sT2 Þ Dx
1
1
From Eqs. (3.73) and (3.79), state equation of the closedloop system can be
obtained to be
2 : 3 2 3
Dd Dd
6 : 7
6 Dx 7 6 Dx 7
6 0 7 6 7
6 DE_ q 7 6 DE0q 7
6 7 6 7
6
0
DE_ fd 7 ¼ Ac 6 DE0fd 7 ð3:80Þ
6 7 6 7
6 D_zsvc 7 6 Dzsvc 7
6 7 6 7
4 Dx_ 1 5 4 Dx1 5
Du_ svcs Dusvcs
where
2 3
0 314:1593 0 0 0 0 0
6 0:1461 0 0:1399 0 0:0029 0 0:0008 7
6 7
6 0:1415 0 0:4265 0:1983 0:0626 0 0:0179 7
6 7
Ac ¼ 6
6 95:2539 0 1479:6 100 170:3097 0 48:6868 7
7
6 0:0358 0 0:7615 0 0:4259 0 0:1218 7
6 7
4 0:7364 524:6004 0:2133 0:3170 0:0005 1:0411 0:0205 5
7:4877 5333:9 2:1683 3:2233 0:0056 4:7312 0:7913
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 117
40
39
38
37
36
t/s
35
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
30
25
20
15 Direct
damping torque
10
Indirect damping torque
5
0
Pt0 (p.u.)
5
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
conditions. Figures 3.21 and 3.22 show the simulation results. All those results in
Figs. 3.20, 3.21, and 3.22 and in Table 3.1 conﬁrm the analytical conclusion that
the effectiveness of the SVC stabilizer increases with the load condition of power
system.
25
24
23
22
21
t/s
20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3.3 An Example Power System Installed with an SVC Stabilizer 119
56
54
52
50
48
t/s
46
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Discussions in Sect. 3.1.2 conclude that the effectiveness of the SVC stabilizer is
also affected by the length of the transmission line and the installing locations of the
SVC stabilizer. To conﬁrm the conclusion, Fig. 3.23 presents the computational
results of the damping torque provided by the SVC stabilizer at variable load
condition when the system operates with single and double transmission lines
connecting the generator and the inﬁnite busbar. From Fig. 3.23, it can be seen that
when the electric length of the line is longer (single transmission line connecting the
160
140
120
100
Double
80 lines
60
40
20
Pt0 (p.u.)
0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Fig. 3.23 Computational results of the damping torque provided by the SVC stabilizer
120 3 Damping Torque Analysis of ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers …
10 Total damping
torque
2
Indirect damping
torque
0
Xts+Xsb
2
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Fig. 3.24 Computational results of the damping torque provided by the SVC stabilizer installed at
various locations
generator and the inﬁnite busbar), the SVC stabilizer provides more damping torque
and hence is more effective in suppressing the power oscillation.
Keeping the operating condition of the example power system unchanged at
Pt0 ¼ 0:5; Vb0 ¼ 1:0; Vt0 ¼ 1:0; Vs0 ¼ 1:0, the computational results of the
damping torque provided by the SVC stabilizer installed at various locations along
the transmission line are presented in Fig. 3.24. From Fig. 3.24, it can be seen that
the SVC stabilizer is most effective when it is installed around the middle point of
the line as it provides the most damping torque at the point.
References
1. Wang HF, Swift FJ (1996) Capability of the static VAr compensator in damping power system
oscillations. IEE Proc Part C 143(4):353–358
2. Smith OJM (1969) Power system transient control by capacitor switching. IEEE Trans Power
Apparatus Syst 88(1):28–35
3. Smith OJM, Webster RH (1971) Series capacitor switching to quench electromechanical
transients in power systems. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 90(2):427–433
4. Wang HF, Swift FJ (1996) Application of the Controllable Series Compensator in damping
power system oscillations. IEE Proc Part C 143(4):359–364
5. Wang HF, Swift FJ (1997) Analysis of thyristorcontrolled phase shifter applied in damping
power system oscillations. Int J Electr Power Energ Syst 19(1):1–9
Chapter 4
SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power
Systems Installed with VSCBased
Stabilizers
Figure 4.1 shows the conﬁguration of a shunt voltage source converter (VSC)based
unit connected to highvoltage transmission line through a stepdown transformer.
xs is the equivalent reactance of the stepdown transformer. The unit can be an
energy storage system (ESS), such as a battery energy storage system (BESS) or a
superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. It can also be a renew
able power generation plant, such as a gridconnected photovoltaic (PV) or fuel cell
(FC) power plant. In case that Idc2 ¼ 0, it is a static synchronous compensator
(STATCOM) [1].
There are two commonly used algorithms to control the voltage at the AC
terminal of the converter Vc , the pulse width modulation (PWM), and the pulse
amplitude modulation (PAM). When the PWM is used, Vdc is kept constant by
controlling the modulation phase, ϕ (angle between Vc and Vs ), to charge or dis
charge the capacitor. The amplitude of voltage at the AC terminal is regulated by
Is
xs
Vc
φ
m
Idc1
Idc
Cdc Idc2
Vdc
the modulation ratio m, i.e. Vc ¼ mkVdc , where k is the ratio between the AC and
DC voltages of the converter (including the ratio of the stepdown transformer),
dependent of the structure of the converter circuit.
Figure 4.2 shows the conﬁguration of a singlemachine inﬁnitebus power
system, where a shunt VSCbased unit is installed at a location along the trans
mission line. From Fig. 4.2, it can be obtained that
Vt ¼ jxts Its þ Vs
Vs ¼ jxs Is þ Vc ð4:1Þ
Vs Vb ¼ jxsb ðIts Is Þ
Is
xs
Vc
VSCbased unit
4.1 Damping Torque Analysis of a Shunt VSCBased … 123
Hence
In the d–q coordinate of generator, as shown in Fig. 4.3, Eq. (4.2) gives
By equating the real and imaginary parts on both sides of Eq. (4.3), it can have
Because
vtd ¼ xq itsq
ð4:5Þ
vtq ¼ E0q x0d itsd
Vt
jxts Its
jxs Is
Vs
δ
φ
Vc jxsb Isb x
Vb
ψ
d
124 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Pt ¼ vtd itsd þ vtq itsq ¼ xq itsq itsd þ ðE0q x0q itsd Þitsq
ð4:8Þ
¼ E0q itsq þ ðxq x0q Þitsd itsq
Vdc Idc1 ¼ isd vcd þ isq vcq ¼ isd mkVdc cos w þ isq mkVdc sin w ð4:11Þ
1 1 Idc2
V_ dc ¼ ðIdc1 þ Idc2 Þ ¼ ðisd mk cos w þ isq mk sin wÞ þ ð4:13Þ
Cdc Cdc Cdc
4.1 Damping Torque Analysis of a Shunt VSCBased … 125
Equations (4.7)–(4.9), (4.13), and (4.14), together with the differential equations of
synchronous generator of Eq. (2.37), form the mathematical model of the
singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with the shunt VSCbased unit installed.
In Eqs. (4.10) and (4.14), the modulation ratio and phase of PWM algorithm, m and
/, are regulated by two controllers. Hence, m and / are two control variables in the
mathematical model of the power system.
where
1
a01 ¼ ðvsd0 a1q vsq0 a1d Þ
v2sd0 þ v2sq0
1
a02 ¼ 2 ðvsd0 a2q vsq0 a2d Þ
vsd0 þ v2sq0
1
a03 ¼ 2 ðvsd0 a3q vsq0 a3d Þ
vsd0 þ v2sq0
1
a04 ¼ 2 ðvsd0 a4q vsq0 a4d Þ
vsd0 þ v2sq0
That is
By using Eqs. (4.15) and (4.16), linearization of Eqs. (4.8) and (4.9) can be
obtained as
where
C0 ¼ m0 k
h i
K01 ¼ E0q0 itsd0 x0d xq ðc11 þ c12 ÞVb cos d0
itsq0 x0d xq ðd11 þ d12 ÞVb sin d0
K2 ¼ itsq0 itsq0 x0d xq d12
h i
K0pdc ¼ c11 C0 cos w0 E0q0 itsd0 x0d xq d11 C0 sin w0 Itsq0 x0d xq
h i
K0pm ¼ c11 kVdc0 cos w0 E0q0 itsd0 x0d xq d11 kVdc0 sin w0 Itsq0 x0d xq
h i
K0pw ¼ c11 C0 Vdc0 sin w0 E0q0 itsd0 x0d xq d11 C0 Vdc0 cos w0 Itsq0 x0d xq
K4 ¼ ðd11 þ d12 ÞVb sin d0 ðxd x0d Þ
K03 ¼ d12 ðxd x0d Þ þ 1
K0qdc ¼ d11 C0 sin w0 ðxd x0d Þ
K0qm ¼ d11 kVdc0 sin w0 ðxd x0d Þ
K0qw ¼ d11 C0 Vdc0 cos w0 ðxd x0d Þ
0 vtd0 Xq ðc11 þ c12 ÞVb cos d0 vtq0 x0d ðd11 þ d12 ÞVb sin d0
K5 ¼
Vt0
vtq0 1 x0d d12
K6 ¼
Vt0
0 v td0 xq c11 C0 cos w0 vtq0 x0d d11 C0 sin w0
Kvdc ¼
Vt0
0 v td0 xq kc 11 V dc0 cos w0 vtq0 x0d d11 kVdc0 sin w0
Kvm ¼
Vt0
0 vtd0 xq c11 C0 Vdc0 sin w0 vtq0 x0d d11 C0 Vdc0 cos w0
Kvw ¼
Vt0
1
DV_ dc ¼ K07 Dd þ K8 DE0q þ K09 DVdc þ K0dm Dm + K0dw Dw þ DIdc2
Cdc
¼ ðK07 a3 K0dw ÞDd þ K8 DE0q þ ðK09 a1 K0dw ÞDVdc
1
þ ðKdm a2 K0dw ÞDm + a4 K0dw Df + DIdc2
Cdc
1
¼ K7 Dd þ K8 DE0q þ K9 DVdc þ Kdm Dm + Kdw D/ þ DIdc2 ð4:18Þ
Cdc
where
½m0 k cos w0 ðd21 þ d22 ÞVb sin d0 þ m0 k sin w0 ðc21 þ c22 ÞVb cos d0
K07 ¼
Cdc
m0 k cos w0 d22
K8 ¼
C
2 2 dc
0 m k cos w0 d21 sin w0 m20 k2 sin w0 c21 cos w0
K9 ¼ 0
Cdc
1
K0dm ¼ ðkisd0 cos w0 þ kisq0 sin w0 þ m0 k2 cos w0 d21 Vdc0 sin w0
Cdc
m0 k2 sin w0 c21 Vdc0 cos w0 Þ
1
K0dw ¼ ½m0 kðisd0 sin w0 isq0 cos w0 Þ þ m20 k2 cos w0 d21 Vdc0 cos w0
Cdc
þ m20 k2 sin w0 c21 Vdc0 sin w0
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ðK1 Dd DDx K2 DE0 q Kpdc DVdc Kpm Dm Kpw D/Þ
M
1
DE_ 0q ¼ 0 ðK4 Dd K3 DE0 q þ DE0fd þ Kqdc DVdc þ Kqm Dm þ Kqw D/Þ
Td0
1 KA
DE_ 0fd ¼ DE0fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0 q þ Kvdc DVdc þ Kvm Dm þ Kvw D/Þ
TA TA
1
DV_ dc ¼ K7 Dd þ K8 DE0 q þ K9 DVdc þ Kdm Dm þ Kdw D/ þ DIdc2
Cdc
ð4:19Þ
4.1 Damping Torque Analysis of a Shunt VSCBased … 129
ΔIdc2
1
Cdc
ΔE q' K8
1
+ ΔVdc
Δδ K7 s − K9
K dm K dψ
Δm Δφ
K 1 − K Pψ
1 Δω ω0 Δδ
 sM + D s
K 4 − K qψ K 5 − K vψ
K2 ΔVdc
[K pdc K pψ K pm ] [Δψ ] [K vdc K vψ K vm ]
Δm
[K qdc K qψ K qm ]
1 KA
ΔE q ' Td0 's + K 3  + 1 + sTA 
K6
For the simplicity of discussion and presentation, it is assumed that the feedback
signal of the stabilizer is the rotor speed of generator and the stabilizer adopts a
proportional control law, it has
Dm ¼ Krs Dx ð4:21Þ
From Eq. (4.20), it can be seen that the above assumption will not change the
following discussion and conclusions about the effectiveness of stabilizer.
From Eq. (4.21), Figs. 4.4, and 4.5, the direct damping torque contribution from
the VSCbased reactive power stabilizer can be obtained as
K9
DTrsd ¼ Kpm Kpdc Kdm Krs Dx ð4:22Þ
x2s þ K29
D/ ¼ Kas Dx ð4:23Þ
From Eq. (4.23), Figs. 4.4, and 4.5, the direct damping torque contribution from the
VSCbased active power stabilizer can be obtained as
K9
DTasd ¼ Kpw Kpdc Kdw 2 Kas Dx ð4:24Þ
xs þ K29
jxsb xsb Vb
VS ¼ x Its þ x Vc þ ð4:25Þ
1 þ xs sb
xs ð1 þ xs Þ
sb
1 þ xxsbs
That gives
Vt ¼ jxts Its þ Vs
where
xs xsb
x¼ xts þ
xs þ xsb
xsb xs
Va ¼ Vc þ Vb ¼ aVc þ bVb
xs þ xsb xs þ xsb
Hence, from Eq. (4.26), the active power supplied by the generator can be
expressed as
where d0 is the angle between E0q and Va and x0dR ¼ x þ x0d ; xqR ¼ x þ xq . From the
phasor diagram of Fig. 4.6, it can have
132 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
E’
q
δ Va
δ aVc
bVb ψ
d
d
Thus, from Eqs. (4.27) and (4.28), the active power supplied by the generator can
be expressed alternatively to be
E0q
Pt ¼ ðbVb sin d þ aVc cos wÞ
x0dR
ðxq x0d Þ
0 ðbVb sin d þ aVc cos wÞðbVb cos d þ aVc sin wÞ ð4:29Þ
xdR xqR
E0q
0 ðbVb sin d þ aVc cos wÞ
xdR
where Vc ¼ mkVdc . Equation (4.29) is the explicit expression of the active power
supplied by the generator in the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed
with the shunt VSCbased unit. By using Eqs. (4.16) and (4.17), from Eq. (4.29), it
can be obtained that
@Pt
Kpm ¼ a4 ¼ a4 akVdc0 cos w0
@m0
@Pt
Kpw ¼ a4 ¼ a4 akm0 Vdc0 sin w0 ð4:30Þ
@w 0
@Pt
Kpdc ¼ a4 ¼ a4 akm0 cos w0
@Vdc 0
4.1 Damping Torque Analysis of a Shunt VSCBased … 133
From Eqs. (4.22) and (4.30), the damping torque contributed by the VSCbased
reactive power stabilizer is obtained as
K9
DTrsd ¼ a4 ak cos w0 Vdc0 m0 Kdm Krs Dx ð4:31Þ
x2s þ K29
From Eqs. (4.24) and (4.30), the damping torque contributed by the VSCbased
active power stabilizer is derived as
K9
DTasd ¼ a4 akm0 Vdc0 sin w0 þ cos w0 Kdw Kas Dx ð4:32Þ
x2s þ K29
From Fig. 4.3, it can be seen that d0 increases when more active power is supplied
by the generator. Hence, at a heavier load condition, w0 is smaller, and more
damping torque is provided by the VSCbased reactive power stabilizer as indicated
by Eq. (4.31). This means that the VSCbased reactive power stabilizer is more
effective in damping power oscillation when the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power
system operates at the heavier load condition. However, with the increase of load
condition, cos w0 increases, but sin w0 decreases in Eq. (4.32). This means that with
variations of power system load conditions, the damping torque provided by the
VSCbased active power stabilizer changes less than that provided by the reactive
power stabilizer. Hence, the VSCbased active power stabilizer is more robust to the
variations of power system load conditions in damping power oscillations.
stabilizing signal can be superimposed on the power flow control function of the
SSSC so as to improve the damping of power system oscillations.
Figure 4.7 shows a singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed with a
SSSC, which consists of a series coupling transformer with a leakage reactance,
xsct , and a VSC connected to a DC capacitor. The exchange of reactive power
between the SSSC and rest of the power system is achieved by controlling the
magnitude and phase of the inserted voltage which is kept in quadrature with the
line current (the inverter losses are ignored). Phasor diagrams in Fig. 4.8 show the
basic operation principle of the SSSC, from which it can be seen that the com
pensation level can be controlled dynamically by regulating the magnitude of Vinv .
Mathematical description of the SSSC is
Vt It xt Vb
Pt
+ V sssc 
I ts
V1 + V inv  V2
x sct
x ts x sb
Pts
m
VSC
φ
Idc Vdc
+ 
V inv V inv
V1 V2
jx cst I ts jx cst I ts
V2 V1
I ts I ts
SSSC in inductive mode SSSC in capacitive mode
where k is the ﬁxed ratio between the inverter’s AC and DC voltages and m is the
modulation ratio of the PWM algorithm implemented by the series VSC.
According to Fig. 4.8, a variable of equivalent reactance, xdc , can be introduced
to represent the AC voltage, Vinv , to be
From the circuit equation of power system of Fig. 4.7, it can have
ðxts þ xsb þ xsct Þitsq þ j(xts þ xsb þ xsct Þitsd xdc itsq þ jxdc itsd
ð4:36Þ
¼ xt itq þ jxt itd
Hence,
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ xdc
itq ¼ itsq
xt
ð4:37Þ
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ xdc
itd ¼ itsd
xt
Vt j(xts þ xsb þ xsct ÞIts ¼ xq ðitsq þ itq Þ þ j½E0q x0d ðitsd þ itd Þ jðxts þ xsb þ xsct ÞIts
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ xdc xts þ xsb þ xsct þ xdc
¼ xq 1 þ itsq þ j E0q x0d 1 þ itsd
xt xt
þ ðxts þ xsb þ xsct Þitsq j(xts þ xsb þ xsct Þitsd
¼ Vinv þ Vb ¼ xdc itsq þ jxdc itsd þ Vb sin d þ jVb cos d ð4:38Þ
Vb sin d
itsq ¼
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ cs xq þ xdc
ð4:39Þ
E0q Vb cos d
itsd ¼
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ cs x0d þ xdc
136 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
where
xts þ xsb þ xsct þ xdc
cs ¼ 1 þ
xt
Thus,
Vinv ¼ jxdc Its ¼ xdc itsq þ jxdc itsd ¼ mkVdc ðcos / þ j sin /Þ ð4:41Þ
By using Eq. (4.42), dynamic equation in Eq. (4.33) is converted to the following
equivalent form
dVdc
¼0 ð4:43Þ
dt
Equation (4.43) shows that indeed, there is no exchange of active power between
the SSSC and rest of the power system.
Hence,
Because only the damping control function will be considered, it can be assumed
that xdc0 ¼ 0 as far as the damping control function at the steadystate operation is
concerned. Hence, Eq. (4.44) becomes
where
Kpx kVdc0
Kpm ¼
Its0
Kqx kVdc0
Kqm ¼
Its0
Kvx kVdc0
Kvm ¼
Its0
By substituting Eq. (4.47) into Eq. (2.39) (without the PSS being considered), the
extended Heffron–Phillips model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system
with the SSSC installed can be obtained as
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
1
Dx_ ¼ ½K1 Dd DDx K2 DE0q Kpm Dm
M
1 ð4:48Þ
DE_ 0q ¼ 0 ðK4 Dd K3 DE0q þ DE0fd Kqm DmÞ
Td0
1 KA
DE_ 0fd ¼ DE0fd ðK5 Dd þ K6 DE0q þ Kvm DmÞ
TA TA
K1
1 ω0
 D + sM s
Δm
K2 K4 K5
K pm K qm K vm
1
  KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
Fig. 4.9 Extended Heffron–Phillips model of singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed
with a SSSC stabilizer
where
According to Eqs. (4.41) and (4.51), from Eq. (4.50), it can have
0
0
xd xq xd
@Pt 1 xt þ 1 2 xt þ 1 xt þ 1
Kpx ¼ ¼ Pt10 Pt10 Pt20 þ Pt20 þ Pt20
@xdc 0 xt cs x0dR xt c s xqR x0
0
dR
xd xq
1 1 xL þ 1 xL þ 1
¼ ðPt10 Pt20 Þ Pt20 ðPt10 Pt20 Þ þ Pt20
xt cs xt c s x0dR xqR
1 x0 þ xt 1 xq þ xt
¼ d 0 Pt0 Pt20
xt c s xt xdR xt c s xt xqR
x0 cs x0d cs xt xqR cs xq xt cs
¼ dR Pt0 Pt20
xt cs x0dR xt cs xqR
1 1
¼ Pt0 þ Pt20
cs x0dR cs xqR
ð4:52Þ
kVdc0 1 1
Kpm ¼ Pt0 Pt20 ð4:53Þ
cs Its0 x0dR xqR
Taking the similar procedure of analysis to that from Eqs. (3.58) to (3.59), from Eq.
(4.53), it can be concluded that
1. When the load conditions change, the SSSC stabilizer can always provide
positive damping to power system oscillations if it is designed properly;
2. The heavier the load condition of the power system is, the more effective the
SSSC stabilizer is;
3. When the load condition is unchanged, the SSSC stabilizer is less effective when
the equivalent reactance of transmission line is bigger.
Δm
K2
K pm K qm K vm
1
 KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA

K6
Fig. 4.10 Forward path of stabilizing signal of SSSC stabilizer installed in a singlemachine
inﬁnitebus power system
1
K3 þ sT0d0
Fsssc ðsÞ ¼ Kpm K2 Kqm
1 þ K61 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA
1 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA ð4:54Þ
K2 Kvm
1 þ K6 1 KA
K3 þ sT0d0 1 þ sTA
K2 ½Kqm ð1 þ sTA Þ þ Kvm KA
¼ Kpm
ðK3 þ sT0d0 Þð1 þ sTA Þ þ K6 KA
Consider the case that the feedback signal and transfer function of the SSSC
stabilizer are Dx and Tsssc ðs), respectively, that is
Dm ¼ Tsssc ðsÞDx ð4:55Þ
If the amount of damping torque contribution required from the SSSC stabilizer is
Dsssc Dx, the transfer function of SSSC stabilizer should be set by using the phase
compensation method at the angular oscillation frequency, xs , to satisfy
Fsssc ðjxs ÞTsssc ðjxs Þ ¼ Dsssc ð4:56Þ
In a more general case, the statespace representation of linearized model of the
singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with the SSSC stabilizer installed can
always be arranged in the following form:
2 3 2 3 2
32 3
Dd_ 0 x0 0 Dd 0
6 7 6 76 7 6 7
4 Dx_ 5 ¼ 4 k d A23 54 Dx 5 þ 4 B2 5Dm
x_ A31 A32 A33 x B3
2 3 ð4:57Þ
Dd
6 7
Dy ¼ ½ C1 C2 C3 4 Dx 5 þ dm Dm
x
4.2 Damping Function of a Stabilizer Added on a Static … 141
Dd_ ¼ x0 Dx
Dx_ ¼ kDd dDx A23 x B2 Dm
ð4:58Þ
x_ ¼ A31 Dd þ A32 Dx þ A33 x þ B3 Dm
Dy ¼ C1 Dd þ C2 Dx þ CT3 x þ dm Dm
sDd ¼ x0 Dx
sDx ¼ kDd dDx A23 x B2 Dm
ð4:59Þ
sx ¼ A31 Dd þ A32 Dx þ A33 x þ B3 Dm
Dy ¼ C1 Dd þ C2 Dx þ CT3 x þ dm Dm
Hence,
s
x ¼ ðsI A33 Þ1 A31 þ A32 Dd þ ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 Dm ð4:60Þ
x0
sDd ¼ x0 Dx
s s
sDx ¼ k þ d þ A23 ðsI A33 Þ1 A31 þ A32 Dd
x0 x0
½A23 ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 þ B2 Dm ¼ KðsÞDd Kc ðsÞDm
s
Dy ¼ C1 Dd þ C2 Dx þ CT3 ðsI A33 Þ1 A31 þ A32 Dd þ ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 Dm
x0
h x
i
1 x0
A31 þ A32 Dx þ ½dm þ CT3 ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 Dm
0
¼ C1 þ C2 þ C3 ðsI A33 Þ
T
s s
¼ Ko ðsÞDx þ Kil ðsÞDm
ð4:61Þ
where
s s
KðsÞ ¼ k þ d þ AT23 ðsI A33 Þ1 A31 þ A32
x0 x0
x
0 1 x0
Ko ðsÞ ¼ C1 þ C2 þ C3 ðsI A33 Þ
T
A31 þ A32
s s
Kc ðsÞ ¼ AT23 ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 þ B2
Kil ðsÞ ¼ CT3 ðsI A33 Þ1 B3 þ dm
K c (s) K o (s)
+
+
K il (s)
y
Δm
Tsssc (s)
From Fig. 4.11, it can be seen that with the SSSC stabilizer installed, the electric
torque provided by the SSSC stabilizer to the electromechanical oscillation loop of
generator is
Hence,
Dsssc ¼ ½Kc ðjxs ÞKo ðjxs Þ þ Dsssc Kil ðjxs ÞTsssc ðjxs Þ
ð4:64Þ
¼ Fsssc ðjxs ÞTsssc ðjxs Þ
According to Eq. (4.64), the phase compensation method can be used to design the
SSSC stabilizer by setting
Dsssc
h ¼ u; Tsssc ¼ ð4:65Þ
Fsssc
Vt Vb
Itb x tb
Pt Vbt
I te +
Vet I bs Vbs
+
x te x bt
x bs BT
m e δe UPFC m b δb
y q y q
Vet Vbt
δ jx es Ies jx bs I bs
δ
δe δb
Ves Vbs
x x
ψ es ψ bs
d d
where wes and wbs are the angle between daxis of d–q coordinate of the synchronous
generator and voltage Ves and Vbs , respectively, as shown in Fig. 4.13, which gives
The active power injected into the DC side of the UPFC from the shunt and series
transformer is the active power “consumed” by the shunt and series SVS, respec
tively, Pes ¼ ReðVes Ies Þ and Pbs ¼ ReðVbs Ibs Þ, where ReðÞ and * denote the real
part and conjugate of a complex variable, respectively. From Eqs. (4.66) and (4.67),
it can be obtained that
Ves Vet me ke Vdc Vet
Pes ¼ sin de ¼ sin de
xes xe
ð4:68Þ
Vbs Vbt mb kb Vdc Vbt
Pbs ¼ sin db ¼ sin db
xbs xbs
The shunt and series active power injection should be equal to that “received” at the
DC capacitor from the shunt and series VSC, respectively, that is
me ke Vdc Vet
Pes ¼ sin de ¼ Iedc Vdc
xes
ð4:69Þ
mb kb Vdc Vbt
Pbs ¼ sin db ¼ Ibdc Vdc
xbs
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 145
me ke Vet
Iedc ¼ sin de
xes
ð4:70Þ
mb kb Vbt
Ibdc ¼ sin db
xbs
Pes ¼ vesd iesd þ vesq iesq ¼ iesd me ke Vdc cos wes þ iesq me ke Vdc sin wes ¼ Iedc Vdc
Pbs ¼ vbsd ibsd þ vbsq ibsq ¼ ibsd mb kb Vdc cos wbs þ ibsq mb kb Vdc sin wbs ¼ Ibdc Vdc
ð4:71Þ
Hence, from Eq. (4.70), dynamic equation of the UPFC can be obtained as
1
V_ dc ¼ ðiesd me ke cos wes þ iesq me ke sin wes þ ibsd mb kb cos wbs þ ibsq mb kb sin wbs Þ
Cdc
ð4:74Þ
where
vetq
wes ¼ tan1 de
vetd
vbtq ð4:75Þ
wbs ¼ tan1 db
vbtd
146 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Vt ¼ jxtb Itb þ Vb
Vt ¼ jxte Ite þ Vet ð4:76Þ
Vet ¼ Vbt þ jxbt Ibs þ Vb
vtq Vb cos d
itbd ¼
xtb
ð4:78Þ
Vb sin d vtd
itbq ¼
xtb
Because
vtd þ jvtq ¼ jxte ðiesd þ ibsd þ jiesq þ jibsq Þ xes iesq þ vesd þ jxes iesd þ jvesq
xes iesq þ vesd þ jxes iesd þ jvesq
¼ xbs ibsq þ vbsd þ jxbs ibsd þ jvbsq þ jxbt ibsd xbt ibsq þ Vb sin d þ jVb cos d
That is
For the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with the UPFC installed, it can
have
Equations (4.74), (4.75), (4.78), (4.80), (4.82), and (4.83), together with the dif
ferential equations of synchronous generator of Eq. (2.35), form the nonlinear
mathematical model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system with the
UPFC installed.
where
1 xbs þ xbt xte ð2xq þ xtb Þ f q11 0 f q13
F0q ¼
xR1 xes xq xte þ ðxte þ xes Þðxq þ xtb Þ f q21 0 f q23
0 1 xbs xbt xte xtb f d11 xL f d13
Fd ¼
xR2 xes ðxte þ xes Þðx0d þ xtb Þ x0d xte f d21 0 f d23
" #
1 x bs þ x bt x te ð2x q þ x tb Þ g g 0 0
G0q ¼
q11 q12
xR1 xes xq xte þ ðxte þ xes Þðxq þ xtb Þ gq21 gq22 gq23 gq24
0 1 xbs xbt xte xtb gd11 gd12 0 0
Gd ¼
xR2 xes ðxte þ xes Þðx0d þ xtb Þ x0d xte gd21 gd22 gd23 gd24
xR1 ¼ ½xq xte þ ðxte þ xes Þðxq þ xtb Þðxbs þ xbt Þ þ x2es ð2xq þ xtb Þ
xR2 ¼ ½ðxte þ xes Þðx0d þ xtb Þ x0d xte ðxbs þ xbt Þ x2te xtb
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 149
vetd þ jvetq ¼ jxes ðiesd þ jiesq Þ þ me ke Vdc cos wes þ jme ke Vdc sin wes
vbtd þ jvbtq ¼ jxbs ðibsd þ jibsq Þ þ mb kb Vdc cos wbs þ jmb kb Vdc sin wbs
Dvesd ¼ xes f 0q11 Dd xE f 0q12 DE0q ðxes f 0q13 me0 ke cos wes0 ÞDVdc
ðxes g0q11 ke Vdc0 cos wes0 ÞDme ðxes g0q12 þ me0 ke Vdc0 sin wes0 ÞDwes
xes g0q13 Dmb xes g0q14 Dwbs
¼ aed1 Dd þ aed2 DE0q þ aed3 DVdc þ aed4 Dme þ aed5 Dwes þ aed6 Dmb þ aed7 Dwbs
Dvesq ¼ xes f 0d11 Dd þ xes f 0d12 DE0q þ ðxes f 0d13 þ me0 ke sin wes0 ÞDVdc
þ ðxes g0d11 þ ke Vdc0 sin wes0 ÞDme
þ ðxes g0d12 þ me0 ke Vdc0 cos wes0 ÞDwes þ xes g0d13 Dmb þ xes g0d14 Dwbs
¼ aeq1 Dd þ aeq2 DE0q þ aeq3 DVdc þ aeq4 Dme þ aeq5 Dwes þ aeq6 Dmb þ aeq7 Dwbs
Dvbsd ¼ xbs f 0q21 Dd f 0q22 DE0q ðxbs f 0q23 mb0 kb cos wbs0 ÞDVdc
ðxbs g0q23 kb Vdc0 cos wbs0 ÞDmb ðxbs g0q24 þ mb0 kb Vdc0 sin wbs0 ÞDwbs
xbs g0q21 Dme xbs g0q22 Dwes
¼ abd1 Dd þ abd2 DE0q þ abd3 DVdc þ abd4 Dme þ abd5 Dwes þ abd6 Dmb þ abd7 Dwbs
Dvbsq ¼ xbs f 0d21 Dd þ xbs f 0d22 DE0q þ ðxbs f 0d23 þ mb0 kb sin wbs0 ÞDVdc
þ ðxbs g0d23 þ kb Vdc0 sin wbs0 ÞDmb þ ðxbs g0d24 þ mb0 kb Vdc0 cos wbs0 ÞDwbs
þ xbs g0d21 Dme þ xbs g0d22 Dwes
¼ abq1 Dd þ abq2 DE0q þ abq3 DVdc þ abq4 Dme þ abq5 Dwes þ abq6 Dmb þ abq7 Dwbs
where
1
a0ei ¼ ðvesd0 aeqi vesq0 aedi Þ
v2esd0 þ v2esq0
1
a0bi ¼ 2 ðvbsd0 abqi vbsq0 abdi Þ
vbsd0 þ v2bsq0
i ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 151
where
xq Vb sin d0 xq xtb xq xtb
Hd ¼ 0 0 þ F
xq þ xtb xq þ xtb xq þ xtb q
xq xtb xq xtb
Ld ¼ Gq
xq þ xtb xq þ xtb
0
xd Vb sin d0 xtb x0d xtb x0d xtb
Hq ¼ 0 þ 0 Fd
x0d þ xtb x0d þ xtb xd þ xtb x0d þ xtb
x0 xtb x0d xtb
Lq ¼ 0 d Gd
xd þ xtb x0d þ xtb
By using Eqs. (4.86), (4.88), and (4.89) and the ﬁrst two equations in Eq. (4.90), the
last three equations in Eq. (4.90) become
DPt ¼ ðiteq0 þ itbq0 ÞDvtq þ ðited0 þ itbd0 ÞDvtd
þ vtq0 ðDiesq þ Dibsq þ Ditbq Þ þ vtd0 ðDiesd þ Dibsd þ Dibsd Þ
Vb cos d0 Vb sin d0
¼ vtq0 þ vtd0 Dd
xtb xtb
vtq0 vtd0
þ ited0 þ itbd0 Dvtd þ iteq0 þ itbq0 þ Dvtq
xtb xtb
Diesq Diesd
þ ½ vtq0 vtq0 þ ½ vtd0 vtd0
Diesq Diesd
2 3
2 3 Dme
Dd 6 Dd 7
6 7 6 e7
¼ ½ K1 K2 Kpdc 4 DE0q 5 þ ½ Kpme Kpde Kpmb Kpdb 6 7 ð4:91Þ
4 Dmb 5
DVdc
Ddb
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 153
Diesd
DEq ¼ DE0q
þ ½ ðxd x0d Þ
ðxd x0d Þ
Dibsd
0 Vb sin d 0 1
þ ðxd xd Þ Dd þ Dvtq
xtb xtb
Vb sin d0 1
¼ ðxd x0d Þ Dd þ DE0q þ ðxd x0d Þ Dvtq
xtb xtb
0 0
Diesd
þ ½ ðxd xd Þ ðxd xd Þ
Dibsd
2 3
2 3 Dme
Dd 6 Dd 7
6 7 6 e7
¼ ½ K4 K3 Kqdc 4 DE0q 5 þ ½ Kqme Kqde Kqme Kqde 6 7
4 Dmb 5
DVdc
Ddb
ð4:92Þ
2 3
2 3 Dme
Dd 6 Dde 7
DVt ¼ ½ K5 K6 Kvdc 4 DE0q 5 þ ½ Kvme Kvde Kvmb Kvdb 6 7
4 Dmb 5 ð4:93Þ
DVdc
Ddb
where
h i
½ K1 K2 Kpdc ¼ vtq0 Vbxcos d2 þ vted0 Vbxsin d0 0 0
tb tb
vteq0 vted0
þ ited0 þ itbd0 Hd þ iteq0 þ itbq0 þ Hq
xtb xtb
vteq0
½ Kpme Kpde Kpmb Kpdb ¼ ðited0 þ itbd0 ÞLd
xtb
vted0
þ ðiteq0 þ itbq0 þ ÞLq þ ½ vtq0 vtq0 Gq þ ½ vtd0 vtd0 Gd
xtb
h i
½ K4 K3 Kqdc ¼ ðxd x0d Þ Vbxsin d0 1 0
tb
ðxd x0d Þ
þ Hq þ ½ ðxd x0d Þ ðxd x0d Þ Fd
xtb
ðxd x0d Þ
½ Kqme Kqde Kqmb Kqdb ¼ Lq þ ½ ðxd x0d Þ ðxd x0d Þ Gd
xtb
vtd0 vtq0
½ K5 K6 Kvdc ¼ Hd þ Hq
Vt0 E
vtd0 vtq0
½ Kqme Kqde Kqmb Kqdb ¼ Ld þ Lq
Vt0 Vt0
154 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
where
½ K7 K8 K9
2 3T
me0 ke iesd0 sin wes0 me0 ke iesq0 cos wes0 þ mb0 kb ibsd0 sin wbs0 mb0 kb ibsq0 cos wbs0
6 7
¼4 0 5
0
þ ½ me0 ke cos wes0 mb0 kb cos wB0 Fd þ ½ me0 ke sin wE0 mb0 kb sin wB0 Fq
2 3T
ke iesd0 cos wes0 þ ke iesq0 sin wes0
6 me0 ke iesq0 cos w me0 ke iesd0 sin w 7
6 es0 es0 7
½ Kdme Kdde Kdmb Kddb ¼ 6 7
4 kb ibsd0 cos wbs0 þ kb ibsq0 sin wbs0 5
mb0 kb ibsq0 cos wbs0 mb0 kb ibsd0 sin wbs0
þ ½ me0 ke cos wes0 mb0 kb cos wbs0 Gd þ ½ me0 ke sin wes0 mb0 kb sin wbs0 Gq
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 155
By substituting Eqs. (4.91)–(4.93) into Eq. (2.37) (without the PSS control) and
arranging the equations obtained together with Eq. (4.94) in matrix form, the
extended Heffron–Phillips model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system
with the UPFC installed can be obtained as
2 3
2 3 0 xo 0 0 0 2 3
Dd_ 6
6 K1 D K2 Kpdc 7 7 Dd
6 _ 7 6 M M M 0 M 76 Dx 7
6 Dx 7 6 Kqdc 7 6 7
6 7 6 K K 0 7 6 7
6 DE_ 0 7 ¼ 6 T0 0 1
0 7 6 0 7
4 3
6 q 7 6 d0 Td0 0
Td0 Td0 76 DE q 7
6 7 6 76 7
4 DE_ 0fd 5 6 KA K5 0 KTA K6 T1 KATKvdc 7 4 DE0fd 5
6 T 7
DV_ dc 4 A A A A
5 DVdc
K7 0 K8 0 K9
Cdc Cdc Cdc ð4:95Þ
2 3
0 0 0 0
6 Kpme K
Mpde
Kpmb
M Mpdb 7
K 2 3
6 M 7 Dme
6 7
6 K K K K 76 Dd 7
6 qme qde qmB qdB 76 e 7
6 T0d0 T0d0 T0d0 T0d0 76 7
6 74 5
6 KA Kvme KA Kvde KA Kvmb KA Kvdb 7 Dmb
6 7
TA 5 Ddb
4 TA TA TA
Kdme Kdde Kdmb Kddb
Cdc Cdc Cdc Cdc
K1
1 Δω ω0 Δδ
 sM + D s
K4 K5
K2
kp uupfc kv
kq
1 KA
ΔE q ' Td0 's + K 3  + 1 + sTA 
K6
Fig. 4.14 Extended Heffron–Phillips model of power system with a UPFC installed—part of the
power system
1
ΔE q ' K8 + ΔVdc
sCdc − K 9
kd
uupfc1
uupfc1
UPFC stabilizer. It can be carried out by use of the modal controllability and
observability index introduced in Sect. 2.2.1.2.
Linearized model of the singlemachine inﬁnitebus power system installed with
the UPFC of Eq. (4.95) can be written as
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 157
X
4
X_ ¼ AX þ bk Duk ð4:97Þ
k¼1
where
2 3
2 3 0 xo 0 0 0
Dd 6 K 7
6 1K MD K 2
0 Mpdc 7
6 7 6 M M 7
6 Dx 7 6 Kqdc 7
6 7 6 K0 4 K0 3 1
0 7
X¼6 0 7
6 DEq 7; A ¼ 6
6 Td0
0
Td0 T0d0 Td0 7 7;
6 0 7 6 K K 7
4 DEfd 5 6 A 5 0 TA K6
K T T 7
1 K A Kvdc 7
6 TA
DVdc 4 A A A
5
K7 0 K8 0 K9
Cdc Cdc Cdc
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
0 0 0 0
6 Kpme 7 6 Kpde 7 6 Kpmb 7 6 Kpdb 7
6 M 7 6 M 7 6 M 7 6 M 7
6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7
6 Kqme 7 6 Kqde 7 6 Kqmb 7 6 Kqdb 7
6 0 7 6 0 7 6 0 7 6 0 7
b1 ¼ 6 Td0 7; b2 ¼ 6 Td0 7; b3 ¼6 Td0 7; b4 ¼ 6 Td0 7;
6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7
6 KA Kvme 7 6 KA Kvde 7 6 KA Kvmb 7 6 KA Kvdb 7
6 TA 5 7 6 TA 7 6 TA 5 7 6 TA 7
4 4 5 4 4 5
Kdme Kdde Kdmb Kddb
Cdc Cdc Cdc Cdc
Du1 ¼ Dme ; Du2 ¼ Dde ; Du3 ¼ Dmb ; Du4 ¼ Ddb
If the transfer function and feedback signal of the UPFC stabilizer are Tupfck ðs) and
yk , respectively, statespace representation of the power system with the UPFC
stabilizer is
X
4
X_ ¼ AX þ bk Duk
k¼1
ð4:98Þ
yk ¼ ckT X
Duk ¼ Tupfck ðsÞyk
If ki is the electromechanical oscillation mode of the power system, from Eqs. (2.50
) and (2.54), it can have
Avi ¼ ki vi
ð4:99Þ
wTi A ¼ wTi ki
where vi and wTi are the right eigenvector and left eigenvector of state matrix, A,
with respect to mode ki , respectively. From the state transformation of Eqs. (2.53),
(2.55), (2.56), and (4.98), it can have
158 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
X
4 X
4
Z_ ¼ V1 AVZ þ V1 bk Duk ¼ K Z þ V1 bk Duk
k¼1 k¼1
ð4:100Þ
yk ¼ cTk VZ
Duk ¼ Tupfck ðsÞyk
where
2 3
k1 0 0 0
60 k2 0 07
6 7
V ¼ ½ v1 v2 . . . vn ; K¼6 .. 7
40 0 . 05
0 0 0 kn
V1 ¼ ½ w1 w2 . . . w M T ¼ W T ð4:101Þ
1 X 4
zj ¼ þ wTj bk Duk
s kj k¼1
X
yk ¼ cTk vj zj ; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ð4:102Þ
j
1
b kn Ckn
s − λn
Δu k yk
Tupfck (s)
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 159
far as the oscillation mode ki is concerned, the controllability index and observ
ability index of the UPFC stabilizer are, respectively,
which measures the overall influence of the stabilizer on the oscillation mode.
Obviously, the controllability index, observability index, and residue are cal
culated from the openloop system model as far as the UPFC stabilizer is con
cerned. Hence, it can be used to predict the effectiveness of the stabilizer to be
installed. The controllability index can be used to select the most effective modu
lation signal to be superimposed with the damping control signal to enhance the
damping of system electromechanical oscillation mode.
Electric torque contribution from a UPFC stabilizer can be calculated from the
forward path of UPFC damping control signal. The forward path can be obtained
from Figs. 4.14 and 4.15 with the blocks associated with K4 , K5 , and K7 ignored as
shown in Fig. 4.17,
X_ 1 ¼ A1 X1 þ b1k Duk
ð4:105Þ
DTuk ¼ cTupfc1 X1 þ kpuk Duk ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4
160 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
 1
sCdc − K 9
K2
⎡ ΔVdc ⎤
k puk ⎢ Δu ⎥
⎣ k⎦ k vuk
k quk
1 KA
ΔE q ' Td0 's + K 3  + 1 + sTA 
K6
where
Du1 ¼ Dme ; Du2 ¼ Dde ; Du3 ¼ Dmb ; Du4 ¼ Ddb
2 3
2 3 K
0 K0 3 1
0 qdc0
DEq 6 Td0 Td0 Td0 7
6 7 6 7
X1 ¼ 4 DE0fd 5; A1 ¼ 6 K
6 TA
A K6 K
T T 7
1 A Kvdc 7
4 A A 5
DVdc K8 K
Cdc 0 9
Cdc
T T
b11 ¼ ½ Kqme Kvme Kdme ; b12 ¼ ½ Kqde Kvde Kdde ;
b13 ¼ ½ Kqmb Kvmb Kdmb T ; b14 ¼ ½ Kqdb Kvdb Kddb T ;
cupfc1 ¼ ½ K2 0 Kpdc T
From Eq. (4.105), transfer function of the forward path can be obtained as
where xs is the angular frequency of power oscillation. From Eq. (4.107), it can be
seen that the following index can also be used to predict the effectiveness of the
UPFC stabilizer to be installed. The index can be used to select the modulation
signal to add the damping control signal of the UPFC stabilizer
Fupfck ðjxs Þ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4 ð4:108Þ
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 161
When the damping torque index is used, according to Eq. (4.108), the criterion of
selection is
Duselected ¼ Max Fupfck ðjxs Þ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4 ; Duk 2 fDme ; Dmb ; Dde ; Ddb g
Duk
ð4:110Þ
or
rselected ¼ Min Fupfck ðjxs Þ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4 ; r 2 X0 ð4:112Þ
r
x0 Ksstab
ystab ¼ Kdstab Dx þ Ksstab Dd ¼ Kdstab þ Dx ¼ Ky ðjxs ÞDx
jxs
ð4:113Þ
From Eq. (4.114), it can be seen that with the variations of system operating
conditions, change of the damping torque contributed by the stabilizer is mainly
determined by variations of Fstab ðjxs ÞKy ðjxs Þ. At an operating condition rj 2 X0 , if
it is denoted that
From Eqs. (4.114) and (4.115), the damping torque and synchronizing torque
provided by the stabilizer at rj 2 X0 can be obtained as
xs
DTsstab ¼ Hj H sinðuj /Þ Dd ð4:119Þ
x0
4.3 Damping Function of a Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller … 163
If it has
in order for the stabilizer to provide the power system with positive synchronizing
torque at all known operating conditions rj 2 X0 , design of the stabilizer must
ensure
/
uj ; rj 2 X0 ð4:120aÞ
Therefore, from Eqs. (4.118) and (4.121), the damping torque contributed by the
stabilizer can be obtained as
At rselected 2 X0 determined by using the criterion of Eq. (4.123), the stabilizer can
be designed. The design will ensure that more damping torque will be provided by
the stabilizer when the power system operates at other operating conditions.
Therefore, the design guarantees the robustness of the stabilizer to the variations of
power system operating conditions.
4.4 Examples
rbess
Vc
BESS
Vbess Vdc
Idc2 ¼ ð4:124Þ
rbess
Denote the real and imaginary part of a complex number by Re( ) and Im( ),
respectively, from the phasor diagram of Fig. 4.3 it can have
From Fig. 4.3, it can be seen that w0 and wx0 ¼ 8:6 is the phase of Vc0 in the d–
q coordinate and x–y coordinate, respectively. Hence,
p
w0 ¼ wx0 þ d0 ¼ 65:0250
2
c11 c12 0:6667 1:0000 d11 d12 0:9524 1:4286
¼ ; ¼
c21 c22 2:6667 0:6667 d21 d22 2:8571 0:9524
1
DIdc2 ¼ DVdc ð4:125Þ
rbess
From Eqs. (4.19) and (4.125), state equation of the example power system is
obtained as
X_ ¼ AX þ Bu ð4:126Þ
where
2 3
Dd
6 7
6 Dx 7
6 7 D/
6 0 7
X ¼ 6 DEq 7; u ¼ ;
6 7 Dm
4 DE0fd 5
DVdc
2 3
0 xo 0 0 0
6 K 7
6 K 1
MD K 2
0 Mpdc 7
6 M M 7
6 Kqdc 7
6 K0 4 0 K3 1 7
A¼6 T T T 0
T 0
7
6 d0 d0 d0 d0 7
6 KA K5 K A K6 K 7
6 0 T T 1
T vdc 7
4 TA A A A 5
K7 0 K8 0 K9 C 1r
2 dc bess
3
0 314:16 0 0 0
6 7
6 0:1302 0 0:0838 0 0:0226 7
6 7
¼66 0:0930 0 0:3965 0:1983 0:1212 7;
7
6 7
4 428:242 0 5483:2 100 2994:2 5
0:7086 0 0:4067 0 100:0746
2 3
0 0 2 3
6 Kpw Kpm 7 0 0
6 M M 7 6 7
6 7 6 0:0886 0:0669 7
6 Kqw K 7 6 7
B¼6
6
0
Td0
qm 7 6
T0d0 7 ¼ 6 0:0564 0:3594 7
7
6 7 6 7
6 KA Kvw 7 4 138:495 8882 5
4 T KATKvm 5
A A
2:6858 0:2212
Kdw Kdm
4.4 Examples 167
k1 and k2 are the pair of electromechanical oscillation mode of the example power
system.
To work out the transfer function of the forward path from a BESS stabilizer to the
electromechanical oscillation loop, the path related to Dd in the Heffron–Phillips
model of Figs. 4.4 and 4.5 can be ignored. Hence, from Fig. 4.4 with Dd being
ignored, it can have
1
DVdc ¼ ðK8 DE0q þ Kdm Dm þ Kdw D/Þ ð4:127Þ
s K9 þ C 1r
dc bess
Figure 4.19 shows the forward path from the BESS to the electromechanical
oscillation loop of generator. From Fig. 4.19, it can be obtained
1 KA
DE0q ¼ ðKvdc DVdc Kvw Dw Kvm Dm K6 DE0q Þ
sT0d0 þ K3 1 þ sTA
ð4:128Þ
Kqdc DVdc Kqw D/ Kqm Dm

ΔTet
[ ΔVdc Δψ Δm ]
K2
⎣⎡ K pdc K pψ K pm ⎦⎤ ⎣⎡ K vdc K vψ K vm ⎦⎤
⎣⎡ K qdc K qm K qψ ⎦⎤
ΔE q '

1 KA
K 3 + sTd0 ' + 1 + sTA 
K6
Deleting variable DVdc and DE0q in Eqs. (4.126) and (4.127), it can be obtained
that
A simple way to calculate the transfer function of the forward path with s ¼ jxs
is to obtain the following statespace representation of the system of Eqs. (4.127)
and (4.128)
X_ r ¼ Ar Xr þ Br u
ð4:131Þ
DTet ¼ Cr Xr þ Dr u
2 3
DE0q
D/
where Xr ¼ 4 DE0fd 5; u ¼ , Ar and Br are obtained directly from A and
Dm
DVdc
B from Eq. (4.126) by deleting two state variables Dd and Dx, and the output
equation is obtained from the second equation in Eq. (4.128). That is
2 3
TK30 1 Kqdc 2 3
6 d0 Td0 0 Td0 0 7 0:3965 0:1983 0:1212
6 7 6 7
Ar ¼ 6 KA K6 1 KTvdc 7 ¼ 4 5483:2 100 2994:2 5;
4 TA TA A 5
K8 0 K9 C 1r 0:4067 0 100:0746
2 3 dc bess
K K 2 3
T pw0 T pm0 0:0564 0:3594
6 7
6 7 6 7
d0 d0
It can have
Hence,
The above results are as same as those given in Eq. (4.130). Take the transfer
function of the BESS stabilizer to be
ð1 þ sT2 Þ
Tbess ðsÞ ¼ Kbess with T1 ¼ 0:38s:
ð1 þ sT1 Þ
Deviation of active power delivered along the transmission line, DPt , is taken as the
feedback signal of the stabilizer. Hence, the electric torque supplied by a BESS
active power stabilizer is
The BESS active and reactive power stabilizer can be designed by using the phase
compensation method to supply a pure damping torque DTetactive ¼ 9Dx and
DTetreactive ¼ 20Dx, respectively. The parameters of stabilizers obtained from the
design are as follows:
1. The BESS active power stabilizers: Kbess ¼ 15:9567; T2bess ¼ 0:3826s:;
2. The BESS reactive power stabilizers: Kbess ¼ 99:7980; T2bess ¼ 0:0151s:
Table 4.1 gives the computational results of oscillation mode of example power
system without and with the BESS stabilizers installed. They conﬁrm the effec
tiveness of the BESS stabilizer in damping the power oscillations.
Figure 4.20 shows the simulation results of the example power system without
and with the BESS stabilizers installed. In the simulation, a threephase toearth
Table 4.1 Oscillation mode of example power system when Pt0 = 0.5 p.u.
Without any stabilizer With active power stabilizer With reactive power stabilizer
0:0591 j6:4978 0:6541 j6:4621 0:5315 j5:1291
170 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Fig. 4.20 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 ¼ 0:5 p.u.
short circuit occurred at 0.5 s of simulation for 100 ms. The results conﬁrm the
effectiveness of the BESS stabilizers designed by use of the phase compensation
method to damp the power oscillation.
Effectiveness of the BESS stabilizers is examined when Pt0 varies from 0.1 p.u. to
1.0 p.u. with Vt0 ¼ 1:0; Vb ¼ 1:0; Vs0 ¼ 1:0 being ﬁxed. Figure 4.21 shows the
damping torque provided by the BESS stabilizers with variations of system load
conditions. From Fig. 4.21, it can be seen that provision of the damping torque by
the BESS active power stabilizer changes much less than that by the reactive power
stabilizer. Hence, the active power stabilizer is more robust to the variations of
system load conditions. Table 4.2 gives the computational results of electrome
chanical oscillation mode. Figures 4.22 and 4.23 are the results of simulation of
example power system at different load conditions. Those results obviously conﬁrm
that the BESS active power stabilizer is more robust than the reactive power sta
bilizer to the variations of power system loading conditions as concluded by the
discussion in Sect. 4.1.2.2.
4.4 Examples 171
Operating condition
Fig. 4.21 Damping torque provided by BESS stabilizers with variations of system loading
conditions
Table 4.2 Oscillation mode of example power system with variable loading conditions
Pt0 = 0.2 p.u. Pt0 = 0.9 p.u.
Without any stabilizer 0:0070 j6:3064 0:2505 j6:8670
With active power stabilizer 0:6685 j6:2676 0:5427 j6:8615
With reactive power stabilizer 0:2050 j5:7870 0:9353 j4:6027
Fig. 4.22 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 ¼ 0:2 p.u.
172 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
without stabilizers
time(second)
Fig. 4.23 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 ¼ 0:9 p.u.
same as what is presented below when the UPFC normal control functions are
considered. Hence, it is assumed that Ies ¼ 0; Vbt ¼ 0 which can give
Total reactance of the transmission lines is xt ¼ xxtbtb ðþxxte teþþxxbtbtÞ ¼ 0:15. From
Vt0 Vb
Vb
jxt
¼ Pt0 þ jQb0 , the reactive power received at the inﬁnite bus bar Qb0 can be
obtained as
2sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3
2
Vb 4 xt Pt0
Qb0 ¼ V2t0 Vb 5 ¼ 0:3326 ð4:136Þ
xt Vb
Thus,
Pt0 jQb0
Itb0 þ Ite0 ¼ ¼ 0:1 j0:3326
Vb
Vt0 ¼ jxt ðItb0 þ Ite0 Þ þ Vb ¼ 1:0499 þ j0:0150 ¼ 1:05\0:82
xtb
Ite0 ¼ Ibs0 ¼ ðItb0 þ Ite0 Þ ¼ 0:05 j0:1663 ¼ 0:1737\ 73:27
xtb þ xte þ xbt
EQ ¼ Vt0 þ jxq ðItb0 þ Ite0 Þ ¼ 1:2495 þ j0:0750 ¼ 1:252\3:435
Ves0 ¼ Vet0 ¼ Vt0 jxte Ite0 ¼ 1:0249 þ j0:0075 ¼ 1:025\0:419 ¼ me0 ke Vdc0 \86:99
Vbs0 ¼ jxbs Ibs ¼ 0:0033 j0:001 ¼ 0:0034\16:86 ¼ mb0 kb Vdc0 \86:56
k1 ¼ 94:4375
k2 ; k3 ¼ 0:0106 j8:4249
k4 ¼ 6:0714
k5 ¼ 0:0276
With Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0, Pt0 changes from 0.1 p.u. to 1.2 p.u. Deviation of
modulation signal to add a UPFC stabilizer is Duk ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4 where
It means that the UPFC stabilizer should be designed at load condition Pt0 ¼ 0:1
when the stabilizer is least effective to damp the electromechanical oscillation
mode. It is also shown in Fig. 4.23 that the stabilizer can provide the most amount
of damping torque when it is added on the modulation signal Dde . That is
Duselected ¼ Dde ¼ Max½Fupfck ðjxs Þ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4; Duk 2 fDme ; Dmb ; Dde ; Ddb g
Duk
with δ e signal
with m e signal
with m b signal
with δ b signal
Operating condition
Fig. 4.24 Computational result of Fupfck ðjxs Þ; k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4
176 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Hence, to have a robust UPFC stabilizer, the stabilizer should be added on Dde
and the design carried out at operating condition Pt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0.
The robust modulation signal to add a UPFC stabilizer can also be selected by
using the residue index deﬁned by Eq. (4.104). Take the feedback signal of sta
bilizer to be the locally available signal, the deviation of line active power Pte .
Similar to Eq. (4.83), it has
By using Eqs. (4.86) and (4.88), similar to the derivation of Eq. (4.91), lin
earization of Eq. (4.139) can be obtained to be
DPte ¼ iteq0 Dvtq þ ited0 Dvtd þ vtq0 ðDiesq þ Dibsq Þ þ vtd0 ðDiesd þ Dibsd Þ
2 3
Dd 2 3
6 7 Dme
6 Dx 7 6 Dd 7
6 7 6 e7 ð4:140Þ
¼ ½ c1 0 c3 0 c5 6 0 7
6 DEq 7 þ ½ d1 d2 d3 d4 6 7
6 7 4 Dmb 5
4 DE0fd 5
Ddb
DVdc
where
Fq1 and Fq2 , Fd1 and Fd2 , Gq1 and Gq2 and Gd1 and Gd2 are the ﬁrst and
second rows of Fq , Fd , Gq , and Gd , respectively.
At the selected operating condition rselected ¼ fPt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05;
Vb0 ¼ 1:0g, for the oscillation mode k2;3 ¼ 0:0106 j8:4249, the right and left
eigenvectors are obtained as
2 3 2 3
0:0091 þ j0:0206 0:0091 j0:0206
6 7 6 7
6 0:7702 þ j0:3380 7 6 0:7702 j0:3380 7
6 7 6 7
v2 ¼ 6 7 6 7
6 0:0013 þ j0:0008 7 and v3 ¼ 6 0:0013 j0:0008 7
6 7 6 7
4 0:0000 þ j0:0000 5 4 0:0000 j0:0000 5
0:0010 j0:0010 0:0010 þ j0:0010
2 3 2 3
0:0899 j0:2015 0:0899 þ j0:2015
6 7 6 7
6 0:0054 j0:0024 7 6 0:0054 þ j0:0024 7
6 7 6 7
2 ¼ 6
w 7
6 0:0021 j0:0224 7 and w 3 ¼ 6
6 0:0021 þ j0:0224 7
7
6 7 6 7
4 0:9747 5 4 0:9747 5
0:0243 þ j0:0107 0:0243 j0:0107
4.4 Examples 177
From Eqs. (4.102) and (4.103), the controllability of four input signals as far as
the electromechanical oscillation mode is concerned is calculated as
k ¼ 1; Du1 ¼ DmE ;
T2 b1 ¼ 2:4108 j2:3637;
b21 ¼ w b31 ¼ w
T3 b1 ¼ 2:4108 þ j2:3637
k ¼ 2; Du2 ¼ DdE ;
b22 ¼ T2 b2
w ¼ 10:7641 j5:1591; b32 ¼ w
T3 b2 ¼ 10:7641 þ j5:1591
k ¼ 3; Du3 ¼ Dmb ;
b23 ¼ T2 b3
w ¼ 0:2548 j0:2928; b33 ¼ w
T3 b3 ¼ 0:2548 þ j0:2928
k ¼ 4; Du4 ¼ Ddb ;
T2 b4 ¼ 0:0023 j0:0001;
b24 ¼ w b34 ¼ w
T3 b4 ¼ 0:0023 þ j0:0001
where
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
0 0 0 0
6 0:0074 7 6 0:1301 7 6 0:0012 7 6 0:0000 7
6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7
b1 ¼ 6 0:5851 7; b2 ¼ 6 0:0105 7; b3 ¼ 6 0:0688 7; b4 ¼ 6
6 7 6 7 6 7 7
6 0:0000 7;
4 12670 5 4 0:1463 5 4 1490:5 5 4 0:0127 5
0:0549 7:7986 0:0308 0:0172
c2k ¼ cTk
v2 ¼ 0:0002 j0:0029 and c3k ¼ cTk v3 ¼ 0:0002 þ j0:0029
where
cTk ¼ ½ 1:1616 0 0:1387 0 0:0202 ðk ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4Þ
The residue index for four input signals fDmE ; DdE ; DmB ; DdB g of the UPFC
stabilizer, thus, is obtained as
k ¼ 1; Du1 ¼ DmE ;
R21 ¼
b21c21 ¼ 0:0073 j0:0065; R31 ¼ b31c31 ¼ 0:0073 þ j0:0065;
k ¼ 2; Du2 ¼ DdE ;
R22 ¼
b22c22 ¼ 0:0128 þ j0:0322; R32 ¼ b32c32 ¼ 0:0128 j0:0322;
k ¼ 3; Du3 ¼ Dmb ;
R23 ¼
b23c23 ¼ 0:0009 j0:0007; R33 ¼ b33c33 ¼ 0:0009 þ j0:0007;
k ¼ 4; Du4 ¼ Ddb ;
24c24 ¼ 0:0000 þ j0:0000; R34 ¼ b34c34 ¼ 0:0000 j0:0000
R24 ¼ b
Because R2k and R3k (k = 1, 2, 3, 4) are pairs of conjugate vectors, and the
amplitude of residue measures the overall influence of the UPFC stabilizer on the
oscillation mode. It can be obtained that
178 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Residue
with m e signal
with δ e signal
with m b signal
with δ b signal
Pt0
R21 ¼ R31 ¼ 0:0097
R22 ¼ R32 ¼ 0:035
R23 ¼ R33 ¼ 0:0011
R24 ¼ R34 ¼ 0
The largest residue indicates the most effective feedback signal to design the UPFC
stabilizer. Hence,
uselected ¼ dE where Rik max ¼ Ri2 ¼ 0:035ði ¼ 2; 3Þ
The selection is as same as that obtained previously by using the damping torque
analysis. Variation of the residue with system load condition from 0.1 to 1.2 p.u. is
shown in Fig. 4.25. Obviously, Pt0 ¼ 0:1 should be selected, which again is as same
as that obtained previously.
State Eq. (4.137) and output Eq. (4.140) are obtained at the selected operating
condition Pt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0 of the example power system.
With Dde being selected to add the damping control signal of the UPFC stabi
lizer, it can be obtained that
4.4 Examples 179
jxs jxs
Kðjxs Þ ¼ k þ d þ AT23 ðjxs I A33 Þ1 A31 þ A32 ¼ 0:2259 þ j0:0006
x0 x0
x0 x
C1 þ C2 þ CT3 ðjxs I A33 Þ1
0
Ko ðjxs Þ ¼ A31 þ A32 ¼ 0:0663 j43:5996
jxs jxs
Kc ðjxs Þ ¼ AT23 ðjxs I A33 Þ1 B3 þ B2 ¼ 0:1418 þ j0:0047
Kil ðjxs Þ ¼ CT3 ðjxs I A33 Þ1 B3 þ dm ¼ 2:7599 þ j0:0155
Let the design of the UPFC stabilizer provide a pure damping torque
Dupfc Dx ¼ 1Dx. Take DPte as the feedback signal. Thus,
ð1 þ sT2 Þ
Dde ¼ Tupfc ðsÞDPte ¼ Kupfc DPte ð4:141Þ
ð1 þ sT1 Þ
where T1 ¼ 0:3 s.
From Eq. (4.64), the forward path of the stabilizer is calculated as
Fupfc ðjxs Þ ¼ Kc ðjxs ÞKo ðjxs Þ þ Dupfc Kil ðjxs Þ ¼ 2:9764 j6:1674
Table 4.3 Oscillation mode of example power system with variable load conditions
Pt0 ¼ 0:1 p.u. Pt0 ¼ 0:8 p.u. Pt0 ¼ 1:2 p.u.
Without stabilizer 0:0106 j8:4249 0:0133 j8:9982 0:1457 j9:4250
With stabilizer 0:6880 j7:0257 1:2283 j7:5835 1:2930 j8:1842
δ (degree)
without stabilizer
Fig. 4.26 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 = 0.1 p.u.
δ (degree)
with UPFC stabilizer
without stabilizer
time(second)
Fig. 4.27 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 = 0.8 p.u.
4.4 Examples 181
δ (degree)
time(second)
Fig. 4.28 Simulation results of example power system when Pt0 = 1.2 p.u.
In order to demonstrate that the robustness of the UPFC stabilizer is due to the
selection of the load condition at Pt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0 where the
stabilizer is designed, the stabilizer is designed at another load condition
Pt0 ¼ 0:8; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0. Then, its effectiveness is checked at different
load conditions by modal computation presented in Table 4.4. From the results, it
can be seen that though the UPFC stabilizer is designed properly at the selected
load condition Pt0 ¼ 0:8; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0, where the power oscillation is
effectively suppressed (see the second column of Table 4.4), its effectiveness is
not ensured at Pt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0 (see the ﬁrst column of
Table 4.4).
At the selected operating condition Pt0 ¼ 0:1; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0, the UPFC
stabilizer can also be added to other modulation signals. Table 4.5 gives the results
of designing the UPFC stabilizers added on other two modulation signals and the
oscillation mode of example power system when stabilizers are installed. From
Table 4.5, it can be seen that the gain value of the UPFC stabilizers added on Dme
and Dmb is much greater than that of the stabilizer added on Dde in order to
Table 4.4 Oscillation mode of example power system with the stabilizer designed at
Pt0 ¼ 0:8; Vt0 ¼ 1:05; Vb ¼ 1:0
Pt0 ¼ 0:1 p.u. Pt0 ¼ 0:8 p.u. Pt0 ¼ 1:2 p.u.
Without stabilizer 0:0106 j8:4249 0:0133 j8:9982 0:0133 j8:9982
With stabilizer 0:4291 j6:8578 0:7517 j7:3203 0:7565 j7:5281
182 4 SingleMachine InﬁniteBus Power Systems …
Table 4.5 Results of designing the UPFC stabilizers added on other two modulation signals
Modulation signal added with Parameters of the UPFC Oscillation mode with the
a UPFC stabilizer stabilizer stabilizer installed
Dme Kp ¼ 1:6654; Tp ¼ 0:0926 0:7030 j6:9400
Dmb Kp ¼ 15:3864; Tp ¼ 0:1069 0:7078 j7:0774
suppress the power oscillation effectively. This means that more control cost is
required. Hence, the UPFC stabilizer added on Dde is the most efﬁcient damping
controller.
References
1. CIGRE TF 300108 Report, Modelling of power electronics equipment (FACTS) in load flow
and stability programs (1999)
2. Wang HF (1999) PhillipsHeffron model of power systems installed with STATCOM and
applications. IEE Proc Part C 146(5):521–527
3. Du W (2009) Power system small signal oscillation stability as affected by static synchronous
compensator (STATCOM) and energy storage system (ESS). PhD thesis, University of Bath,
UK
4. Wang HF (2000) Static synchronous series compensation to damp power system oscillations.
Int J Power Syst Res 54(2)
5. Wang HF (1999) Applications of modelling UPFC into multimachine power systems. IEE Proc
Part C (3)
6. Wang HF (1999) Damping function of uniﬁed power flow controller. IEE Proc Part C. (1)
7. Wang HF (2000) A uniﬁed model for the analysis of FACTS devices in damping power system
oscillations part III: uniﬁed power flow controller. IEEE Trans Power Delivery (3)
Chapter 5
A Multimachine Power System Installed
with Power System Stabilizers
Figure 5.1 shows the conﬁguration of a twomachine power system where two
synchronous generators are connected by a transmission line. This simple system is
used in this section to demonstrate the procedure of establishing the mathematical
model of a multimachine power system. Later, it will be used for introducing basic
concepts and methods in the analysis of power system oscillations and design of
PSSs in the multimachine power system. For the purpose of demonstration, a load is
connected at the terminal of two generators and a node along the transmission line,
respectively. The load is represented by equivalent impedance rLi þ jxLi ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3:
Vg1 V3 Vg 2 G2
G1 Ig1 x13 x 23 Ig 2
1 3 þ 1 ðV 3 V g1 Þ þ 1 ðV 3 V g2 Þ
0¼ V
rL3 þ jxL3 jx13 jx23
¼ ðgL3 þ jbL3 þ jb13 þ jb23 ÞV g1 jb23 V
3 jb13 V g2 ð5:2Þ
3 ¼ jb13 g1 jb23 g2
V V V ð5:4Þ
gL3 þ jbL3 þ jb13 þ jb23 gL3 þ jbL3 þ jb13 þ jb23
E qi '
(x qi − x di ')Iqi
jx di ' Igi
V gi
δi
x
di
where bLR ¼ bL3 þ b13 þ b23 and Y N is the network admittance matrix with only
nodes of generator terminal left. Equation (5.2) can be rearranged as
2 3 2 32 3
igx1 gN11 bN11 gN12 bN12 vgx1
6 igy1 7 6 bN11 gN12 7 6 7
6 7 6 gN11 bN12 76 vgy1 7
4 igx2 5 ¼ 4 gN21 bN21 gN22 bN22 5 4 vgx2 5
ð5:6Þ
igy2 bN21 gN21 bN22 gN22 vgy2
0 is
From Fig. 5.2, it can be seen that in the common x–y coordinate, phase of E qi
0
di and that of ðxiq xid Þiqi is di 90 . Hence, in x–y coordinate, Eq. (5.7) is
(i ¼ 1; 2)
Denote
gi ; i ¼ 1; 2 can be
Equation (5.11) indicates that introduction of internal voltage E
seen as addition of an extra node behind the node of generator terminal as shown in
Fig. 5.3. The added extra “internal voltage” node is connected to the generator
terminal through x0di ; i ¼ 1; 2.
Substituting Eq. (5.5) into Eq. (5.11), it can be obtained that
0 1
Ig1 1 jxd1 0 g1
E g1
E
¼ YN þ
¼Y ð5:12Þ
Ig2 0 jx0d2 g2
E Eg2
where matrix Y is the network admittance matrix with only internal voltage nodes
of generators left.
E g1 Vg1 V3 Vg 2 Eg 2
x d1 ' Ig1 x13 x 23 Ig 2 xd2 '
That is ði ¼ 1; 2Þ
X
2 X
2
Igi ¼ igxi þ jigyi ¼ gj ¼
yij E
yij ½E0qj ejdj þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj 90 Þ ð5:13Þ
j¼1 j¼1
X
2
Igi ¼ idi þ jiqi ¼ ðixi þ jiyi Þejð90 di Þ
¼
yij ½E0qj ejdj þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj 90 Þ ejð90 di Þ
j¼1
X
2
¼ yij ½E0qj ejð90
þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
X
2
¼ yij ½E0qj ejð90 þ dj di þ aij Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di þ aij Þ
j¼1
X
2
¼ yij ½E0qj cos(90 þ dj di þ aij Þ þ jE0qj sin(90 þ dj di þ aij Þ
j¼1
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj cos(dj di þ aij Þ þ j(xqj x0dj Þiqj sin(dj di þ aij Þ
X2
¼ yij ½E0qj sin(dj di þ aij Þ þ jE0qj cos(dj di þ aij Þ
j¼1
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj cos(dj di þ aij Þ þ j(xqj x0dj Þiqj sin(dj di þ aij Þ
ð5:14Þ
X
2
idi ¼ yij ½E0qj sinðdj di þ aij Þ þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj cosðdj di þ aij Þ
j¼1
ð5:15Þ
X
2
iqi ¼ yij ½E0qj cos(dj di þ aij Þ þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj sin(dj di þ aij Þ
j¼1
For the simplicity of discussion, ﬁrstly the simplest case is considered when a
synchronous generator is represented by the socalled classic model, i.e., the rotor
motion equation of generator. That is the model given by Eq. (2.41) with function
of the AVR ignored and E0q being constant. In di qi coordinate, model of generator
is (i ¼ 1; 2)
188 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
d_ i ¼ xo ðxi 1Þ
1
x_ i ¼ ½Pmi Pi Di ðxi 1Þ
Mi
ð5:16Þ
Pi ¼ vdi idi þ vqi iqi
vdi ¼ xqi iqi
vqi ¼ E0qi x0di idi
Dd_ i ¼ xo Dxi
1
Dx_ i ¼ ðDPi Di Dxi Þ ð5:17Þ
Mi
DPi ¼ ðvdi0 iqi0 x0di ÞDidi þ ðvqi0 þ idi0 xqi ÞDiqi
where hdi and hdi i ¼ 1; 2 are constants. Hence, from Eqs. (5.17) and (5.18), it can
have (i; j ¼ 1; 2)
Obviously, the system can only have one pair of conjugate complex eigenvalues
and hence one electromechanical oscillation mode. The reducedorder state matrix
A3 does not have to have one zero eigenvalue when the relative angular position of
generators is used as the state variable.
From Eq. (5.19), it can be seen that variations of the active power delivered
along the transmission line connecting two generators are proportional to the rel
ative angular position. For example, if Dd1 ¼ Dd2 , DPi ¼ 0 ði ¼ 1; 2Þ, there will be
no variations of active power even if the absolute angular positions of generators
vary. This means that the power oscillations are related only to the relative angular
positions of generators.
Heffron–Phillips model of the twomachine power system installed with the PSS
can be established based on the following 4thorder model of synchronous gener
ators ði ¼ 1; 2Þ
d_ i ¼ xo ðxi 1Þ
1
x_ i ¼ ½Pmi Pi Di ðxi 1Þ
Mi
0 1 ð5:24Þ
E_ qi ¼ 0 ðEqi þ Efd0i þ E0fdi Þ
Tdoi
0 1 0 KAi
E_ fdi ¼ E þ ðVrefgi Vgi þ upssi Þ
TAi fdi TAi
190 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
where
X
2
Didi ¼ hdij DE0qj þ hdj ðDdj Ddi Þ
j¼1
X
2 ð5:26Þ
Diqi ¼ hqij DE0qj þ hqj ðDdj Ddi Þ
j¼1
i 6¼ j
By substituting Eq. (5.27) into the linearization of Eq. (5.24), it can have for G1
Dd_ 1 ¼ xo Dx1
1
Dx_ 1 ¼ ½k11 ðDd2 Dd1 Þ k211 DE0q1 k212 DE0q2 D1 Dx1
M1
0 1
DE_ q1 ¼ 0 ½k41 ðDd2 Dd1 Þ k311 DE0q1 k312 DE0q2 þ DE0fd1
Tdo1
0 1 KA1
DE_ fd1 ¼ DE0fd1 þ ½k51 ðDd2 Dd1 Þ k611 DE0q1 k612 DE0q2 þ Dupss1
TA1 TA1
ð5:28Þ
5.1 Mathematical Model of a Multimachine … 191
and for G2
Dd_ 2 ¼ xo Dx2
1
Dx_ 2 ¼ ½k12 ðDd1 Dd2 Þ k221 DE0q1 k222 DE0q2 D2 Dx2
M2
0 1
DE_ q2 ¼ 0 ½k42 ðDd1 Dd2 Þ k321 DE0q1 k322 DE0q2 þ DE0fd2
Tdo2
0 1 KA2
DE_ fd2 ¼ DE0 þ ½k52 ðDd1 Dd2 Þ k621 DE0q1 k622 DE0q2 þ Dupss2
TA2 fd2 TA2
ð5:29Þ
Equations (5.28) and (5.29) are the Heffron–Phillips model of the twomachine
power system installed with PSS as shown in Fig. 5.4.
Statespace representation of the Heffron–Phillips model is
2 : 32 32 3 2 3
Dd 0 xo I 0 0 Dd 0
6 D x: 7 6
6 7 6 M1 K1 M1 D M1 K2 0 7 6 7 6 7
76 Dx0 7 þ 6 0 7Dupss
6 _0 7¼4 54 DEq 5 4 0 5
4 DE q 5 T1d0 K4 0 T1
d0 K3 T1
d0
_ 0
DEfd T 1
A K5 KA 0 T1
A K5 KA T1
A DE0fd T1
A KA
ð5:30Þ
where
" # 0
Dd1 Dx1 DE0q1 DEfd1
Dd ¼ ; Dx ¼ ; ¼DE0q 0 ; DE 0
¼ ;
Dd2 Dx2 DEq2 fd
DE0fd2
k11 k11 k211 k212 k311 k312
K1 ¼ ; K2 ¼ ; K3 ¼ ;
k12 k12 k221 k222 k321 k322
k41 k41 k51 k51 k611 k612
K4 ¼ ; K5 ¼ ; K6 ¼ ;
k42 k42 k52 k522 k621 k622
0
M1 0 D1 0 Tdo1 0
M¼ ;D¼ ; Td0 ¼ ;
0 M2 0 D2 0 T0do2
KA1 0 TA1 0 Dupss1
KA ¼ ; TA ¼ ; Dupss ¼
0 KA2 0 TA2 Dupss2
The model can be shown in Fig. 5.5 which is the matrix form of Fig. 5.4.
192 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
Δδ2
k1−1 k1−1
+
ΔE q 2 '  1 Δω1 ω0 Δδ1
k 2−12 Δδ2
 D1 + sM1 s

ΔE q 2 ' Δδ2
k 2−11
k 3−12 k 4−1 k 4−1 k 5−1 k 5−1
ΔE q1 '
 + +
1 K A1 + Δu pss1
+
k 3−11 + sTd01 ' ΔE fd1 ' 1 + sTA1 

k 6−12
Δδ1 K 6−11
ΔE q 2 '
k1− 2 k1− 2
+
ΔE q1 '  1 Δω2 ω0 Δδ2
k 2− 21
 D 2 + sM 2 s Δδ1

ΔE q1 ' Δδ1
k 2− 22
k 3− 21 k 4− 2 k 4− 2 k 5− 2 k 5− 2
ΔE q 2 '
 + + 
1 + KA2 + Δu pss2
k 3− 22 + sTd02 ' ΔE fd 2 ' 1 + sTA 2 

k 6− 22 k 6− 21
ΔE q1 '
Fig. 5.4 Heffron–Phillips model of twomachine power system installed with PSS
In an Nmachine power system installed with PSSs, the 4thorder model of syn
chronous generator is given by Eqs. (5.24) and (5.25) for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N.
Equation (5.8) for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N can be written in the following matrix form
5.1 Mathematical Model of a Multimachine … 193
K1

ω0 I
(sM + D) −1
s

K4 K5
K2
 
+ +
(K 3 + sTd0 ) −1 −1
(I + sTA ) K A Δu pss
K6
g ¼ ejd E0 jx0 Ig þ ðx x0 Þejðd90 Þ iq
V ð5:31Þ
q d q d
where
g ¼ V
V gN T ; Ig ¼ Ig1 Ig2 . . . IgN T ;
g2 . . . V
g1 V
T
E0q ¼ E0q1 E0q2 . . . E0q1 ; iq ¼ ½ iq1 iq2 . . . iq1 ;
T
ejd ¼ diagðejdi Þ; x0d ¼ diagðx0di Þ; ðxq x0d Þejðd90 Þ ¼ diag½ðxqi x0di Þejðdi 90 Þ
ð5:32Þ
In Eq. (5.32), diag(ci Þ denotes an Nthorder diagonal matrix with ci being the ith
diagonal element.
Let the network equation be
Ig ¼ Y g
NV ð5:33Þ
where Y N is the network admittance matrix with only the nodes of generator
terminal left. From Eqs. (5.31) and (5.33), it can have
h i
Ig ¼ Y
ejd E0 þ ðxq x0 Þejðd90 Þ iq ¼ Y
E g ð5:34Þ
q d
where Y ¼ ðY 1 þ jx0 Þ1 . The above equation gives the generator current in x–y
N d
coordinate as (i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N)
194 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
X
N
Igi ¼
yij ½E0qj ejdj þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj 90 Þ ð5:35Þ
j¼1
where
T
Dd ¼ ½ Dd1 Dd2 . . . DdN T ; DE0q ¼ DE0q1 DE0q2 ... DE0qN ;
DId ¼ ½ Did1 Did2 ... DidN T ; DIq ¼ ½ Diq1 Diq2 ... DiqN T
f ddij ¼ yij ½E0qj0 cosðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj0 sinðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ; i 6¼ j,
f qqij ¼ yij ½E0qj0 sinðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj0 cosðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ; i 6¼ j,
X
N X
N
f ddii ¼ f ddij ; f qqii ¼ f qqij ;
j¼1;j6¼i j¼1;j6¼i
gddij ¼ yij sinðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ; gqqij ¼ yij cosðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ;
hddij ¼ yij ðxqj x0dj Þ cosðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ; hqqij ¼ yij ðxqj x0dj Þ sinðdj0 di0 þ aij Þ
and f ddij ; f qqij ; gddij ; gqqij ; hddij and hqqij are the elements of matrix Fdd ; Fqq ; Gdd ;
Gqq ; Hdd and Hqq , respectively.
From Eq. (5.45), it can be obtained that
DId ¼ Fd Dd þ Gd DE0q
ð5:37Þ
DIq ¼ Fq Dd þ Gq DE0q
where
Dd_ i ¼ xo Dxi
1
Dx_ i ¼ ðDPi Di Dxi Þ
Mi
0 1 ð5:38Þ
DE_ qi ¼ 0 ðDEqi þ DE0fdi Þ
Tdoi
0 1 KAi
DE_ fdi ¼ DE0 þ ðDVgi þ Dupssi Þ
TAi fdi TAi
Dd_ ¼ xo IDx
Dx_ ¼ M1 ðDP DDxÞ
0 ð5:40Þ
DE_ q ¼ T01 0
d0 ðDEq þ DEfd Þ
0
DE_ fd ¼ T1 0 1
A DEfd þ TA KA ðDVg þ Dupss Þ
where
T
Dx ¼ ½ Dx1 Dx2 ... DxN T ; DE0fd ¼ DE0fd1 DE0fd2 . . . DE0fdN ;
DP ¼ ½ DP1 DP2 ... DPN T ; DEq ¼ ½ DEq1 DEq2 ... DEqN T ;
T T
DVg ¼ ½ DVg1 DVg2 . . . DVgN ; Dupss ¼ ½ Dupss1 Dupss2 . . . DupssN ;
M ¼ diag(Mi Þ; D ¼ diag(Di Þ; T0d0 ¼ diag(T0d0i Þ; TA ¼ diag(TAi Þ; KA ¼ diag(KAi Þ;
Id0 ¼ diag(idi0 Þ; Iq0 ¼ diag(iqi0 Þ; Vd0 ¼ diag(vdi0 Þ; Vq0 ¼ diag(vqi0 Þ; Vg0 ¼ diag(Vgi0 Þ;
X0d ¼ diag(x0di Þ; Xq ¼ diag(xqi Þ; Xd ¼ diag(xdi Þ
196 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
DP¼K1 Dd þ K2 DE0q
DEq ¼K3 DE0q þ K4 Dd ð5:42Þ
DVg ¼K5 Dd þ K6 DE0q
ð5:43Þ
Linearized full dynamic mathematical model of the ith synchronous generator in the
Nmachine power system is (i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N)
Dd_ i ¼ x0 Dxi
1
Dx_ i ¼ ðDTei þ Di Dxi Þ ð5:46Þ
Mi
DTei ¼ wdi0 Diqi wqi0 Didi þ iqi0 Dwdi idi0 Dwqi
1 KAi
Dv_ 0fi ¼ Dv0 ðDVgi þ Dupssi Þ
TAi fi TAi
vgdi0 vgqi0 ð5:47Þ
DVgi ¼ Dvgdi þ Dvgqi
Vgi0 Vgi0
where
T T
Dwd ¼ Dwd1 Dwd2 . . . DwdN ; Dwq ¼ Dwq1 Dwq2 . . . DwqN ;
Dwf ¼ ½ Dwf1 Dwf2 . . . DwfN T ; DwD ¼ ½ DwD1 DwD2 . . . DwDN T ;
T
DwQ ¼ DwQ1 DwQ2 . . . DwQN ; Dv0f ¼ ½ Dv0f1 Dv0f2 . . . Dv0fN T ;
h iT
Xg ¼ DdT DxT DwTd DwTq DwTf DwTD DwTQ Dv0T f
where
where N.
yNij ¼ gNij þ jbNij is the elements of network admittance matrix Y
Linearization of Eq. (5.52) is
where
2 3
gN11 bN11 gN12 bN12 gN1N bN1N
6
6 b gN11 b gN12 b gN1N 7
6 N11 N12 N1N 7
6 gN21 bN21 gN22 bN22 gN2N bN2N 77
6 7
YG ¼ 6
6
bN21 gN21 bN22 gN22 bN2N gN2N 7
7
6 .. .. .. .. 7
6 . . 7
6 . . 7
4 gNN1 bNN1 gNN2 bNN2 gNNN bNNN 5
bNN1 gNN1 bNN2 gNN2 bNNN gNNN
where
Avi ¼ ki vi ;
ð5:56Þ
wTi A ¼ wTi ki ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M
Equations (2.61) and (2.66) establish the following relationship between the state
variables xi ðtÞ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M and modes of the system zi ðtÞ ¼ zi ð0Þeki t ; i ¼
1; 2; . . .; M to be
where vki is the kthrow ithcolumn element of matrix V and wki the ithrow
kthcolumn element of matrix W.
From Eq. (5.58), it can be seen that the magnitude of vki measures how much the
ith mode zi ðt) ¼ zi ð0Þeki t ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M, contributes to the kth state variable
xk ðt). Thus, jvki j is a kind of measurement of “observability” of the ith mode in the
kth state variable. Equation (5.59) indicates that the magnitude of jwki j measures the
influence of the kth state variable xk ðt) on the ith mode zi ðt) ¼ zi ð0Þeki t ; i ¼
1; 2; . . .; M of the system. It is a kind of measurement of “controllability” of the kth
state variable on the ith mode. Hence, jvki wki j measures how much the ith mode and
the kth state variable are connected. Its normalized value is deﬁned to be the
participation factor
jvki wki j
pki ¼ PM ð5:60Þ
i¼1 jvki wki j
X
n
xk ðt) ¼ vki wki eki t ð5:62Þ
i¼1
Equation (5.62) indicates that the participation factor jvki wki j measures how
much the ith mode excited by the kth state variable participates the time response of
the kth state variable. That is why the index deﬁned by Eq. (5.60) is named as the
participation factor.
As it is pointed out previously in Chap. 2, the electromechanical power oscil
lations are closely related to the rotor motion equation of generators where state
variables are the deviation of rotor position Ddi and speed Dxi ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M in
the state Eqs. (5.43) or (5.55). Hence for a pair of conjugate complex eigenvalue, k i ,
of state matrix, if the associated participation factors of state variables Ddi and
Dxi ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M are much higher than those of other state variables, this means
i is the dominant oscillation mode responsible for the electromechanical oscilla
k
tion. Hence, ki is an electromechanical oscillation mode. That is, if
5.2 Modal Analysis and Control of Power System … 201
!
p ðxk ¼ DdÞ þ pki ðxk ¼ DxÞ X
ri ¼ Pki 1; pki ¼ 1 ð5:63Þ
k pki ðxk 6¼ Dd and xk 6¼ DxÞ k
Equations (5.65) and (5.66) indicate that the rotor motion of the 1st and 2nd
generator, Dx1 and Dx2 , must have component jvN þ 1i jzi ð0Þeni cos xi t and
jvN þ 2i jzi ð0Þeni cosðxi t þ 180 Þ, respectively. Hence, as far as oscillation mode
i ¼ n þ jxi is concerned, the 1st and 2nd generators oscillate against each
k i
other. Thus, by looking at vki ¼ vki \uki ; k ¼ N þ 1; N þ 2;. . .; 2N, how groups
202 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
of generators take part in the oscillation associated with the mode can be
determined.
Procedure of modal analysis from the eigensolution of power system oscillations
normally is
1. Calculation of eigenvalues of state matrix;
2. Identiﬁcation of electromechanical oscillation modes by checking the imaginary
part of eigenvalues within the range 2pf o ðf o ¼ 0:1 2 HzÞ and computing the
correlation ratio of electromechanical loop;
3. Examining how much each generator is involved in a particular oscillation mode
by calculating the modal participation index;
4. Determining how groups of generators oscillate against each other by computing
the modal shape.
sDd ¼ xo Dx
sDx ¼ M1 ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDxÞ
ð5:67Þ
sDE0q ¼ T01 0 0
d0 ðK3 DEq K4 Dd þ DEfd Þ
sDE0fd ¼ T1 0 1 0
A DEfd þ TA KA ðK5 Dd K6 DEq Þ
5.2 Modal Analysis and Control of Power System … 203
0 + j ηi
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
frequency xi is close to the angular natural oscillation frequency, gi , k i ð0Þ ¼
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ n jxi .
0 þ j gi should be a good initial guess of oscillation mode, k i
Therefore, following objective function can be established
A direct searching method can be used to ﬁnd the minimal optimum of above
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
objective function on the complex plan, starting from 0 þ j gi . That will be the
i ¼ n jxi , which satisﬁes Eq. (5.74). The direct
oscillation mode of interests, k i
searching can be implemented in the direction of imaginary and real axis iteratively
i ¼ n jxi is very close to 0 þ jpﬃﬃﬃﬃ
as shown in Fig. 5.6. If k
ﬃ
gi , k i ¼ ni jxi will
i
be found by applying onedimensional optimal searching just a couple of times in
each of two directions.
fðpÞ; p 2 P ð5:75Þ
X
L
fðpÞ ¼ i ðpÞk
½k ðp Þ2 ð5:76Þ
i
i¼1
The minimal optimum p 2 P is when the objective function is equal to zero and
L oscillation modes are moved to the target positions. If the deepest decent method
in nonlinear programming is used, the optimal searching algorithm is
sDd ¼ xo IDx
sDx ¼ M1 ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDxÞ
ð5:78Þ
sDE0q ¼ T01 0 0
d0 ðK3 DEq K4 Dd þ DEfd Þ
sDE0fd ¼ T1 0 1 0
A DEfd þ TA KA ðK5 Dd K6 DEq þ Dupss Þ
Let the transfer function of the jth PSS be Gj ðsÞ and the feedback signal Dxj .
Dupss can be denoted as
s
Dupss ¼ Gpss ðp; sÞDd ð5:80Þ
x0
where Gpss ðp; sÞ ¼ diagðGpssj Þ, Gpssj ¼ Gj ðs) when the jth generator is installed
with a PSS; otherwise, Gpssj ¼ 0. From Eqs. (5.79) and (5.80), it can have
DET½Fðp; ki Þ ¼ 0 ð5:82Þ
Equation (5.82) indicates that there should exist a nonzero vector vi and w
i
satisfying
Fðp; ki Þvi ¼ 0
ð5:83Þ
wTi Fðp; ki Þ ¼ 0
Because
@Fðp; ki Þ @Fðp; ki Þ
F½pðpk þ Dpk Þ; ki þ Dki ¼ Fðp; ki Þ þ Dki þ Dpk ð5:85Þ
@ki @pk
@ki Ti @Fðp;k
w iÞ
@ pk vi
¼ ð5:86Þ
@pk T
w @Fðp;k i Þ
vi
i @ki
@ki
rf½pðkÞ ¼ 2ðki k i Þ ð5:87Þ
@pðkÞ
208 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
h iT
@ki @ki @ki @ki
where @pðkÞ
¼ @ p1 @ p2 @ ps and @@k
pk (k ¼ 1; 2; . . .; s) is calculated by
i
The direct searching method introduced based on Eq. (5.74) can be used to ﬁnd
ki ðk þ 1Þ on the complex plane, starting from ki ðkÞ.
In the multimachine power system, objective of installation of multiple PSSs is
to ensure sufﬁcient damping to be provided to the oscillation modes of interests.
Hence, pole assignment to the exact target positions, such as that to be achieved by
the objective function of Eq. (5.76), is usually not necessary. A more relaxed
objective function can be used for the coordinated design of multiple PSSs. For
example, following objective function
fðpÞ ¼ minðfi Þ
0:05 ð5:89Þ
where
is for the coordinated design of multiple PSSs to ensure the damping of all oscil
lation modes to be greater than .05. For the objective function of Eq. (5.89), some
heuristic methods of optimization, such as the genetic algorithm, can be used.
Strategies of sequential setting and simultaneous tuning for the design of mul
tiple PSSs can also be jointly used to achieve more efﬁcient and practical design.
For example, it can be assumed that in the Nmachine power system, the jth PSS
provides a pure damping torque, Dpssj Dxj (j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; L), to the electromechanical
oscillation loop of the jth generator. With this assumption, Eq. (5.81) becomes
where
5.2 Modal Analysis and Control of Power System … 209
when the jth generator is installed with a PSS; otherwise, dpssj ¼ 0 ðj ¼ 1; 2; . . .; L),
T
p ¼ Dpssj Dpssðj þ 1Þ . . . Dpssðj þ LÞ .
The method of coordinated design of PSSs introduced from Eqs. (5.76) to (5.88)
above can be used to set the damping torque provision from each PSS for the
multiple PSSs to damp all the oscillation modes of interests. Afterwards, each PSS
can be designed individually by using the phase compensation method to ensure
that the right amount of damping torque, Dpssj Dxj (j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; L), is supplied to
each generator.
A PSS is a local controller, and hence, an Nmachine power system with L PSSs
installed forms a decentralized control system. Fixed modes are an important
concept about the controllability and observability of a decentralized control sys
tem, a natural generalization of the wellknown concept of uncontrollable and
unobservable modes in centralized control systems. In this section, a mathematical
proof is presented to show that in the decentralized control of Nmachine power
system by PSSs, any electromechanical oscillation mode is not a ﬁxed mode. This
means that in the Nmachine power system, any oscillation mode can be damped by
the appropriate design of multiple PSSs. In other words, in the parameter space of
coordinated design of multiple PSSs, the optimum always exists if the objective
function is appropriately set. Theoretical proof given below is based on the
Heffron–Phillips model of Nmachine power system installed with multiple PSSs.
Let the realization of the jth PSS, Dupssj ¼ Gj ðsÞDxj , be
Dupss ¼ HzðtÞ þ Ky
ð5:92Þ
z_ ðtÞ ¼ FzðtÞ þ Sy
where
210 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
T T
zðtÞ ¼ z1 ðtÞT z2 ðtÞT zL ðtÞT ; y ¼ ½ Dxj Dxj þ 1 Dxj þ L ;
H ¼ blockdiagðHj Þ; F ¼ blockdiagðFj Þ; S ¼ blockdiagðSj Þ; K = diag(kj Þ
and blockdiagðMj Þ denotes a block diagonal matrix with the diagonal matrix to be Mj .
From Eq. (5.92), state equation of Heffron–Phillips model of Nmachine power
system with L PSSs installed of Eq. (5.43) can be written as
_ ¼ AxðtÞ þ BDupss
xðtÞ
ð5:93Þ
y ¼ CxðtÞ
where
2 3
0 xo I 0 0
6 7
6 M1 K1 M1 D M1 K2 0 7
A¼6
6 T1 K
7;
7
4 d0 4 0 T1
d0 K3 T1
d0 5
T1
A K5 KA 0 T1
A K5 KA T1
A
2 3
0
6 7
6 0 7
6
B¼6 7; C ¼ ½ 0 I 0 0
7
4 0 5
T1
A KA
The set of ﬁxed modes of the decentralized control system of Eqs. (5.92) and
(5.93), denoted as KðA; B; C; KÞ, is deﬁned as
where k½A þ BKC denotes the set of all eigenvalues of matrix A þ BKC, and K0 is
the following set
Deﬁnition of the ﬁxed modes given by Eqs. (5.94) and (5.95) in fact means that
the ﬁxed modes are not affected by variations of any kj . This is the key in the
following proof.
From Eq. (5.93), it can have
5.2 Modal Analysis and Control of Power System … 211
2 3
0 xo I 0 0
6 M1 K1 M1 D M1 K2 0 7
A þ BKC ¼ 6
4 T1 K4
7
5 ð5:96Þ
d0 0 T1
d0 K3 T1
d0
T1
A K5 KA
1 1
TA KA K TA K5 KA TA 1
That is,
xo v2 ¼ ko v1
K1 v1 Dv2 K2 v3 ¼ ko Mv2
ð5:98Þ
K4 v1 K3 v3 þ v4 ¼ ko Td0 v3
K5 KA v1 KA Kv2 K6 KA v3 v4 ¼ ko TA v4
where
A0 ¼ ðK3 þ KA K6 ÞK1
2 K1 K4 KA K5
1
A1 ¼ ðTA K3 þ Td0 ÞK1
2 K1 þ ðK þ KA K6 ÞK1
2 D TA K4
x0 3
1 1
A2 ¼ ðTA K3 þ Td0 ÞK1 1
2 D þ TA Td0 K2 K1 þ ðK þ KA K6 ÞK1
2 M
x0 x0 3
1 1
A3 ¼ TA Td0 K1
2 Dþ ðT K3 þ Td0 ÞK1
2 M
x0 x0 A
1
A4 ¼ TA Td0 K1
2 M
x0
Denote
212 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
KA K
Fðko ; k1 ; k2; . . .kN Þ ¼ A4 k4o þ A3 k3o þ A2 k2o þ A1 ko þ A0
xo
2 3
f 11 ðko ; k1 Þ f 12 ðko Þ ... f 1N ðko Þ
6 f 21 ðko Þ f 22 ðko ; k2 Þ . . . f 2N ðko Þ 7 ð5:101Þ
6 7
¼6
6 .. .. .. ..
7
7
4 . . . . 5
f N1 ðko Þ f N2 ðko Þ ... f NN ðko ; kN Þ
Also denote
2 3
f 11 ðko ; k1 Þ f 12 ðko Þ ... f 1N ðko Þ
6 f 21 ðko Þ f 22 ðko ; k2 Þ . . . f 2N ðko Þ 7
6 7
Fk ðko ; k1 ; k2 ; . . .kN Þ ¼ 6 .. .. .. .. 7 ð5:102Þ
4 . . . . 5
f N1 ðko Þ f N2 ðko Þ ... f NN ðko ; kN Þ
Denote
@ko
¼ 0ðj ¼ 1; 2; . . .; NÞ ð5:107Þ
@kj
@gN @ko @g
þ N¼0 ð5:108Þ
@ko @kN @kN
@gN
¼0 ð5:109Þ
@kN
dDET½MðxÞ dMðxÞT
¼ Trace½M ðxÞ ð5:110Þ
dx dx
@FN ðko ; k1 ; k2 ; kN ÞT h i
@ f NN ðko ;kN Þ
¼ diag 0 0 0
@kN @ kN
ð5:112Þ
h i
ko
¼ diag 0 0 0 x0 KNA
@gN ko
¼ KNA f N;NN ¼ 0 ð5:113Þ
@kN x0
@gN1 @ko @g
þ N1 ¼ 0 ð5:115Þ
@ko @kN1 @kN1
" #
@gN1 @FN ðko ; k1 ; k2 ; . . .kN1 ÞT
¼ Trace FN1 ðko ; k1 ; k2 ; . . .kN1 Þ
@kN1 @kN1
n h io
¼ Trace F N1 ðko ; k1 ; k2 ; . . .kN1 Þdiag 0 0 . . . kko0 KðN1ÞA
@o @o
¼ KðN1ÞA f ðN1Þ;ðN1ÞðN1Þ ¼ KðN1ÞA gN2 ð@o ; k1 ; k2 ; . . .kN2 Þ ¼ 0
@0 @0
ð5:116Þ
Above procedure from Eqs. (5.106) to (5.117) can be carried on iteratively until
it is obtained that
@g1 ko
¼ K1A ¼ 0 ð5:118Þ
@k1 x0
Tables 5.3 and 5.4 are the results of the load flow computation.
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 215
G1 G3
1.04∠0
1.025∠0
BusB BusC
Bus2
0.85 − j0.109
G2
1.025∠0
From active and reactive power output of each generator, Pi and Qi ; i = 1,2,3, and
gi ; i = 1,2,3, output current of each generator can be calcu
its terminal voltage, V
lated as
216 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
Igi ¼ Pi jQi ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3
V gi
Qi ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3, can be computed as
The imaginary voltage of each generator, E
Qi ¼ Vgi þ jxqiIgi ;
E i ¼ 1; 2; 3
Since E0fdi0 ¼ 0, from the third equation in Eq. (5.24) it can have
Efd0i = Eqi0
From Table 5.2 and Fig. 5.7, following network admittance matrix can be
established.
12
L ¼ Y11
Y
Y
21
Y 22
Y
where
2 3
j17:3611 0 0
11
Y ¼4 0 j16 0 5;
0 0 j17:0648
2 3
j17:3611 0 0 0 0 0
12
Y ¼ 4 0 0 0 0 j16 0 5;
0 0 0 0 0 j17:0648
2 3
j17:3611 0 0
6 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 7
21 6 0 0 0 7
Y ¼6 7;
6 0 0 0 7
6 7
4 0 j16 0 5
0 0 j17:0648
2 3
3:3074 j39:3089 1:3652 þ j11:6041 1:9422 þ j10:5107
6 1:3652 þ j11:6041 3:8620 j18:0714 0 7
6 7
6 1:9422 þ j10:5107 4:1115 j16:1367 7
221 6 0 7
Y ¼6 7;
6 0 0 0 7
6 7
4 0 1:1876 þ j 5:9751 0 5
0 0 1:2820 þ j5:5882
2 3
0 0 0
6 0 1:1876 þ j5:9751 0 7
6 7
6 1:2820 þ j5:5882 7
222 6 0 0 7
Y ¼6 7;
6 3:7482 j23:6449 1:6171 þ j13:6980 1:1551 þ j9:7843 7
6 7
4 1:6171 þ j13:6980 2:8047 j35:4456 0 5
1:1551 þ j9:7843 0 2:4371 j32:1539
22 ¼ ½Y
Y 222
221 Y
By keeping three nodes of generator terminals via deleting all the other nodes in
the above network admittance matrix, it can have
N ¼ Y
Y 11 Y 1 Y
12 Y
22 21
2 3
1:0994 j4:7578 0:0954 þ j2:2197 0:0057 þ j2:2568
6 7
¼ 4 0:0954 þ j2:2197 0:7374 j5:1374 0:1249 þ j2:8146 5
0:0057 þ j2:2568 0:1249 þ j2:8146 0:7236 j5:0289
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 219
2 3 2 3
47:2 0 0 0 0 0
6 7 6 7
M¼4 0 12:8 0 5; D ¼ 4 0 0 0 5;
0 0 6:02 0 0 0
2 3 2 3
200 0 0 0:02 0 0
6 7 6 7
KA ¼ 4 0 200 0 5; TA ¼ 4 0 0:02 0 5;
0 0 200 0 0 0:02
2 3
8:96 0 0
0 6 7
Td0 ¼4 0 6:00 0 5:
0 0 5:89
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 221
The mode shape is illustrated in Fig. 5.8. It shows that the electromechanical
oscillation associated with this mode is that of G3 against G2.
4
x 10
4
G2
2
2
4
6
8
G3
10
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6
4
x 10
7 ¼ 1:5051 þ j9:1860
Fig. 5.8 Mode shape of k
224 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
x 10 3
4
G1
0
G2 G3
1
2
3
4
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3
x 10
9 ¼ 0:1736 þ j7:0590
Fig. 5.9 Mode shape of k
v94 ¼ 0:0013 þ j0:0001 ¼ 0:0013\3:2273
v95 ¼ 0:0037 j0:0003 ¼ 0:0037\175:6366
96 ¼ 0:0022 j0:0002 ¼ 0:0022\173:8540
v
The mode shape is illustrated in Fig. 5.9. It indicates that the electromechanical
oscillation associated with this mode is that of G1 against G2 and G3.
From the Heffron–Phillips model of example power system, the compact model of
system of Eq. (5.68) in the form of transfer function matrix is obtained as
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
Step 1: Calculate eigenvalues of matrix x0 M1 K1 as gi ; i ¼ 1; 2. Thus, gi 6¼
0; j ¼ 1; 2 is the angular natural oscillation frequency of the electromechanical
oscillation modes. Choose k i ð0Þ ¼ 0 þ jpﬃﬃﬃﬃ
ﬃ
gi on the complex plane as the starting
point of optimum searching.
Step 2: Choose an initial searching scale S0 [ 0, a minimum searching scale
SF [ 0, and an accelerating factor a [ 0. Search on the complex plane from k i ðk)
to ki ðk þ 1Þ. Three different patterns of searching on the complex plane from k i ðk)
to ki ðk þ 1Þ are illustrated in Fig. 5.10 where S is the searching step and a ¼ 2. In
Fig. 5.10 if fðk SÞ\fðk i Þ or fðk
jSÞ\fðki Þ, the searching is successful in
i i
horizontal and vertical direction. Otherwise, it is a failure. From Fig. 5.10, it can be
seen that (1) pattern 1—there is one successful searching in both horizontal and
pattern 1 pattern 2
pattern 3
complex plane
Fig. 5.10 Illustration of searching patterns of the HookeJeeves optimum searching method in one
step
226 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
vertical direction; (2) pattern 2—only one searching in the horizontal direction is
successful; (3) pattern 3—only one searching in the vertical direction is successful.
Step 3: If searching in Step 2 fails, reduce the searching scale S by half and then go
back to Step 2;
Step 4: If at ki (kF ), the searching scale becomes less than SF , stop the searching and
take ki (kF ) as the solution of objective function of Eq. (5.74), i.e., the ith oscillation
mode of the power system.
Figure 5.11 presents the flow chart of the HookeJeeves optimum searching
method as explained above for the selective reducedorder calculation of the
electromechanical oscillation modes
The minimum searching scale SF [ 0 is the maximum distance of k i (kF ) to the
position where the real solution ki locates as shown in Fig. 5.12, where the last
searching scale is not greater than 2SF . Therefore, SF deﬁnes the accuracy of
optimum searching which is fully controllable. Of course, theoretically, the algo
rithm can reach a solution which is as accurate as it is wished.
In the case that two or more starting points might converge to the same solution,
preventing techniques, such as the addition of a penalty or barrier function into the
objective function [3], can be applied in the direct searching.
The computational complexity (CC) [3] or computational cost (CC) [4] normally
is used to estimate the computational efﬁciency of an algorithm where one opera
tion of an addition or multiplication is deﬁned as one CC. The CC of multiplication
of two norder full matrices (none of them is a diagonal matrix) is about n3 and the
inverse calculation of an norder full matrix is n3 . Thus, the CC to form the
3
polynomial matrix model of Eq. (5.74) (i.e. forming all coefﬁcient matrices in F(s))
is estimated as 2n3 =3 þ 32n3 . The CC in calculating the determinant of an norder
complex matrix is about 4n3 =3. Thus, the CC of the HookeJeeves optimum
searching in one step is about 16n3 =3. Therefore, the CC of the HookeJeeves
optimum searching method is (kHS þ KHF )16n3 =3, where kHS is the times of suc
cessful searching and KHF the times of searching failure. KHF can be estimated as
kHF ¼ logðS0 =SF Þ= log R, where R is the ratio of reducing the searching scale when
the searching in one step fails. If R = 2 S0 ¼ 0:01; SF ¼ 0:000001, we can have
kHF 13. Hence, the total CC of the reducedorder method is about
102n3 þ kHS 16n3 =3 þ oðn2 Þ.
Figures 5.13 and 5.14 show the trajectories of optimal searching starting from (0,
7.5128) and (0, 10.5647), respectively. Searching results of the electromechanical
oscillation modes are k 1 ¼ 0:1736 þ j7:0590 and k 2 ¼ 1:5051 þ j9:1860,
which are exactly as same as those obtained in the previous section where they are
denoted as k 9 ¼ 0:1736 þ j7:0590 and k 7 ¼ 1:5051 þ j9:1860.
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 227
Start
Step 2 Initalization:i=k=m=1, d1 1 , d 2 j ,
set the value of S0 , SF and .
No Yes
f( i (k)+d mS)<f( i (k))?
No Yes
f( i (k)d mS)<f( i (k))? i (k+1)= i (k)+d mS
No Yes
m<2? m=m+1
No Yes
f( i (k+1))<f( i (k))?
Step 3 S= S 2,
No Yes
i (k+1)= i (k), S<SF?
k=k+1,m=1
Step 4
i (k) is the solution
End
SF
*
i
i (k F )
searching succeeds
searching fails
7.6
Imaginary part 48000000
of eigenvalue
7.5 40000000
Start Point
7.4 32000000
24000000
7.3
7.2 1600
0000
8000
000
7.1 Final Point
6.9
Real part of
eigenvalue
6.8
0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05
11 Imaginary part
of eigenvalue
10.8 900000000
10.6 70000000
Start Point
0
10.4
500000
000
10.2
10
3000
9.8 0000
0
9.6 100000
000
9.4 50000
000
9.2
Final Point Real part
of eigenvalue
9
1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
where p ¼ ½ Dpss1 Dpss2 Dpss3 and Dpssi is the coefﬁcient of damping torque
provided by the PSS installed in the ith generator.
Choose p0 ¼ ½ 0 0 0 with f ðp0 Þ ¼ 0:2872 to start the optimal searching of
the solution of the above objective function by use of the method introduced in
Sect. 5.2.2.2. In 52 iterations, the searching stops to have p52 ¼
½ 21:73 11:84 21:94 with f ðp52 Þ ¼ 9:2687 1015 , k 1 is moved to k c1 .
Figure 5.15 is the trajectories of Dpssi ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3 in respective to the iterative
searching. The optimal searching method used is the HookeJeeves optimum
searching. Figure 5.16 is the trajectory of the objective function during the optimum
searching with respect to the movement of oscillation mode k 1 .
230 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
25
20
Designed damping
15
10
5
Dpss1
Dpss2
Dpss3
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Iterations of direct search method
Start Point
Objective function
Projection
Final Point
1
Fig. 5.16 Trajectory of the objective function in respective to the movement of k
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 231
From Fig. 5.5, the forward path matrix from the stabilizing signals of PSSs to the
electromechanical oscillation loops of generators is obtained as
Þ ¼ K2 KA ðK þ k
Fpss ðk TA Þ þ K6 KA 1
T0 ÞðI þ k
1 3 1 d0 1
2 3
4:0590\29:34 1:7719\153:70 1:0376\155:74
6 7
¼ 4 0:6433\113:76 6:1802\28:79 2:6963\136:09 5
1:1801\125:70 2:6184\140:40 5:3227\31:52
The forward path of the PSS installed in each generator as the diagonal element
of the above matrix is
Þ ¼ 4:0590\29:34
Fpss11 ðk 1
Þ ¼ 6:1802\28:79
Fpss22 ðk 1
Þ ¼ 5:3227\31:52
Fpss33 ðk 1
ð1 þ sT2i Þ ð1 þ sT4i Þ
Tpssi ðsÞ ¼ Kpssi ; T1i ¼ T3i ¼ 0:05
ð1 þ sT1i Þ ð1 þ sT3i Þ
By use of the phase compensation method for the PSS to compensate the for
Þ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3 to provide a pure damping torque
ward path of the ith generator Fii ðk
i
Dpssi , where Dpss1 Dpss2 Dpss3 ¼ p52 ¼ ½ 21:73 11:84 21:94 , parameters
of PSSs are set and listed in Table 5.6.
With PSSs installed, the closedloop state equation is
sDX ¼ Apss DX
where
Apss11 Apss12 Apss13
Apss ¼
Apss21 Apss22 Apss23
232 5 A Multimachine Power System Installed …
2 3
0 0 0 314:1592 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 314:1592 0 7
6 7
6 314:1592 7
6 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:0495 0:0310 0:0185 0 0 0 7
6 7
Apss11 ¼6
6 0:1195 0:1731 0:0537 0 0 0 7
7
6 0:1761 0:3123 7
6 0:1362 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:0031 0:0001 0:0030 0 0 0 7
6 7
4 0:2004 0:3121 0:1117 0 0 0 5
0:2172 0:1717 0:3889 0 0 0
2 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0 7
6 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:0521 0:0191 0:0119 0 0 0 7
6 7
Apss12 ¼6
6 0:0801 0:2396 0:0317 0 0 0 7 7
6 0:0614 0:1073 0:3860 0 7
6 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:1327 0:0119 0:0111 0:1116 0 0 7
6 7
4 0:0202 0:5261 0:1277 0 0:1667 0 5
0:0768 0:2119 0:6306 0 0 0:1698
2 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
60 0 0 0 0 07
6 7
60 07
6 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
60 0 0 0 0 07
6 7
Apss13 ¼6
60 0 0 0 0 077
60 07
6 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
60 0 0 0 0 07
6 7
40 0 0 0 0 05
0 0 0 0 0 0
2 3
67:5657 75:7691 143:3348 0 0 0
6 595:9666 314:8297 281:1369 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 779:5679 498:8968 1278:4646 0 7
6 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:0951 0:0596 0:0355 20 0 0 7
6 7
Apss21 ¼6
6 0:7703 0:4825 0:2878 162:048 0 0 7 7
6 0:2270 0:3289 0 7
6 0:1020 0 20 7
6 7
6 0:8193 1:1874 0:3681 0 72:2 0 7
6 7
4 0:3521 0:2724 0:6246 0 0 20 5
3:9227 3:0351 6:9579 0 0 222:8
5.3 An Example ThreeMachine Power System 233
2 3
8731:9338 710:95188 678:1403 50 0 0
6 4315:4400 5291:9761 1729:6500 0 50 0 7
6 7
6 4691:1745 1828:9008 4789:5838 50 7
6 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:1000 0:0367 0:0229 0 0 0 7
6 7
Apss22 6
¼ 6 0:8099 0:2977 0:1855 0 0 0 77
6 0:1521 0:4553 0 7
6 0:0603 0 0 7
6 7
6 0:5491 1:6435 0:2176 0 0 0 7
6 7
4 0:1227 0:2146 0:7719 0 0 0 5
1:3673 2:3902 8:5990 0 0 0
2 3
0 10000 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 10000 0 0 7
6 7
6 10000 7
6 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 20 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
Apss23 ¼6
6 77:648 20 0 0 0 0 7 7
6 20 0 7
6 0 0 0 0 7
6 7
6 0 0 34:2 20 0 0 7
6 7
4 0 0 0 0 20 0 5
0 0 0 0 111:4 20
1 ¼ 44:7474 þ j0; k
k 2;3 ¼ 23:7299 j27:9946; k
4 ¼ 33:1534 þ j0,
5;6 ¼ 19:9770 j11:9203; k
k 7;8 ¼ 12:9863 j13:6705;
9;10 ¼ 0:6094 j7:0235; k
k 11;12 ¼ 4:5207 j8:0856;
13 ¼ 0:2772 þ j0,k
k 14 ¼ 0 þ j0, k
15 ¼ 23:6389 þ j0,
2 1(deg)
With PSS
Without PSS
time(ms)
References
1. Anderson PM, Fouad AA (1977) Power system control and stability. The Iowa State University
Press
2. Wang XF, Song YH, Irving M (2011) Modern power systems analysis. Springer, Berlin
3. Bazarra MS et al (1993) Nonlinear programming. Wiley, Hoboken
4. Marchuk GI (1994) Numerical methods and applications. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton
Chapter 6
Multimachine Power System Installed
with ThyristorBased FACTS Stabilizers
Figure 6.1 shows an Nmachine power system with nodes of internal voltage of
generators added. From Fig. 6.1, the following network equations can be
established.
0 Y11 Y12 Vm
¼ ð6:1Þ
Ig Y21 Y22 Eg
T
where Ig ¼ Ig1 Ig2 IgN ; E g ¼ E g2 E
g1 E m is the
gN T ; V
vector of voltage at all noninternal nodes of generators in the power system and Eg
is deﬁned by Eq. (5.34). “Deleting” all noninternal nodes is to remove Vm in the
network equations of Eq. (6.1) to have
Ig ¼ ðY 1 Y
21 Y 22 ÞE
12 þ Y g ð6:2Þ
11
where only N internal nodes of generators are kept. Comparing Eqs. (6.2) and (5.34),
it can be seen that in fact
¼Y
Y 1 Y
21 Y 12 þ Y
22 ð6:3Þ
11
V g1 V g2 V gN
Transmission network YN
V g1 Vg 2 V gN
Transmission network YN
Node 1
y11 jbsvc
Ig ¼ 1 21 Y
12 E
g þ Y g
22 E
Y
ðy11 þ jbsvc Þ
ð6:5Þ
1 21 Y
12 þ Y
22 Eg ¼ Y
Eg
¼ Y
ðy11 þ jbsvc Þ
From Eq. (6.5), it can be seen that the elements of network admittance matrix, Y,
can be denoted as
yij ¼ y0ij þ yij ðbsvc Þ ð6:6Þ
X
N
Igi ¼ idi þ jiqi ¼ yij ½E0qj ejð90
þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
X
N
¼ y0ij ½E0qj ejð90 þ aij þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðaij þ dj di Þ ð6:7Þ
j¼1
X
N
þ yij ðbsvc Þ½E0qj ejð90 þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
X
N
þ Re½yij ðbsvc Þ½E0qj sin dij þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj cos dij
j¼1
X
N
Im½yij ðbsvc Þ½E0qj cos dij ðxqj x0dj Þiqj sin dij
j¼1
ð6:8Þ
X
N
iqi ¼ yij ½E0qj cosðaij dij Þ þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj sinðaij dij Þ
j¼1
X
N
þ Re½yij ðbsvc Þ½E0qj cos dij ðxqj x0dj Þiqj sin dij
j¼1
X
N
þ Im[yij ðbsvc Þ½E0qj sin dij þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj cos dij
j¼1
where Re½yij ðbsvc Þ and Im½yij ðbsvc Þ denote the real and imaginary parts of yij ðbsvc Þ,
respectively.
238 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
Substituting Eq. (6.10) into Eqs. (5.40) and (5.41), the Heffron–Phillips model of
the Nmachine power system installed with the SVC stabilizer can be obtained as
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
Dx_ ¼ M1 ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDx þ KP Dbsvc Þ
0 ð6:11Þ
DE_ q ¼ T01 0 0
d0 ðK3 DEq K4 Dd þ DEfd þ Kq Dbsvc Þ
0
DE_ fd ¼ T1 0 1 0
A DEfd þ TA KA ðK5 Dd K6 DEq þ KV Dbsvc Þ
where
2 3
y11 þ 1 y12 z 1
11 4 z12 jxt csc 12 jxt csc 5
Y ¼
y21 1 y22 þ z 1jx
z12 jxt csc 12 t csc
12
V ¼ V 1 V 2 T
Hence, the network admittance matrix with only the internal nodes of generators
left is
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 239
V g1 Vg 2 V gN
Transmission network YN
y12 (y 21 )
V1 V2
Node 1 Node 2
z12
x t csc
y11 y 22
¼Y 1 Y
21 Y
Y 11 12 þ Y22 ð6:13Þ
Obviously, the element of the network admittance matrix yij can be denoted as
X
N
¼ y0ij ½E0qj ejð90 þ aij þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðaij þ dj di Þ ð6:15Þ
j¼1
X
N
þ yij ðxt csc Þ½E0qj ejð90 þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
V g1 Vg 2 V gN
Transmission network YN
y12 (y 21 )
V1 V2
Node 1 Node 2
z12
k :1
y11 y 22
Similarly, for the Nmachine power system with a TCPS stabilizer installed
between nodes 1 and 2 as shown in Fig. 6.4, where k ¼ kej/ , it can have
0 11
Y 12
Y 12
V
Ig ¼ 21 22 g ð6:17Þ
Y Y E
where
2 j/ 3
y11 þ 2
1 y12 e
11 ¼ 4 k z 12 kz 12
5
Y
y21 e
j/
y22 þ z112
kz12
12n
V ¼ V1 V 2 T
Hence, the network admittance matrix with only the internal nodes of generators
left can be obtained as
¼Y 1 Y
21 Y
Y 11 12 þ Y22 ð6:18Þ
and the element of the network admittance matrix yij can be denoted as
Hence, for the system with the TCPS stabilizer installed, it can have
X
N
Igi ¼ idi þ jiqi ¼ yij ½E0qj ejð90
þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
X
N
¼ y0ij ½E0qj ejð90 þ aij þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðaij þ dj di Þ ð6:20Þ
j¼1
X
N
þ yij ð/Þ½E0qj ejð90 þ dj di Þ
þ ðxqj x0dj Þiqj ejðdj di Þ
j¼1
By taking the similar procedure from Eqs. (6.7) to (6.10), from Eq. (6.20), the
Heffron–Phillips model of the Nmachine power system installed with the TCPS
stabilizer can be obtained as
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
Dx_ ¼ M1 ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDx þ KP D/Þ
0 ð6:21Þ
DE_ q ¼ T01 0 0
d0 ðK3 DEq K4 Dd þ DEfd þ Kq D/Þ
0
DE_ fd ¼ T1 0 1 0
A DEfd þ TA KA ðK5 Dd K6 DEq þ KV D/Þ
K1

ω0 I
(sM + D) −1
s
 + Δu facts −s
KP Kq KV
K4 K5
K2
+ 
 + +
−1
(K 3 + sTd0 ) (I + sTA ) −1 K A Δu pss
+

K6
Fig. 6.5 Uniﬁed Heffron–Phillips model of an Nmachine power system installed with a
thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer
242 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
where
In the case that the reducedorder model of generators which is used for
establishing the Heffron–Phillips mode, from Eq. (2.31), it can have
vgdi E0 vgqi
iqi ¼ ; idi ¼ d 0 ð6:23Þ
xqi xd
where
1
E0 ¼ feij g; eij ¼ ;
x0di
for i ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N; otherwise eij ¼ 0
1
Xdq1 ¼ diagðxdqi Þ; xdqi ¼ 0 ; for i ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1;
xdi
1
xdqi ¼ ¼ 0; for i ¼ 2; 4; . . .2N
xqi
Vdq0 ¼ fVdq0ij g; Vdq0ij ¼ vgdi0 ; Vdq0ij þ 1 ¼ vgqi0 ;
for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N; j ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1; otherwise Vdq0ij ¼ 0
Idq0 ¼ fIdq0ij g; Idq0ij ¼ igdi0 ; Idq0ij þ 1 ¼ igqi0 ;
for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N; j ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1; otherwise Idq0ij ¼ 0
X0dd ¼ fx0ddij g; x0ddij ¼ ðxdi x0di Þ;
for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N; j ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1; otherwise x0ddij ¼ 0
vgdi0 vgqi0
V0dq ¼ fV0dqij g; V0dqij ¼ ; V0dqij þ 1 ¼ ;
Vgi0 Vgi0
for i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N; j ¼ 1; 3; . . .; 2N 1; otherwise Vdq0ij ¼ 0
Dd_ ¼ xo Dx
Dx_ ¼ M1 ðDDx Vdq0 E0 DE0iq Þ M1 ðVdq0 Xdq1 þ Idq0 ÞDVdq
0
DE_ q ¼ T01 0 0 0 0 01 0
d0 ðDEq Xdd E0 DEiq þ DEfd Þ Td0 Xdd Xdq1 DVdq ð6:26Þ
0
DE_ fd ¼ T1 0 1 1
A DEfd TA KA V0dq DVdq þ TA KA Dupss
DIdq ¼ E0 DE0iq þ Xdq1 DVdq
244 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
Obviously, the above equation can be written in the similar form to Eq. (5.48) as
where
2 3 2 3
Dd 0 xo I 0 0
6 Dx 7 6 0 M1 D 1
M Vdq0 E0 7
6 7 6 0 7
Xg ¼ 6 7; Ag ¼ 6 7;
4 DE0q 5 40 0 T1 0
d0 ðI þ Xdd E0 Þ T1
d0
5
DE0 0 0 0 T1
2 fd 3 2 3 A
0 0
6 7 6 7
6 M1 ðVdq0 Xdq1 þ Idq0 Þ 7 6 0 7
6 7 6 7
Bgv ¼ 6 7; Bg ¼ 6 7;
6 T 01 0
X X 7 6 0 7
4 d0 dd dq1 5 4 5
T1
A KA V0dq T1
A KA
Cg ¼ ½ 0 0 E0 0 ; Dg ¼ Xdq1
By substituting Eq. (5.51) into the above equation, it can be obtained that
where
Dgxy ¼ T1
g0 Dg
The format of Eqs. (6.22) and (6.29) is exactly the same, which will be used as
the general linearized model of generators in the Nmachine power system with no
PSSs installed.
Let the transfer function of the ith PSS be Gi ðsÞ and the feedback signal Dxi , that is
where
2 3 2 3
Xpss1 Bpss1 0 ... 0
6 Xpss2 7 6 0 Bpss2 ... 0 7
6 7 6 7
Xpss ¼6 7 6
6 .. 7; Bpss ¼ 6 .. .. ..
7;
7
4 . 5 4 . . ... . 5
XpssL 0 0 ... BpssL
2 3 2 3
Apss1 0 ... 0 Cpss1 0 ... 0
6 0 Apss2 ... 0 7 6 0 Cpss2 ... 0 7
6 7 6 7
Apss ¼6
6 .. .. ..
7; Cpss
7 ¼6
6 .. .. ..
7;
7
4 . . ... . 5 4 . . ... . 5
0 0 ... ApssL 0 0 ... CpssL
2 3
Dpss1 0 ... 0
6 0 Dpss2 ... 0 7
6 7
Dpss ¼6
6 .. .. .. 7
7
4 . . ... . 5
0 0 ... DpssL
246 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
By substituting Eq. (6.32) into Eqs. (6.22) or (6.29), it can be obtained that
where
Xg Agxy þ Bg DDpss Bg Cpss
Xgp ¼ ; Agp ¼ ;
Xpss BDpss Apss
Bgxy Dgp
Bgp ¼ ; Cgp ¼ ½ Cgxy 0 ; Dgp ¼ ;
0 0
2 3 2 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
6 7 6 7
DDpss ¼ 4 0 Dpss 0 5; BDpss ¼ 4 0 Bpss 0 5
0 0 0 0 0 0
Equation (6.33) is the linearized model of generators with the PSSs installed.
For a thyristorcontrolled reactor and ﬁxed capacitor (TCRFC) type of SVC with
an SVC stabilizer as shown in Fig. 3.1, from Eq. (3.1), it can be obtained that for
the ith SVC installed in the Nmachine power system
1 2ai sin 2ai
bsvci ¼ ð6:34Þ
xsvcci 2pxsvcli
Without loss of generality, denote the installing location of the SVC as the ith
node in the power system. It can be assumed that the transfer function of voltage
controller and stabilizer in Fig. 3.1 is Tvsvci ðsÞ and Tssvci ðsÞ, respectively, and the
feedback signal of the SVC stabilizer is the integral signal of the active power, Pij ,
delivered through the node where the SVC is installed as shown in Fig. 6.6. From
Figs. 3.1 and 6.6, it can have
Ii jbsvci
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 247
where
avi ¼ Tvsvci ðsÞðVi Viref Þ
1 ð6:36Þ
asi ¼ Tssvci ðsÞ ðPij Pijref Þ
s
where Viref and Pijref are the reference signal of the SVC voltage and stabilizing
control, respectively.
Linearization of Eqs. (6.34) and (6.36) is
1 cos 2ai0
Dbsvci ¼ ðDavi þ Dasi Þ ð6:37Þ
pxsvcli
where
vix0 viy0 h i Dv h i
viy0 viy0
DVi ¼ Dvix þ Dviy ¼ vVix0 ix
¼ vVix0 Vi0 DVixy
Vi0 Vi0 i0 Vi0 Dviy i0
1 ð6:41Þ
Dasi ¼ Tssvci ðsÞ ðpsvci DVxyi þ p0svcj DVxyj Þ
s
Let the statespace realization of the voltage controller and stabilizer of the SVC
given by Eq. (6.41) be
According to Fig. 6.6, the injected current from the SVC into the ith node is
That is
where
Dixi 1 cos 2ai0 vyi0
DISVCi ¼ ; CSVCi ¼ CVSVCi ;
Diyi pxsvcli vxi0
1 cos 2ai0 vyi0 1 cos 2ai0 vyi0
DSVCi ¼ DVSVCi ; bSSVCi ¼
pxsvcli vxi0 pxsvcli vxi0
Equations (6.42) and (6.48) are the linearized model of the SVC without the
stabilizer. Feedback signal of the SVC stabilizer is DPij . Hence, output equation is
Eq. (6.40).
When the SVC stabilizer is considered, by substituting Eq. (6.43) into
Eq. (6.47), it can be obtained that
Dixi 1 cos 2ai0 vyi0
¼ ðCVSVCi XVSVCi þ CSSVCi XSSVCi Þ
Diyi pxsvcli vxi0
1 cos 2ai0 vyi0
ðDVSVCi DVxyi þ DSSVCi DVxyi þ DSSVCj DVxyj Þ
pxsvcli vxi0
bsvci0 0
þ DVxyi
0 bsvci0
ð6:49Þ
Put the state equation of the SVC voltage controller of Eq. (6.42) and stabilizer
of Eq. (6.43) together
where
XVSVCi AVSVCi 0
XSVCi ¼ ; ASVCi ¼ ;
XSSVCi 0 ASSVCi
BVSVCi 0
BSVCi ¼ ; BSVCj ¼
BSSVCi BSSVCj
where
Dixi
DISVCi ¼
Diyi
vyi0 vyi0
CSVCi ¼ 1cos 2ai0
pxsvcli CVSVCi 1cos
CSSVCi 2ai0
pxsvcli
vxi0 vxi0
1 cos 2ai0 vyi0 bsvci0 0
DSVCi ¼ ðDVSVCi þ DSSVCi Þ þ
pxsvcli vxi0 0 bsvci0
1 cos 2ai0 vyi0
DSVCj ¼ DSSVCj
pxsvcli vxi0
Equations (6.50) and (6.51) are the linearized model of the SVC, including
voltage controller and stabilizer, installed at the ith node in the Nmachine power
system.
At the location in the Nmachine power system where a TCSC is installed, two
extra nodes, denoted as i and j, at the terminals of the TCSC can be created as
shown in Fig. 6.7. From Fig. 6.7, it can be seen that the function of the TCSC is
electrically equivalent to the injection of current into two nodes,
Ii ¼ Vj Vi ; Ij ¼ Vi Vj ð6:52Þ
jxtcsci jxtcsci
Vi Vj
Pij
Vi Vj
Ii Ij Ii Ij
jx tcsci
Fig. 6.7 Creation of two extra nodes at the location where the TCSC is installed
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 251
That is
1 1
ixi ¼ ðvyj vyi Þ; iyi ¼ ðvxi vxj Þ;
xtcsci xt csci
ð6:54Þ
1 1
ixj ¼ ðvyi vyj Þ; iyj ¼ ðvxj vxi Þ
xtcsci xtcsci
The normal control function of the TCSC is the load flow regulation. Let the
transfer function of the TCSC load flow regulator be Tltcsci ðsÞ. It can be assumed
that the transfer function of the TCSC stabilizer and feedback signal is Tstcsci ðsÞ and
the integral of deviation of the active power delivered along the transmission line,
Pij , where the TCSC is installed. Control signal of the TCSC stabilizer can be
superimposed on the TCSC load flow controller, that is
1
xtcsci ¼ ½Tltcsci ðsÞ þ Tstcsci ðsÞðPij Pijref Þ ð6:55Þ
s
where Pijref is the reference signal of the TCSC load flow and stabilizing control.
Linearization of Eq. (6.55) is
1
Dxtcsci ¼ ½Tltcsci ðsÞ þ Tstcsci ðsÞDPij ð6:56Þ
s
i V
V j
Pij ¼ Reð Þ ¼ Re½ 1 ðV
V V
iV Þ
jV
i i i
jxtcsci jxtcsci
ð6:57Þ
1
¼ ðvyi vxj vxi vyj Þ
xtcsci
1
DPij ¼ ðvyi0 vxj0 vxi0 vyj0 ÞDvtcsci
x2tcsci0
1 1 ð6:58Þ
þ ðvxj0 Dvyi vyj0 Dvxi Þ þ ðvyj0 Dvxj vxi0 Dvyj Þ
xtcsci0 xtcsci0
¼ atcsc0 Dxtcsci þ atcsci DVxyi þ atcscj DVxyj
252 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
K itcsc Δα stcsci
s Δx ltcsci
where
1
atcsc0 ¼ ðvyi0 vxj0 vxi0 vyj0 Þ
x2tcsci0
h i
atcsci ¼ xtcsci0
1 1
vyj0 xtcsci0 vxj0
h i
atcscj ¼ xtcsci0
1
vyj0 xtcsci0
1
vxi0
For the case that the TCSC stabilizer is not installed, Eq. (6.56) becomes
where Dastcsci is the stabilizing signal. Without loss of generality, it can be assumed
that the TCSC load flow controller adopts a proportional and integral (PI) control
law as shown in Fig. 6.8. From Fig. 6.8, it can have
1 1
Dxtcsci ¼ Dastcsci þ Dxltcsci
1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0 1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0
ð6:61Þ
Kptcsc
þ ðatcsci DVxyi þ atcscj DVxyj Þ
1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0
Dx_ ltcsci ¼ Altcsci Dxltcsci þ BLTCSCi DVxyi þ BLTCSCj DVxyj þ bltcsci Dastcsci ð6:63Þ
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 253
That is
2 3
2 3 x21 ðvyj0 vyi0 Þ
Dixi 6 tcsci0
7
6 Di 7 6 1
ðvxi0 vxj0 Þ 7
6 yi 7 6 x 2 7
6 7¼6 7Dxtcsci
tcsci0
4 Dixj 5 6 7
6 x2tcsci0 ðvyi0 vyj0 Þ 7
1
4 5
Diyj x21 ðvxj0 vxi0 Þ ð6:65Þ
2 32 3
tcsci0
0 1 0 1 Dvxi
1 6 6 1 0 1 0 7 6 7
76 Dvyi 7
þ 6 76 7
xtcsci0 4 0 1 0 1 54 Dvxj 5
1 0 1 0 Dvyj
where
2 3 2 3
Dixi Dvxi
6 Diyi 7 6 Dvyi 7
6 7 6 7
DITCSCij ¼6 7; DVxyij ¼ 6 7;
4 Dixj 5 4 Dvxj 5
Diyj Dvyj
2 3
x21 ðvyj0 vyi0 Þ
6 tcsci0
7
6 21 ðvxi0 vxj0 Þ 7
1 6 xtcsci0 7
bTCSCij ¼ CTCSCij ¼ 6 7;
1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0 6 7
6 x2tcsci0 ðvyi0 vyj0 Þ 7
1
4 5
x21 ðvxj0 vxi0 Þ
2 3
tcsci0
0 1 0 1
Kptcsc atcsci 0 1 6 6 1 0 1 0 77
DTCSCij ¼ þ 6 7 ð6:67Þ
1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0 0 atcscj x tcsci0 4 0 1 0 1 5
1 0 1 0
254 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
Equations (6.63) and (6.66) are the linearized model of the TCSC without the TCSC
stabilizer installed. Output equation can be obtained from Eqs. (6.58) and (6.61) as
DPij ¼ dtcsci Dastcsci þ ctcsci Dxltcsci þ ptcsci DVxyi þ p0tcscj DVxyj ð6:68Þ
where
atcsc0 atcsc0
dtcsci ¼ ; ctcsci ¼ ;
1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0 1 þ Kptcsc atcsc 0
atcsc0 Kptcsc 0 atcsc0 Kptcsc
ptcsci ¼ 1 atcsci ; ptcscj ¼ 1 atcscj
1 þ Kpt csc atcsc0 1 þ Kptcsc atcsc0
Ttcsci ðsÞ
Dxtcsci ¼ ðatcsci DVxyi þ atcscj DVxyj Þ
1 þ atcsc0 Ttcsci ðsÞ ð6:69Þ
¼ T0t csc i ðsÞðatcsci DVxyi þ atcscj DVxyj Þ
where
2 3
2 3 x21 ðvyj0 vyi0 Þ
Dixi 6 tcsci0
7
6 Di 7 6 21 ðvxi0 vxj0 Þ 7
6 7 6 x 7
7; CTCSCij ¼ 6 7
yi
DITCSCij ¼6 6 1 ðv v Þ 7CTCSCi ;
tcsci0
Dixi 0 1 0 1
6 Di 7 6 1
6 yi 7 D TCSCi 0 1 6 0 1 0 7
7
DVxyij ¼6 7; DTCSCij ¼ þ 6 7
4 Dixj 5 0 DTCSCj xtcsci0 4 0 1 0 1 5
Diyj 1 0 1 0
Equations (6.70) and (6.72) are the linearized model of the TCSC with stabilizer
installed between ith and jth nodes in the Nmachine power system.
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 255
0 Iij
V
i ¼ I0 ¼ e ð6:73Þ
i j/i
V ij
0 j/i
I0 ¼ Vi Vj ¼ Vi e Vi þ Vi Vj
ij
zij zij
ð6:74Þ
j/i i V
j þ V
j V
j ej/i
Iij ¼ Iij ej/i ¼ Vi Vj e ¼
V
zij zij
j/i
Ij ¼ Vi e Vi
zij
ð6:75Þ
j/i j
V
Ii ¼ Vj e
zij
Denote z1ij ¼ gij þ jbij . From Eq. (6.75), it can be obtained that
ixi ¼ ðgij vxj þ bij vyj Þðcos/i 1Þ þ ðgij vyj þ bij vxj Þsin/i
iyi ¼ ðgij vxj þ bij vyj Þsin/i þ ðgij vyj þ bij vxj Þðcos/i 1Þ
ð6:76Þ
ixj ¼ ðgij vxi þ bij vyi Þðcos/i 1Þ ðgij vyi þ bij vxi Þsin/i
iyj ¼ ðgij vxi þ bij vyi Þsin/i þ ðgij vyi þ bij vxi Þðcos/i 1Þ
Vi Vj
z iijj
Pij
Vi Vj
I ij I ij ' z iijj
Vi '
k :1
Ii Ij
k =1
Fig. 6.9 Installation of a TCPS between node i and j in an Nmachine power system
256 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
Dixi ¼ ½ðgij vxj0 þ bij vyj0 Þ sin /i0 þ ðgij vyj0 þ bij vxj0 Þ cos /i0 D/i
þ ½gij ðcos /i0 1Þ þ bij sin /i0 Dvxj þ ½bij ðcos /i0 1Þ þ gij sin /i0 Dvyj
Diyi ¼ ½ðgij vxj0 þ bij vyj0 Þ cos /i0 ðgij vyj0 þ bij vxj0 Þ sin /i0 þ D/i
þ ½gij sin /i0 þ bij ðcos /i0 1ÞDvxj þ ½bij sin /i0 þ gij ðcos /i0 1ÞDvyj
Dijx ¼ ½ðgij vxi0 þ bij vyi0 Þ sin /i0 ðgij vyi0 þ bij vxi0 Þ cos /i0 D/i
þ ½gij ðcos /i0 1Þ bij sin /i0 Dvxi þ ½bij ðcos /i0 1Þ gij sin /i0 Dvyi
Dijy ¼ ½ðgij vxi0 þ bij vyi0 Þ cos /i0 ðgij vyi0 þ bij vxi0 Þ sin /i0 D/i
þ ½gij sin /i0 þ bij ðcos /i0 1ÞDvxi þ ½bij sin /i0 þ gij ðcos /i0 1ÞDvyi
That is
where
2 3 2 3
Dixi Dvxi
6 Di 7 6 Dv 7
6 yi 7 6 yi 7
DITCPSij ¼6 7; DVxyij ¼ 6 7;
4 Dixj 5 4 Dvxj 5
Diyj Dvyj
2 3
ðgij vxj0 þ bij vyj0 Þ sin /i0 þ ðgij vyj0 þ bij vxj0 Þ cos /i0
6 ðg vxj0 þ bij vyj0 Þ cos / ðg vyj0 þ bij vxj0 Þ sin / 7
6 ij i0 ij i0 7
bTCPSi ¼6 7;
4 ðgij vxi0 þ bij vyi0 Þ sin /i0 ðgij vyi0 þ bij vxi0 Þ cos /i0 5
ðgij vxi0 þ bij vyi0 Þ cos /i0 ðgij vyi0 þ bij vxi0 Þ sin /i0
0 DTCSCij
DTCPSi ¼
DTCSCii 0
" #
gij ðcos /i0 1Þ þ bij sin /i0 bij ðcos /i0 1Þ þ gij sin /i0
DiTCSCj ¼
gij sin /i0 þ bij ðcos /i0 1Þ bij sin /i0 þ gij ðcos /i0 1Þ
" #
gij ðcos /i0 1Þ bij sin /i0 bij ðcos /i0 1Þ gij sin /i0
DiTCSCi ¼
gij sin /i0 þ bij ðcos /i0 1Þ bij sin /i0 þ gij ðcos /i0 1Þ
Typical application of a TCPS is to regulate power flow. Let the TCPS load flow
controller be implemented by a PI control law and a stabilizing control signal,
Dastcpsi , be added as shown in Fig. 6.10. It can have
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 257
K itcps Δα stcpsi
s Δx ltcpsi
j/i
Vi Vj e
i Iij ¼ V
Sij ¼ V i z ij
j ej/i Þ ð6:79Þ
¼ ðgij þ jbij ÞðVi Vi V
2
¼ ðgij þ jbij ÞV2i ðgij þ jbij Þðvxi jvyi Þðvxj þ jvyj Þðcos /i j sin /i Þ
Hence,
where
at c ps0 ¼ gij ½ðvxi0 vxj0 þ vyi0 vyj0 Þ sin /i0 ðvxi0 vyj0 vyi0 vxj0 Þ cos /i0
þ bij ½ðvxi0 vxj0 þ vyi0 vyj0 Þ cos /i0 þ ðvxi0 vyj0 vyi0 vxj0 Þ sin /i0
" #T
2gij vxi0 þ gij ðvxj0 cos /i0 þ vyj0 sin /i0 Þ bij ðvxj0 sin /i0 þ vyj0 cos /i0 Þ
atcpsi ¼
2gij vyi0 þ gij ðvyj0 cos /i0 vxj0 sin /i0 Þ þ bij ðvyj0 sin /i0 þ vxj0 cos /i0 Þ
" #T
gij ðvxi0 cos /i0 vyi0 sin /i0 Þ þ bij ðvxi0 sin /i0 þ vyi0 cos /i0 Þ
atcpsj ¼
gij ðvyi0 cos /i0 þ vxi0 sin /i0 Þ bij ðvyi0 sin /i0 þ vxi0 cos /i0 Þ
258 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
1
D/i ¼ Dastcpsi
1 þ atcps0 Kptcps
Kptcps 1
þ ðatcpsi DVxyi þ atcpsj DVxyj Þ þ Dxltcpsi
1 þ atcps0 Kptcps 1 þ atcps0 Kptcps
ð6:82Þ
Dx_ ltcpsi ¼ Altcpsi Dxltcpsi þ BLTCPSi DVxyi þ BLTCPSj DVxyj þ bltcpsi Dastcpsi ð6:84Þ
where
1
bTCPSij ¼ CTCPSij ¼ bTCPSi
1 þ at c ps0 Kpt c ps
ð6:86Þ
Kpt c ps atcpsi 0
DTCPSij ¼ þ DTCPSi
1 þ at c ps0 Kpt c ps 0 atcpsj
Equations (6.84) and (6.85) are the linearized model of the TCPS without the
TCPS stabilizer installed. From Eqs. (6.81) and (6.82), the output equation can be
obtained as
at c ps0 at c ps0
DPij ¼ Dastcpsi þ Dxltcpsi
1 þ at c ps0 Kpt c ps 1 þ at c ps0 Kpt c ps
1 ð6:87Þ
þ ðatcpsi DVxyi þ atcpsj DVxyj Þ
1 þ at c ps0 Kpt c ps
¼ dtcpsi Dastcpsi þ ctcpsi Dxltcpsi þ ptcpsi DVxyi þ p0tcpsj DVxyj
Let the transfer function of the TCPS load flow controller be Tltcpsi ðsÞ. It is
assumed that the transfer function of the TCPS stabilizer and feedback signal is
Tltcpsi ðsÞ and the integral of deviation of the active power delivered along the
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 259
transmission line, DPij , where the TCSC is installed. When the TCPS stabilizer is
installed, from Fig. 6.10, it can have
1
D/i ¼ Tltcpsi ðsÞ þ Tstcpsi ðsÞ DPij ¼ Ttcpsi ðsÞDPij
s
Ttcpsi ðsÞ
D/i ¼ ðatcpsi DVxyi þ atcpsj DVxyj Þ
1 þ at c ps0 Ttcpsi ðsÞ ð6:88Þ
¼ T0tcpsi ðsÞðatcpsi DVxyi þ atcpsj DVxyj Þ
where
Equations (6.89) and (6.91) are the linearized model of the TCPS with the
stabilizer installed between the ith and jth nodes in the Nmachine power system.
where
ixi v g bij
Ii ¼ ; Vi ¼ xi ; Yij ¼ ii ; i; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; M ð6:93Þ
iyi vyi bji gjj
Let the number of the SVCs, TCSCs, and TCPSs installed in the system be Lsvc ,
Ltcsc and Ltcps , respectively. Denote
T
DISVC ¼ DITSVC1 DITSVC2 . . . DITSVCLsvc ;
h iT
DITCSC ¼ DITTCSC1j DITTCSC2j . . . DITTCSCLtcsc j ;
h iT
DITCPS ¼ DITTCPS1j DITTCPS2j . . . DITTCPSLtcps j ;
T ð6:94Þ
DVSVC ¼ DVTSVC1 DVTSVC2 . . . DVTSVCLsvc ;
h iT
DVTCSC ¼ DVTTCSC1j DVTTCSC2j . . . DVTTCSCLtcsc j ;
h iT
DVTCPS ¼ DVTTCPS1j DVTTCPS2j . . . DVTTCPSLtcps j
When the SVCs, TCSCs, and TCPSs are not equipped with stabilizers,
Eqs. (6.42) and (6.48) are the linearized model of the ith SVC, Eqs. (6.63) and
(6.66) are that of the ith TCSC, and Eqs. (6.84) and (6.85) are that of the ith TCPS.
Hence, by using the deﬁnition of Eq. (6.94), the openloop (without thyristorbased
FACTS stabilizers), statespace representation of Lsvc SVCs, Lt csc TCSCs, and Ltcps
TCPSs can be obtained, respectively, from Eqs. (6.42) and (6.48), Eqs. (6.63) and
(6.66), and Eqs. (6.84) and (6.85) as
where
2 3 2 3 2 3
XVSVC1 Dxlt csc 1 Dxlt c ps1
6 X 7 6 Dx 7 6 7
6 VSVC2 7 6 lt csc 2 7 6 Dxlt c ps1 7
6 7
XVSVC ¼ 6
6 .. 7; XLTCSC ¼ 6
7 6 .. 7; XLTCPS ¼ 6
7 .. 7;
4 . 5 4 . 5 6 . 7
4 5
XVSVCLsvc Dxlt csc 1 Lt csc xltcpsLtcps
2 3 2 3 2 3
Das1 Dast csc 1 Dastcps1
6 Da 7 6 Da 7 6 7
6 s2 7 6 st csc 2 7 6 Dastcps2 7
6 7
DaS ¼ 6 7
6 .. 7; DaSTCSC ¼ 6
6 .. 7; DaSTCPS ¼ 6
7 .. 7
4 . 5 4 . 5 6 . 7
4 5
DasLsvc Dast csc Ltcsc DastcpsLtcps
Without loss of generality and for the simplicity of expression, let the order of
arranging the network equations of Eq. (6.92) be (1) N nodes of generator termi
nals; (2) Lsvc nodes where Lsvc SVCs are installed; (3) Lt csc nodes where Lt csc
TCSCs are installed; (4) Ltcps nodes where Ltcps TCPSs are installed; and (5) other
nodes in the system. Linearized network equations of Eq. (6.92) can be written as
2 3 2 32 3
DIxy Ygg Ygs Ygc Ygp Ygo DVxy
6 DISVC 7 6 Ysg Yso 7 6 7
6 7 6 Yss Ysc Ysp 76 DVSVC 7
6 DITCSC 7 ¼ 6 Ycg Ycs Ycc Ycp Yco 7 6 DVTCSC 7 ð6:98Þ
6 7 6 76 7
4 DITCPS 5 4 Ypg Yps Ypc Ypp Ypo 54 DVTCPS 5
0 Yog Yos Yoc Yop Yoo DVO
where VO is the vector of the voltage at other nodes in the Nmachine power
system.
The output equation of openloop system of the SVC stabilizer is Eq. (6.40), that
of the TCSC stabilizer is Eq. (6.68), and that of the TCPS stabilizer is Eq. (6.87).
According to the notations in Eqs. (6.94)–(6.98), the output equation of openloop
system of Lsvc SVC stabilizers, Lt csc TCSC stabilizers, and Ltcps TCPS stabilizers
can be written, respectively, as
where
T T
ySVC ¼ ½ DP1j DP1j DPLsvc j ; yTCSC ¼ ½ DP1j DP1j DPLt csc j ;
T
yTCPS ¼ DP1j DP1j DPLcps j ; dTCSC ¼ diagðdt csc i Þ;
cTCSC ¼ diagðct csc i Þ; dTCPS ¼ diagðdtcpsi Þ; cTCSC ¼ diagðctcpsi Þ;
2 0 3
psvc1
6 0 7
2 3 6 p0svc2 7
psvc1 6 7
0 6 .. 7
6 psvc2 7 6 . 7
6 7 6 7
pSVC ¼ 6
6 . 7; pSVCO ¼ 6
7 6 p0svcLsvc 77;
4 . . 5 6 7
0 6 0 7
6 0 7
psvcLsvc 6 7
4 5
..
.
2 3
ptcsc1
6 p0tcsc1 7
6 0 7
6 7
6 ptcsc2 7
6 7
6 p0tcsc2 7
pTCSC ¼6
6
7
7
6 .. 7
6 . 7
6 7
6 7
4 0 ptcscLtcsc 5
p0tcscLtcsc
2 3
ptcps1
6 7
6 p0tcps1 0 7
6 7
6 ptcps2 7
6 7
6 7
6 p0tcsc2 7
pTCPS ¼6 7
6 .. 7
6 . 7
6 7
6 7
6 0 ptcpsLtcps 7
4 5
p0tcpsLtcps
Substituting the second equation in Eqs. (6.95), (6.96), (6.97), and Eq. (6.29)
into Eq. (6.98), it can be obtained that
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 263
Cxy X þ Ba Du
0
22 3 2 33
Ygg Dgxy Ygs Ygc Ygo Ygo
66 7 6 Y 77
66 Ysg Yss DSVC Ysc Ysp 7 6 so 7 7
66 7 6 7 7 ½DV
6
¼6 4 Ycg Ycs Ycc DTCSC Ycp 5 4 Yco 5 7
7 DV
6 7 O
4 Ypg Yps Ypc Ypp DTCPS Ypo 5
½ og
Y Y os Y oc Yop Yoo
Y0M Y1o ½DV
¼
Y2o Yoo DVO
ð6:100Þ
where
2 3 2 3 2 3
Xg DVxy Cgxy
6X 7 6 DV 7 6 0 7
6 VSVC 7 6 SVC 7 6 CSVC 7
X¼6 7; DV¼6 7; Cxy ¼ 6 7;
4 XLTCSC 5 4 DVTCSC 5 4 CTCSC 5
0
XLTCPS DVTCPS CTCPS
2 3 2 3
Dupss 0
6 Da 7 6 0 7
6 S 7 6 bSSVC 7
Du ¼ 6 7; B a ¼ 6 7
4 DaSTCSC 5 4 bTCSC 5
0
DaSTCPS bTCPS
DVO ¼ Y1
oo Y2o DV
0 ð6:101Þ
Cxy X þ Ba Du ¼ ðYM Y1o Y1
oo Y2o ÞDV ¼ YM DV
By arranging the state equation (the ﬁrst equation) in Eqs. (6.95), (6.96), (6.97),
and (6.29) together according to the notation in Eq. (6.101), it can have
where
2 3
Agxy
6 0 7
6 AVSVC 7
Axy ¼ 6 7;
4 ALTCSC 5
0
ALTCPS
2 3 2 3
Bg Bgxy
6 0 7 6 0 7
6 0 7 6 BVSVC 7
Bp ¼ 6 7; Bxy ¼ 6 7
4 bLTCSC 5 4 BTCSC 5
0 0
bLTCPS BTCPS
264 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
X_ ¼ AX þ BDu ð6:103Þ
By using the notation of Eq. (6.100), from Eq. (6.99), the ﬁrst equation in
Eq. (6.101) and (6.104), it can have
y ¼ C0 X þ D0 Du þ Pxy DV ð6:105Þ
where
2 3 2 3 2 3
yPSS cPSS 0
6y 7 6 0 7 6 0 7
6 SVC 7 0 6 0 7 0 6 0 7
y¼6 7; C ¼ 6 7; D ¼ 6 7;
4 yTCSC 5 4 cTCSC 5 4 dTCSC 5
0 0
yTCPS cTCPS dTCPS
2 3 2 3
0 0
6 0 7 6 p 1 7
6 pSVC 7 6 SVCO Yoo Y2o 7
Pxy ¼6 7þ6 7
4 pTCSC 5 4 0 5
0
pTCPS 0
Dy ¼ CX þ DDu ð6:106Þ
Equations (6.50) and (6.51) are the linearized model of an SVC with stabilizer
installed. Equations (6.70) and (6.72) are that of a TCSC with stabilizer installed.
6.1 Mathematical Model of a MultiMachine Power System … 265
Equations (6.89) and (6.91) are that of a TCPS with stabilizer installed. By using
the notation in Eqs. (6.94)–(6.97), the linearized model of Lsvc SVCs, Lt csc TCSCs,
and Ltcps TCPSs with stabilizers installed can be obtained from Eqs. (6.50) and
(6.51), Eqs. (6.70) and (6.72), and Eqs. (6.89) and (6.91), respectively, as
where
2 3 2 3 2 3
XSVC1 XTCSC1 XTCPS1
6 XSVC2 7 6 XTCSC2 7 6 XTCPS2 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
XSVC ¼ 6 .. 7; XTCSC ¼ 6 .. 7; XTCPS ¼ 6 .. 7
4 . 5 4 . 5 4 . 5
XSVCLsvc XTCSCLtcsc XTCPSLtcps
where
2 3 2 3
Xg Cgp
6 XSVC 7 0
6 7 6 CSVC 7
X¼4 ;C ¼4 5
XTCSC 5 p CTCSC
0
XTCPS CTCPS
266 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
By arranging the state equation (the ﬁrst equation) in Eqs. (6.107), (6.108),
(6.109), and (6.33) together, it can have
X_ ¼ Ap X þ B0p DV ð6:112Þ
where
2 3
Agp
6 0 7
6 ASVC 7
Ap ¼ 6 7;
4 ATCSC 5
0
ATCPS
2 3
Bgp
6 0 7
6 BSVC 7
B0p ¼ 6 7
4 BTCSC 5
0
BTCPS
X_ ¼ Aclose X ð6:113Þ
Equation (5.43) is the Heffron–Phillips model of the Nmachine power system with
the PSSs installed. As this is a linear system satisfying the principle of superim
position, it only needs to consider the function of one PSS in the discussion. Now, if
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 267
K1

ω0 I
(sM + D) −1
s
 TPSS
K4 K5
K2
 
+ Δu pssk
−1 −1 +
(K 3 + sTd0 ) (I + sTA ) K A Fk

K6
Fig. 6.11 Heffron–Phillips model of a multimachine power system installed with a PSS
only the kth PSS is considered, the Heffron–Phillips model of the power system can
be obtained from Eq. (5.43) as
sDd ¼ xo IDx
sDx ¼ M1 ðK1 Dd K2 DE0q DDxÞ
ð6:114Þ
sDE0q ¼ T01 0 0
d0 ðK3 DEq K4 Dd þ DEfd Þ
sDE0fd ¼ T1 0 1 0
A DEfd þ TA KA ðK5 Dd K6 DEq þ Fk Dupssk Þ
DTPSS
¼ M1 K2 ½ðI þ sTA ÞðK3 þ sTd0 Þ þ KA K6 1 KA Fk ¼ FPSS ðsÞ ð6:115Þ
Dupssk
Let the transfer function and feedback signal of the PSS be Tpssk ðsÞ and Dyk ,
respectively, that is
i ÞT
~pssj ðk
DTdampj ¼ Ddampj Dxj ¼ Re½F i Þc ðk
pssk ðk
j i ÞDxj ð6:119Þ
DTFACTS
¼ FFACTS ðs)
Dufactss
¼ M1 KP M1 K2 ½ðI þ sTA ÞðK3 þ sTd0 Þ þ KA K6 1 ½ðI þ sTA ÞKq þ KA KV
ð6:120Þ
Similarly, let the transfer function and feedback signal of the thyristorbased
FACTS stabilizer be Tfacts ðsÞ and Dyk , respectively, that is
i ÞT
factsj ðk
DTdampj ¼ Ddampj Dxj ¼ Re½F i Þc ðk
facts ðk
j i ÞDxj ð6:123Þ
The openloop general linearized model of the Nmachine power system is the state
equation of Eq. (6.103), that is
X_ ¼ AX þ BDu ð6:124Þ
where
2 3 2 3 2 3
Xg Dupss Dupss1
6X 7 6 Da 7 6 Dupss2 7
6 VSVC 7 6 7 6 7
7; Dupss ¼ 6 7;
S
X¼6 7; Du ¼ 6 6 . 7
4 XLTCSC 5 4 DaSTCSC 5 4 .. 5
XLTCPS DaSTCPS DupssN
2 3 2 3 2 3
Das1 Dastcsc1 Dastcps1
6 Da 7 6 Da 7 6 7
6 s2 7 6 stcsc2 7 6 Dastcps2 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
DaS ¼ 6 . 7; DaSTCSC ¼ 6 .. 7; DaSTCPS ¼ 6 .. 7
4 .. 5 4 . 5 6
4 . 7
5
DasLsvc DastcscLtcsc DastcpsLtcps
where Duk is the output stabilizing signal of the kth stabilizer installed in the power
system, which can be a PSS or a thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer, that is
A 21
A 22
Δ Δ
1 ω0 I
+
s s
Δu k
B 2k B3k A 32 A 31
A 23
1
Δz +
s
A 33
The general linearized model of the Nmachine power system of Eq. (6.125) is
shown in Fig. 6.12. From the third row of Eq. (6.125), it can be obtained that
!
1
X
DZ ¼ ðsI A33 Þ A31 Dd þ A32 Dx þ B3k Duk ð6:126Þ
k
Dd_ ¼ x0 Dx
Dx_ ¼ ½A21 þ A23 ðsI A33 Þ1 A31 Dd þ ½A22 þ A23 ðsI A33 Þ1 A32 Dx
X
þ ½B2k þ A23 ðsI A33 Þ1 B3k Duk ð6:127Þ
k
X
¼ A21 ðsÞDd þ A22 ðsÞDx þ Bk ðs)Duk
k
Hence, the general linearized model of Fig. 6.12 is shown by its compact form in
Fig. 6.13.
Let the transfer function and feedback signal of the kth stabilizer be Tstk ðsÞ and
Dyk , respectively, that is
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 271
A 21 (s)
A 22 (s)
Δ Δ
1 ω0 I
+
s s
Δu k
Σ B k (s)
Fig. 6.13 Compact form of general linearized model of an Nmachine power system
From Fig. 6.13, Eqs. (6.117), and (6.128), the electric torque contribution from
the kth stabilizer can be obtained as
2 3
i ÞT
k1 ðk i Þc ðk
stk ðk
B 1 i ÞDx1
6 7
6 7
i ÞT
k ðk
DTST ¼ B i ÞDy ¼ 6 Bk2 ðki ÞTstk ðki Þc2 ðki ÞDx2 7
stk ðk k 6 .. 7
4 . 5
BkN ðki ÞTstk ðki Þc ðki ÞDxNN
i ÞT
kj ðk
DTdampj ¼ Ddampj Dxj ¼ Re½B i Þc ðk
stk ðk
j i ÞDxj ð6:129Þ
For the kth stabilizer, the general linearized model of the multimachine power
system of Eq. (6.125) can also be rearranged as (for j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N)
2 3 2 32 Dd 3 2 0 3
Dd_ j 0 x0 0 j
6 _ 7 4 6 7 6 7
4 D x j5 ¼ k j dj Aj 54 Dxj 5 þ 4 bjk 5Duk ð6:130Þ
DZ_ j Aj1 Aj2 Aj3 DZj Bjk
The output equation of the system about the feedback signal of the stabilizer can
be written as
272 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
2 3
Ddj
6 7
Dyk ¼ c1kj c2kj C3kj 4 Dxj 5 þ djk Duk ð6:132Þ
DZj
Dyk x0 x
c1kj þ c2kj þ C3kj ðsI Aj3 Þ1
0
cj ðsÞ ¼ ¼ Aj1 þ Aj2
Dxj s s ð6:134Þ
½C3kj ðsI Aj3 Þ1 Bjk þ djk Tstk ðsÞcj ðsÞ
ðx0 c1kj þ c2kj Þ þ C3kj ðsI Aj3 Þ1 ðxs0 Aj1 þ Aj2 Þ
cj ðsÞ ¼ s ð6:135Þ
½C3kj ðsI Aj3 Þ1 Bjk þ djk Tstk ðsÞ
jw 2i v2i j
pji ¼ T ð6:137Þ
i vi
w
measures how much the ith oscillation mode and the variation of rotor speed of the
jth generator are connected. If the connection is the highest among all generators as
measured by the abovedeﬁned participation factor, the jth generator is chosen to be
the best installing location of a PSS to suppress the power system oscillation
associated with the oscillation mode ki . The general procedure of the selection is to
arrange the state matrix of the system according to Eq. (6.125), that is
2 3
0 x0 I 0
A ¼ 4 A21 A22 A23 5 ð6:138Þ
A31 A32 A33
Denote the right and left eigenvectors of the above state matrix with respect to
i to be
the mode k
2 3
v1i T
vi ¼ 4 v2i 5; w
Ti ¼ w
1i T2i
w T3i
w ð6:139Þ
v3i
The installing location of the PSS is the generator with the highest participation
factor.
The sensitivity index for the selection of installing location of the PSS is
computed by adding an increment of artiﬁcial damping in the electromechanical
oscillation loop of each generator in the power system, Ddj Dxj (for j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; N).
If the maximum improvement, Dk i , is
i , for the oscillation mode of interests, k
achieved by the increment on the jth generator, it is selected as the best installing
location of the PSS. The physical explanation of the sensitivity index is based on
the understanding that the PSS is equivalent to an addition of damping torque in the
electromechanical oscillation loop of generators. Hence, if the addition of damping
torque on the jth generator achieves the maximum improvement of the oscillation
mode of interests, it should be the most effective installing location of the PSS as far
as the improvement of the oscillation mode of interests is concerned. The sensitivity
index in fact is the sensitivity of the oscillation mode of interests to the coefﬁcient
of the added extra damping torque in the electromechanical oscillation mode, Ddj .
That is
274 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
ij ¼ Dki ¼ @ ki
S ð6:141Þ
Ddj @dj
Equation (6.142) shows that in fact, the participation factor is the normalized
sensitivity index. Both methods are equivalent. Application of the sensitivity index
often only considers the real part of the oscillation mode of interests, as the
objective of installing stabilizer is to improve the damping of the oscillation mode.
Let the oscillation mode be k i ¼ n þ jxi . The sensitivity index used is
i
Dni
Sijn ¼ ð6:143Þ
Ddj
Though Eqs. (6.119) and (6.129) show that a PSS supplies damping torque to the
electromechanical oscillation loop of all generators in the power system, usually the
amount of damping torque contribution to the generator where it is installed is much
greater than that of other generators. Hence, participation factor and sensitivity
index, though they only tell how much a generator is connected to the oscillation
mode of interests, can be used to select the installing location of the PSS. In the case
of a thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer, however, they cannot be applied directly.
This is because how the thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer distributes its damping
torque contribution among all generators also plays a very important role in
determining how much it affects the oscillation modes of interest.
X
N X
N
i ¼
Dk ij ; or Dni ¼
Ddampj S Ddampj Sijn ð6:144Þ
j¼1 j¼1
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 275
Generator 1
Ddamp1 Si1
Generator 2
Ddamp2 Si2
The
oscillation
A
mode of
stabilizer
interests
DdampN SiN
Generator N
where Ddampj is given by Eq. (6.119) for a PSS and Eq. (6.123) for a thyristorbased
FACTS stabilizer based on the Heffron–Phillips model as well as by Eq. (6.129) for
the PSS or thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer based on the general linearized model
of the Nmachine power system.
Equation (6.144) is shown in Fig. 6.14. It presents a clear and full picture on how
the stabilizer (the PSS or thyristorbased FACTS stabilizer) contributes the damping
torque to every generator and then how the contribution of the damping torque is
converted to the influence on the oscillation mode of interests. Damping torque
analysis in the multimachine power system of Eqs. (6.119), (6.123), and (6.129)
gives the lefthand half picture of Fig. 6.14 on how the stabilizer distributes the
damping torque to all generators. Participation factor or sensitivity index gives
equivalently the righthand half picture of Fig. 6.14 on how the oscillation mode of
interests is connected to generators.
Based on Fig. 6.14 or Eq. (6.144), the following indices of the damping torque
analysis (DTA) can be proposed for the selection of installing location and feedback
signal of the stabilizer:
X
N
DTA ¼ F i Þc ðk
pssj ðk
j i ÞSij ðfor a PSS using HeffronPhillips modelÞ ð6:145Þ
j¼1
X
N
DTA ¼ F i Þc ðk
fsctsj ðk
j i ÞSij ð6:146Þ
j¼1
276 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
X
N
DTA ¼ B i Þc ðk
kj ðk
j i ÞSij ð6:147Þ
j¼1
6.2.2.3 Residue Index and Its Connection with the Damping Torque
Analysis [3]
where Dyk is the feedback signal of the stabilizer. If the right and left eigenvectors
i , are vi and w
of the state matrix with respect to the oscillation mode of interests, k Ti ,
respectively, the controllability, observability, and residue index of the stabilizer are
(see Sect. 2.2.1)
2 3
0
Ti 4 B2k 5; cik ¼ CT1k
bik ¼ w CT2k ik ¼ bikcik
CT3k vi ; R ð6:149Þ
B3k
Figure 6.15 shows that cik measures how much the oscillation mode k i is
observed in Dyk and bik measures how much the stabilizing signal Duk affects k i .
Hence, the residue index Rik measures how much the stabilizer is connected with
i . It can be used as an index for the selection of
the oscillation mode of interests k
the installing location and feedback signal of the stabilizer.
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 277
Δu k Δy k
stabilizer
In fact, the damping torque analysis and the residue introduced above for the
selection of installing location and feedback signal of the stabilizer are equivalent.
This equivalence can be proved as follows.
From Eq. (2.60), it can have
2 3
2 3 z1 ð0Þek1 t
Dd 6 z2 ð0Þek2 t 7
4 Dx 5 ¼ V6
6 ..
7
7 ð6:150Þ
4 . 5
DZ
zn ð0Þekn t
Hence,
X
N
v2ij zi ð0Þ
Dxj ðsÞ ¼ i ð6:151Þ
i¼1 sk
Hence,
X
N
cik zi ð0Þ
Dyk ðsÞ ¼ i ð6:152Þ
i¼1 sk
278 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
i Þ cik zi ð0Þ
Dyk ðk cik
i Þ ¼
cj ðk
i Þ ¼ v2ij zi ð0Þ ¼ v2ij
Dxj ðk
ð6:154Þ
On the other hand, from Eqs. (6.139) and (6.148), it can have
2 3
0 x0 I 0 T
T1i
w T2i
w T3i 4 A21
w A22 i w
A23 5 ¼ k 1i T2i
w T3i
w ð6:155Þ
A31 A32 A33
w T3i A33 ¼ w
T2i A23 þ w i
T3i k ð6:156Þ
T3i ¼ w
w i I A33 Þ1
T2i A23 ðk ð6:157Þ
Hence, from Eqs. (6.154), (6.158), and (6.159), the residue index can be
obtained as
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 279
X X
ik ¼
bikcik ¼ i Þc ðk
kj ðk
2ij B ij B i Þc ðk
kj ðk
R w j i Þv2ij ¼ S j iÞ ð6:160Þ
j j
This proves that the DTA index of Eq. (6.147) for the selection of installing
ik j.
location and feedback signal is equivalent to the residue index jR
A good design of a stabilizer must ensure the maximum effectiveness of the sta
bilizer. In addition, the robustness of the stabilizer to the variations of power system
operation conditions is also an important factor to be considered in the design. In
Sect. 4.3.2.3, the issue of robust design of the stabilizer is introduced in the
selection of control functions of a UPFC to add the stabilizing control. In this
section, it is discussed how the robustness of the stabilizer is considered at the stage
of selecting the installing location and feedback signal.
Let the set of the candidate installing locations and feedback signals of the
stabilizer in a multimachine power system be UðuÞ and that of power system
operating conditions XðlÞ. The effectiveness of the stabilizer is the function of φ
and μ, C(φ, μ). If only the maximum effectiveness of the stabilizer to damp a power
oscillation is considered, the criterion of selecting the installing location and
feedback signal of the stabilizer is
1. The criterion of Eq. (6.162) means that the selection of installing location and
feedback signal is made at the operating condition where the stabilizer is least
effective. This selection guarantees that when the stabilizer operates at other
280 6 Multimachine Power System Installed …
Consider the kth stabilizer to be installed in the Nmachine power system. The
linearized model of the system is given by Eqs. (6.130) and (6.132) as follows:
2 3 2 32 Dd 3 2 3
Dd_ j 0 x0 j0 0
6 7 76 7 6
6 Dx_ j 7 ¼ 6 Aj 56 7 7
4 5 4 kj dj 4 Dxj 5 þ 4 bjk 5Duk
DZ_ j Aj1 Aj2 Aj3 DZj Bjk
2 3 ð6:164Þ
Ddj
6 7
Dyk ¼ c1kj c2kj C3kj 6 7
4 Dxj 5
DZj
Let the right and left eigenvectors of the state matrix, respectively, be
2 3
v1i
vi ¼ 4 v2i 5; w Ti ¼ w 1i 2i
w T3i
w ð6:165Þ
v3i
6.2 Analysis and Damping Control … 281
According to the deﬁnition of the right and left eigenvectors, it can have
2 3
0 x0 0
6 7
1i
w 2i
w T3i 4 kj
w dj Aj 5 ¼ k 1i
i w 2i
w T3i
w
Aj1 Aj2 Aj3
2 32 3 2 3 ð6:166Þ
0 x0 0 v1i v1i
6 76 7 6 7
4 kj dj Aj 54 v2i 5 ¼ ki 4 v2i 5
Aj1 Aj2 Aj3 v3i v3i
Ti3 ¼ Aj ðk
w i I Aj3 Þ1 w
i2
x0
vi1 ¼ vi2
ki ð6:167Þ
i I Aj3 Þ1 Aj1 x0 þ Aj2 vi2
vi3 ¼ ðk i
k
ik ¼ bikcik ¼ K
R i ÞK
bi ðk i Þvi2 w
ci ðk i2 ð6:169Þ
RikB
values of the residue, that determines the selection.
On the other hand, in system state equation of Eq. (6.164), if the installing
location or the feedback signal of the stabilizer is different, the control and the
output vectors are not the same, but the openloop state matrix is unchanged,
provided that the operating point of the system remains the same. That is,
vi2A ¼ vi2B ; w
i2A ¼ w
i2B ð6:170Þ
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