Queuing Theory
A report Submitted to Prof. Ajay Majumdar In partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course

Production and Operations Management
On 11th Dec, 2009 By Mayuri Ghosh (B09011) Pijush Kanti Ghata (B09013)

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For Example:  Manufacturing plants must determine the optimal number of mechanics to have on duty in each shift to repair machines that break down. Eight years later he published a report addressing the delays in automatic dialing equipment. some service facilities stand idle when the total number of service facilities exceeds the number of customers requiring service. or queues are a common occurrence both in everyday life and in variety of business and industrial situations. Erlang’s early work was extended to more general problems and to business applications of waiting lines. Waiting lines. Evolution of Queuing Theory: Queuing Theory had its beginning in the research work of a Danish engineer named A. the customers do not get service immediately upon request but must wait. Queues or waiting lines arise when the demand for a service facility exceeds the capacity of that facility. that is.  Banks must decide how many teller windows to keep open to serve customers during various hours of the day. It is used extensively to analyze production and service processes exhibiting random variability in market demand (arrival times) and service times. 2 . At the end of World War II. Most waiting line problems are centered about the question of finding the ideal level of services that a firm should provide. Some customers wait when the total number of customers requiring service exceeds the number of service facilities.What is Queuing Theory? Queuing Theory is a collection of mathematical models of various queuing systems. K. In 1909 Erlang experimented with fluctuating demand in telephone traffic. or the service facilities stand idle and wait for customers. Erlang.

varying service charges (such as telephone call charges at different hours of the day or week) at different timings. It depends on the following: o Source: The source of customers can be finite or infinite. Random arrivals are either at a constant rate or varying with time. On this basis. o Numbers : The customers may arrive for service individually or in groups. or allowing entry with appointments.  Size of the calling population : The size represents the total number of potential customers who will require service. the customers may be classified as being : 3 . commonly known as population. the control depends on the nature of arrival rate (random or constant). The dynamic arrival process is controlled by both service facility and customers. The rate at which customers arrive at the service facility is determined by the arrival process.Basic Components of a Queuing System: Input source of Queue An input source is characterized by: • Size of the calling population • Pattern of arrivals at the system • Behaviour of the arrivals Customers requiring service are generated at different times by an input source. In static arrival process. by either varying the staffing levels at different timings of service. The service facility adjusts its capacity to match changes in the demand intensity.  Patterns of arrival at the system: The arrival process (or pattern) of customers to the service system is classified into two categories: static and dynamic.  Behaviour of arrivals— Another thing to consider in the queuing structure is the behaviour or attitude of the customers entering the queuing system. These two are further classified based on the nature of arrival rate and the control that can be exercised on the arrival process. o Time: The customers may arrive for service individually or in groups or else they arrive randomly.

Otherwise the customer is asked to join the queue. a) Configuration of the service system The customers’ entry into the service system depends upon the queue conditions. a machine (elevator. Service System The service is provided by a service facility (or facilities). parking lot. then the customer is served immediately. There are two aspects of a service system—(a) the configuration of the service system and (b) the speed of the service.The models that involve one queue – one service station facility are called single server models where customer waits till the service point is ready to take him for servicing. Students arriving at a library counter is an example of a single server facility. to mention just a few. (i) Single Server – Single Queue -. Different (ii) (iii) (iv) 4 . Several (Parallel) Servers – Single Queue – In this type of model there is more than one server and each server provides the same type of facility. Several Servers – Several Queues – This type of model consists of several servers where each of the servers has a different queue.(a)Patient: If a customer. or numbers of servers. A service facility may include one person or several people operating as a team. the server is idle. If at the time of customers’ arrival. The customers wait in a single queue until one of the service channels is ready to take them in for servicing. This may be a person (a bank teller. on arriving at the service system stays in the system until served. or a space (airport runway. a barber. By configuration of the service system we mean how the service facilities exist. gasoline pump). which can have several configurations. hospital bed). who waits for a certain time in the queue and leaves the service system without getting service due to certain reasons such as a long queue in front of him is called an impatient customer. Service systems are usually classified in terms of their number of channels. Single Server – Several Queues – In this type of facility there are several queues and the customer may join any one of these but there is only one service channel. no matter how much he has to wait for service is called a patient customer (b) Impatient: Whereas the customer.

turning. service time .describes the number of customers serviced during a particular time period. here the customer orders are received. b) Speed of Service: In a queuing system. gets some service and then again moves on to the next station. Service facilities in a series – In this. then it is referred to as infinite (or unlimited) source. there 5 . restaurants. In certain cases. No further customers are allowed to enter until space becomes available to accommodate new customers. etc.(v) cash counters in an electricity office where the customers can make payment in respect of their electricity bills provide an example of this type of model. having received the complete service. and finally leaves the system. …. and packaging operations. queue. and their respective lengths. and so on. For example. in a sales department. Examples of finite source queues are cinema halls. Queue Configuraion The queuing process refers to the number of queues. • legal restrictions. On the other hand. Such type of situations are referred to as finite (or limited) source queue. each of which is performed by a single server in a series. grinding. Length (or size) of the queue depends upon the operational situation such as • physical space. For example. drilling. a service system is unable to accommodate more than the required number of customers at a time. the speed with which service is provided can be expressed in either of two ways— service rate . if a service system is able to accommodate any number of customers at a time. knurling. and • attitude of the customers. Service rates and times are reciprocal of each other and either of them is sufficient to indicate the capacity of the facility. a customer enters the first station and gets a portion of service and then moves on to the next station. Thus there may be a single queue or multiple queues. The number of queues depend upon the layout of a service system. machining of a certain steel item may consist of cutting.indicates the amount of time needed to service a customer.

Few of such disciplines are: i) If the customers are served in the order of their arrival. There are a number of ways in which customers in the queue are served. Queue Discipline In the queue structure. Some of these are: (a) Static queue disciplines are based on the individual customer's status in the queue. Prepaid taxi queue at airports where a taxi is engaged on a first-come. The typist or the clerk might process these letters or orders by taking each new task from the top of the pile. In 6 . so that a queue of any size can form. (b) Dynamic queue disciplines are based on the individual customer attributes in the queue. first-served basis is an example of this discipline. In many other situations. The queue length in such cases depends upon the attitude of the customers. the customers are serviced in the reverse order of their entry so that the ones who join the last are served first.is no restriction on the number of orders that can come in. they often do not enter the service system even though additional waiting space is available. irrespective of their arrivals in the service system. For example. or order forms to be processed accumulate in a pile. when arriving customers experience long queue(s) in front of a service facility. The queue discipline is the order or manner in which customers from the queue are selected for service. the people who join an elevator last are the first ones to leave it. Similarly. Thus.Under this rule customers are selected for service at random. ii )Last-come-first-served (LCFS)-. the important thing to know is the queue discipline. a just arriving task would be the next to be serviced provided that no fresh task arrives before it is picked up. assume that letters to be typed. Few of such disciplines are: i Service in Random Order (SIRO)-. first-served (FCFS) service discipline. then this is known as the first-come. each new addition being put on the top of them.Sometimes.

this refers to the number of links between the source and destination nodes. the assumption would be that the customers are serviced on the first-come-first-served basis. For the queuing models that we shall consider. this parameter indirectly refers to the message length distribution. Number of Servers: o Number of servers available to service the customers. Classification of Queuing Theory: The three points correspond to the most important characteristics of a queuing system which are explained below:    Arrival Process: o The probability density distribution that determines the customer arrivals in the system. this refers to the message transmission time distribution. 7 . Since message transmission is directly proportional to the length of the message. and FCFS rule is used within each class to provide service. Service Process: o The probability density distribution that determines the customer service times in the system. of no relevance in such a case. o In a messaging system. o In a messaging system. o In a messaging system. this refers to the message arrival probability distribution. ii Priority Service-.this every customer in the queue is equally likely to be selected.Under this rule customers are grouped in priority classes on the basis of some attributes such as service time or urgency or according to some identifiable characteristic. The time of arrival of the customers is. Treatment of VIPs in preference to other patients in a hospital is an example of priority service. therefore.

A queuing discipline determines the manner in which the exchange handles calls from customers. scheduling and facility design in plants and offices. and to analyze the performance of computational systems. and Employee Allocation. Restaurants. they instead wait until they can be served. Hair dressers. luggage collection. However. Queuing theory has found applications in locations like design of a garage forecourt. Applications: Queuing Theory has a wide range of applications. customers' calls are here no longer lost. etc. Supermarkets. the use of queuing in PSTNs allows the systems to queue their customers' requests until free resources become available. This means that if traffic intensity levels exceed available capacity. passport control etc). Alternatively. S is the service process and n is the number of servers. The performance of loss systems is quantified by their grade of service driven by the assumption that if sufficient capacity is not available. Queuing theory also is very helpful in areas like traffic Flow. Application is also in Communication Networks. Application to telephony: The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is designed to accommodate the offered traffic intensity with only a small loss. airports (runway layout. queuing systems can be classified by the following convention: A/S/n Where A is the arrival process. Printer queues. This method is used in queuing customers for the next available operator. shops. the call is refused and lost. It defines the way they will be served. Bus scheduling.Based on the above characteristics. Queuing networks have been applied to reduce waiting times in hospitals. overflow systems make use of alternative routes to divert calls via different paths — even these systems have a finite traffic carrying capacity. the order in which 8 . Manufacturing processes.

they are served. Last in first out This principle also serves customers one at a time. server utilisation and many other metrics which are used to measure queuing performance. Network capacity is shared between customers and they all effectively experience the same delay. Queuing is handled by control processes within exchanges. Statistical equilibrium – Probabilities within the system do not change.     Pure-chance traffic – Call arrivals and departures are random and independent events. Classic queuing theory involves complex calculations to determine call waiting time. Congestion is cleared as soon as servers are free. Incoming traffic to these systems is modelled via a Poisson distribution and is subject to Erlang’s queuing theory assumptions viz. Here are details of four queuing disciplines: First in first out: This principle states that customers are served one at a time and that the customer that has been waiting the longest is served first. however the customer with the shortest waiting time will be served first. which can be modelled using state equations. 9 . Queuing systems use a particular form of state equations known as Markov chains which model the system in each state. Full availability – All incoming traffic can be routed to any other customer within the network. and the way in which resources are divided between the customers. Priority Customers with high priority are served first. service time. Also known as a stack Processor sharing Customers are served equally.

)( )     n p 2 = (1 - 25 25 2 )( ) = .2 hrs = 12 mins F) What is the probability that exactly two cars will be in the system? p n = (1 . Determine: A) What is the average utilization of the employee?  = 25 cust/hr = 1 customer = 30 cust/hr 2 mins (1hr/60 mins) =  25 cust/hr = = . The employee can serve one customer every two minutes.Assume a drive-up window at a fast food restaurant.25) C) What is the average number of customers in the system? Ls =   - = 25 =5 (30 . Customers arrive at the rate of 25 per hour.167  (  . Assume Poisson arrival and exponential service rates.1157 30 30 10 .8333  30 cust/hr B) What is the average number of customers in line? Lq = 2 (25) 2 = = 4.25) D) What is the average waiting time in line? Wq = Lq  = . ) 30(30 .1667 hrs = 10 mins E) What is the average waiting time in the system? Ws = Ls  = .

11 . and 11 A.M. Example: Suppose a bank knows that on average 60 customers arrive between 10 A.M. P(2)=e-1/2!=0. Thus 1 customer arrives per minute.Poisson distribution Queuing theory leads one directly to the Poisson distribution. Find the probability that exactly two customers arrive in a given one-minute time interval between 10 and 11 A. daily. Solution µ = 1 and x = 2.1839.3679÷2=0: Let.M.