FM 21-150, Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier, June 30, 1942, Section I, General

Editor's notes by Joseph R. Svinth. Text provided by Mike Belzer. Copyright © EJMAS 2000.

Basic Field Manual Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier
War Department, Washington, June 30, 1942. FM 21-150, Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned. BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR: G.C. MARSHALL, Chief of Staff TABLE OF CONTENTS I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. General Basic principles. Wrist escapes. Escapes from body holds. Defenses against choke holds. Defenses against kicks. Taking prisoners. Defenses against knife and sword. Defenses against blows with club, and technique of club. Defenses against pistol. Defenses against rifle. Defenses against wrestling holds Defenses against grips on garments or hair.


Defenses against fist attacks. Incapacitating an opponent. Section I General

1. SCOPE. -- This manual describes a method of self-protection available to the American soldier, if through any circumstance he is unarmed or unable to use his weapons. 2. PURPOSE OF TRAINING. -- The object of this training is to develop the soldier in the art of unarmed self-defense, and to improve his skill in the use of his basic weapons, through speeded reflexes. Confidence in his own ability unarmed, like confidence in his weapons, makes a man a better soldier. 3. NECESSITY FOR TRAINING IN UNARMED DEFENSE. -- The average soldier, if trained only in the use of his weapons, loses his effectiveness if these weapons are lost or fail to function. However, particularly in hand-to-hand fighting, if a soldier should be deprived of his weapon or have it destroyed, he is at the mercy of the enemy. This appears to apply mainly to the Infantry, and probably the greatest value of American unarmed defense will be to that arm. Nevertheless, in these days of fluid warfare, troops in rear echelons, artillery, and antitank units might find themselves in hand-to-hand combat with no defensive weapons except sidearms and bare hands.

4. TRAINING PROGRAM. -- The training of the soldier in unarmed defense requires no special equipment or uniform. Clothing will depend upon the season of the year and the state of the weather. Work outdoors is preferable since a greater number of men can be trained simultaneously. Thirty minutes' instruction or practice each day will make a man adept in a very short period of time. If no additional time is available, this part of the training can be integrated into the physical training program. It is desirable, in order to obtain the maximum results, that the instruction follow closely the steps outlined in this manual. However, it is realized that all units will not have the time to go through the entire book. For units with a limited time allotment for this subject, it is recommended that the following be taught: a. Section II. -- Principles of unarmed defense. b. Section III.

1. One escape from underarm front body hold. 2. One escape from front overarm body hold. 3. One escape from rear underarm body hold c. Section V. 1. One escape from two-handed front choke. 2. One escape from two-handed rear choke. One escape from one-arm rear strangle. 3. One defense for downward stroke of knife. d. Section VIII. 1. One defense for upward stroke of knife. 2. One defense for downward sword cut. 3. One defense for sword lunge. e. Section IX. 1. One defense for downward blow of club. 2. One defense for side blow of club. 3. One defense for reverse stroke of club. f. Section X. 1. One defense for pistol in front, right or left hand. 2. One defense for pistol in back, right or left hand. g. Section XI. -- Complete section. For military police units with limited time, it is recommended that in addition to the above, sections VI, VIII, IX, X, XII, and XIV be practiced in their entirety. 5. BACKGROUND OF UNARMED DEFENSE. -- The original name of the method described in this manual has been lost in antiquity, but the art was developed by Chinese monks approximately in the twelfth century. The monastic rules forbade the monks to use weapons, but as they were constantly attacked by nomads and robber bands, they had to devise a weaponless defense, utilizing only the skill of their bodies and the quickness of their brains. Through long experiment, trial and error, and loss of life they developed a means of defense that has remained basically unchanged through centuries. Late in the twelfth century, the Japanese became aware of this art and, characteristically, they copied it and claimed it as their own. They named this art "Jiu Jitsu," and established a genealogy for it which they claimed extended back to their mythological age. The Jiu means "gentle" and Jitsu means "art" or "practice." Therefore Jiu Jitsu is "the gentle art." The systems taught were multitudinous and varied until the year 1882 when Professor Jigoro Kano, a man who had studied all the better systems, established the Kodokan, "a

sent out branches throughout the civilized world. Encourage the men to practice in their spare time. The instructor will explain the attack and demonstrate the proper defense on a competent assistant. It is not difficult to arouse the interest of the men in this subject. as confusion would result. Regulation physical training formations may be used for practice (see FM 21-20. there will be no difficulty arising from indifference. They called their organization "The American Judo Club" and dedicated themselves to removing Oriental terminology from the new system." and while catering mainly to Japanese. [EN2] They produced as good a system as the Japanese and far outstripped it in the effectiveness of method. It is recommended that when working throwing tricks. he soon dropped out of the school. twice the normal distance be taken. [E. founded in 1921. A group of young Americans.. executing the movement rapidly to show its effectiveness. The defense is then executed again. Since this was the type of Judo in which the average American was interested. Progress to a new trick is made only when the students have demonstrated a working knowledge of the previous one. The holds were ineffective because the correct principles were not taught. Special note should be taken that the even-numbered men do not uncover. [Italics added. It was called "The New York Dojo. Very little of the defensive or protective tactics was taught. No more than three tricks should be taught in any 30-minute period. disgusted with this procedure.) From the extended formation of four columns have the first and second columns face each other and the third and the fourth columns face each other. Emphasis should be placed on precision first.] Most of the defenses are equally effective on either side. as near slow motion as possible with an accompanying explanation. the situation is reversed and the defending squads become attackers. With a knowledge of American unarmed defense the American soldier will be equipped to meet the Judo men in the game which they have chosen to claim as their own. emphasizing that proficiency in unarmed defense is predicated on repetition until a movement becomes almost instinctive. progress of the Occidentals was slow. Any unit smaller than a platoon should be formed in a column of twos and then have the columns face each for studying the way" and called his system "Judo. two arms distance between men rather than one. The main problem will be to keep . The attacking squads and the opposing defending squads are then designated. or principle. [EN1] However. One branch. admitted Occidentals who were interested.g. [EN3] 6. [EN4] Since even the smallest can be shown that his lack of size is no handicap. with its roots n Tokyo. set out to develop a system of self-defense suited to the American temperament and needs. since the desire to excel physically is a characteristic of the average American." This name means "the way." This school. The above formation applies to a unit the size of a platoon or larger. Each man will then have a partner with whom to practice. METHODS OF TRAINING. a. When two defending squads have mastered the defense. Speed can be developed later. possibly using the letter "a" for attackers and letter "b" for defenders. due to the fact that their instruction was mainly in competitive work. At a given signal the attackers move to the attack and the defenders attempt to work the proper defense while the assistant instructors make corrections. had its headquarters in New York.] b.

In hand-to-hand combat. Kano gave another demonstration in New York in December 1920. Of the 1936 Taguchi spent most of the next decade in New York. or what is today known as Danzan Ryu jujutsu. students who contributed to the production of FM 21-150. For details. who had been Kano's first training partner in 1882. knife. Joseph R. Tsunejiro Tomita. A Hawaiian system influenced by Kodokan judo. or any other weapon is not subscribing to any recognized rules of combat.danzan. and even lua. [Italics added. his training partner was T. 42 (January 1943). see George Arrington's Danzan Ryu site 72." http://ejmas. What was meant was actually Henry Okazaki's American Jujitsu. "Amateur Boxing in Pre-World War II Japan: The Military Connection. For more about Danzan Ryu jujutsu. 3:2 (Summer/Autumn 1999)." EN2. no judges. .enthusiasts from trying more tricks than they can possibly assimilate. No measure of defense is too extreme when your life is in danger. The defenses in this manual might be the means of saving your life or the life of a comrade. so probably it was his dojo that was meant as being established in 1921. and in January 1943 John E. Kano revisited New York in July 1936 and 1938. Around 1908 Maeda left New York to become a professional wrestler (Gracie jujitsu is the result of his teachings in Brazil). and Tomita returned to Japan in October 1910. Men who trained there during the early 1930s included the professional wrestlers Taro Miyake and Oki Shikina. there are no referees. EN1. You are on your own. Editor's Notes. gun. and "Judo Battles Wrestling: Masato Tamura and Karl Pojello. and a younger judoka named Maeda operated a judo club at 1947 Broadway in 1905. June 1942. 48th Street. and the New York Times said that his partner was Ryoichi Taguchi. Clear defeating a judo man in a match held in 1924. EN3. So it wasn't until a Chicago judoka named Masato Tamura beat a professional wrestler in a private match in 1943 that the US military really began taking judo seriously. The Budo Journal. This sentiment was not universally shared. "It is part of the system of judo to smile while we are at practice. see "Yank Meets Jap in Fight to Finish.] Another point that should be emphasized is the desirability of eliminating the stigma of the so-called "foul tactic" which is usually ascribed to unarmed defense. 18-23. Kano gave a demonstration of judo for New York sportswriters. in 1936. In December 1912." Furyu. Kito-ryu jujutsu. Tynan published an article about the US Army boxer Warren J. Seattle's Japanese-American Courier reported that "among the judoists were not a few Japanese and American women who have taken up the art. http://www. Shozo Kuwashima and the New York Jiu-Jitsu Club located at 114 W. 30-36. probably included Sig Kufferath. and no timekeeper.htm. It might be well to point out that an individual who attacks with a club." Readers Digest. sumo." Tomita told a reporter for the New York World in April 1905. while returning to Japan from the Olympics. Svinth.

Fair argues that during the 1930s and 1940s. 1999). Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York Barbell (University Park. the desire to excel physically was especially strong in second-generation ("hyphenated") Americans. Professor John D. See. for example. . PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.EN4.

" The accompanying illustrations will be used to point out the principle of balance. Text provided by Mike Belzer. June 30. However. Svinth. Section II. the principles be first mastered.FM 21-150. and figure 1-3 shows that he is also off balance backward. figure 1-2 shows that he is definitely off balance forward. a. Basic Principles Editor's notes by Joseph R. 7. 1942. -. It is shown that the individual in this position is on balance from right to left and from left to right. Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier. Figure 1-1 illustrates a man in balance with his legs apart.It is of the utmost importance that in order to learn unarmed defense in the manner necessary to use it effectively. . The first principle is "balance. Copyright © EJMAS 2000. PRINCIPLES OF UNARMED DEFENSE.

Figure 2-1 shows that in a position of charge with the right .It is usually assumed that when an individual assumes the position of the charge he is on balance all the way around.

and figure 2-3 shows that he is off balance to the left front.foot forward. However. figure 2-2 shows that in this position he is off balance to the right rear. the individual is on balance from right front to left rear and from left rear to right front. .

" This knowledge is essential to prevent injury while practicing. "The minor operation" is the application of the pressure. b. Principle three is the ability to utilize an opponent's momentum or an opponent's strength to bring about his downfall. the results might be a . Principle four is to attack your opponent on the spot where he is weakest with the greatest amount of power that you can concentrate on that one point. he is off balance in some direction. The fifth and last principle is a knowledge of "the major and minor operations. but rather utilize his impetus or momentum to carry him on his way. pronounced "stahara. The second principle is "use of the internal oblique muscles. You always assume that your opponent is stronger than you are and never attempt to oppose him directly. and arms against his fingers." [EN1] The internal oblique muscles are located in the center of the body in the lower abdomen between the hipbones. "The major operation" means either getting out of danger or getting the essential part of a hold. you would attempt to concentrate the power of your legs. d. e." To illustrate this point. No matter what position an individual assumes. body. If both of these were run together. The power for every defense must come or be centered in these muscles." These muscles have been named by the Japanese Shita-hara. if an opponent were to grasp your wrist.Notice the small amount of effort required to take an individual off balance when you know in what directions he is strong and in what directions he is weak. instead of trying to tear your wrist from between his fingers by main strength of your arms. c. the difference being that you direct the movement. The axiom of this principle is "My maximum strength against your minimum.

Therefore." see Allan Corstorphin Smith. in practice. Book I. The Secrets of Jujitsu. at http://ejmas. 1920). Editor's Notes A Complete Course in Self Defense (Columbus. .broken bone or other serious injury to a partner.htm. GA: Stahara Publishing Co. For a more complete description of "stahara. be judicious and apply the "major and minor operations" separately..

but are improbable given the military hand-to-hand setting. 8. Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier. Wrist Escapes Technical comments regarding illustrations provided by Mike Belzer and Joseph Svinth.You are grasped by the wrists in the manner illustrated in Figure 3-1. Copyright © EJMAS 2000. the numbers of some figures have been changed from the original. -.FM 21-150. . Note: So that they better match the text. June 30. Meanwhile the defenses shown are too complex for a recruit training scenario. Section III. Overall technical assessment of this section: The attacks shown would be sensible if the setting were a self-defense class for high school girls. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND OVERHAND GRIP ON BOTH WRISTS (SIMPLE). 1942.

You immediately step forward with either foot. and pushing the arms upward in one motion (Figure 3-3). in this case (Figure 3-2) the right one. The escape is accomplished by straightening the legs. . pulling back with the body. at the same time bending the arms so that the elbows are close to the lower abdomen.

in which your right hand reaches across and grasps your opponent's right wrist. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND OVERHAND GRIP ON BOTH WRISTS (ADVANCED). the more effective the escape. .Figure 3-1 is the original hold. Figure 4-1 illustrates the first movement. -. 9.The faster this defense is worked.

Figure 4-2 illustrates that you have reached across with your freed left hand and grasped your opponent's left wrist with your thumb up. .Following this movement. the left wrist is pulled out of the grasp of your opponent's right hand by pushing with your right hand and pulling with your left arm.

you will find no difficulty in releasing his grip on your right wrist. .By pulling on his left wrist.

Furthermore. the body is bent swiftly from the waist. showing that you have lifted your opponent's left arm over his right forearm and have him in a position where you will have no difficulty in snapping his left elbow.] . [Technical comments: The defense shown is too complex.] This defense is just about the reverse for that for the two-hand overhand grip on both wrists. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND UNDERHAND GRIP ON BOTH WRISTS.] 10. Defender's more sensible first response is either to raise his left knee into Attacker's groin or to deliver a front kick with the left leg to Attacker's left shin. -. [Technical comments: An easier and more effective response is for Defender to bring his hands down on Attacker's comparatively weak thumbs. turning the head to one side to avoid bumping heads with a hardheaded opponent (Figure 5-2). The elbows are again brought close to the lower abdomen and a step forward is again taken as illustrated in Figure 5-1. Then. Defender is vulnerable to a front kick from Attacker's right leg. [Technical comments: In Danzan Ryu this escape is known as ryote hazushi. and Attacker needs merely move his feet to escape.Figure 4-3 illustrates the completion of the defense.Figure 5-1 illustrates the original hold.

At the same time. accomplishing the escape as in Figure 5-3. Defender has broken his own center and made himself vulnerable to Attacker's knee into his head.] . pressure is brought to bear on your opponent's thumb. [Technical comments: By bending at the waist.

attempt to touch your right elbow against your opponent's left elbow. .Figure 6-1 illustrates the original hold. step forward with your right foot. and by pushing with your body. Your attacker has grasped your left hand. -.11. Your immediate action is to pull your left elbow close to your internal oblique muscles (see par. 7b). at the same time turning the palm of your hand toward the floor as illustrated in Figure 6-2. OR RIGHTHAND GRIP ON LEFT WRIST (SIMPLE). DEFENSE AGAINST LEFT-HAND GRIP ON RIGHT WRIST.

showing that your right hand is then in position to be brought smartly across your opponent's neck.Figure 6-3 illustrates the completion of the escape. .

locking his arms and threatening his head. simply stepping into Defender. your defense will be such that you can take your opponent prisoner.The original hold is the same as in Figure 6-1. [Technical comments: Defender is using two hands against one. however. or. Reach across with your left hand and grasp your attacker's left wrist as illustrated in Figure 7-1. Attacker's counter could be a palm slap to Defender's hand. if he is more aggressively inclined. This time. DEFENSE AGAINST LEFT-HAND GRIP ON RIGHT WRIST. OR RIGHTHAND GRIP ON LEFT WRIST (ADVANCED).] .12. -.

applying pressure against his thumb as illustrated in Figure 7-2. by bringing your elbows as close to your shita-hara [abdomen] as possible.Then. you will turn your opponent's left hand to your left. .

[Technical comments: This is katate tori-"C". you will then reinforce the hold with your left hand with an identical one with your right hand.As you turn the wrist. the thumb of your left hand is placed in the center of the knuckles on the back of your opponent's hand. This will bring you to the position illustrated in Figure 7-3.] . As soon has your opponent has been forced to turn his back partially to you.

The close-up in Figure 7-4 shows you the proper hold on your opponent's hand. and works well on an untrained and unsuspecting opponent.] . [Technical comments: The crossed thumb grip is strong.

otherwise Defender's knee can be buckled by Attacker's. Now step forward with your right leg. You can now march your opponent anywhere you see fit. However. Your left hand will reach across and grasp your right fist. -. bending both knees. when it is necessary. as if Attacker puts his thumb on his little finger and then steps forward using the hip rather than his shoulder. body upright.The pressure. will be applied toward your opponent's forearm rather than to either side.Figure 8-1 illustrates your opponent grasping your right wrist with both his hands. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND GRIP ON ONE WRIST. He is your prisoner. The position is illustrated in Figure 8-2. he escapes this grip quite casually. Your elbows will be kept close to your side. All pressure will emanate from the shita-hara. [Technical comments: The position is morote hazushi. and bring your right elbow close to your shita-hara.] . [Technical comments: This conclusion is exaggeration. Defender should step to Attacker's outside rather than his inside.] 13.

Figure 8-3 illustrates the completion of the escape. pressure is brought to bear on your opponent's thumbs. forcing him to release his hold. placing you in position to retaliate with a backhand with the edge of your right hand to your opponent's jaw or neck. pulling back with the power of your body and of your arms.By straightening your legs. [Technical comments: The retaliation is good.] . but Defender should be closer to Attacker and avoid breaking his own center.

14. DEFENSE AGAINST RIGHT-HAND GRIP ON RIGHT WRIST, OR LEFTHAND GRIP ON LEFT WRIST. -- In the case illustrated by Figure 9-1, your opponent has grasped your right wrist with his right hand.

Your immediate reaction is to grasp his right wrist with your right hand, taking a long step to his right rear with your left foot, pulling his right arm underneath your left arm as illustrated in Figure 9-2. [Technical comments: Although Defender did the right thing by stepping outside, he has not stepped in close enough to make the technique work and missed the opportunity to strike Attacker's head using his left elbow.]

Wrapping your upper arm over your opponent's upper arm and bringing your forearm or wrist underneath a spot about 1 inch above his elbow, you will then clamp your left hand on your chest as illustrated in Figure 9-3. [Technical comments: The movement is called akushu ude tori. As shown, Defender has a weak grip. To escape, all Attacker needs do is step into Defender with his near-side foot and knee while simultaneously relieving pressure on his locked arm by slapping the trapped elbow joint with his free hand.]

You are now in position to bring pressure on either your opponent's elbow or his ulna nerve by pulling up with your left forearm and pushing down with your right arm. This will force your opponent to his toes and give you complete control of the situation. Care should be taken in working this defense, since it is very easy to break an arm utilizing this procedure. [Technical comments: Injury results only if Attacker panics.] 15. DEFENSE AGAINST LEFT-HAND GRIP ON RIGHT WRIST, OR RIGHTHAND GRIP ON LEFT WRIST (FINGERS UPPERMOST). -- Figure 10-1 illustrates the original hold, showing your opponent grasping your right wrist overhand with his left hand.

. at the same time stepping forward with your right foot as illustrated in Figure 10-2.Your immediate reaction is to reach across with your left hand and grasp his wrist with your thumb uppermost.

but is standing too far away to have anything resembling control. [Technical comments: Defender now has good leverage.] . keeping it close to your right. You then endeavor to place your right elbow on your opponent's left elbow by pushing with the body and arm and continuing the pressure. If done rapidly. Also.You then prevent him from releasing the grip on your wrist by pulling with your left hand. it can also result in a broken arm. attacker's arm is unlikely to be broken. This will bring him to the position illustrated in Figure 10-3 or completely to the ground. and to escape. Attacker needs merely step forward from the hip. as the untrained and panicking Attacker will go to the floor while the trained Attacker will quite easily extricate and escape.

but it is not. appears to be the same hold as in Figure 10-1. and in this case the grip is from the hand on the opposite side as illustrated in Figure 11-1. where your opponent is grasping your right wrist with his right hand. -. DEFENSE AGAINST RIGHT-HAND GRIP ON RIGHT WRIST. since in one case the grip is with the hand on the same side.16.This. on the surface. . OR LEFTHAND GRP ON LEFT WRIST (FINGERS UPPERMOST).

. preventing him from releasing his grip. as illustrated in Figure 11-2.Your first action is to place your right hand on your right biceps and your left forearm over the back of your opponent's hand.

bringing it over the back of his right hand.Continue the movement of your left hand to the right. under your right forearm. . and locking it on your right biceps as illustrated in Figure 11-3.

and serves as a consultant to the Los Angeles Police Department's Civilian Martial Arts Advisory Panel (CMAAP). Draeger and Takaji Shimizu in Japan. In 1979. it is a simple matter to bend from the waist and thus force your opponent to his knees. at age 18. He is presently ranked 5-dan in Kodenkan jujutsu and apprentice instructor in kali. Since 1990 he has focused his training on using "adrenal-stress conditioning" in realistic scenarios against heavily padded assailants. and in 1974. it is far from simple to get it on a resisting Attacker!] About the Technical Commentators Mike Belzer began practicing Kodenkan (Danzan Ryu) jujutsu at age 9. he also began studying Filipino kali under Dan Inosanto. he met and trained with Donn F. [Technical comments: Although an effective technique. after returning to the US from a trip to Malaysia with Draeger.Holding him close to your chest. .

Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier.FM 21-150. [Technical comment: Attacker is already badly off-center. Your opponent has grasped you firmly around the waist from the front. -. will normally be standing closer and pulling in rather than simply squeezing with the arms. TWO ESCAPES FROM BEAR HUG. 17. 1942. Offensively.Figure 12-1 illustrates the bear hug. Note: So that they better match the text. and unless trying to kiss Defender. June 30. and by powerful pressure of his arms is attempting to bend you over backward. trainees have not been taught the importance of posture and center. Section IV. and so have trouble making the moves shown work against stronger or more agile opponents. trainees are being taught to throw before they have learned to fall. Copyright © EJMAS 2000. the numbers of some figures have been changed from the original. This greatly increases the risk of injury. most trainees will learn to rely on muscle rather than form when making their escapes. Overall assessment: Defensively. As a result. Escapes from Body Holds Technical comments regarding illustrations provided by Mike Belzer and Joseph Svinth.] .

thus negating much of his advantage. at which point he is free to bite Defender's hand. [Technical comment: To escape the thumb.A simple method of causing your opponent to release his hold is illustrated in Figure 122. meaning that he is easily lifted from the ground.] . The defensive posture remains weak. Your right arm in this case is around your opponent's waist. and if Attacker turns his head. Attacker merely needs turn his head to the side. Defender also has not dropped his center. Pressure on this very tender spot will cause your opponent to either pull his head backward or release his hold. Your fist is closed and your thumb is placed underneath the base of your opponent's nose. you can bear him over backwards. Defender uses the thumb to "peel" Attacker's nose back. Defender simply lets his hand slide down to Attacker's throat for a choke. however. Therefore a better defense would be to place an open palm over Attacker's eyes. By pushing with your thumb and pulling in on his waist. from there.

[Technical comments: If combined with the obvious (but overlooked) knee to the groin. A thumb is brought to the jaw line on either side of your opponent's face and running up the jaw line. brought to bear underneath the ear lobes.Figure 12-3 illustrates a more effective defense for the same hold. This is an extremely tender spot and even the strongest of men will be quickly forced to release any hold.] . Pressure is upward and inward. this is a much better escape than the previous one.

-.Figure 13-1 illustrates that your opponent has grasped you around the body. . ESCAPE FROM FRONT OVERARM BODY HOLD.18. so that you cannot use the escapes explained by Figures 12-2 and 12-3. including both your arms.

] . which are protected by Attacker's stance. which are not.Your first reaction is to bring your thumbs strongly into your opponent's groin. forcing his hip backward as illustrated in figure 13-2. but his hip flexors. [Technical comments: The target is NOT the testicles.

pulling strongly as illustrated in Figure 13-3. in judo terms. with the toe pointing in the same direction as his. Your right arm slips under his left armpit and grasps him anywhere in back. placing your right foot on the outside of your opponent's right foot. [Technical comments: Defender's hips need to be lower to make this throw work. tai otoshi might work better than ogoshi.This leaves a space between your hips and his.] . Your left hand grasps his upper arm. Now pivot your hips on your left foot without moving it from the original spot.

if Attacker relaxes and shifts his own center forward and down before Defender begins the throw. but with Defender on the bottom. . lifting with your right arm and pulling with your left hand. Defender is shown standing high and uncentered. as illustrated in Figure 13-4. at the same time twisting to the left. As a result. both men are likely to go to the ground together in a jumble. [Technical comments: In the photo.You now strike him strongly in the middle with your hips. This will propel your opponent over your hips and to the ground with very little effort.

[Technical comment: Attacker should be striking with a palm heel rather than pushing. -. he is off balance and standing too high to present a realistic threat to Defender. He grasps you firmly around the waist with his left hand.A dangerous individual and possibly a powerful one is the one who attempts the attack illustrated in Figure 14-1. as shown.] . Defender merely tightens his neck and pushes back from the center. attempting to break your neck. Attacker also should have his right foot farther under Defender's center. ESCAPE FROM CHIN SHOVE. as if Attacker pushes.19.

pushing his hand and arm up in the manner illustrated in Figure 14-2. .Your initial actions must be simultaneous. Push his right hand upward with your left hand at the same time that you pull your head backward.

you slip your right arm over his left shoulder and grasp his right shoulder blade as illustrated in Figure 14-3. At the same time. the sensible Attacker raises his right knee into Defender's groin.Now pivot on your left foot to the left. then strikes Defender in the side of the head using a knife-hand strike.] . [Technical comments: From this position. keeping your left foot in place. placing your right foot on the outside of your opponent's right foot and pointing in the same direction.

] 20.The attack illustrated in Figure 15-1 shows your opponent behind you. and the grip should be around Attacker's neck rather than his shoulder blade. Defender's knees need to be bent more for a proper tai otoshi.You are now in position to throw him over your hips. the idea is to do a Heimlich Maneuver using the thumb knuckle.] . [Technical comments: Do not throw him over your hips as shown in Figure 14-3. -. ESCAPE FROM FIRST REAR UNDERARM BODY HOLD. Not only is this harder to escape. but instead the solar plexus. grasping you around the waist and with his head hidden directly behind ours. [Technical comments: Attacker should not be grasping around the waist. as shown in Figure 14-3. it also works better.

Your immediate reaction is to bring your head backward strongly. but if Attacker is not off balance to begin with (as shown in Figure 15-1). striking him in the face with the back of your head as illustrated in Figure 15-2. or is noticeably shorter than Defender. In any case.] . Defender also must lower his own hips to stabilize his own center of gravity. [Technical comments: This is a good move by Defender. then it does not work.

[Technical comments: The elbow strike shown is good.] . but Defender's free (left) hand needs to grasp Attacker's hands to keep Attacker from simply letting go and thereby avoiding the blow altogether.Your next movement is to follow up by bringing both elbows shoulder high and pivoting swiftly from left to right and from right to left as illustrated in Figure 15-3.

Attacker should not be leaning forward. the results are usually devastating to your attacker.It is impossible for you to miss striking him somewhere in the head by means of this movement. and rather than simply grasping around the waist.] . should be attempting a Heimlich Maneuver. -. [Technical comments: As noted above. ESCAPE FROM SECOND REAR UNDERARM BODY HOLD. On being struck in this manner.Opponent grasps you as illustrated in Figure 16-1. [Technical comments: Nothing is impossible.] 21.

[Technical comments: Defender should do a better job of maintaining his own center. Also.] . why not grasp the testicles instead? The pull is done identically either way.Reach down with your left hand. Most of your weight will be borne on your left arm and his left leg as illustrated in Figure 16-2. if Defender can grab the inside of the leg. placing it just above your opponent's left knee.

you bring your left hand under your opponent's left knee joint and your right hand under your opponent's right knee joint. The idea here is not so much dropping Attacker with the blow (though of course you will take it if you get it!). then instantly drop back for the knee. but to make Attacker pull back. thus giving up his center. Figure 16-3.] . [Technical comments: From this position. you then have a firm basis on which to pivot when you lift both feet from the ground and throw your left leg behind your opponent's right one. As soon as your feet are firmly planted on the ground.By resting your weight in this manner. Defender should first elbow toward Attacker's face.

(Figure 16-4.By lifting and leaning backward.] . exactly as shown in this picture. you can now easily overbalance your opponent over your left knee. and as a result nothing practical will have come from Defender's efforts.) [Technical comment: Unless you have struck the groin or face. Attacker will hang on.

22. but this time braces himself by placing one leg between yours and getting his head out of reach of your arms by placing it behind your shoulder blade. thereby forestalling the throw. under the arms from the rear.) [Technical comments: If Attacker were to simultaneously let go and bump then Defender would fall face first on the floor. (Figure 17-2. -.Your opponent uses the same grasp around the waist. A better defense is therefore to step backward with the left foot.] Your immediate action is to bend swiftly from the waist.] . (Figure 17-1. and grasp your opponent's ankle. ESCAPE FROM THIRD UNDERARM BODY HOLD.) [Technical comments: Normally this is a preamble to Attacker planning a sacrifice back fall in which he reaps up with his left leg and the first thing to hit the floor is the back of Defender's head. arms extended.

ESCAPE FROM FOURTH UNDERARM REAR BODY HOLD. This brings pressure to bear on your opponent's knee.The hold around the waist from the rear is the same.) [Technical comments: A broken finger may annoy rather than stop a determined Attacker. -. sitting on his midsection with great force. [Technical comments: Defender would do better to sit forward on the knee rather than backward on the stomach. as at this angle Attacker's knee joint is more vulnerable to injury than his stomach. you now straighten your body.) If your opponent should retain his hold.Keeping your grasp on the ankle. (Figure 17-3.] . causing him to release his hold and drop on his back.] 23. (Figure 18-1. but this time your opponent clasps his hands together. you merely fall backward on top of him.

Immediately the hold is loosened. thus reestablishing his center. the fingers of your right hand clasping the palm of his hand around the little finger edge. pushing up on one of his index fingers. while simultaneously using his free left hand to attack Defender's face or throat. (Figure 18-2.) [Technical comments: Instead of standing around waiting for something bad to happen.Your initial movement is to use the base of the thumb of either one of your hands. grasp the back of your opponent's right hand with your right thumb. In this illustration.] . This will cause him to release his hold. you use your left hand to lift the index finger of his right hand. a more sensible Attacker would bump Defender with his belly.

By bringing your elbows close to your midsection and turning to the right.)] . (For this move to work. During this turn. Attacker merely places his thumb against his little finger while stepping forward with his left leg. you will cause your opponent to turn his back to you due to the pressure brought on his wrist. Terminating in the position illustrated in figure 18-3. Defender MUST be standing much closer to Attacker than shown here. [Technical comments: Rather than being marched anywhere Defender pleases. and thereby rather casually escapes. In this position you can march your opponent anywhere you please. your elbows are close to your body and you maintain control of your opponent by pressure of your thumbs against the back of his hand. you will reinforce your original grasp with your right hand with identical grasp with your left.

) . -. (Figure 19-1. ESCAPE FROM FIFTH UNDERARM REAR BODY HOLD. In this illustration.When your opponent grasps you around the waist this time. he grasps his own wrist.24. he has grasped his right wrist with his left hand. Your initial move is to lock his right elbow with your left elbow joint and push on the back of his right hand with your left hand. attempting to force his fingers to touch his wrist.

(Figure 19-2. you force your opponent to release his hold and by turning your body.By continuing pressure against the hand. you can take him into several of the come-alongs which will be explained later.) [Technical comments: A better move for Defender is to continue turning counterclockwise.] . as this should give him a "Figure-4" armlock and perhaps a knee to Attacker's head.

-.Your opponent grasps you from the rear and over the arms tightly. 25. (Figure 20-1.Extreme pressure can cause the dislocation of the wrist.) . ESCAPE FROM FIRST OVERARM REAR BODY HOLD. or even a broken wrist.

(Figure 20-2. or cat stance. And. one leg thrust out of the door. as shown this defense will not work first try on a much stronger Attacker who simultaneously holds his center and pulls. at the same time.Your initial movement is to cause him to loosen his hold even momentarily by either stepping on his instep or kicking him in the shin with your heel. of course. Therefore from this position a military Defender would probably be better advised to try hip bumps rather than shin or instep stomps." and you've got the idea. raise your elbows to shoulder height. In Japanese. The moment you feel the hold loosen. (Think Mae West saying.) [Technical comments: Although this is the right idea. stomping on the instep of someone wearing combat boots may not affect him too much. the hip bump is known as neko ashi dachi. and.)] . "Come up and see me sometime. lower your body by bending your knees. here the allusion is not to the domestic tabby but to the way that crib-style prostitutes advertised their wares.

Defender would continue applying palm heels to the face.) [Technical comments: Although an excellent move.] . swing with the power of the shoulders and midsection. To turn in. 2) throw Attacker over his shoulder.From this position swing your elbows backward alternately. keep the spine erect and step across with the left foot. as required. Defender must instantly decide whether he intends to 1) run away. toes up. once the elbow is delivered. After that. knees to the groin. probably the best bet here would be turning into him. (Figure 20-3. or leg reaps. or 3) turn into Attacker. Due to the direction of the rotation. then rotate from the hips. The right arm then raises into an off-balancing middle block while the left arm hooks into the same area that was just elbowed. your elbows striking your opponent in either the short ribs or the solar plexus.

-. (Figure 21-1. [Technical comments: Even by Army standards. loosening the grip by means of stepping on the instep or kicking the shins and raising the elbows shoulder high.] 26.) . lowering the body simultaneously by bending the knees.The original attack by your opponent is again over the arms from the rear. ESCAPE FROM SECOND OVERARM REAR BODY HOLD. Your initial movement is the same. the preceding sentence is an oxymoron.The first blow is usually a knock-out but very seldom can your opponent release his hold entirely before being struck two or three times.

) [Technical comments: Defender needs to bend his right leg more.] . (Figure 21-2. your left hand grasping his right wrist at the same time that you move your right foot on a line with his right foot and on the outside of it. grasping your opponent's right upper arm just above the elbow.Then reach up with your right hand.

retaining your grip on his right arm.) [Technical comments: This is a weak throw. at the same time bending swiftly from the waist. strike backwards with your hips against his midsection. (Figure 21-3. relying as it does on a forward bend rather than off-balancing.] .From this position.

About the Technical Commentators Mike Belzer began practicing Kodenkan (Danzan Ryu) jujutsu at age 9. Draeger and Takaji Shimizu in Japan. Joseph Svinth is editor of Journal of Non-lethal Combatives. striking the ground on his back. he met and trained with Donn F. . he also began studying Filipino kali under Dan Inosanto. after returning to the US from a trip to Malaysia with Draeger. and serves as a consultant to the Los Angeles Police Department's Civilian Martial Arts Advisory Panel (CMAAP). Since 1990 he has focused his training on using "adrenal-stress conditioning" in realistic scenarios against heavily padded assailants. and in 1974.Your opponent will fly over your head. at age 18. In 1979. He is presently ranked 5-dan in Kodenkan jujutsu and apprentice instructor in kali.

He is also unlikely to attempt this choke against a freestanding opponent. Defenses against Choke Holds Technical comments regarding illustrations provided by Mike Belzer and Joseph Svinth. why teach them at all? The advice to turn the head into the choke is not mentioned until Section 35. Also. (Figure 22-1. as he gets better leverage with his elbows in his center. Meanwhile defenses continue to be unnecessarily complex. 1942. 27. you make him carry as much of your weight as possible rather than continuing to assist him with your legs. FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE. June 30. Note: So that they better match the text. Overall assessment: Attacks continue to be improbable or excessively simple. the numbers of some figures have been changed from the original. Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier. Tighten the neck muscles by dropping the chin to the chest and clenching the teeth. Drop the center as low as possible. Place the tongue against the top of the mouth. assuming that the training program has limited time. 2. Stay calm. thus giving Attacker more perceived mass to maneuver.] .FM 21-150.Your opponent grasps you around the throat from the front with both hands. 4. though he might try it against a wall or on the floor. -.) [Technical comment: Attacker is unlikely to make this attack with arms outstretched. Copyright © EJMAS 2001. Section V. one should always: 1. 3. and nowhere is it noted that whenever resisting chokes. and accepting as given that the first three defenses may not work against a taller or stronger opponent. That is.

) . grasping the base of his thumb with your four fingers and the back of his hand with your right thumb.Reach up with your right hand. (Figure 22-2. at the same time as you bend slightly to the right.

placing your hand on top of his right hand. your opponent will be forced to the ground.Defender should not be bent over as he is. This time. crossing your thumbs on the back of his hand.the defense must come from the hips rather than the arms. Defender must enthusiastically push Attacker's trapped wrist (katate tori) at a 45 degree angle from his body. as if Attacker can put his thumb against his little finger.) . (Figure 22-3. [Technical comment -. Finally. (Figure 23-1. if pushed back straight. Your fingers grasp the palm of his right hand around the finger edge. Immediately reinforce the right-hand grip with a similar grip with your left hand.Your opponent again grasps you around the throat from the front with both hands. SECOND DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE. -.] 28. Also. for Attacker to end up on the ground as described. Your initial action is to reach under his left arm with your right forearm. instead of throwing him. otherwise he cannot make Attacker move -. then Attacker merely reinforces his bent wrist with his other hand and pressures back.) If this entire action is made swiftly. your opponent will find himself on the ground a split second after he grasps you by the throat. then extrication from the lock becomes simple.This movement will loosen his grip on your throat and make it a simple matter for you to remove his right hand. and your thumb is on the back. By applying pressure on the back of the hand toward the opponent's wrist. Defender's grip MUST control Attacker's thumb. you wish to take him a prisoner.

Your defense will terminate as illustrated in figure 23-2. Now reinforce your original grip on his right hand with a similar grip with your left hand. pulling your opponent's right hand away from your throat and turning your hand in the same direction as you are turning your body. . This will cause him to turn his back to you.Now turn to your right.

as essentially all that Attacker needs to do to escape the lock is step forward with his right foot while simultaneously straightening his back. the back of your hand resting underneath his right wrist.) . (Figure 24-1. A better starting technique is therefore for Defender to start the motion by first kicking Attacker in the shin on the side that he hopes to turn. the rotation simply will not work. Your defense this time will be such as to bring your opponent into a position where you can march him at a great distance without losing control. Your right arm this time goes over his left arm and under his right one.Your opponent again grasps you around the throat from the front with two hands. [Technical comments -. if Attacker is noticeably stronger or not using much thumb strength. he is your prisoner and can be moved where you will by applying pressure toward his wrist. THIRD DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE.The wrist twist described assumes roughly equal strength on the part of Attacker and Defender. -. The ending position is ludicrous. Your right hand forms a cup into which your fist will rest.In this position.] 29.

thus breaking your opponent's right-hand grip on your throat and simultaneously loosening his left hand. your right hand turns.) .Strike upward with your left fist against your cupped right hand. As soon as the hold is broken. grasping your opponent's right wrist with your thumb toward his body. (Figure 24-2.

(Figure 24-3.Now place your left hand behind your opponent's right elbow without actually grasping it and push with your left arm and pull with your right hand. causing your opponent to pivot.) . at the same time bending his right arm.

You now have sufficient control of his right wrist to bend his arm at the elbow. . bringing his right hand into the crook of your left elbow and slipping your left hand up to his arm to a point near the shoulder which you can then grasp. terminating in the position illustrated in Figure 24-4.

and does his best to cold-cock Defender with a left hook to the jaw. Defender also needs to stand closer at all times to have any hope of making this technique work. pivots smartly from the hips. In Figure 24-3. This is simply a means of marching a man where you wish him to go. -This will describe the proper defense when you are being choked by a very tall man.However. with the palm of your hand to the ground (Figure 25-1. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE BY A TALL MAN. against whom some of the previous defenses might not work. otherwise Attacker will simply stand up and escape. and does nothing to prevent Attacker from simply letting go and kicking Defender in the groin. So Attacker simply steps across with the left foot. crossing your right arm with some force over both your opponent's arms.Reaching over as described in Figure 24-1 is slow. Defender should knee Attacker in the thigh to assure compliance. the armlock is easily escaped because Defender does not control Attacker's center or head. [Technical comments -. crossing your right foot. In Figure 24-4.] 30. Step forward with your right foot.) . utilizing but one arm and leaving the other free for any necessary action. this procedure is not recommended except when meeting resistance.

in hopes of getting a wrist trap.) This is a knockout blow.By turning your body to the right. In Figure 25-2. grasping his ears. Defender gets better leverage if he keeps his spine erect rather than bending away from the attack. however. you will bring the little finger edge of your hand (not the little finger itself) against the right side of your opponent's neck just below the jawbone. while his right foot should bash Attacker's right ankle (ko-uchi gari).In Figure 25-1.] 31. Overall. grasping either his hair. (Figure 25-2. this is the first practical defense shown. The leverage is good. [Technical comments -. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE BY A SHORT MAN. -You reach forward and inside your opponent's arms. or if he is bald. (Figure 26-1. Defender's left hand should attack Attacker's right wrist. using the power of your midsection and shoulders.) .

This will bring your opponent's face downward with great force as your knee travels upward with an equal amount of power. (Figure 26-2.You then pull downward on either hair or ears at the same time raising your knee. meeting somewhere in between.) .

] 32. -.Ordinarily an individual who attempts to choke you in this fashion extends his arms. Since your knee or thigh is definitely more capable of taking punishment than your opponent's face. squeezes with the fingers. [Technical comments: How sweet it is.Since these two objects are approaching each other. and pushes you against the wall. (Figure 27-1. FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE AGAINST THE WALL. the results are plainly evident.) . the force is multiplied.

one on either side of his elbows. namely kneeing Defender in the groin. either. (Figure 27-2. applying pressure inward (toward each other) and away from you. [Technical comment -.Attacker needs merely drop his elbows and step in to resume his choke.] . and he will find that he cannot choke you.Your immediate action is to bring the heel of your hands. which is another way of prefacing his renewed choke.) The reaction is such as to prevent your opponent from using the power of his fingers. try as he will. The defense shown does not prevent Attacker from doing the sensible thing.

(Figure 28-1. over your own fingers.You reach under your opponent's right arm and over his left one. -. You also place the palm of your right hand over the same elbow if necessary.33. placing your fingers on the outside of his left elbow. SECOND DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE AGAINST THE WALL.) .

) . and in most cases. (Figure 28-2.By applying sharp pressure from the body on this elbow. crash his head against the wall. you will force your opponent to your left.

and strike with the power of the body between hip bone and the floating ribs. -. In Figure 2-2. he will thus render the first two defenses useless.] . otherwise Attacker's center is unbroken and nothing will happen.If your opponent should grasp you in this manner and bend his arms. THIRD DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND FRONT CHOKE AGAINST THE WALL.] 34.[Technical comments -. Defender should try the simpler and equally effective knee to face. [Figure 29.Defender should preface the grasp with a kick to Attacker's shins. Contact is made with the little finger edge of the hand. Your defense for such an attack will be to raise your left hand. the back of your hand toward the ground.

and it is probable that in practice Attacker would stand even closer.] 35. depending on whether you are right-handed or left-handed.This is the first realistic choke shown. .This blow can be delivered by either hand on either side. with his knee between Defender's legs. [Technical comment -. It will cause your opponent to release his hold. -.Your opponent attacks as illustrated in Figure 30-1. also deprive him of his wind for a good space of time. DEFENSE AGAINST ONE-ARM STRANGLE FROM REAR. and. Defender in this case should place the index finger of one hand in the notch in Attacker's collarbone prior to striking with the other hand. in most cases.

(Figure 30-2.Your initial reaction is to place your chin in the crook of your opponent's elbow so that he cannot choke you. at the same time grasping the back of his arm just above the elbow with your right hand and placing your right foot just on the outside of his right foot.) .

you will catapult your opponent over your head and to the ground. Meanwhile. retaining your hold on his upper arm with your right hand and bending from the waist swiftly. (Figure 30-3.By striking backwards with your hips against his midsection.The choke is weak. to keep Attacker from letting go once he realizes the throw is coming. The rotation .) [Technical comments -. Defender needs to put both his hands on Attacker's arms while keeping spine erect but bending the knees. and to resist being thrown Attacker should have most of his weight on his back foot (neko ashi dachi).

-. DEFENSE AGAINST TWO-HAND CHOKE FROM REAR.then comes from the hip. grasping the base of his right thumb and placing your own right thumb on the back of his hand close to the wrist. with Defender's right arm (in this case) providing considerable pull. at the same time bending to the right.] 36. (Figure 31-2.Your opponent attacks in the manner illustrated in Figure 31-1.) . Your initial action is to reach up with your right hand.

pivoting on the sole of that foot to the right. and Defender's stance is so bad that he could not prevent the escape. with spine erect.You now balance on your right foot.) This will result in your opponent either executing a somersault. or having his wrist dislocated and broken. (Figure 31-3. as Attacker merely needs to take the weight off his right leg to escape. this last sentence is hyperbolic. As soon as you have executed half a right turn. using your left leg for momentum. usually landing on his head.] .) However. [Technical comment -. twisting strongly to your left. (There are many ways this could be done. if Defender had a better stance. most likely by stepping forward with his right foot at a 45-degree angle to Attacker's head. he could forestall that and get a takedown (tekubi tori A).As illustrated in the pictures. you will reinforce your grip on your opponent's right hand with a grip with your left hand.

DEFENSE AGAINST ONE-HAND FRONT CHOKE. You step backward with your right foot.37.) . Place your left foot between and in front of his legs. (Figure 32-2.Your opponent attacks by grasping you by the throat with his right hand and attempting to choke you as illustrated in Figure 32-1. -. at the same time grasping his right wrist and holding it close to your throat.

retaining your grasp on your opponent's right wrist with your right hand.Bring your left arm over your opponent's right elbow without touching it with your hand. Now bring pressure to bear by lifting upward on the captured right wrist and pushing downward with your armpit on his elbow. and turning to the right. . In this position. reinforce the grasp on his wrist with a similar grasp with your left hand. you can either force him to submit. or to suffer a broken or dislocated elbow. you bring your armpit on top of his right elbow.

should try to stay erect rather than bending so much.Attacker's grasp would be stronger if he were to use his left hand simultaneously to hold Defender's belt. in Figure 32-2.] .[Technical comments -. The lock shown in Figure 32-3 is ude garame. Defender.

Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier. 38. the numbers of some figures may have been   changed from the original. straightening the right knee. you execute a side movement of your body without moving your feet. This causes your opponent's foot to miss its mark. You make no attempt to stop the force of the kick.When you are just within reach of your opponent's foot. (Figure 33-2.) . Defenses against Kicks Technical comments regarding illustrations provided by Mike Belzer and Joseph Svinth. This is done by bending the left knee. Note: So that they better match the text. and twisting the hips to the right as illustrated in Figure 33-1.FM 21-150. Section VI. but rather place your hands under his foot and ankle and continue his movement by lifting upward. June 30. 1942. -. FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST KICK WITH RIGHT FOOT. attempting to kick you in the groin. Copyright © EJMAS 2002. and he suddenly reaches out.

and he attempt to knee you or use a short kick.His movement plus even a slight amount of additional help by your hands will lift your opponent into the air. you will turn your . SECOND DEFENSE AGAINST KICK WITH RIGHT FOOT. a trained Attacker (or one who instinctively keeps better balance by keeping his own spine erect) simply pulls his foot straight back.) [Technical comments -. if he is unbalanced and so falls as shown in Figure 33-3. although the evasion is the truly essential task.] 39. In Figure 33-2. However. then Defender should follow up with a groin kick. in this case with the right foot.When you are close to your opponent. Defender should maintain an erect spine and not reach as far forward as shown in the illustrations. -. (Figure 33-3.In Figure 33-1. to prevent being thrown on his back. dropping him on his back.

DEFENSE AGAINST KICK WITH LEFT FOOT.] 40. raising your left knee to your right front as a means of protection and bring the outside edge of the sole of your shoe to catch the blow.) [Technical comments: In Figure 34-1. the results will be painful and effective. the moment is wasted. (Figure 34-1) When your opponent's shin makes contact with the hard edge of your shoe. The strike to the ankle shown in Figure 34-2 is painful.Since you can never be sure with which foot your opponent intends to kick.right slightly. (Figure 34-2. Defender should look at Attacker's neck or chest and use peripheral vision to monitor foot movement. but without immediate follow-up. the initial side movement of your body . -.

your initial movement in this case will be identical to that in Figure 33-1. The only difference is that in this case.) . strike forcibly with the calf against the back of your opponent's knee. (Figure 35. at the same time stepping forward with your right foot. at the same time striking him under the chin with the heel of your left hand. Therefore.must always be in the same direction. and lifting your left foot. you will reach down with your right hand and catch your opponent's ankle.3. immediately upon executing the side movement of the body. Figure 35-1 illustrates the movement.) From this position. (Figure 35-2. you will balance on your right foot.

then he will simply hasten his own fall. then he is himself offbalanced and therefore more vulnerable. Since 1990 he has focused  his training on using "adrenal­stress conditioning" in realistic scenarios against  heavily padded assailants. [Technical comments: Note palm heel to chin. at age 18. Also. he  also began studying Filipino kali under Dan Inosanto. In 1979. Defender must be prepared for Attacker to resist falling by means of grabbing Defender around the neck. after returning to the US from a trip to Malaysia with Draeger. Joseph Svinth is editor of Journal of Non­lethal Combatives. as shown. as ideally he and Attacker will be standing belly-to-belly as the leg sweep (ouchi gari) is made. Draeger and Takaji Shimizu in  Japan. he met and trained with Donn F. . Finally. as if he is leaning over. He is presently ranked 5­dan in Kodenkan jujutsu and  apprentice instructor in kali. Defender should step closer to Attacker's center. When doing this technique. and in  1974. (Attacker’s right arm will come up inside Defender’s left. as if he tries to come outside. and serves as a consultant to the Los Angeles Police  Department's Civilian Martial Arts Advisory Panel (CMAAP).The results are self-evident.)] About the Technical Commentators Mike Belzer began practicing Kodenkan (Danzan Ryu) jujutsu at age 9. Defender should try to stay more upright.

Figure 47-2. Defender must practice covering ranges of 1-2 meters very rapidly without much telegraph." are omitted. "Taking Prisoners" and Section VIII. "Defenses against Knife and Sword. showing a "defense against wary approach with knife. -As your opponent strikes a downward blow with the club. DEFENSE AGAINST DOWNWARD BLOW WITH CLUB. Defenses against Blows with Club. Copyright © EJMAS 2002. Section IX. be aware that the photos show the unarmed Defender dangerously far away from the armed Attacker. Also. and Techniques of Club Technical comments regarding illustrations provided by Mike Belzer and Joseph Svinth.FM 21-150. you will present your left forearm against his right forearm in the manner illustrated in Figure 51-1. . June 30." shows why – many of these techniques work better in demonstrations than in practice. In Section IX. 56. 1942. Editor’s note: Section VII. to do the unarmed defenses shown. Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier.

faster. Defender might want to join hands and then use the right to raise the left. but rather deflect it to your left so as to enable you to wrap your left arm around his right one. See Figure 51-2. and harder to escape] .Figure 51-1. [Technical comments: In Figure 51-2. as this is stronger. bringing your wrist under his right elbow. You will make no attempt to stop the blow directly. Figure 51-2.

] 57. A small degree of pressure will cause him to drop his weapon. DEFENSE AGAINST SIDE STROKE WITH CLUB.Your further action is to place your right hand on your opponent’s shoulder or upper arm and lock your left hand on your own forearm. [Technical comments: A bent arm is stronger and faster. Figure 51-3. than the straight arm shown in Figure 51-3. . and therefore better. See Figure 51-3. You are now in a position to break your opponent’s arm simply by applying pressure. – The more experienced individual will strike a slanting sideward blow at the side of the head as illustrated in Figure 52-1.

You will now take a long step with your right leg to your opponent’s right. This will turn your opponent completely off balance. See Figure 52-2. do not lean back. You will make no attempt to stop the blow. but will lower your head out of range by bending the knees. without grasping your opponent’s club arm) and striking your opponent’s forearm.Figure 52-1. at the same time twisting your body to left and .] Figure 52-2. This requires practice. at the same time reaching upward with your left hand or arm. continuing its momentum over your head. [Technical comments: Note – bend the knees.

In wrapping the thong around the hand or arm. Figure 52-3. [Technical comments: Although a nice evasion. the following procedure should be followed. Defender should keep his left hand up to protect his head from Attacker’s elbow. HOW TO HOLD CLUB. Your elbow will make contact in the soft spot of your opponent’s side between the hipbone and the short ribs.raising your right arm shoulder-high with the back of your body and shoulders. A more upright posture would also deliver more of Defender’s weight into his attack. as the reason for this usage is that it leaves the strong hand free to protect or draw a holstered handgun. – The club. [Technical comment: Presumably left-handed people would use the stick only with the right hand. See figure 52-3. See Figure 53-1. A man struck in this manner will drop as though shot. . then there is no reason to avoid putting it into the strong hand. But if the stick is the only weapon. should be used only with the left hand.] The thong should be of a length suited to the hand of the individual who is to use it. when it is carried.] 58. The thumb is first hooked through the loop of the thong.

The thong is then brought over the back of the hand (Figure 53-2) and the handle of the club brought up from the little finger edge and then grasped by the hand with the grip illustrated in Figure 53-3. . Figure 53-2. [INSERT FIG 53-3] Figure 53-3.Figure 53-1.

It can then be used in parrying blows or turning aside thrusts in the same manner as the fencer uses the foil. Figure 54-1. but should be used as an extension of the arm. . the chin or throat jab is equally effective. Practice in using the club in this manner will render it very effective against attack by many types of weapon. See Figure 54-2.The club should not be used as a bludgeon except in dire necessity. If your opponent is so close as to render the body jab impractical. It is a much more effective weapon if it is used to jab rather than to strike. When it is necessary to stop a charging opponent or to subdue a recalcitrant individual. a jab to the solar plexus is extremely efficient. See Figure 54-1.

] 59. which is shown in the correct position to protect a holstered handgun. their desire for combat can often be cooled by the blow to the wrist or hands (Figure 551) or by the blow to the shin (Figure 55-2). [Technical comments: Strikes to the head and neck represent potentially lethal force and today law enforcement trainers strongly discourage them. Note the right hand. Be that as it may. the hand would be better used to block and strike. the man with the stick should not bend forward. . the stance shown in 54-2 shows better posture. as shown in 54-1. – If an opponent or opponents are moving in and you do not wish to damage them severely. WHERE TO STRIKE IF NECESSARY.Figure 54-2. as this puts him ahead of his center of balance. without a handgun. However.

Figure 55-1.

Figure 55-2. If it becomes necessary to put a dangerous antagonist out of action, the blow to the side of the throat just behind the jaw line (Figure 55-3) is efficient without being dangerous.

Figure 55-3. The backhand blow to the opposite side of the throat (Figure 55-4) is equally effective.

Figure 55-4. 60. USING CLUB AS COME-ALONG. – The most efficient use of the club is its use as an adjunct in taking a man prisoner without causing him bodily harm. The club is still in the left hand. Your right hand grasps your opponent’s right wrist, and lifting his arm slightly, the club is thrust under his left arm

(Figure 56-1), over his shoulder with its end lodged just behind your opponent’s neck (Figure 56-2).

Figure 56-1.

Figure 56-2. Your hand grasping the hilt of the night stick should be just behind your opponent’s upper arm with your thumb against his ulna nerve two inches above the elbow. Pressure is applied downward and backward with your right hand on your opponent’s right wrist. Your opponent will be forced to his toes by the pain. However, he will be in no danger of having his arm broken. See Figure 56-3.

See Figure 57-1. USING CLUB AS HANDCUFF. and order him to bring his right wrist backward. you now wish to secure him in such a manner as to enable you to march him where you will. at which time you will grasp it with your right hand. – You have utilized the standard procedure of searching a prisoner. You will place your right foot just inside of your opponent’s right foot in order to be in position to drop him to the ground if he becomes belligerent. 61. .Figure 56-3. Since he is dangerous. placing his hands against the wall and causing him to extend his legs as far to the rear as possible.

. Figure 57-2. When he does bring back the left arm. Now place one loop of the thong of your club over his right wrist and bend his right arm at right angles up his back. If he fails to obey this order.Figure 57-1. See Figure 57-3. Order him to place the top of his head against the wall and bring his left arm backward. See Figure 57-2. a slight push on his right arm up his back will change his mind. you will insert that hand through the thong also.

Since 1990 he has focused his training on using "adrenal-stress conditioning" in realistic scenarios against heavily padded assailants. at age 18. Draeger and Takaji Shimizu in Japan. he met and trained with Donn F. He is presently ranked 5-dan in Kodenkan jujutsu and apprentice instructor in kali. after returning to the US from a trip to Malaysia with Draeger. You will now slip the handle of the club as close to your opponent’s body as possible with the long part of the club extending up the back almost to the neck.Figure 57-3. and serves as a consultant to the Los Angeles Police Department's Civilian Martial Arts Advisory Panel (CMAAP). Figure 57-4. and in 1974. In 1979. About the Technical Commentators Mike Belzer began practicing Kodenkan (Danzan Ryu) jujutsu at age 9. Grasping the hilt of the club (Figure 57-4). he also began studying Filipino kali under Dan Inosanto. you will be in position to march your prisoner where you will. Joseph Svinth is editor of Journal of Non-lethal Combatives .

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