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Lecturer : Warter Agustim, S.E.,MM

By :

Rosella Feronela Ririn (2015120142)

Pindy Laeli Nurul Huda (2015120138

Juniawati Lala (2015120114)

Klementinus Pape (2015120117)

Patrianus Ronalis Joni (2015120049)

Orceviana Kahale (2015120047)




Chapter 2


A. Introduction
Gary would be surprised to learn that many people in the word drink milk out of a box every
day. UHT is grade A pasteurized milk that has been heated until the bacteria causing spoilage are
destroyed, and it can last for five to six months without refrigeration if its aseptic container is
unopened. Its main manufacturer. The parmalat group, is one of the largest dairy companies in the
world. Parmalat had 6 billion in sales in 1999.

Understanding Consumer Perceptions

Consumer Perception is a process that makes a person choose, organize, and
interpret received stimuli into a meaningful and complete picture of his world.
From the above definition, we know that a person motivated to buy is influenced by his
perceptions of the situation he faces, whereas what is perceived by a person can be quite
different from the objective reality. Individuals may look at the same thing but perceive or
describe it differently.
Stimuli or stimulus is a physical, visual or verbal communication that can affect the
individual. Stimuli consists of 2 forms:
- Marketing Stimuli: any communication or physical stimuli designed to influence
consumers. Products and their components (such as packaging, content, physical
characteristics) are the main stimuli. Communications designed to influence
consumers are additional stimuli that represent products such as words, images, and
symbols or through other stimuli associated with products such as price, take place of
selling products, and the influence of access.
- Environmental Stimuli: physical stimuli designed to influence the environment.

The Process of Perception.

Perception arises because of the stimulus (stimulus) from the outside that will affect a
person through the five tools senses of sight, hearing, pembauan, feelings and touch. The
stimulus will be selected, organized and interpreted by everyone in their own way.

- Selection The process of perception begins with a stimulus that concerns the five
senses called sensation. Stimuli are diverse and will always bumpard the consumer's
senses. When viewed from the origin, stimuli are derived from individuals (such as
scents, ads, etc.) as well as those originating from within individuals such as
expectations, needs and experiences. There are two factors that are characteristic of
stimuli that can influence consumer selection in choosing stimuli that will be
considered are:
- Factors of the stimuli itself.
- Significant contrasts or differences: Marketing objects that are very different from
others will attract the attention of consumers. This contrasting prism states that
external stimuli that are different or opposite to existing conditions will attract
- Novelty: Launching new products is often preached and it is very interesting to talk
about and be noticed by consumers.
- Intensity: the stronger the intensity of external stylmuli will be increasingly perceived
by consumers, so that consumers tend to pay attention. ü The size: the greater the
object, the more will be perceived by consumers (will be the attraction for consumers
to pay attention to.
- Internal factors.
- Ebankosur Selective: consumers tend to choose impressions or what they see and
perceive selectively. Selective attention: the tendency for humans to filter out some of
the information they face. So the more prominent information that will get a response.
Perseverive Persistence: impressions of various advertisements are also considered all
by the consumer, the consumer will unconsciously protect himself from the stimuli
that are considered to be harmful or not wearing himself

1. Conceptually Closes: when consumers are aired with multiple ads, consumers will
protect themselves against the onslaught of stimuli that hit them. Consumers will
withstand various stimuli according to their consciousness.
- Organizing
The basic basic principles in organizing include:
- Images and Background
In order for the stimuli to be considered to be easy to give meaning, consumers will
connect and link between images with the base, linking between what is with the
context so it has meaning.
- Grouping
2. Principle of Clinginess: adjacent objects tend to be grouped together. Examples of
what we see in supermarkets, the goods offered are grouped based on their use in
daily life.
3. Similarity: consumers tend to classify stimuli that have in common.
4. Continuity: consumers will see things that are still broken or still fragmented into one
unity with another.
- Interpretation
Once the consumer organizes the existing stimuli and relates them to the information
held, so that the stimuli have meaning, the consumer interprets or gives meaning to
the stimuli.
There are several factors that cause errors in interpreting the message are:
a. Physical appearance
Physical appearance often makes the consumer mistaken in interpreting a marketing
b. Stereotypes
Stereotypes are prejudices. Refers to the tendency to judge a person into a single
category or one class.
- Irrelevant signs / signs Consumers tend to use irrelevant cues to give meaning to a
- First impression When first meeting and getting impressive greeting and service, the
consumer will judge that the service company is qualified. Although it is not
necessarily so. 1. Perception Application in Marketing Strategy Consumers tend to
form an image of brands, toks, and companies based on their inferences derived from
marketing and environmental stimuli. Image is the total perception of an object, which
is formed by processing information from various sources every time. An important
goal of a marketing strategy is to influence perceptions of brands, stores, or
companies. So marketers must constantly try to influence consumer image. The
imagery consists of:
- Brand Image Brand image represents the overall perception of the brand and is shaped
from the past information and experience of the brand.
- Image Store Consumers often develop store images based on ads, in-store fashions,
friends and relatives' opinions, as well as shopping experience. The image of the store
in the minds of consumers will affect the brand image. Therefore, the placement of
products in the chain of retail stores is a means to shape the image.
- Corporate Image
When consumers have good experience on the use of different brands of products produced
by a company, the consumer will have a positive image of the company. At that time formed
the so-called corporate image.
1. Understanding Consumer Learning
Consumer learning is a change in behavior that occurs as a result of its past
experience. Consumers gain experience in purchasing products and brands of
products they like. Consumers will adjust their behavior to their past experience.
There are some basic elements in learning:
a. Motivation
Motivation is an important condition that must exist in the learning individual. This
motivation encourages individuals to try and act. A consumer will be interested to pay
attention to the headache advertisement ad and learn from the ad what if he has a
strong motivation to buy the product, with strong motivation will further encourage
consumers to seek more complete information about the headache medicine.
b. Cues (signs)
Cue is a stimulus that allows individuals more focused in directing their behavior on
the motive.
c. Response
Response is an individual reaction to cues. The response that occurs as a result of the
learning process does not have to be an observable (visible), but also invisible
d. Reinforcement
Reinforcement is everything that is given to the individual who learns to strengthen
the already established response.
2. Learning Theory
There are three major theories that explain learning and learning process, namely:
a. Behavioral Learning Theory
According to this theory learning can take place when the individual is able to relate
the stimulus to the response and between the response and the stimulus.
b. Cognitive Learning Theory
Consumers have the ability to process information, so marketers need to provide
complete, accurate and clear information to consumers. The availability of quality
information is important for the learning process of consumers, so that consumers can
make decisions.
c. Observational Learning Theory
In observational learning the intrinsic nature of the individual will be to perform the
behavior as the model does. If the model carries out the behavior and from its actions,
it will be rewarded, or a pleasant result, then the individual will try to imitate it.
3. Customer Loyalty
Customer loyalty will be the key to success, not just in the short term but on a
sustainable competitive edge. This is because customer loyalty has strategic value for
the company. The strategic value of customer loyalty to the company includes:
a. Reduce Marketing Costs
Enterprise applications have large loyal customers, can reduce marketing costs. Some
research shows that the cost to get new customers is 6 times greater than the cost of
maintaining existing customers. Ads and other forms of promotion that are issued in
large numbers may not necessarily attract new customers because it is not easy to
form a positive attitude on the brand.
b. Trade Laverage
A product with a brand that has a loyal customer will attract distributors to provide
more space than any other brand in their store. Because they know that consumers
will repeatedly buy the brand even invite other consumers to buy the brand.
c. Attract New Customers
Customers who are satisfied with the brand they buy can influence other customers.
d. Time To Respond Threats from Competitors
If a competitor develops a superior product, the company has the opportunity to make
better products within a certain timeframe because for competitors it is relatively
difficult to influence loyal customers. Customer loyalty has four characteristic
e. Viewed as non-random events.
If the customer knows the benefits of certain brands and benefits in accordance with
their needs, then certainly he will be loyal to the brand.
f. Brand loyalty is the behavioral response that is observed over time as long as
g. Loyalty to the brand is characterized by a decision-making process involving
available brand alternatives.