HE ROE 5

5AACT. HEADLAND

GIFT OF HORACE W. CARPENTER

C -oO d M s -0 : .

" etc." " The Chinese Boy and WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS NEW YORK : EATON : CINCINNATI & MAINS JENNINGS & PYE .CHINESE HEROES B. M. BEING A RECORD OF PERSECUTIONS ENDURED BY NATIVE CHRISTIANS IN THE BOXER UPRISING BY ISAAC TAYLOR HEADLAND Girl. Author of" Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes.

?5T/ .CARPENTfER Copyright by EATON & MAINS. 1902.

would contribute to a proper estimate of and thus enable the reader to the persecutions in their proper settings. in the belief that a more adequate un- derstanding of their heroism would be a stimulant to the faith of the Church. see Some others were strung together in the order in which they happened. To these reports were added such incidents in the lives of certain of the as A members their character. of these accounts were put in story form.PREFACE MUCH has been written of the sufferings of foreigners in the recent Boxer uprising and correspondingly little of the conduct of the Chinese Christians. We were not equally not interested in M86161 . and the native pastors were requested to gather up and forward reports of such cases as might be considered representative of the persecutions as a whole. At a recent meeting of the North China Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church it was decided to inquire minutely into the persecutions from the standpoint of the natives. committee was therefore appointed. all is need not add that faithful but as the world . and nearly all are given in the words of those who suffered.

T. the writer. H. human in but only in success. 1902.6 PREFACE failure. . and assuring the reader that but a small proportion of the persecuted played the part of the coward most of these under circumstances which would have tested the courage of either the reader or I. PEKING. we felt safe recording only the experiences of those who were true to the faith they professed. JULY.

Li and her Child 217 218 The Epworth League The Ch'en Brothers Pastors and Teachers 240 243 . 74 The Story Dr. Martyr 9 Wang Ch'eng-p'ei The Wheelbarrow Man and Martyr 30 52 Child-Prisoners A Chinese Pastor's Narrative of Sinah.CONTENTS Ch'en Ta-yung Gate Keeper. The Flight of Teachers Liu Fang and Wang T'ien-hsiang. Preacher. Wife of Pastor Ch'en 98 105 Wang of Mrs. 152 161 Martyrs Cheng Tien-fang: The Messenger's Story 186 195 The Adventures The Story of Yao Chen-yuan Tsun-hua of the Persecutions at 206 Mrs. Ch'in The Adventures The Story 114 121 of the Students of Peking University Experience of the Students of the Peking Girls' High School 138 .

Peking University Students of Peking Girls' School Asbury Church.' Liu Kuang-ch'ing Liu Fang. the Carter 39 54 58 Professor Chung Chung K'ao-en Chung Kan-en Mr.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE Mission Compound and Campus. Wang Hsiang-ho Dr. Wang with a Group of his Patients and Coolies Mrs. Ch'en's Grandchildren Ch'en Wei-fan Frontispiece 10 21 24 31 Wang Yang Ch'eng-p'ei Ssu. . Chou and Family Chang Pai-lin Ch'en Heng-te Dr. Peking (1902) Ch'en Ta-yung Mr. Te and their Daughter Tseng Kuo-chih Mrs. Ch'en Wei-p'ing Ch'en Wei-ch'eng Liu Ma-k'e Liu Ming-ch'uan 227 240 241 243 244 . and Mrs. Ch'in and Helper 69 75 80 90 97 98 106 109 115 121 123 135 Wang Mao-yin Students of Peking University after the Siege Durbin Hall. Peking Liu Fang and Family 139 145 153 Wang T'ien-hsiang 159 169 187 196 Tou Lien-ming Cheng Tien-fang Yao Chen-yuan Liu Chi-lun Mrs. Li and her Child Ch'in Lung-chang 207 216 219 225 227 Wang Chih-p'ing .

Like most Chinese boys he had been taught to read some of the Chinese primers and then been employed in this incense store on Hua'rh Shih that his scant wages might swell the small in- . " " Anything else ? inquired the bookkeeper.CHINESE CH'EN TA-YUNG GATE KEEPER. his attention fixed upon a group of people across the street." said little Ch'en. " Nothing. reading off the sales of a recent purchase to the head bookkeeper of the store in which he was employed. born a few miles outside the southeast gate of Peking. and added "A devil is coming. PREACHER. MARTYR I "Six Packages of I ncense--two Pieces of Soap one Block of Soda." answered Ch'en." This last remark was caused by a missionary book-seller emerging from the crowd and walking toward the store. Young Ch'en was a country lad.

honest boy.and two meals a day. science ." which about all them to "pass an ordinary Chinese family expects. and there was an uncertain twinkle in his eyes as he watched the approach of the missionary. . Ch'en was a plump. He was fond of a joke but fond also of his books. thus enabling is come the days. though not a sign of mischief: the man had books.10 CHINESE HEROES of the family. who enjoyed a good con- CH'en. round-faced. goodnatured. short.

The inmates of two homes and a business house . Both salesmen and proprietor were interested in the books as well as in the man. however. and began plying him with questions about himself. which he took home and studied and for some . of course. which was. months he was a regular attendant on the Sunday services. his country and his doctrine. the object he sought. "No. Here is the Entrance to Virtue and Knowledge. His interest in this new life. Young Ch'en bought a book. : II few days later Ch'en was present at the Sunday services of the London Mission and in a conversation with the missionary he said he had read the books he and the other clerks had bought. had not affected all his friends as it had the missionary. his books. and Evidences of Christianity" and with this answer he spread out a variety of books upon the first counter. which by a series of cross-questionings A appeared very evident. what are they?" "Various kinds. He had not only read them but had made himself master of their contents. and purchased more books. He expressed himself as deeply inter- ested in Christianity.CH'EN TA-YUNG " GATE KEEPER 11 Have you seen any of these books?" was the question asked by the missionary. the Glad Tidings.

for he gave no offense either by conduct or conversation nevertheless his parents and the parents of the girl his reading the . dared not express it openly for she did not wish She proposed to bringto break with her son.12 CHINESE HEROES looked upon the matter from a very different standpoint. had presented him with one hundred ounces of silver and young Ch'en had given up * his position in the in- He was baptized by Rev. to whom family he was betrothed members of the Li were not well pleased that their son and son-in-law should exhibit such a toward the teachings of the " foreign tendency devil. in consideration of certain services he had rendered. D." To this he was not loth. continued to go to church.D." This however did not affect Ch'en. When his mind was made up it was not easily unmade. Joseph Edkins. especially as only a short time previously a foreigner. and when his months of probation were ended young Ch'en was prospective baptized.* Ill Each fresh step taken by the young man inHis mothcreased the opposition in his family. asked to join on probation. He continued to study. Yet she er was especially bitter against him. He was not easily influenced. . about his marriage. They could say nothing in opposition to books. thinking that by giving him something different to think about she would wean him from this " devil doctrine.

It so happened that the Methodist Mission then being established in Peking was in need of a servant. and on inquiring of certain friends about Ch'en the members were told that they were welcome to him if they could get him to leave his books long enough to do anything. and when the storm had spent its force it left a young married couple very happy but without a home. filial but firm.CH'EN TA-YUNG cense store school. Ch'en was home. IV But married life and school life could not well be pursued together on an empty purse and so. study in school. for Ch'en was married acsettled When cording to the Christian's ceremony. He was willing to do anything if only that thing were studying books. as Ch'en was not at liberty to put away his wife and be it understood he did not wish to do so he found it necessary to forego further . and either because the newcomers were in such desperate straits. GATE KEEPER 13 and entered the London Mission the matter of his marriage was fully he announced his determination to be married as a Christian. Not that Ch'en was he was never lazy but he had a constilazy tutional indisposition to leave his books. which was more than they of the London Mission could accomplish. A storm arose in his His mother was furious. or .

The only way to gratify this curiosity was to call and see. he was very fond of good food but he could not cook it. but Ch'en was a failure. however. it began to be known in the neighborhood that Chinese were able to associate with and even live on the premises of the " foreign devil "without being devoured. As time passed on. He could eat food indeed. V This was a position exactly suited to the man and the man to the position at least for the time. and a pardonable curiosity began to be aroused in the minds of many as to what they were there for. and the office of "boy "was too much " woman's work." " never done. either by his evident desire to be diligent or by his studious habits. connected with which the only duty was to see that no one was admitted except on business. that they concluded to try him in another capacity. Here was an important office. . This Ch'en was careful to attend to." He had so like approved himself to them. and so young Ch'en was installed as gate keeper. and as the new mission was not doing much yet either in a social or religious way he had ample time for study. they approved of such a disposition in a very young man. they concluded to take They first tried him as a house servant.14 CHINESE HEROES because him. and Ch'en's intelligence daily increased.

. while she was a helpmeet in his home. that his position in to be gate keeper in the mission mind of was not compound. determined that some time he would be a preacher of the Gospel. however." and he attacked his books with renewed vigor. too many duties. educated and uneducated. unless she learned to read she would be a hindrance to him as a preacher. A new idea began to take form in the life Ch'en." Perhaps you could learn to read. and after broadly hinting the possibility of such a method he suggested. on the subject which lay nearest to his heart." No. and Ch'en " magnified his office" in a way that furnished abundant proof that only the most faithful Christian " should be the " gate official of the foreign mis- verse with sionary.CH'EN T A. which subject was the Gospel No office furnishes a better opportunity for preaching than an Oriental gatehouse. . in the way. How was this to be overcome? He brought the matter to his wife. too much work she was too old it would not be of any use to her she did not want to read. but "gate keeper in the house of the Lord. . She had too many family cares. . that she could learn to read. in the hope that she would suggest . Mrs. There were obstacles. Ch'en could not learn to read. This solution she studiously avoided.YUNG and in GATE KEEPER 15 this way Ch'en had opportunity to con- all classes. the first of which was that his wife could not read and. namely.

she resolved not to submit without a again. the matter came up. while she thought it might be best to do so. so to speak. Ch'en was a descendant of people who have believed Once more thousand or more years that it is the duty of a wife to obey her husband. with his better half. Ch'en Catechism at least. Ch'en would marry an Our Mrs. He always put his ideas to soak. . all other methods had failed Mr. and Mr. Ch'en took his . he mildly ordered her to study the Catechism. Indeed at that time the church he had left and the church he had entered both alike compelled their women for four at the marriage altar to promise to obey their husbands. as he had tried suggesting and urging. Nevertheless. his wife to study the The matter came up struggle. and Mr. He added vigor to his command. But Mr. Ch'en preferred to rule by moral suasion rather than by physical force. Ch'en was not inclined to do so. Ch'en did not obey. Mr. but still without results and when . Ch'en would probably fall ill and die. His order was too mild Mrs.16 CHINESE HEROES Now Ch'en was too wise a man to pursue an idea to a final conclusion without giving his wife time for reflection. did not resort to such a stratagem as a solution of the difference between herself and her husband but she observed that he was very intent upon it and. or even command. In the ordinary story book Mrs. urged Mrs. Ch'en intelligent educated woman.

nearly of age. and the good results that were to spring therefrom for out the record made . whose probation has been satisfactorily passed. they stood at the altar former a literary graduate of the second degree. tell. see or and she promised to study the Catechism. And the Recording Angel with a tear blotted against Ch'en for his cruelty because of his ignorance. a Manchu Tartar and belonging to the Imperial different . When the mission history testify " : Thus far of Christianity only one has made a profession in the North China Mission. and he is the man. formerly by occupation a sixty years shoemaker. in his homeeverywhere as the following quotations from in . Representatives of widely The rite Hui and Yang the classes. where no one until could hear. his earnestness." He preached the street chapel. Ch'en was doing his best to become a preacher.CH'EN TA-YUNG wife out GATE KEEPER whipped her 17 into a vacant garden. VI he was made gate keeper. which he transformed into a" Gospel Hall. studied theology in the gatehouse. an old read " : of baptism was administered to Wen Ssu. in the school." Turning over a few leaves in the history we is His name father of our gate keeper. as we have He seen. Ch'en Ch'eng-mei. he did not cease to be a student.

"The whose studious habits and blameless late life have of us reason to hope that he may yet given find his proper sphere in the field of the minis- Already his aged father has taken his place as gate keeper. latter is gate keeper in our compound . time he happened into our chapel on Mean- Ha Ta was interested in the word preached. himself as a candidate for baptism. 1874.* The former received his religious impressions while employed as teacher of the boys' school. having the degree of Hsiu Ts'ai and belonging to the village of An Chia Chuang in Shan-tung. Accordingly the * Although that was thirty years ago the since the Boxer troubles (1902). but was secured for heaven. We we trust a soul chief credit of bringing forward both of these converts is to be given to Ch'en Ta-yung.18 CHINESE HEROES army. made the acquaintance of Ch'en Ta-yung and soon presented Men. lost the place. the latter was our only trophy of the unsuccessful attempt to purchase the temple in the South- ern City. "In the summer of 1873 a native named Wang Tui-fu. and his time has been given more exclusively to study and work as an exhorter." "In February." try. distant four hundred miles from Peking. Great Street. it was decided to send a letter of greeting to the little church at Hsin-an from the brethren in Peking. came again and again. was at the capital preparing to enter the examinations for the degree of Chu Jen. the other a type of the laboring class.

" In thus traveling from place to place that scholars it not infrequently happened inn to enter into discussions with Ch'en as to the relative virtues of Confucianism and Christianity." I Ch'en had in reality who feared not become a preacher. and know more about that than they do. with the rank of a student helper. ai ya " This was the ejaculation of Ch'en's mother when his first baby was born.CH'EN TA-YUNG letter GATE KEEPER 19 was written and intrusted to Ch'en Ta- yung. is it you do not " fear to enter into discussions with these scholars ?" " Oh. It was a girl. who in the mission cart with Yang Ssu carried it thither and remained a day or two preaching and exhorting. now acting as native preacher. one the scholar nor despised the VII coolie. came to the After one discussion the missionary said to " him : You are not an educated man how . Ma-li . New Ch'en was sanguine and satisfied. I just stick to the Bible. ing but girls or that he would have bad luck all Year's day. and called it his little he pronounced girl Mary after the mother of our Lord. It was born on the first day of the first month " ! ! ! The old woman was superand predicted that he would have nothstitious." said Ch'en. his life. Poor child poor child at ya.

the baby continued to grow she was voted by all who knew her to be the most beautiful Chinese baby they had ever seen and Ch'en continued to preach. next baby came which was a boy she only shook her head and remarked that it would take more than one boy to avert the calamity occasioned by one's first baby being a girl and born first day of the first month. . that she finally gave up her superstition that the first baby girl. but more faintly this time. and has two little boys and two little girls as beautiful as she was herself. and it was not until the fifth child was born. VIII to-day. Meanwhile Ch'en continued steadfast in his work of soul-saving. cracked an un- on the usual number of jokes. would bring bad luck to a Christian's home. for the favorite disciple. as "Your turn to remain at home the family were starting for church. prayed fervently. Ch'en continued his soul-saving work. called his boy John. as were also the sixth and seventh." said Pastor Ch'en to his third son. a boy of nine. And little Mary grew up an educated woman. which was also a boy. read omnivorously. born on New Year's day. Again the old woman sighed. and waited for the next baby another boy. married a doctor. It annoyed his mother that he was not disturbed by this stroke of ill-luck and when the .20 CHINESE HEROES The old woman continued to sigh.

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M. for they learning which they received ten large cash. when we to repeat this portion of return. and one of the missionaries' children climbed over the wall. which conduct was so nearly Mr. one at 9 A. Ch'en locked the door. who set him- self to preach so his labors. and then left before Mr." parting instruction to the boy Mr. and then locked the gate of the court. according to the Chinese custom. Ch'en was not one of those mischief as to lend interest to the task. John. his wife and children were When the latter were home from school during vacation they were given two meals a day. M. With This might seem harsh treatment did we not remember that a house in China is never safe alone. told him the characters.YUNG " I GATE KEEPER 23 shall expect this you Matthew. the other at 4 P. without an error. having a certain definite task given them. leaving the child on the inside.. After breakfast they were set to studying the Scriptures. For missed one cash was deevery character . much gospel and then rest from He was not satisfied when he had his especial care. and what better business for a boy on Sunday than committing a portion of the gospel ? As there were characters in the chapter with which he was not familiar his older brother. and the only way to be certain that a boy would not run away or get into mischief was to give him something to keep him employed. preached to strangers.CH'EN TA. Ch'en returned.

CH'en. were given a half hour's extra time without having their income curtailed. . With the money thus earned they were allowed to buy cakes for their lunch.24 CHINESE HEROES If they missed a large number they ducted. "Wei-fan Fourth Son of Ch'en Ta-yung result of this training has appeared in a multitude of noble and self-sacrificing deeds on the part of his boys. and indicates that Ch'en The did not neglect the souls of his children in his efforts to save the souls of strangers.

Ch'en wished to economize. On a cold winter's day when the foreign physician called at the Ch'en home she found the infant in a sand-bag.YUNG GATE KEEPER 25 IX " Do living. without extrava- up their children in the sand-bag. Inquiring the reason. physically and spiritually and Ch'en's two sons who have . with one exception. it should. as they put it. The Lord will provide for the man who does his duty. Mrs." This was Ch'en's advice to his boys when they indicated anxiety as to how they were to make a living. graduated from college are engaged in religious . . of her ten children none died in infancy. They are.CH'EN TA. Ch'en's favor that live. and in this she exhibited peculiar ingenuity especially in the matter of heat. keeping the infant in a Chinese house. " pass the days. will scarcely commend itself to gant ideas they are strong mentally. or. Ch'en explained that sand was much more easily kept clean than cloth and that when the sand was well warmed it would retain the heat in all clay. considering the houses in which they But be it said in Mrs. not worry as to what you are to do for a Finish your college course and trust the Lord." Mrs. and nine were living when the Boxer movement began. to bring and thus there was no difficulty warm even in cold weather She advised all her family This method EuroIndeed there is small reason why pean parents.

all "I will not leave until are first the members of my flock hid away. to be equally self-sacrificing X Thus Ch'en continued Boxer disturbance of appointed to preach in to preach until the 1900." urged the members of his church some time ment.26 CHINESE HEROES work. and sent the chapel keeper with them to show them the way. at which time he was a town outside the Great flee to Wall " in You the region of Mongolia. must leave here at once and the mountains. his youngest son and his youngest daughter." had left Peking on the fifth of June. " he had arrived at his appointChristians in other places are being massacred and the country is in a disturbed condition." after The "No. promises and useful. on salaries one-tenth what they could be getting in business. who were in school. Three miles from the city they were met by a man who inquired. . while his fourth son. and had arrived safely at Yen Ch'ing Chou. The Christians who were familiar with the surrounding country told him of the places in the mountains where he and his family could hide with the greatest prospect of security and safety." answered Ch'en. now in college. taking with him his wife. He " " Who I are " you ? am the preacher in Yen Ch'ing Chou." .

from which retreat she saw the savage Boxers and irresponsible rabble kill and behead her father. but the best variety known in the North ran screaming to her The little girl. her faith never and she and her baby . followed by his rabble. After asking the same questions as had been asked by the other. " he clothing and bedding." The man hurried back to the village and in- formed the Boxers that a group of Christians were fleeing to the mountains. you may do as you like. what do!" " " shall we do ! what shall we We will all gether. at once pursued and soon overtook them. The Boxer chief. and turning to the motley crowd of Boxers and followers he said : Throw down your " Now I am through . while she in childish fear cried out. he continued " : Have you any money?" him all "Yes." said the old wavering to the last. and gave had." Ch'en did so. three older brothers. Oh. go to our Heavenly Father towoman. whom mother's arms." answered Ch'en. mother." "they called "Apple not an ordinary apple.CH'EN TA-YUNG " GATE KEEPER " 27 Where are you going ? " I am going to the mountains. the chapel keeper and her a boy as generous and noble as his brother.

Five months later these were discovered and placed with the others in the family burying ground." He did " make one request however: should like to go to that church and preach . the boy who had been locked in the room to study the gospel. their bodies having been burned. The skulls. Had kindred so foully and ruthlessly murhe asked the officials to capture the try them. When asked what indemnity he wanted his only answer was. lost it as unjust. locked XI It was some months later when his third son. leaders. would not have been unnatural if a feeling of resentment had been aroused in the heart of It the young man his as he thus looked upon the re- mains of dered. the world would not have regarded a bill for it had indemnity would have been promptly paid by the official. and inflict upon them such punishment as they deserved.28 CHINESE HEROES daughter of thirteen were hacked to pieces in each other's arms. however. to give them proper burial. We do not want in- demnity. he put in for the property his father Had " We I are not in need. Thus Ch'en proved himself as heroic in his death as he had been in his life. visited the place and gathered up the bones of his loved ones. were nowhere to be found.

. investment of influence in his sons is and daughters appearing in the form of noble Christian character and self-sacrificing service." to the GATE KEEPER 29 people who murdered my That was Ch'en's He was allowed to go.CH'EN TA-YUNG the Gospel parents. all.

with much the appearance of one in the latter He was a first graduate stages of consumption. First the preacher asked. sir? " I " have no business at present. " fol- What is your hon- orable name. and was in Peking preparing to enter the examinations for the master's degree. but am in Peking to attend the examinations. He had left . Before Ch'en answered the question the lowing conversation took place." Where do you live ? My I " live in the Province of Shan-tung. but I do not understand it. near T'ai-an Fu." "Are you interested in Christianity?" " Yes. What does he mean by saying he hopes I will be among the saved ?" Teacher Wang was of a delicate constitution." What is your business.30 CHINESE HEROES WANG CH'ENG-P'EI THE WHEELBARROW I MAN AND MARTYR does he mean by saying he hopes I " among the saved ? asked Teacher left " WHAT be will Wang of Pastor Ch'en. the vil- lage of " An Chia. as the missionary the chapel. I am interested in it. " " " " sir ? name is Wang.

^ ^ Wheelbarrow man. preacher and martyr ."Wang CH'eng-p'e^ ^ -.

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deal he was pressed to spend a few weeks with congenial companions seeing the sights of Pe- king and becoming acquainted with urban life. the great master of Chinese morals. and he A long while he sat inclined his ear to listen. the size of his nose and the He spoke to Mr. . and in addition furwith the necessary pocket money to all speaking in a language singularly like his own indeed Mr. where he arrived in time for the great examinaThese he failed to pass. and had spent two months on the road to the capital. A foreigner on a small raised platform was charges. thus. While passing along one of the great streets he noticed a large crowd in front of a semiforeign building. and pressing his way through he determined to enter and see what was going on. Wang as color of his eyes. To his excuse that he could not afford it they offered to defray nished him meet such small expenses as he might incur when not in their company. which seemed also to be filled with people.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN his 33 home in Shan-tung. and when the speaker stopped and the crowd dispersed he remained in the rear of the room devouring with his eyes the cut of the man's garment. four hundred miles disin a small tant. Wang confessed that the peculiarlooking individual spoke the dialect of the capital better than he himself could speak it. After the ortions. in where he dwelt country village the neighborhood of the tomb of Confucius. .

He had learned from Ch'en what it was to be saved. very long time they talked. Pastor Ch'en Ta-yung.* II " Teacher Wang was in earnest. the missionary called after him. if you will go with me to see Indeed the gentleman who has just been speaking. I would. Leander W. . Wang!" life might attain that A *Rev." said Teacher Wang.34 CHINESE HEROES he passed out. and the two. Wang! Mr. Wang in conversation. "In that case. The young Chinese assistant. at once engaged Mr. know more about this doctrine " asked Ch'en. Pilcher. and as he was going. and as he left him expressed the hope that he would be among the saved. well satisfied with what he had learned. he will answer with pleasure all the questions you desire to ask. like the Philippian jailer. started for the home of the missionary. engaged in friendly conversation. "Mr. he was anxious to understand the process by which a man past middle desirable end." By all means let us go at once. and now." replied the scholar. The two sat down and in answer to his questions Ch'en gave such explanations as set forth the elements of Christianity and served rather to arouse than to satisfy the curiosity of such a scholar as Teacher " Would you " ? care to Wang.

" and we this matter. long do you expect to remain in Peking?" the missionary inquired of Mr." he asked himself. spending much of his time in prayer." with me?" said can talk further about who looked to him that a foreigner so savage. Wang after he had stepped into the light. before should take such a personal interest in At first he wondered if they were not inhim. He followed the missionary's instructions. and a Chinese whom he had never seen Teacher Wang did It seemed singular so. " a man who is as poor as I am ? and again." certainly do dine so. " " do not know Would you " ? months " have to perform ? "Your principal duties would be to live in the street chapel and testify that Christ is able to I What duties would " . But what selfish " could they have in motives. and it was not long until he becalled again He gan to see the " light. do not hesitate to allow " your and me to help Thank you. with black beard all over his face." be willing to remain here and take the position of chapel keeper for a few I .WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN "What " 35 is it?" in call Should any further questions arise mind to perplex you. " fluenced by selfish motives. I shall "You will come and Pastor Ch'en. How perhaps not long." you solve them.

Do not use tobacco. and the joy and peace that came to him in believing and then he urged both his wife and children to follow his example. his meeting with the missionary. After prayer he read a hymn in which was the his . and he advised that he return to his home in Sfran-tung and there witness among his friends to the Saviour he had found After a while in the capital. . not very unlike the words yen. You who seek Do not delay.36 CHINESE HEROES verse with " I save men. Wang to her husband the first morning after his return. and when he read the derstood it thus : hymn his wife un- You who seek the throne of grace." few months it was evident to the missionary that Teacher Wang understood the religion he professed. It was Sunday." said Mrs. newly-found Saviour. which mean to use tobacco. couplet. The words for delay cliili were cJiih yen." will do so. Ill "Tell us about your trip. and he gathered his family about him for prayers. the throne of grace. After reading and ex- pounding a passage of Scripture he told them about his trip. and conmen as Ch'en conversed with you. because he has saved you.

and widely known in that part of the province. like his own great ancestor Confucius. He went from village to village carrying with him copies of the books which had been given him to read and from which he o gained much of his instruction." Teacher Wang began at once the preaching of the Gospel through the whole neighborhood." he replied. "wait ask the missionary. and began an enthusiastic crusade against the use of the weed among her neighbors. "Are there any foreign woman-teachers who believe in Jesus among those she inquired of her husband.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN 37 and she immediately threw away both pipe and tobacco. many of his friends with- drew from him because of the strange doctrines with which he had allied himself. " " who taught you ?" Several of them. He had many friends among the scholars and he made them his especial care. " Howbeit certain men clave unto him and believed." . he found many who were ready to entertain him because of the wisdom of his instruction and conversation . or obtaining access to the homes. he had no difficulty in Like Paul." he replied. How would it do for me to go and ask them till I to teach " me " ? Not now. like Paul also. He was especially attached to the Gospels and Epistles. Being a teacher. and made them his constant companions.

unlike his father. and with his wheelbarrow-load of books he returned to his home. He remained only a few weeks. I shall " in order that the trip possible." if I could not convince them I could have little I " first hope of winning Wang scholar. but not until he had first obtained a promise that some of the missionaries would visit them in Shan-tung and hold a service among them. in which were included the names of eighteen persons who desired to join the church on probation. strangers. a distance of four hundred miles." Teacher Wang to his son Ch'eng-p'ei after he had been preaching for a few weeks. and with the latter he went to the capital. or pushed the wheelbarrow. most of whom were his own friends or relations. " believing that family.38 CHINESE HEROES IV to Peking for more books. came they were accompanied by Ch'en Ta-yung the preacher and the missionaries When . He preached to the members of my own he afterwards explained." may be as inexpensive as gave his son a diary of the work already done. which he spent in the study of the Scriptures. was not a Like Shun he had followed the plow." Ch'eng-p'ei. " You must go said "How " go?" inquired Ch'eng-p'ei. Take your wheelbarrow." said his father.

WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN Yang Ssu the carter." . the Carter " they inquired of your father ? Ch'eng-'pei. " He is on a preaching and book-selling tour in the country." answered the son. two 39 men whose history will ever be interwoven with the history of the North China Mission. "but I will go is Where for him at once. Yang " Ssu. when he called at the inn.

Sunday was a red letter day in Teacher Wang's home. he was not satisfied with the native method of salutation but clutched their hands as it in a manner as cordial was awkward. and as he was seven miles away at this time it was some hours before they returned. and. : Well might the missionary write " The day was one of encouragement. not in what we actually enjoyed than in more what it promised. The latter was in the habit of He was delighted to see the missionaries. daughter. and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered to a little company of believers all of whom were in the to play an important part in a small way establishment of the Church in China. while his wife.40 CHINESE HEROES Unhitching his jumped astride it donkey paths through the donkey from the plow he and was soon tracing the fields from village to going to all the villages within a radius of twenty miles to tell the glad tidings of salvation. son's wife. village in search of his father. like all Chinese after having come in contact with foreigners. The following day the missionaries started on . nephew and In the cousin were all received on probation." as we shall see who follow the history of some of the members of this day's meeting. His son was baptized and the two were into full received membership in the church. afternoon Ch'en Ta-yung preached.

for Teacher Wang to spend his difference securing a home following. 41 stopping at the village of Yang carter. both of whom are alike called faithful. It was not unwise. he did it by raising up a God-fearing man and wife for Sarah was as important an element as AbraIf I thing to be . the trip. in the between a man with a Christian wife and one with a heathen wife in a heathen land may study the history of Abraham and Lot.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN the return Ssu. Wang to her husband on Sunday afternoon. God. he did it by savOnce more. when he wanted to ing a home. did it by the establishment of a home. after which he continued with them on the journey. ham ish making of the character of the JewThose who desire to know the people. raise up a nation into whose minds and hearts he could commit his most precious revelation. when he undertook to people a world. when he undertook to save a world from the flood. Again." said Mrs. V were asked what is the most important done in the establishment of Christianity in a heathen land I should say the establishment of Christian homes. therefore. hope you did not forget to ask the missionary if I might go to Peking to study. But while the record of the one is resplendent with honor that of the other may not be written. long enough to perform the marriage ceremony for that functionary. first efforts in " I .

" I can live but a few years longer. them Some months later. and he said you might go. in all kinds of homes and eating all sleeping kinds of food." said the woman. however. was rapidly telling on his health. and ten days after they had departed Teacher Wang left the service of the Master on earth for the association with his Ch'eng-p'ei.42 "I " CHINESE HEROES asked him. Wang heaven. they found the thread of life almost exhausted. but he was deaf alike to the pleadings of his family and to the advice of the missionaries that he should When may take more rest." " I go ? " As soon as you are ready. and his reply always was. and it was evident that his long trips in the country. This was not the first time reference had been made to Teacher Wang's health. both in sad need of preparation. They baptized the re- maining members of his family and some of his friends." and with these words he would enter upon another term of service. and his of whom. were ever faithful wife. when the missionaries again visited his home. For years he had been in delicate health. took the names of others on probation." " I cannot leave you until you are stronger. He was becoming weaker and weaker. and I must spend in diligent service of my Master. to his work Him in son. committing . He did take as good care of himself as he could.

to sell little am going books and preach as your father did. after which she went to sell her books and tell her story of redeeming grace in She met with no little the adjacent villages.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN VI 4# Children." " Was not my husband a scholar ? " she asked." "You are insane. on account of her zeal and what opposition some of her relatives and friends called her this she With craziness. I am not insane. Wang. Mrs. Wang." " Did he not preach this doctrine ? Did he not die believing in this doctrine ? Is he not in heaven now as a result of this doctrine ? Was he crazy? trying No. mother ?" piped up daughters. husband was not . took the package of books she had wrapped up in a square of cloth. after the remains of her husband had been carried to their last " " resting place." are you going. he was a scholar. the work my.to my friends. you must be good to-day while mother her two " I is "Where away." bade good-by to the children. "the words you speak are the words of a crazy woman. I am do. then the homes of neighbors. . She first visited the homes of relatives and friends. " Quite right. and departed upon her errand of love and service." said Mrs." they said .

" and when the missionaries returned a few months later it was thus they found her carrying on the work of her husband. discovered diligence. no matter how difficult the task. " I that is adds. and the Lord for help and set to work with prayed "Why. and she then asked to return home and spend a year in Then she entered upon her the active service of soul-saving. At the end of this time she was able to read the gospel. as old as you learning to read ?" said the gate keeper with a laugh." For seven months she continued at her books.44 CHINESE HEROES spared to do. It was only a short time after this when. and as the years passed she continued a part of the time in study and a part in traveling over . your own name. studies once more ." answered Mrs. Wang. The girls were placed in school and the woman given rooms in another part of the court. not accomplish the ends she designed fore a few days after they where- her son and her two little had departed she took daughters and started on that long trip to the capital. " I " Who ever heard of a woman will learn to read. that unless she could read she could . she was told. inquiring the name of a certain character." and she how ignorant 1 was. They knowing invited her to go to Peking to study. and she began to study the Gospel of Matthew.

" I do not know what we will do. It was impossible for his to ride farther in the cart. and "It has I would that in all who me my " praising the Lord that every family is safely within the fold. during which time it has been impossible for me to measure the grace given me. you cannot go farther in the cart. receiving very serious injuries.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN Shan-tung and Chih-li provinces and her 45 testi- mony at present is for she still lives : been twenty-four years since I accepted Christianity. " You remain here while I go to the inn and see what arrangements I can make. They had started from Peking in a Chinese cart but before going far upon their way the cart tipped over and Mrs." she suggested. I am now seventy-five years old. " " But what will we do ? inquired his mother." o The distance to their home was almost four hundred miles." " I might ride a donkey. ." read this would join with member of VII No. Wang was thrown out upon the road." said Wang Ch'eng-p'ei to his mother the first time he took her from Peking to Shan-tung. would be too much for the old woman's and the son was unwilling to run further nerves. together with the agitation entailed by the recent accident. but you cannot go on in this cart. Her mother injuries were such that the jolting of a springless cart.

on one side. than" But he finished not the sentence. and placing his mother and their effects (which consisted mostly of their bedding) on the other. Through her many women are hearing the Gospel. youth. well their their Warm couch on the cold winter days. with deference heed. a distance of nearly four hundred miles. couch cool from the sun's scorching blaze. What matters it that the distance is four hundred miles! I brought a wheelbarrow-load of Bibles from Peking. risks with his mother. . probably making her a cripple for life. He soon secured a wheelbarrow. " Honor thy father and thy mother " and he said to himself. something which with his new faith had a more powerful influence over him.* . She lives with her son and is still abundant in labor that comes within her reach.46 CHINESE HEROES own sacred books. Wang has had another serious accident. " I will get a wheelbarrow and wheel her home. and as he walked back to the inn he repeated. he spent the following twenty-five days wheeling his mother home. * " Old Mrs. 1900." Minutes of North China Conference. structions of his He remembered the inHe rememin his bered the primers he had learned wherein he was taught that. To To Fan every instruction of parents you need respectfully listen. why should I not wheel my mother ? She is more precious even . But he remembered something more than this.

grandma. was spending the autumn of her life in She often told them about the home of her son. "And was papa a preacher then. now an old woman." said Ch'ing-p'ing. " of cash. you know. the time when the cart tipped over and their father wheeled her home. Well." " " But why are you so happy ? asked their . but he was studying to become a preacher." said one of Wang am ver " Oh. he was not a preacher. I as happy as if I had a double-handful of sil" ! and putting his hands together as he spoke he scooped them full of fine sand which he cone-shaped pile between his feet. Their father had long ere this become a preacher and their grandmother." "He could not do it now. an incident that will ever be fraught with interest for the descendants of allowed to trickle down in a Wang Ch'eng-p'ei. with still greater glee. the younger of the two " he is too fat. the missionary He came to hold revival meetings here.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN VIII ' 47 I am as happy as if I had a double-handful Ch'eng-p'ei's little to the other as they played together in the boys court. grandma ?" asked the boys." said the other. " No. a whole week and still thought he had preached " . grandmother.

she is little. dark and but was still can take care of light. though I wanted to confess my sins. 'Jesus as well in the dark as in the was afraid. and last night when he sat down and asked if any one had anything to say. nobody said a word. Well. cause." " Was that all you had to confess ? " asked his grandmother.48 CHINESE HEROES moved the heart of any one. The evening you things. to buy could not get back until after afraid." I slapped her because she was misand it made me very unhappy. we Of course we ought " grandma ? to trust Jesus ought not. him. Then the men . I I sent me to the shop. confessed their sins. I could not trust . and she cried. "Certainly. I knew not was not proper for a boy to speak before the men had spoken and so I waited a long But time. my boy?" asked his grandmother. " No. my child. it old " Do me you not remember. grandma. bechievous. he were crying one cried. when you to attend left my ? little sister? " "A few days ago " Yes. wondering at the little sins which disturb the mind of a child. you know. when no one made any confession I could stand it no longer and so I confessed." "And what had you to confess." I "After brother and some of the big looked as if folks cried had confessed our sins and the missionary 'Most everytoo.' I me I said to myself.

" else. Praise God. extending to other schools and churches and preparing both students and Christians for the persecutions which were soon to follow. when they sought ing forces. it was the precursor of a series of revivals which spread throughout all of North China.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN and they said very much. . But.' and were very happy that is the reason brother and I are happy. and laughed. When others fortifications . These confessions of the grandchildren of old Teacher Wang started arevival like which nothing before had been known in China. they at once organized themselves into various committees the duty of each of which was to take charge of some particular kind of work. but more as were happy than sorry. and they sang. and sang and said Praise the Lord. Others found Christ as a Saviour and entered the church. from if 49 they whom all blessings flow. The members of the church became new creatures. others the water. Some were laborers others took charge of the food supply. Then everybody shook hands with everybody and cried. in vain for some one to carry a message to the . and the from all the other missions gathered at people the Methodist compound. ' . while Wang Ch'eng-p'ei was made governor-in-chief of the Chinese fightOn one occasion. more important still. IX the Boxers reached Peking.

The Boxers on the outside were pitching bricks over the wall. while the Christians within hurled missiles back in hope of breaking the heads as well as the ranks of the enemy. Give it to me I will take it. " south-west corner of the Ch'eng-p'ei said.50 CHINESE HEROES in the enemy encamped city." Thus When clad he delivered the message. that all was lost. both foreign and native. one of the young pasLiu Chi-hsien. where they could see into with their rifles any who and It far enough away to avoid the bricks of the Boxers. It seemed that a handful of people with insuffiimpossible cient provisions and almost unarmed could resist to be butchered like so the forces of the Empire." " Put on an official hat and clothes. "Official garments inspire fear and respect. and that they were penning themselves up thus many sheep. so that the fighting forces of Christians under Wang Ch'eng-p'ei were compelled to creep about close enough to the wall to avoid the bullets of the soldiers on the roof. they arrived in Su Wang-fu it seemed to many. raised his head a trifle higher at this time that . During the first of the siege the Chinese pressed them hard days and on one occasion nothing but the wall separated the two forces. was tors." said the head of the general committee. The Chinese soldiers had climbed to the roof of a house the court and pick off showed themselves. .

" a Congregational comrade. attended by loving hands. . Ch'eng-p'ei with his left Wang and arm akimbo his spear in his right hand led the men to victory. with faith in God and a smile upon his face. winding his queue around his head and springing to " Come on we will drive them off or his feet." "You " lead the way and we " ! will follow. he passed away. A good brother die. answered Ch'eng-p'ei. A few hours later. " 51 in an instant a bullet pierced " Men. we must up shouted and we all lost.WANG THE WHEELBARROW MAN than he should and his brain." cried fight or Wang are Ch'eng-p'ei. and was laid in a martyr's grave." They did both. . but a bullet pierced his hand and passed through his body.

" said Professor Chung . boys. calling to the children who were playing in the court. as they came Who on the veranda. for the boys were taught to be modest and never to exult at their own success or the misfortune or failure of another. "What " is the trouble?" asked -K'ao-en. no. " " beat ? asked their sister." ex" but I had good luck to-day. " " May we " No. the descending shuttlecock with the side of his thick-soled shoe. " Kan-en. come 1 quickly." exclaimed the anxious father." answered the elder of the two. papa ? asked the younger of the two boys. " Brother is a better player than I am." plained Kan-en. as he kicked Kan-en. This lest his brother should feel unhappy at his own defeat. Papa says the foreigners have and . boys. not finish our game. come quickly. the all fled elder brother. there is no time to play now. Anxiety was written upon every feature and fear expressed in every intonation of his voice.CHINESE HEROES CHILD-PRISONERS A TALE OF THE BOXER OUTRAGES IN PEKING I " COME.

" Most of boxes and no connection with foreigners. and it now remained to find safe hiding-places for his possessions had been packed in sent to the homes of friends who had the members of his family. it was under the patronage of his own sovereign." " Mr. of an American college and having passed the Professor Imperial examinations. " Where shall we go?" asked his wife as the last " box was sent away." Chung was a teacher in the Imperial He was a scholar. but the savage Boxers in their ignorance and superstition had determined to rid the country of every vestige of foreign influence. We No. He was a true son of the Middle Kingdom but he had been associated with the foreigners. the whole matter will have blown over and we " " can return in perfect safety. in the hope that they might be saved. my son.CHILD-PRISONERS we must killed 53 leave our home and hide or we will be by the Boxers. ought to pack the things in the other three rooms. True. you are In a few days unnecessarily alarmed. receiving the first degree. We have packed enough. Wang and his family are going to the . without answering her question. being a graduate University. and massacre every one associated with the " foreign devils." interposed his aged father." said Chung.

.54 CHINESE HEROES grain shop." . turning to " Grandhis wife as if to answer her question." Professor CKxing " May I not go with brother?" asked Kan-en." said Professor Chung. the south-west of the city. Teacher Liu's. in the hope that they might complete their un" finished game. in with Kan-en and the baby. I will father and K'ao-en may go with them. take you and the to girls. my son care of mamma you must go and help take and sisters. No.

After a few moments' Chung concluded to take his family Methodist mission. having left everything they had in their homes. or bedding. His father and eldest son were safely housed with the Wang family at the grain shop. Carts were soon called. Your family have when he arrived." said the gate keeper " ? I Where have they gone I think they went to Teacher Liu's. After an unusually tender leave-taking for a Chinese husband and father Chung left his family and hastened back to care for his own homeconversation to the stead. but not certain. and drove as fast as he could to Teacher . " " " left. and after an hour's bumping over rough streets they arrived at Teacher Liu's only to find that the foreigners had likewise fled taking with them all the native women and children. 55 The prospect of being useful offered greater inducements than the most attractive game.CHILD-PRISONERS That was enough for that child of seven. not even bringing with them either food . where foreigners and natives alike were collecting in the hope of defending themselves against their common enemy. and after a night or two of watching and anxiety he took what food he could get and went to carry it to his wife for hundreds were gathering at the mission." am Chung mounted his cart Liu's.

but they had not been home an They hour when a messenger came to say that the Boxers had looted and burned two of the missions." The doors of the milk store were closed. He hurried back to his family but they also had fled." smaller children were enjoying it as they would a picnic. " " We Why You take Chung to his also returned. and Chung was left standing on the street alone. As soon as he had seen them safe he hastened to learn if his father and the boys had likewise been shut out of the grain shop." said father. " the boys to the grain shop. and that they were less than a mile away. but they were gone he knew not where. who in the meantime had " and I will take the women to the milk store on the other street.56 " CHINESE HEROES Is was his first inquiry. who had returned in the meantime." answered " his wife. were without food or bedding. and the best he could do was to leave them in a small vegetable shop near the place he sought. We have just bought them some eggs and cakes. being driven out of the shop by the proprietor. but there was a settled look of The anxiety on the faces of both parents as their eyes met. that theirs was the next on the list. ." did so. and they are eating in that side my wife here " ? " room. She is. did you leave?" Chung inquired. Let us return home and run the risk.

" take care of her." replied Chung. W T own. in women and children hurrying every direction. will we not. " Then." "Where did Mrs." replied the shop-keeper." And he jumped up will "We kicking backward as though at an imaginary shuttlecock. hasty glance over the shoulder. and the quick step. Three men can withstand a large number of Boxers.CHILD-PRISONERS II 57 The The streets were thronged with men. gate. Chung and the boys arrived at the grain shop they found that the Wang family had been compelled to leave and seek another hiding-place. ang and his son and youngest daughter went together." said he to the boys. and Mrs. the whispered instruction of the parents to the little ones. Wang with her daughter-in-law and the other daughters formed a party of their all " " Did they No. " Mr. " She went outside the An-ting the shop-keeper. Wang go?" inquired Mr. It may be she will need our assistance and protection. we will go and find her. " for she was his daughter. all betokened the fear that drove them from their homes. . go together?" he inquired. grandpa?" said Kan-en flourishing a stick which he " carried with him. When old Mr.

They were little men. To They They played soldier all the way. walking beside each other with their sticks on their shoulders in true soldier fashion or making a dash at an im- CHxing' IVao-en aginary enemy with fixed bayonets. were going out in the country for a lark. Their clothing was cut .58 CHINESE HEROES these two boys it was still a picnic. But when they came near where the soldiers were and they were to be seen on every side after they passed beyond the gate they each took hold of his grandfather's hand and walked along with a quiet dignity like well-behaved citizens.

and indicated an intelligent parentage. and especially with two such boys as Kan-en and K'ao-en members of their party. Wang and the others outside the gate. named . with their to manly ways. Their faces were bright and expressive. though they dared not do much to oppose the actions of their cruel comthe blood of all with . attracted attention wherever they went. in command of two hundred and Li Tien-wen. them They found Mrs. interested in and took a fancy to the boys. such surroundings it was impossible for our friends to remain long undiscovered in their temporary hiding place. patriots. followers of Tung Fu-hsiang. surrounded them on every side. tion. Savage monsters. and followers also ligious. who became fifty soldiers. thirsting for deep who had had any connection whether in a diplomatic. Amid Among those encamped near them was a mili- tary officer. not to say beautiful. near the Temple of Earth. hiding in a cave-like excavation in a Soldiers gully. reforeigners.CHILD-PRISONERS 59 on the same pattern as that of their grandfather. who. No one could enter a drawing- room with little a more manly bearing or greet all a guest with a better bow. yet steadfastly refused to take in any part their unjustifiable attack on the legations. Their conduct was worthy of their staThey were neither excessively shy nor intrusively bold. or business capacity of Prince Ch'ing. which.

The boys were taken to the officer's tent and instructions given to the guards to allow no evil to befall them.60 " CHINESE HEROES Give them to me. " If I wanted to kill them why should I ask for " " them ? retorted the officer. Perhaps you will kill them." father. who was without such a coveted offspring. and soon reached the ear of another officer in command of five hundred troops. Major civilities " Li. This was Lo Ch'un-hsiu. and donning his official robes he set out to call on . Li. for so we must consider him. " Major. and it was well he did so for nothing worse could happen to them than must have befallen their grandfather and the women he went to protect." And with but little parleying the old man turned the boys over to the Boxer chief. and amid the enemies of their people they played soldier with as little fear as they had done in company with their grandfather." said he after the ordinary of the occasion had been expressed. " Ah." he said to their grand" and I will take care of them. The news flew from tent." replied the old man. none of whom have been heard of since. Nothing prevents my killing them where they are. The possession of two such boys by an officer could not remain a secret. from what sacred tree have you plucked such fair and well-developed fruit? " . and from company to company.

" " Two such boys are too rich a prize for one " man. . the lotus grows." Listen. Colonel Lo. in a gully not far from my camp." returned to his tent taking . though he felt he could not well refuse his request it was the look which might . appear upon the face of a miser when compelled to give up a part of his most cherished possession. as one might expect them to." Rice grows as does the lotus. " Kan-en. These two children have grown amid the slime of the hated Christians." Li gazed at the boys with a look which Major . he It was not love was well-nigh indefinable. but these are not flowers. It was not fear he had nothing to fear from his superior officer. are followers of the " Foreign Devil. then. I asked for them and they were delivered over * their grandfather to me. who were living.' fled from the city with and joined their aunt." " I fear I am unseemly stupid. had not had time to have learned to love them. let but you will not And Colonel with him little Lo take the younger any harm befall him. Major " " Yes. " Very well.CHILD-PRISONERS " 61 You know how Li." said he." answered fruit. I do not understand you." said Colonel Lo give one to me. from the submerged surface and the slime. with some other relatives. and as I or will be massacred suppose their parents have been I propose to adopt and bring them up as my own children.

he was almost beside himself.were. but only to gaze into darkness. Every moment he knew the Boxer rabble was drawing nearer to where they . There was not a moment to be lost. There was no one from whom he could demand satisfaction. he hastily filial retraced his steps to the grain shop. that his young wife and the fair forms of those innocent girls were to fall into the hands of that savage horde? and without knowing where he went. and yet he knew not which way to turn. led. no doubt. He peeped through the cracks of the board front. For three days or more his nerves had been kept at their utmost tension. But there everything was as quiet as death. and his whole body in a tremor. He looked up the great street . by the to his bound him and parental ties that father and his boys. him was pitiable.62 CHINESE HEROES III When Professor Chung discovered that his wife and daughters had been driven out of the vegetable shop. he asked himself. His face was pale. for no one was under obligation to protect his The sight of family at such a critical period. and his father and sons with his brother-in-law's family had been forced to leave the grain shop. Yet there was nothing he could do. The doors were closed and barred and not a sound came from within. his eyes wild. it Was possible.

not knowing what him. a hundred yards away. With a polite expression of his obligation he hurried as rapidly as he dared in the direction of First from the mouth of which he saw his wife and daughters. The mother was pressing the child to her bosom. courts. greeting the other with a slight bend of the body. not knowing that his father and boys had gone in that direction. . Chung? They are now in First Street: at least they turned in that way. Might it be Mrs. new calamity was now upon " saw. all in the direction of greatest danger." said the other in a half-whisper. the only persons abroad upon the narrow lane. "Are you not Professor Chung? "asked the other with evident concern. looking as o unconcerned as was possible under the circumstances.CHILD-PRISONERS 63 toward the An-ting gate. Chung put his hand to his mouth and gave a shrill whistle." Chung waited to hear no more. a lady with two girls and a child pass this direction. " I I am." said Chung. and then down the street where a solitary individual was slowly walking toward him. and the two girls were hurrying after her as fast as their feet would carry them. "Yes. He sauntered toward the south. even the dogs having been called within the Street.

he put the basket. demurred but as Smoke was ascending from ruins of two of the missions his " the smoldering and as Chung turned head to view them the carter remarked The Boxers are burning the foreigners' : places. to The east side Our only safety is They passed south lowed this till the great street that Bell Drum and Towers. carter at five people." . a motion of the hand and they came toward him and he to them. Then turning down Pipe Street and passing Duck Lane they crossed a small bridge. and as gentleman. child. " But where shall we go ? " asked his wife in alarm. " We must go toward the west.64 CHINESE HEROES They turned their heads as they hastened onbut seeing who it was they stopped. " This direction. at the The thought of drawing Chung appeared to be a and none of them were large. Then ward." said he. while he hung upon the shaft beside the driver. as he took the . he pointed in the direction the carter himself desired to go. from which the mule had been feeding." leads to the of Boxers. and fol- they came to Back Gate Street. full of the city is in the west. in its place under the cart and drove away. There was a cart standing here and Chung stowed the three " women first with the " child inside.

but each hesitated to tell . in silence on direction of . Night was now closing in. and Chung alighted from the cart and bought a handkerchief-full of eggs. Where your honorable residence?" "In the north." was " his reply." answered the carter.'" was his evasive " ? answer. " Do you know any of these foreigners Chung inquired further. ing "In the south-east. tian. and as they drove is " Where they could see the sky lit up in the Second Street and Chung knew that their home was being looted and laid in ruins. suryou mising that the carter was himself a Chris-. " I do not call them 'devils." answered Chung. Where is your destination ? " "In the south-west. They each suspected the other was a Christian. " They have ridden in my cart at times. Chung lest the carter lest draw him and the carter Chung might be an official who would put to arrest. would refuse him under " is your home ?" Chung asked." answered Chung. where are they now ? " " I burn Second Street. They have gone call . They had had nothing to eat since their hurried morning meal. thinkthat thus he might be able to locate him.CHILD-PRISONERS " 65 Yes/' answered " Chung to " ." them foreigners why do perceive you not call them 'devils'?" asked Chung.

to his temporary residence." " the University ?" Yes. " asked the carter." he muttered to himself as he raised the mule's harness to ease its " back. nor was there any safe place to leave him unprotected by a guard. I thought you were a Christian. Inside he if befall him. He therefore concluded to send him into the city. but he were called to lead his soldiers to battle he could not take the child with him. with a few meat dumplings." Of Ah." remarked the carter. and he began to look about for some convenient It place to seclude him. they arrived at Teacher Liu's Chung told the carter to wait while he went in to learn When what was " to be is known. Outside the city there was knew not what danger might none. " What Chung.66 CHINESE HEROES cakes and doughnuts. ." " That is where I wanted to go. V soon proved to be very inconvenient for Major Li to have K'ao-en always in his tent. allowing him to remain there until the present trouble was past. which he gave to the girls. The place was deserted. your name ? while he waited for the gate to be opened. and as Chung mounted : the shaft he simply said "To the Methodist mission.

CHILD-PRISONERS

67

This was on First Street, only a short distance from the boy's old home. Again and again during the following weeks
the
lacl

requested to be allowed to go around to

turned.
to

Second Street and see if his parents had reThere were boys there he would like

fruit

He knew a mulberry tree the play with. of which was then ripe. There were a

hundred things he thought of during the few weeks he was shut up in this small court, for he was not allowed to go upon the street. " Get K'ao-en ready at once," said a messenger as he hurriedly entered the gate leave here immediately." " What is the matter ? "
"

"
;

he

is

to

to

Major Li has been wounded and has leave return home, and he wishes to take the child
Will Kan-en go with us ? inquired the boy. Yes Colonel Lo has concluded to send him
;

with him."
"
" "

with you, and has placed over him a teacher and a guard of soldiers who are ready to start as

soon as you arrive." It took but a few moments to get the child ready and they were soon on their way. Not far from the gate they came in contact with the escort of the Empress Dowager in her flight to
Hsi-an-fu and were compelled to wait until the whole cavalcade had passed. They continued their journey southward and after three days' bumping over rough roads in an August sun

68

CHINESE HEROES

they arrived at Pao-ting-fu, a place never to be forgotten because of the cruel massacres that

had just been perpetrated there. Major Li's wound required attention and he was sadly in need of rest. The news he brought from the capital was that of failure on the part of the Boxers, and the officials trembled from fear of what the result would be when their own duplicity and cruelty were published to the
world.

After ten days of rest Major Li announced his intention of continuing his journey home, his destination being Shan-tung, and he

began preparing the elder brother for the jourKan-en was not allowed to go with them. ney. It had been the instructions of Colonel Lo that he should remain with the teacher at Pao-ting-fu until he could come from Peking to take the child with him to his home in Shan-si. It was a hard blow to the boys to think of being thus widely separated from each other. Major Li would gladly have taken with him the little fellow he had been compelled so relucHe tantly to part with, but he dare not do so. had no more right to him than had Colonel Lo.

The
wept

children
fast

neck, took

clasped each other about the hold of their short queues, and

bitterly. They had never been separated before except the few weeks at Peking. They were without father, mother or sisters, and they pleaded to be allowed to go together. Major

Li and the teacher tried to comfort them by

CHILD-PRISONERS
offering

69

them money.

candy,

fruit, nuts,

They would buy them but all to no purpose. They

finally threatened punishment, and as a last re-

were compelled to separate them by scene would have been ludicrous if force. In their efforts to sepait had not been sad. two children they clung the more tenarate the
sort they

The

ciously to each other's queues, the elder time calling to the younger, "Kick

all

the

him, Kan-en kick him, Kan-en while Kan-en through his tears
!

"

!

was sobbing,

"

Hold
;

fast to

my

queue, brother do not let go." But the major and the teacher

were too strong for them and they were finally separated, K'aoen to go with the major to Shantung and Kan-en to remain with
the teacher at Pao-ting-fu until Colonel Lo should come to take

him to Shan-si, never perhaps to see his elder brother again.

When the children were finally separated they dried their tears and submitted without a murmur. They had fought valiantly, they had been
overcome not by numbers but by
submitted
force,

and they

at once as prisoners of war. As Li was about to start with the eider he Major remarked to the teacher
:

"If

we had an army

like these
'

we would
"

not
for-

have been defeated by the

foreign devils/

70

CHINESE HEROES
"

getting, it is to be feared, that there was foreign devil" in the boys, and with this he drove away, the boys the while shouting good-byes to each
other.
"

Come, Kan-en,"

said the teacher after the
"

you must begin your Colonel Lo expects you to be a studies now. some day, when you are grown great general
others had

departed,

up."
"
I

do not want
not
I

to be a great general."
"

"

Why
Yes,
I

"
?

"Would
"
"
"

not have to

kill

people?

Well,
?

I

suppose so." do not want to
like

kill folks."

What would you "

to be, then,

if

not a

general
'*

What can you be if you do not study?" The teacher understood the import of
r

this

question and w as ready with a proper answer: " You will have to be a beggar or a coolie." Kan-en thought for a moment, heaved a sigh, and went at once to his books. There were times, however, when, either be-

cause of the heat or because of that disposition natural to the average small boy, and Kan-en

was a very natural small boy, he wished that books had never been invented. It was at such times the teacher said, " Kan-en, if you do not be a good boy and study we will throw you
away."

Nothing the teacher could have

said,

nothing

CHILD-PRISONERS

71

he taught him during those months, made such an impress on that homeless, lonely child. That is the one thing he learned which he will probably never forget. When Colonel Lo came he took the boy and

For months wandered from place to place, living in inns they or soldiers' tents. Kan-en was kept at his studies, clothed like a little prince, and given everything that was calculated to entertain a lonely child during play hours and win his affection for a new After some months, orders came for the parent.
to Shan-si.

his teacher with

him

colonel to go to Shan-tung.

suppose we will see K'ao-en there ? asked the child, as they traveled over the long, lonely, rocky road. " Perhaps so," answered the teacher.

"

Do you

"

VI
For some days after Chung and his family arrived at the Methodist mission they saw terrible sights.

Scarcely an hour passed that did not witness the arrival of the remnant of some family.

and children without parents, husbands without wives and wives without husbands, some having witnessed
without
children

Parents came

the massacre of their loved ones, others wholly Mr. Wang with his son ignorant of their fate.

and youngest daughter had come to the mission and he and Chung tried to go in search of the

The following day he sent a letter. letter and he at once wrote the following DEAR MR. and the besieged were once more free. of their it would meant the risk only own lives. he could learn scription. they had been seen." Chung sent a telegram. but none but those who endured them can know what they were. CHUNG: are both safe in Chi-nan-fu. but no one nothing.12 other CHINESE HEROES members of their families. knew whether they were alive or dead. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Chung instituted letters a search in every direction. Wang's family from a fate too awful for deOf his boys. He sent Major was alive and searching " Li. Respectfully. The sufferings of the follow- ing eight weeks during the siege in Peking have often been described. but it have been to no purpose. "Your boys will " They wait here until you come. heard that he for his boys. When the Allies arrived. in to distant places. " Li TIEN-WEN. their first quest was for those they had lost. Chung discovered that his father had been massacred while urging the Boxers to cease their bloody work and endeavoring to protect Mr. . Yes. however. until even far-away Shan-tung.

Four days later the telegram arrived.CHILD-PRISONERS 73 The first third day he went himself. o Li and Colonel Lo delivered his chilMajor dren to him safe and sound. gave him written certificates of their friendship. with the exception of his father. they are once more a The united and happy family. He was the to arrive. next day the letter came. and. Such is the condition of the rapid transit facilities of the Middle Kingdom. who helped themselves to what suited their fancy. . Meanwhile the boxes packed so securely and sent to friends for safe keeping escaped the vigilance of the Boxers but only to fall into the hands of the Allies.

To our surprise gained village ground day by was full of Boxers. We were shocked it by the startling news. great disappointment this was not done. 1900). until every town and Conference closed we hired carts. While Conference was in session a messenger came from the south of Peking telling us that some of our chapels had been destroyed and many of the Christians killed. intending to return to our stations. The Boxer societies were organized at an earlier date. the North China Conference of the Methodist Church was held in Peking. but the Peking and Tientsin railway was already partly destroyed and we decided to stop in inns close to To our the depot until the road was repaired. but supposed the insurrection would soon be put down and therefore give but little trouble.74 CHINESE HEROES A CHINESE PASTOR'S NARRATIVE REV. and the rumor was spread throughout the country that their object was to exterminate all Episcopal foreigners as well as native Christians. presiding elder of the Shan Hai district. and we When . tells of his experiences during the TE Boxer outbreak as follows: On the 4th of the 5th moon (June 3. day. Kuan Jui.

and Mrs.Mr. Te and tHeir .

.

Ten clays after my arrival the Boxers. Tuan Yi-li. whereupon I concluded that Peking would not be a safe place if the Boxers succeeded in effecting an entrance. They intended to burn our chapel and put us to death. Boxers filled every village through which I passed. About noon a few days later the Boxers " thronged the street. On every street corner we heard the people talking about killing all the foreigners and native Christians. arose and were joined by tect eight hundred young Manchu soldiers. often inquired for my welfare. but I hastened to the official and consulted as to what steps should be taken. yelling. which he did.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 77 were forced to return to the mission compound. and I cannot but feel that it was be- cause of the Lord's protection that I reached Shan Hai Kuan thanks ! in safety. Burn the chapel! . being newly appointed and been requested by his predecessor to prohaving The me. and I contemplated going to T'ang Shan by cart and thence to Shan Hai Kuan by rail. On left the 1 3th of the 5th for moon (June T'an^ Shan (four and v o but found the inns so filled with days' journey) Peking o 12) I a half Imperial troops that I was forced to turn aside and spend the nights in the seclusion of graveyards. and he suggested that the best way to protect the chapel was to turn it into a police station. headed by a tinsmith. to Whom be all local official.

expressed his willingness to hire carts for us to go to Peking. and he advised me to close up the place and leave as the soon as possible. likely all He to see what would happen. but remained only a day or two. Wang . The official soon returned. however.78 CHINESE HEROES " ! I opened the gate for them. one of our Christians. remarking that if the Powers should conquer China the chapel would be ours. the chapel over to and the following day the Boxers we turned and two other Christians named Four days later the a father and his son. and after he left we packed our things preparatory to leaving in case of emergency. The the killed Pai. next day P'u official. to guard the premises. A few of the yamen runners came. however. I sent word to the official but un- Burn the chapel fortunately he was absent. and it was rumored that they would burn our chapel at midnight. but if China was successful we Christians would be put to death. the On 3rd of the 6th moon (July 2) the Boxers captured Wang P'u. We remained a few days. that there would be an uprising in the judged near future and thought to hide ourselves in the it home the part of wisdom of a church mem- ber outside the Great Wall. as our men outnumbered theirs. bringing the startling news that German Minister had been massacred. but they dared not enter. We waited for them We until daybreak but they did not come.

and a delegation of Boxers and soldiers came to search for me. during which time I received word that the Boxers were searching for me. thinking. The way of escape now seemed dark. pain and weariness my eyes turned with hope mingled with despair to the place where I had left my wife.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 79 chapel was looted and demolished. of the people of Shan Hai Many of I Kuan knew my whereabouts and wanted to capture me. thirst. and on the iith I was compelled. News came from Shan Hai Kuan for me. lodging with a Christian named Tai Cheng-en. as we all did. that this the only chance for safety either for me or my them. against the rule of the village to lodge strangers I was compelled to go to Li Mu Ch'ang. and during all those days of hunger. taking As it was refuge in the home of a Mr. seventeen miles from Shan Hai Kuan. Tai but two days. I took with me Tseng Kuo- chih. It that a re- ward of one hundred ounces of silver was offered was soon revealed to them that I was at Li Mu Ch'ang. This was the most painful of all my experiences. We . with much reluctance. therefore remained with Mr. I went farther north. a graduate of the Peking University and of the pastor Shan Hai Kuan church. where I remained three days at the home of one Shang Chin. Hsu. to separate from was family. to a village called Yung An Tien. at which time we were refugees at Neu Yang Kou.

In order the better to protect ourselves we purchased common blue cloth garments and large straw hats. as all the inns were filled with Boxers and soldiers. . Five (" Peter days wg ^Jj. such as are worn by coolies. A heavy rain began to fall. m* m B talked of arresting those whom they accused of "poisoning the wells.80 CHINESE HEROES for started at once Ch'ou Yang outside the first Great Wall. and. we decided to return to Shan Hai Kuan. O n tne wa y we were informed that there were so outside the Wall many robbers Tse^ Rxao-cHih Durst") that few people possessed the nerve to travel there." who and we after- of innocent . traveling thirty-five miles the day without meeting friend or acquaintance. Every place through which we passed was filled with Boxers . substituting these for the latter in a hole what we had on.jr fcfe wards learned that thousands people were put to death. whence we Shanghai where our lives would for be safe. We the took the train filled found the cars with Chung Hou So and o Boxers who got off at same place we did. and being without a place to lodge. we buried which we scooped out beside the road.f!i*j^ m. but feare^ to go directly lest we should meet acquaintances. ^ & caye ^ we thought could sail of going to for Ying K'ou.

alas to take. intending first to go to the We home of a Christian in the north. We wanted to and spent go to the North Mountains but did not know the way.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 81 took train but got off at a station thirteen miles from the city. nor could we hire a safer dwelling place. but." " The men who are searching for you are lying in wait at the home of Mr. we did not know which road Chin We He started toward Men Kuan. " To the home of Mr. in the next town. the town. and as the villagers knew we had been here we thought it not safe to remain lest they search us out and hand us over to the Boxers. but as we had had nothing to eat for two days we were getting faint. and as he was a probationer he addressed us in an undertone. "Where are you going?" he inquired." Once more we thanked God for his message of protection. Pai. man to take us. Pai. Mr. made an effort to go left We the cave for some We on. and a Night came upon us just before we entered man emerging from a cornfield recognized my companion. hoping to find ! some hole in which to hide ourselves. advised us to go by the Yellow Mountain Top. Tseng. but a Christian overtook us telling us not to go that road. hurried on a We little further north the night in a cave. as the Manchu soldiers were guarding the gate. .

which if Boxers discovered they would burn the building. and had killed a Christian The people . The village was Ho Chia Chuang. was so dark that we knew not where to We inquired of an old man if there was an go. We had gone but a few hundred yards when we were asked by a stranger if we had seen a body of men from Shan Hai Kuan who were in search of Christians. path was rocky and irregular we had on our feet. but we were not noticed. We replied that we knew nothing about them. and we thanked God for his protection. where he gave us a good supper. and the old man we learned afterwards was the proprietor of the Toward it but inn. He replied that there was one. taking us to his home. oning the wells. here informed us that the Boxers had burned the churches at Shih Men Chai and Huang T'u Ying. We begged him to take us in for the night and finally he consented to do so. but that it had been closed the day before lest Christians should stop there." We passed a graveyard where there were about a dozen men lying around. inn in the place.82 CHINESE HEROES The . nightfall we arrived at Chin Kuan. but as we passed on we were convinced that he referred to the company we had just noticed. we suffered both from hunblisters ger and thirst yet we dared not approach a " spring lest we be arrested on the charge of pois.

though he was such a poor representative of the faith he professed that the Boxers never thought it worth while to arrest took us He him. In this cave was a small pool from which we drank. fuel cut the grass all about us and I prayed. we could buy no food in the mountains. that he might not discover our kept cutting closer and closer must soon take away our seemed screen. and our feet were so blistered that we could walk no further. started on toward 83 this Having heard we Hai Yang Chun. as he was always ready for a fight. Just before he came to the cave.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE named Chiang Tung. in at once and entertained us for sev- His place being so near Shan Hai Kuan we feared it would not be safe to remain there and we went farther north. where we lived in a cave over the mouth of which the grass and weeds were so dense as to shield it from view. until it He that he . We met no one by the way. r say Christian. intending to discover if possible whether our Christians had moved away or if they were still there. as I watched him. howhiding-place. carry first They us to the village for took us to their home and gave us food. One day a man gathering night at midnight." We then conway toward the foot of the North We Mountains to see a Christian named Li Chii. Happily two camel drivers offered to thirty cents. and Li Chii brought us rice cakes each eral days. and once more we thanked God " for a tinued on our good square meal.

ment was that his submission. where. as we stepped upon the platform. Another heavy rain began to fall which left the roads in a bad condition and though the cities and villages were crowded with Boxers we made our way with much diffiHere we took the train culty to Lan Chou. s T'ang Shan. and so we washed our faces in the little water that was left. for it was with the greatest difficulty we kept him from using a hatchet on the Boxers whenever they came to Our only prevailing arguour lives depended upon his controlling his temper.84 ever. Here night and hid in the cornfields by day. we met Mr. Wang Mao-yin. . happens we will go to Lan Choti. an argument we were forced to repeat every night in order to secure search his house." But we dared not go by rail lest we meet acquaintances on the train. and returned to Li For a month we slept in his house at Chu's. who for . " Whatever at Li Chii's we said to ourselves. we were in almost equal danger. There was no communication between here and Peking or Tien-tsin. CHINESE HEROES he gathered up his bundles of fuel and went home. the first time we had had water to use for toilet purposes in several days. This led us to fear that we might be discovered if we remained there. nor did we have any idea as to what was happening at the latter As it seemed unsafe to remain longer places.

God had brought us together once more and we thanked him for his goodness. and no one to receive us. On the 1 3th of the 6th eral scores of soldiers moon (July 12) sev- and Boxers. and as there was no place to go. as it story : MRS. We went to the hospital without delay. You had been two months since we had separated at Li Mu Ch'ang. where we found our families. . came to Li Mu Ch'ang and took us prisoners. we had to possess ourselves a with patience. whom we had almost given up hope Company's Hospital. dog had bitten my foot I found it difficult to walk. well armed. Things having come to this pass we concluded that we would have to flee to a distance but as . TE'S STORY left After you us at Li Mu Ch'ang a letter came from Shan Hai Kuan to the effect that the church there had been destroyed and three Christians murdered. binding my daughter and the wife of Tseng Kuo-chih.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 85 informed us that he had seen our wives and children with Dr. I asked my wife how she had gotten there and she told me the following of ever seeing again. When we heard this we trembled with fear. saying at the same time that my husband must be produced and that we must deliver over all our money. knowing not what to do. intending to kill them. Wang Hsiang-ho at the Mining can imagine our joy on the reception of such a message.

One P'i) we went to a village (Nan Ts'ung where we met a blacksmith with a large night and seeing our condition he We hurried on but he thought to injure us. to be. . but with They took my wounded foot they compelled us to walk to Yung An P'u. The following morning at daybreak we went to another village and begged for something to eat.86 CHINESE HEROES a large knife to behead me but finally decided not to do so. My daughter was but seventeen years of age. and Mr. When we had arrived within a short distance of the village we plead to be re- leased. as we had had nothing for two days and we were weak with knife in his hand. Though I begged them with tears they would not release us. where it seemed as if no one had ever been before. for only refugee hunger. We first a child of three months. tains. promising them twenty-five dollars if they would let us go. We hid ourselves in a mountain gorge. but it was no easy task. This we essayed to do. but stripping us of all we had they told us to flee for our lives or others would come and arrest us. followed for a distance of at least two miles. and thus finally escaped him. in hid in a cave in the mounit was a dangerous place women would resort to such surroundings besides there was no place to go to buy food and we almost perished with knowing that . This offer they refused. her arms. Tseng's young wife had their young babe.

to a Christian. the insults and abuse. but we fled during the night and thus escaped under cover of sent a man darkness. He with two carts to take us to his village where we remained a week or more. When man every door seemed closed against us a named Chu. A man came to arrest us. going about the country suffering all sorts of obloquy. out of pure sympathy for us in our destitution risked his back to Shan Hai Kuan. where we dwelt in the mountains five days with nowhere to go for food. moved by the wickedness of their conduct and intentions. In our carry off of people we were surrounded by a crowd who came with knives and clubs to my daughter but a man named Sun. fortnight. 87 Thence we went to Wang Chia Chiang. We could not long remain thus. flight . where he hoped our lives would be safe. and perhaps finally be- own life to take us . which were heaped upon for a us during these days neither tongue nor pen could picture nor describe. gathered about him a company of well-minded people who protected us from this danger. who was in no way connected with the church or with foreigners.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE hunger. We knew we were between two fires. We sent a letter to Shih Ho. conducting us to a place where we hid The cursing and persecution. telling him of our difficulties and dangers and asking him if possible to bring relief.

but after long consultation we decided to take a large cart and return to the city. persecutions.88 CHINESE HEROES ing outraged or put to death. more which. " is much Mrs. for that is her name. after some urging on our part and some tears on her own. and I said as much to her." she said touching than my own. and my wife asked her to tell us her story. related her experience as follows : . Tseng and my daughter. if indeed we did not starve. Chou. " " there will be all Perhaps so. though we knew not what would befall us." " to me. but were so exhausted that we slept. having heard of our arrival. and received no injury. Mrs. and where we have had rest and peace until the present moment. To those whom we recognized on the way we appeared as strangers. The following day we came to T'ang Shan. We remained one night in the greatest fear." she replied grades and shades of suffering during these . where we have been living with Dr Wang in the hospital. To go backward or forward seemed alike perilous. When my but feel had finished her story I could that what I had suffered was not worth wife mentioning in comparison with the nervous strain imposed upon herself." As she spoke the wife of another of our young preachers stepped into the room.

CHo\ and Family .Mrs.

.

" If will receive you with pleasure. be done we wrote to our presiding elder asking youngest of whom was but twenty and as we knew not what was best to do. except such things as we could easily carry."* and they ordered that the village bell be rung." Acting upon this suggestion we left all we had. about forty had five chilmiles north-east of Peking. We were without human prayed that the aid and so we Lord would open a way. him what we would better He answered. we were rubbers of red and buriers of medicine. and for four hours begged for food but no one would " help us because. and left our home for we knew not where and we knew not what. while * See p.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE MRS. the days old. When We dren. and We offered begged them only they would give us water to our thirst and asked to be allowed to quench remain on the street and rest awhile. . them with tears not to do so. but they money if drove us from the village. CHOU'S STORY 91 the Boxer troubles began my husband was stationed at Mi Yun Hsien. but you can come to Peking I if you cannot come you would better flee at once. wishing at the same time to bind us and send us back to Mi Yun Hsien for punishment. 102. as they said. hungry and thirsty. We spent a day and a night in the open desert place.

and as he was a good man he re- ceived us with pleasure and treated us kindly. At and as they . They arrested us and were about to take us before the official nor would they release us until we had given them thirtyone ounces of silver. and he added that no matter how much money we offered them they would not go.92 CHINESE HEROES also begged a donkey driver to take us outThe roads were bad. and this was harder to endure than our own hunger. were poor we paid them for their and remained with them three days. but death does not come for the wishing. When we were yet seven miles from the city." We wished for death. they feared they would starve. then went to the home of a relative of one We of the Christians in a mountain gorge and asked to stay there. hospitality Three times the village rabble came to arrest us " on the o ground that we were rubbers of red and buriers of medicine. At first they refused. . and especially the children. but relented and when we gave them money they allowed us to remain half a day. The children cried all day. and offered to take us back to Mi Yun Hsien and we finally consented to go. had no feed for their donkeys and said. weary and worn. he side the Great Wall. They pitied us. we begged of a home that they would take us in for we a while. after which they drove us out to the caves and gorges in the mountains where we once more felt the pangs of hunger and thirst.

We passed through P'ing An Ch'eng. In their examination they obtained no evidence. saying that if we refused to do so they could not be surety for our lives. The carter had been very much frightened at Chi Chou. When we saw the dis- turbed condition of the city we thought it not best to stop at the inn. and not our own. and they took us before the headman for examThe Lord was by our side and we did ination. Thence we went to Wu Men. hired a cart and at night started on our arrived at Chi Chou the Boxers stopped saying that we were deceivers and that the children were stolen. We way. When we us. . but rested on the street for a few moments while we ate a bite from the of a traveling restaurant. not fear. where the Boxers had burned the church and where later the Christians from that whole region were taken to be slaughtered. and as he refused to go farther we hired two donkeys and continued on our way. to the home of a relative stall we went who al- lowed us to remain one night but drove us out in the morning. and when they saw we were not afraid they concluded that we were not bad people and set us free.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 93 night we returned to the home of a Christian one mile from the city. where we lived two days. and we hid in the mountains. Thence to Kung Li. The people came at night to take us and the good people of the town urged that we return to our own home village.

They were treeless. and when it was night to see I returned to the vil- The people feared I would be killed and so urged me to leave.94 CHINESE HEROES their long knives kill us. It me begged me was I and five the children were tired and sleepy. and in cover of the darkness I fled to the South Mountains. it possible go anywhere with these sleepy children they pitied me and hid us in for was me to . they all wept I bitterly and wanted to return to the village. with five children. and as they did not want to see me killed they urged me to go. The Boxers with the mountains. yielded to their entreaties. the eldest of whom was but ten years and the youngest little more than a month. I hid in the village. saying that the they Boxers were seeking all newcomers. but as the church and homes of tians all the Chris- had been destroyed it was truly pitiful. hoping to went to search and as we could find no good hiding place I took the five children and went down the mountain side leaving my husband there alone. children to a desert place. but when the villagers saw to leave. When they saw how imlate. could not move. and the heat was intense. Seeing that things were so bad I took the and there was none lage. whom they carried off to P'ing An Ch'eng to kill and burn. and as I was without food or drink. That day the Boxers gathered in force in the village and captured two of the Christians.

The Boxers caught one of the Christians (Liu Peichai) and forced him to assist them in their search. I could hear their footsteps.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE 95 an old mill that had been partially burned. I After repeated efforts I I to save the children found that all. but I was in the hands of the Lord and they failed to find me nevertheless they caught and killed one of the Christians and nailed his head to the wall of the church a ghastly sight to see. feared the Boxers and drove us and for ten days we were in the sun-scorched mountains where we almost perished. Once more I fled to the mountains while it was yet dark. whom they intended to kill and all night they passed and repassed the place where I was hid. Though we met them he purposely they had passed day and a night. All day long the Boxers sought for newcomers. failed to recognize us. One morning at daybreak a messenger came to tell me that the Boxers intended to search for which when we heard we went to a small village near by where we were concealed two days us. . and when we hid in the broomcorn fields a I discovered that my husband was concealed . The people out. . longer. my infant or lose them so roadside begging strangers to care for by the and hid with the others several days in the mountains. must abandon left it it. but the children were ill with the heat of the sun and there seemed not the faintest hope of our escaping.

I should go with them." My " husband. and I wept and begged them to set him The elders answered. showed no fear.96 CHINESE HEROES in a melon store and asked the proprietor to allow us to hide. own relative we would not listen to your appeal. are going to take where the Boxers may We him kill to P'ing An Ch'eng said. and asked them where they had taken my husband to which they only answered. I found that the people were very much frightened and I decided to follow my husband. him. When I saw them I was frightened. and when the urged me to want they bind out the children and marry villagers in saw me . with him but when I arrived one of the elders urged the villagers to arrest ." The villagers urged that. I took the children and left the village. to comfort . and quiet me. which was forthwith done. When I arrived I found had bound him to take him to P'ing An they Ch'eng. but with joy his spirit ascended to the Father in heaven. " If you were our free." Never mind let them do The villagers took me to another place and the elders and Boxers carried my husband away to kill I was told that when he was killed he him. My husband was first bound and taken to the temple after which they came to take me. . if the Boxers wanted me to do so. as they wish. us. " Attend to your own affairs and do not meddle with his. assuring me that if I fled they would take some one else in my stead.

Our as I such greeting was can imagine cKang Pai-iin might take place between two who had been raised from the dead." hearing of our destitute condition. I have lived remain. I 97 I answered. I was told that the Allied Forces would occupy Shan Hai Kuan and I hoped that it would soon be possible for us to return to our work. where I met the Rev. Mr. Pyke. and the babe I was com- and pelled to abandon. to T'ang Shan. We felt that we were born again. " I will die before will do so. where in sadness over the loss of my husband who was killed. where we all knelt and thanked God for his presence with us in time of danger. Wang Hsiang-ho.A PASTOR'S NARRATIVE again. . I brought my family to Tientsin. night they brought me here. for we were After in we had been prepared to hear that all the missionaries had been killed. the latter place. consulted with Dr. at Chang Pai-lin. for the sake of the little ones who still T'ang Shan but three days we heard that both Peking and Tientsin I visited had been taken. Rev. a thing for which I hardly dared to hope.

which we did on the following day. next ^ay (Sunday. WIFE OF PASTOR CH'EN WHEN Mr. in large with several foreigners. June 24) the people came to church in crowds like those who go to market. but when he returned to Lao T'ing. and was as a consequence in confusion. Ch'en to come and see him.98 CHINESE HEROES THE STORY OF SINAH. infesting the entire country. advising him to flee. but they would not believe us. the summer resort of North China. told them den them anc [ the CH'enHeng-te t ]le We story was false. had heard that there was an English war vessel at Pei Tai Ho. the Boxers were like grasshoppers which the wind had brought. and had hid- church. Ch'en went to Conference the Boxer trouble had not begun. arriving at Ch'ang Li Hsien in the evening. Lao T'ing circulated A that report was he had brought four guns. less than two weeks later. and as the crowds continued to come the during the following days the official sent to ask Mr. but it was reported that it had We .

taking the foreigners to Tientsin or Chefoo. While here we saw some of the Lan Chou and An Ke Chuang Christians returning to their homes in carts. to flee with the for- eigners to a place of safety. After pondering the matter for a moment concluded to go first. We were in a sad plight. if We knew we were the worst came. because all the people at An Ke Chuang were Christians. because we feared if . Every door behind us was closed and there was no way to go forward. While here some of the Christians from An Ke Chuang came with carts offering to take us to that place and allow us to dwell in the church. as hoping. but as we could devise no measures for our own conduct or safety we remained two days longer at the inn. Our four children were small and I was myself in no condition to travel. die among . not where to go nor what to do. and would . we we remained we would be persecuted to the extent that we would deny our Lord second.THE STORY OF SINAH sailed 99 away. We prayed to the Lord to open a way. and in this uncertain condition remained for two days at a Chinese inn. and if it were the Lord's will that we should be put to death we would have about us those who would stimulate our faith. joy and and so we went with them the following day. those who gave up life with a cry of not with those who were without hope. The news that the vessel had de- parted brought tears to our eyes.

Wang Hsiangho. but certain ruffians who saw him going in and out of the house made uncomplimentary remarks and then reported to the official that we were " devils of the second order. Ch'en went to see if the report was true. After a few days we heard that a boat was about to leave Lao T'ing for Chefoo and if we desired . He found Dr." " : Lan Chou had already was that at An Ke Chuang a at He who harbors a We therefore seemed to be without hope and placed ourselves in the hands of the Lord. and the people advised the Christians to worship which case they idols. who invited us to come at once and he would prepare a house for our reception. as few days later. Things had thought they come to this pass when we heard that it was all quiet at T'ang Shan. one of China's most faithful Christians. which Mr.to go we were at liberty to do so." and that if we were allowed to remain some great calamity would befall the place. thought it an excellent opportunity and went to Pien Liang T'ing. and Mr. as the We captain would be glad to give us passage. Chang Maolin helped us to clean and put in order. but were told that the boat had sailed the day before. and we were left in a . in could protect them. You can imagine our joy on hearing this.100 CHINESE HEROES conditions there were better than else- The where. He found us three rooms. The church been closed. quoting the proverb devil is like the devil.

which he manifested not only in his treatment of us but of others as well.THE STORY OF SINAH sad plight. Kao inquired. were persuaded to give him a written statement that neither he nor the other Christians in the village had done any harm.. though not Christian. but by nature timid and retiring. The next morning ten men with swords and spears came to arrest us. where Teacher Kao found us a place to live.. He was a scholarly man and able. This was the second time we had come to his home and the people of the village forbade us to remain. to set us free During the night we once more fled to An Ke Chuang. threatening that if he harbored any strangers they would refuse protection both to him and his house. but offering if and allow us to keep our things we would give them fifty ounces of silver. In the evening? we/heat . bers were on every hand. His life was so blameless and his spirit so gentle that the elders of his village. This teacher was a graduate of the theological school and for several years a preacher and also teacher in the Lan Chou boys' school. We begged with tears but they would return in not relent. demanding everything we had. but only good. and home and if own church. and sympathizing with the Boxer movement. . He had a generous disposition and a large heart. " we therefore concluded to we were killed it should be our Do you fear death ?" Mr.

and to verify these intending to kill us. " The stay. house is mine and I will entertain whoever I wish. you So not fear death. Do not If " weep. It was reported that at this When we many were killed daily. fered. Kao was brought before the magistrate and asked why he had followed the " " and accepted their religion he foreign devils " village elders interto wait until daylight. when they heard of the success of those at other places. excellency also said the same in . ordering they said they them would take us before the official. and a crowd of people gathered tion. and help us to look after the place. Others shall not control me. set afloat a rumor that we were using secret charms for the injury of the people and our own protec- rumors on the I2th of the 7th month they dug up a stone on which was red paint. which they pretended to believe was medicine. It time and place we heard of the persecutions at Ch'ien An. who endured The Boxers at An Ke Chuang. and who were massacred and will the suffering of those those who were left never be understood except by those it. when The replied : My emperor issued many edicts declarmany proclama- ing the doctrines of the Jesus religion good and Your permitting all who desired to enter it. When Mr." we answered." he continued.: 1 -: CHINESE HEROES ieast." was heard this we decided not to go.

as it was but a mile away. surrounded by a howlmob.THE STORY OF SINAH tions. hoping to remain here till Peking was It would be impossible to relate what relieved. Mr. and found it indeed good. During this awful night. when the foreign soldiers came to Lan Chou. I I 103 I I trusted my emperor and my magis- examined it. these two months petty persecuwhich chafed us whenever we moved or whatever we did but the Lord was with us all tions we endured the time. and we were dreadfully frightened. it was all quiet. cannot renounce it. beg to present the written statement of my village elders. Before daylight came we fled to Lan Chou. Kao also risked his life The by taking the preachers and their families into his house and feeding them as long as they dared to stay. and found it better than I expected. We could hear the firing distinctly. As to our conduct and I life." magistrate was a just man. trate. where we rented a room or two from a nonChristian. above the ordinary mandarin. and Kao Fu Ching and his members were spared. Fourteen were already there and drove them away. believed it. On the 1 8th of the Second 8th month. but on the night of the 23rd the Boxers burned the railroad and came into the city to kill the official foreign soldiers and the Christians. with people running to and fro and ing .

and we were still Peace was gradually restored. though only fourteen in number. little girl was alive. we were compelled to shut ourselves up in our little hut. our safe. my eign soldiers.104 CHINESE HEROES the firing of the foreigners mingled with that of the Boxers. had put the Boxers to flight. and with only such help as husband could give me our little child was But when morning dawned the brave forborn. The Lord had protected us and we were more determined than ever to do his work. the fighting had ceased. in the hope that China might never again suffer from such an uprising. . and that the blood of our ma/tyrs might be the seed of a pure and prosperous church in the near future.

pay send you the money. Although "When " you tell I me how much shall a boy in school." . at I am . and also that it show that I I love the school as did not forget the I kindness of the mission. I shall for With " I best regards. HEADLAND to inform to : beg you that my salary has been Mexican (about twenty-four U.50 it is the chance for me to do something for raised dollars others. cannot do the missionary work of myself. mysteries of the Chinese language. I received among my mail the following note. Physician in WANG and Charge of the Chinese Imperial Railway Mining Company's Hospital hot summer day at the hills west of Pewhile working with my teacher on the king. written.DR. S. am your obedient servant "WANG HSIANG-HO. per month. in a spirit which compels us to overlook any deviation from the established : rules of our " MY " I mother tongue DEAR MR. gold) now. very glad to help a boy will in school my Peking next home. it will ONE be observed. but I always ask my Heavenly Father to help me to have a good conduct to serve Him. and I think $12. WANG 105 DR.

and as I tossed from side to side upon my bed the thought came to me. Wang telling him the amount necessary to support a boy.106 I CHINESE HEROES immediately wrote to Dr. if I should die and go to heaven. which support he has been keeping up ever since. Rev. Dr. and he promptly responded with a check. and the Lord this awoke . as nearly as I can five : remember " " DEAR MR. PYKE I : morning about three A. years later that a letter came to H. M. I could not go to sleep. 'Wang Hsiang-Ho It was J. Pyke as follows.

For several years versity past he has been first assistant in the Imperial Dr.Wang was trained in Peking Uniand Medical School. H. Hsiang-ho. H. Pyke and printed : work written by in World-Wide Missions of June. Chou. Of his conduct during the Boxer movement." For some years before that Dr. not martyrs. H. why did you not teach those patients in the hospital the ' way make " of ? salvation ? what answer would I I got up in the morning I went to the doctor and asked him if I might have foreign morning and evening prayers with the patients. When He told me I might. I would like therefore if you would send me some Bibles and hymn books together with the bill for the same. Mrs. Ch'en. ' WANG 107 should say to me. though we for them too. and from that time he has been having morning and evening prayers. 1901 I must tell of one more of the noble band of heroes praise him " thank God.DR. and Mrs. " I am your obedient servant "WANG HSIANG-HO. Chinese Railway Hospital at Tong-Shan. in charge of such able physicians and surgeons as . " J. Wang had been distributing tracts among the patients at his own expense. in addition to what is said of him by Te Jui. I can do no better than give the excellent report of his Rev.

At one time he was sheltering and feeding. some seventy of our people. and painstaking heart was more and pare- gard to his convictions and a better opening for that kind of work than a government hospital was thought son wrote is ' to be. but Wang continued his work.efficiency. and he began to consult his pastors in faithfulness. and he could not find a larger opportunity/ Dr. He invaluable to us. Robertcannot spare Dr. Robertson and Moorehead. The hospital became a refuge for the fugitive preachers. without his asking it. integrity. Moorehead continued the privilege. Dr. Wang's more drawn to teaching the Gospel to his tients. In the care and treatment of the sick and the of the finances he faithful as is as trustworthy an English or American physiI cian could be. kept this man wise providence there and prepared a refuge for in God his . "He Presiding Elder Te after six and his family found a haven here weeks of wandering. He reand several times his salary was raised mained. Wang. and taking pray with the patients as much as he wishes. He may preach. hope you will not think of him from us. their families and members. The Europeans all left. teach. hiding. and is just the man we want.108 CHINESE HEROES Drs. management and was conducting services daily when the storm broke. Dr. and hairJui breadth escapes. He has won voluntary testimonials from both these gentle- men for . : We Hearing of this.

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beloved As soon as own village. how ing knowledge of the confidence of his chief. of the students he has aided. of the he provided for a mission chapel. help could nowhere else be found. of the waifs he has rescued and sent to mission tell " To of all schools. He had prayed daily for his honored. Wang's faith in God was sorely tried. Wang has a great sorrow. the good Dr. and parsonage in a distant city when school. sympathetic treatment to the rough professional services of their own surgeons. . The Boxer neighbors had persuaded his father to stay at home and promised to protect him. " Dr.DR. yet " When the Russian army came to Tong-Shan the Railway Hospital was taken possession of. would make property a long article " in itself. leaving the family beggars and fugitives. but afterward treacherously and cruelly murdered him and destroyed all the property. The sympathetic reader will be sorry to hear that Dr. Wang has done. new language and the and wounded Strange to say. When he arrived he found that his dear old father and several near relatives had been murdered. with a Russian surgeon in charge and Wang as In a few weeks he acquired a workassistant. the sick soldiers soon came to prefer his gentle. like Him Wonderful. he could get away he went to his two hundred miles or more from Tong-Shan. his people in the WANG ! 111 very midst of their enemies.

and all would be well. to the heavenly scene before the great white throne and Him who sits upon it. But I get cried unto God and believed he heard me. and God had not answered. and he exclaimed : I 1 I good. but can't help it. whenever I go same way to pray something seems to whisper. faith was restored. with his father standing before chopped him and receiving the martyr's crown.' tried to call his attention away from the earthly scene. As the vision dawned upon his mind his heart melted. I could not home or do anything for my family.' see. God is He doeth all things well. And then I found my father had been cut to pieces. surrounded with the holy angels and the great company of the redeemed. I saw him just as I was leaving and had said ' : an hour's talk with him.CHINESE HEROES father. his eyes filled. can pray again. I did what I could where I was. It's no use since I ' ' ! . I know it is wrong. to see He I am so glad you before you go.' he said. . . I want to tell you.' How many have been tempted in the And now. We prayed together and separated. have been home and knew of my father's death I have not been able to pray. where his aged father was surrounded with the fiendish Boxers and being to pieces by them. It seems no use. who had come up through great tribulation and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. God " I does not hear.

But for the coming of a poor missionbut for hearing a joyful ary. ' rant. though it be tried with fire. might be found unto praise and honor and glory ! at the appearing of Jesus Christ. of salvation but for the message .DR. . the school. the boy all and his family would have remained ignoheathen. and all his family were heathen. then a boy of nine or ten years. superstitious And now behold what God hath wrought That the trial of your faith. " WANG 113 Twenty-four years ago this young man. the university.' Praise ye the Lord!" 8 . being much more precious than of gold that perisheth. little church. a very poor one of light and life.

was but a few days after we arrived that the trouble arose. one to go with Rev. not thinking that the peril there was as great as in the place some distance away. Liu Chi-lun. a village the hope that we might avoid the impending danger. whence we had * we was the Hsiang home of the teacher Liu Wen-Ian she remained there. my son. As Pei minished.the pastor of the church. and then decided that it would not be best to remain in the compound. but the Lord. We went in to Pei Hsiang. hua. the two teachers of the girls' school.CHINESE HEROES THE ADVENTURES OF MRS. . and thus our company was slightly difled. none to whom we could go. and some women. We met together and prayed. CH'IN WHEN the annual conference of 1900 closed returned to work as a Bible I woman at TsunIt one hundred miles east of Peking. and the foreigners all fled. but finding it to be so returned to Tsun-hua. and the other with me as their leader. It in did not seem wise for so many of us to leave a body and we therefore separated into two companies. We had none on whom we could depend. Hsu Hui-fang and Liu Wen-Ian. There were none left in the compound but myself.

CiVin and .Mrs.

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This. was not an easy task.THE ADVENTURES OF When we MRS. My aunt for- Nan bade about Christianity. would only add to our peril. I went to an inn. for the grain in the fields was high and it would have been as easy for the Boxers to find me as it was He went for him to discover their hiding-places. CH'IN 117 that returned to Tsun-hua we heard the mission was already in the hands of the enemy. It was impossible for us to remain under such conditions and once more we fled this time in disorder. however. The girls were in the home of a Mohammedan to whom Rev. I explained the doctrine for which we were being persecuted. I requested him to go at once and find the schoolgirls and my son. in search of them but found none except my son. in which the only person I knew was an old uncle who asked me to remain. Since I had no place of my own to which I could go I took my son to the home of an aunt at Ying. each going his own way. and brought him to me. who was concealed behind a small temple. assuring us that but as my soul was in the hands of the Lord I to me say anything it felt I It ought to bear witness to his saving power. who treated us kindly while we remained with her. Liu Chi-lun promised two hundred ounces of silver if he would protect them. was soon reported to the head of the Box" ers that a second-rate devil " was hid in my . who had surrounded the compound and were knocking down the gates.

two miles away. just bluster enough to kill children. Something. Cowards !" said one of the bystanders. and nearly spent. to kill myself. We were consumed with hunger and thirst. Their number gradually increased and it was not long three or tour hundred came and carried away all I had. and they finally and we hid for a time in an old While there the devil tempted me graveyard. I pleaded with them to kill me and spare my son. who was surely sent of the set him Lord. while I followed close behind begging them all the time. I know not what. " him unmercifully. and because I had unbound my until feet kill " they pulled off my shoes and threatened to both me and my son. giving as a reason that I was able to make paper horses and soldiers who would fight in my^defense. their hard hearts." they answered. . when a Taoist priest ninety years old. but they refused to listen and took him to Ko Lao Wan. gave us something to eat. lation." continued the bystander in a sarcastic " tone. "would " you kill a widow ? " No.118 aunt's CHINESE HEROES home but as they were not strong in that village they feared to arrest me. perhaps our deso- moved free. persuading me that Jesus would not receive me." This seemed to shame them but they beat . " but we will kill the boy." Ah. you are brave men too gallant to kill widows.

dirty k'ang ten days without being But our enemies saw them bringing discovered. He must also have been hurt inwardly. We were uncertain of the road and prayed for guidance. us food. CH'IN 119 aunt was not a Christian she She invited us to return. we dared not be where we could be seen. but they had beaten my boy until he bled and he could not eat. they placed us therein and covered it over with boards. but he gradually recovered and we remained in that hot. but did not forget us. and though it was July. He night treated us with the utmost consideration but his wife drove us from the house. as he had constant hemorrhages.THE ADVENTURES OF Although MRS. They beat my boy and would have killed him. and the weather was burning hot. and they came to kill us. As the villagers objected to our remaining there to I thought it the part of wisdom to return my mother-in-law's. when we continued on they our way to Liang Tzu Ho. but found it necessary to turn aside and go to my uncle's Boxers until a gully again. We thanked God that he had spared our lives. reported it to the Boxers. at a distance On hicl our way we saw in the and ourselves had passed. In the rear of her house a small mud hut contained my a hollow clay bed (k'ang) just large enough to accommodate us. That we had no place to go. dusty. but the good men of the village interfered and once more they set us free. We could not .

the girls were all saved but found that the two teachers. had been killed. and so returned to their mill-house and my uncle made shed. when we found ourselves still alive but without means. There us a place to sleep in their fuel were days when they gave us one meal only. and then days when we had nothing. We were thus secreted in his fuel shed and were not allowed to go out until the trouble was over. buy money a home out of weeds and to clothes and my brother built together with several of the school girls. x. . When the cold weather came my uncle gave us us if I inquired grass. clothing or home. There were nights when we were so hungry that my boy went out upon the street and picked up the melon peel that had been thrown away and brought it in for food. food. thus leading them to think that he knew nothing of our whereabouts. as we had done during the day. My aunt was furious at our being there and often beat and reviled us.120 CHINESE HEROES wander about all night. 35-37. at the same time saying confidentially to the Boxers if they found us anywhere not to injure or kill us. My less than uncle was exceedingly kind and spent not fifty dollars trying to protect us. fulfilling Matt. Hsii Hui-fang and Liu Wen-Ian.

* A meeting was called at the American Board mission at which there were present the leading native Christians of all the churches in the Peking. during which it was suggested that all the native Christians rendezvous at their present place of meeting. . Chinese * When the news of the death Han at Yen Ch'ing Chouhe was of his friend reached the chapel keeper so shocked that he died that same night.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY THE STORY OF THE STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY special anxiety was caused by the the railway station had been destroyed and the news from our church at Pachou. where Wang Mao-yin was stationed. After a effecting prolonged discussion. to purpose as to being consult the best for method of conduct the in "Wang Mao-yin in case the Boxers succeeded an entrance to the city. that the chapel keeper Chu first OUR report that had been murdered. they adjourned without reaching any definite conclusion as to what would be best to be done though it is not probable that any one of all .

thus preventing the adevery mission of heathen. When the carts arrived which brought the missionaries from Tungchou they contained but four of their native teachers. their Peking students having been sent to their homes in the from which they did not join us until after the burning of the missions with which they were connected. This was given to the person himself and he was compelled to use it as a passport whenever he desired to enter or leave the compound. which was the source of much amusement as well as trouble. and to write such descriptions of them as would enable us to recognize them thereafter. As these descriptions were written in English the holders often got them mixed with those of their friends.122 that CHINESE HEROES company apprehended that the government would allow the disturbance to enter the city. though the missionaries from the other missions began at once to gather at our comcity pound. Our left teachers and students who had into not yet parties. In addition to the gate keeper we had a foreigner or a Chinese preacher stationed at the gate whose duty it was to record the name of one that entered. thus indicating that all alike were oblivious of the danger which threatened them. live for their homes were divided wives two those who were married bein^ o their allowed to with and families in the mission compound while the unmarried were required .

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that we might be able to defend ourselves in case of college . sounded by Teacher Lu as a signal to Captain Hall. As business was blocked we had great ridge. We were drilled daily in the use of spears. but finally succeeded in securing about sixty. which put an end This to all interference from that direction. so that in case the Boxers succeeded in scaling our wall they would either be caught on the wire or fall into the ditch. dwell in the the former soldiers while attack. our trench we stretched barbed wires. who with four foreign soldiers came and marched around the campus. A few of the soldiers from a camp stationed just outside our college campus on one occasion came to examine our barricades the gong was . difficulty in getting spades. some of us neither taking off our clothes nor sleeping on our beds for five days and The while we lived on corn-meal pornights. same Teacher Lu mounted several pieces of stove . in which case we would have time to dispose of them.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY to 125 being the guarded by twenty foreign latter were without protection other than that which the men themselves could afford. many of which we were compelled to give to the women and children who were employed in tearing up walks to build On each side of barricades around the church. Many of us spent our days digging trenches around the church which was to be our last refuge.

then." Those of us who could speak English most were used as interpreters for the marines. but they came no nearer than the Great Street. saying. "'I missed my way and got inside your lines ' " by mistake. Thereafter when we went on the street to buy vegetables or other provisions we were never without our the people rifles. at CHINESE HEROES ends of which were covered with red the upstairs windows of the college fair building. " to sell One day when I was at my post on the top of the hospital.' "'Go." says Teacher Ch'en Wei-ch'eng.' "'Don't shoot. "' What are you doing in here?' I inquired. We killing expedition we all rushed to knew not at what moment we might be attacked. the cloth. and do not make the same mistake again. We scanned the . This is the last of you. which when with open us what we saw they gazed at us mouth but they never refused needed. " I saw a man go within the border of our barricades. which made a ruse of being large guns.126 pipe. Raising my rifle I pointed it at him.' fluently I commanded him.' said he. falling on his knees and begging for mercy. The night the Boxers entered the city on their burning and the church. each post having two interpreters who were on duty seven hours at a time.

and in such haste to . many what nevertheless it she could carry was as quenched the thirst of a little little ones. Ewing headed a gang of Christians and led us to a grain shop. to the proprietor of which we said. When we arrived in front of the Italian Legation we were stopped and compelled to wait for half an hour.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY bulletin boards to see 127 received from their what orders the foreigners Ministers and what news they had as to the condition of affairs outside. from the British Legation. get away. and made them more com- fortable. About four o'clock we got into the Fu and at once Mr. but some boiled water among nothing the so . though they cried bitterly for food. during which time the infants and children suffered especially from Dr. The students were at the rear of the line of march up Legation Street. until finally Major Conger came and gave the order. thirst and heat. Morrison met us on horseback and led us to Su Wang Fu. that they stopped for nothing. not even a change of clothing. not knowing whether we were to be admitted or not. When the order came for us to go to the Legation we carried our bedding and whatever other things we could on our backs though many were so frightened. which from that time we called the " Rock of Ages cleft for us. Saville brought hunger." Here we remained in an open court in the hot sun with nothing to eat or drink for four hours. If we . and Dr. " We want flour and rice.

" said he. for by that time the Fu was untenable by civilians. and as several of our number had been wounded and relieving of gangs for the workmen. whether of Defenses. but we and let The next day we formed ourselves into a com- mittee of eight one from each of the Protestant missions and four from the Roman Catholic the duty of which was to provide men for the foreigners in charge of the various departments. however. all so tired that we went to sleep fire.128 live CHINESE HEROES we will will pay you for it. but if we are killed you " be the loser. with plenty of coal. Provisions. seeing that he had no took several bags of flour and fermented rice and when we reached the Fu found some huge iron kettles. . and to see to the and the preparation of food This. children while the men slept in the The them firing had begun at four o'clock. being under constant fire from the Boxers and Chinese soldiers. leaving only the Japanese soldiers and a few bands of Chinese Christians. some killed we decided to move into the Mon- gol encampment. was only for seven days. Sanitary Arrangements. and in a short time each one of us was feasting on a large flour cake with some salted vegetables. or General Labor. want. after which we prepared a large sleeping room for the We women and open were court." Take what you alternative.

" " Come on." said he. The Chinese had already taken a part of the Fu and had brought in a cannon to complete their When the Japanese saw this they conquest. They picked up his dead body and carried it back to the barricades but failed to cap- ture the gun. our head professor. " " ? We will. As Professor Lu could not make himself understood as being the head of the General Committee he did the wisest thing he could under the circumstances went. to It was felt whom he appealed. . to defend the place. who weighs not less than two hundred and fifty pounds. They had almost reached it when their leader was shot down. Fortunately for him he met someone who could communicate with the Frenchman. Be ready to die. then. " Who will go with me to capture that gun asked the officer. was amusing to see how little consideration by many of the foreign soldiers for those whom we had always had the highest respect. with one " voice. then. For instance. was taken by a common French soldier at the point of the bayonet to do coolie work. at the same time making a sally to capture the gun." said a company of Christians." " We will follow where you lead.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY 129 armed with spears or guns. for we know not who will come back alive. determined to capture it.

were given control of a gang of coolies. one a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University the other of DePauw. while our teacher of English was transformed into a messenger boy our hours being from 6 A. Two of our teachers. M." man ? " said his friend. M. of all it was necessary that the lives of the safety foreigners be preserved.. Teacher Lu was get him set free. But those of us who were at work on the barricades were in more immediate danger from the We realized that for the bullets of the enemy." " You cannot do anything with . " Taking him answered the soldier. on the promise that he would man to do his work. such a big man as he is if you get him into your trench you will never get him out again. Those of us who worked in the suffered trenches many hardships. and put to work on the defenses or in the trenches.130 " CHINESE HEROES What are you going to do with this to dig trenches. so that we often occupied without hesitation the most exposed positions in barricade-building rather than allow our . often to our knees in mud. to 8 r. and . having to work up pouring rain or a scorching sun. a bowl of fermented and not infrequently we were called out at night to help fight the fire. most of whom were our own students. in time of special danger we were often kept on duty all night. another was placed in charge of the scavenger work. with nothing to eat but in a rice. a And so.

STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY 131 In spite of this but foreign leaders to do so. This was the streets was especially exposed. r particularly true in crossing the Legation Street bridge. in case he shirked. Every one had his special work assigned him. with an occasional shell or cannon whizzing overhead or striking the wall we were building. not infrequently with the cannon balls or bullets whizzing past their ears or over their directions. " and he w as under a " boss who. heads. Hobart. went with him to Mr. one of our number was killed while carrying Often our bricks. where he was an open target from four Often they would wait until there was a lull in the firing and then cross with a rush. ran through the exposed places to build up the barricades or stood hail all filling sandbags while the shot fell like hearts almost failed us as we around ball us. though many were wounded. indeed when the danger was greatest their One traversing services were most in demand. except at such time as we were 7 ? . The danger to which those who were messenger boys were exposed w as equally great. for no matter how thick the shot and shell were falling they were compelled to go from legation to legation. and ordered that no ticket be given him. There w ere foreigners also appointed to take charge of the food supply and see that no one got more than his single cup of fermented rice. who had charge of the meal tickets.

and for which he was liberally rewarded. This was important news to us. met General Gaselee immediately after the battle at Yang Ts'un. thankful to get anything to fill our stomachs. It was one of the students in our industrial department who. officer some possible to secure for a copies of The Peking next day he was caught by the Boxers and condemned to death. as we had cut down rations to one cup of rice a day and were numbering the . Robe. head and feet of the mule that was killed for the Europeans.CHINESE HEROES treated to the entrails. but finally released by the head Boxer because he was really a priest. which we re- ceived with pleasure. in order if Japanese Gazette. being sent as a messenger to Tientsin. when several of our boys were rummaging through a junk shop one of them discovered an old gun. This was after" wards mounted and became the famous " Betsy of the siege. A man who had formerly been a Buddhist priest. and received the assurance that the Allies would be in Peking within five days. During the time that gunner Mitchell was making his fruitless efforts to construct a cannon out of a pump. delivered his letters. was rehabilitated in his original Buddhist garb and let down from the city wall at night." He discovered a large amount of arms and ammunition in a Buddhist temple which he " The afterwards revealed to Col. but had been converted and joined the church.

tidings he brought. ." my feet got pustules A number of the students had returned home before the Boxers reached Peking and none were placed in more serious situations than they. " Oh. One. was about to be delivered over to the Boxer chief by his elder brother." His brother Moses was engaged in the same work. Cannot you think of a plan for his safety?" said she to his uncle. Aaron the : son of one of our leading preachers. when his mother interfered. but in twenty days and back at my coolie work again. building barricades and digging ditches. One day while work- ing in a ditch a bullet went through my right I was as well as ever leg. nothing happened to me except that my hands became blistered and on them." replied " the uncle. says " I was a coolie in those days. We were But our spirits rose with the discouraged. to prevent their troubling the rest of the family. " " No.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY men all 133 another cut when he got in. " do not know. for Li. and when asked about his experiences during the siege he replied." But what will yon do with him I " ? asked the brother. he shall not be given up. I know of no better way than to shave his head and make a Buddhist monk of him. saying. the only Christian in the family.

they breathed lightly on the spot to see if the cross could be brought out in this way." said the lad Lord. " You are not Christians. and many Christians were so afraid that it was true that they felt compelled to wear a hat drawn down over their forehead all summer. to find if there were any days." " ." or there." said " the father. Pursued by the Boxers they went to a small town two hundred and fifty miles from their home and put up at an inn. deny my " It was beyond my fondest hopes that I was not killed." said the head Boxer. They first rubbed his forehead between the eyes and above the nose to see if there were a cross there. and that I am still a Christian and not a monk." said the Boxers. "Examine me first. your cap. called the Jade Mountain." you would have a cross . Being obliged to leave this place they fled under cover of the darkness to a place " twenty miles away.no cross." Another of the boys with his father went to Here they hid for two the home of a friend. Christians among them. for the Boxers believed that all Christians could be detected by this sign.CHINESE HEROES " No. presenting himself before them. Here the Boxers came to inspect all guests. Finding." where they remained a few days longer. off Take He did so. but none appeared. I will die rather than And he adds.

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When tions in which they duty called they promptly gave up posiwere getting $50 to $100 per month and returned to their work. sitions as teachers of schools instead of" board- the children brought them small quantities of money or meat. sible to receive them. would be regarded as followChristians. on $5 to $10 per month. as was most convenient to their parents. as preachers or teachers. which position they kept till the Boxers were dispersed.STUDENTS OF PEKING UNIVERSITY The father 137 and son then purchased pens. even Two of the students fled ers of the foreigners. and there found po. In some cases whole families fled to the Great Wall and remained in one of the towers until all danger had passed others went to the homes of relatives but only to be told that it was impos. ink and visited all the native schools as and books booksellers but this proving unprofitable business. . as those who entertained though they were members of their own families. and money being exhausted. ing around At the close of the siege a number of the graduates and most of the members of the higher classes were employed as interpreters for the officers and soldiers until school opened. or until the country was in a sufficiently settled condition to justify them in returning to their work. to Mongolia. laboring as common day-laborers to secure food " on the way. they hired themselves with a family to work for their . their board.

and it was decided that we might return home with close of Conference. knowing Fu-h'siang's soldiers. who held the city we dared wall beside the school. . the 26th to year of Kuang Hsu. nth we were to go home. we could depend. in All day we gathered in the hands of the Lord. soul and spirit. or in a general group. commencement was have oc- On the curred on the loth of the 5th moon. twos and threes. It the preachers at the had never occurred to us that the persecutions would be so fierce that this hope could not be realized. from all sides. hearts that . and we resolved to place ourselves. were ready to destroy us at any moment. body. but on account of the Boxer uprising the examinations were four days earlier. for Tung not utter a sound. being completed on the 6th.138 CHINESE HEROES EXPERIENCE OF THE STUDENTS OF THE PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL IN the spring of 1900. and spent We sang. with all we had. As it became obvious that we must forego <_> all expectation of seeing our parents. and as the daily reports of the Boxer disturbances came in the girls became more and more There seemed to be nothing on which agitated. but it was in our the time in prayer.

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When this we were frightened almost to death. On hearing this the principal informed us that we must watch and be ready at any time during the day or night. Most of the night we spent in prayer r the morning dawned clear and bright the Boxers had not come and our hearts were filled with gratitude. her idea being that die we were to we heard we would all die together. and our principal exercised all her ingenuity in devising ways and means of preserving our lives. or if we slept it w as but for a moment. From this time forward the Boxers thought of nothing except our injury. school. On the night of the i3th the Boxers deter- . When place. for we dared not take off even our shoes. At six in the morning we returned to the able to work. On the evening of the I2th we were ordered to prepare to go and sleep in the church. received the women refugees.PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL the evening of the on horseback to say that 141 On i ith a messenger came it was the intention of a band of hoodlums to loot the school and carry away the girls. not being . We could not sleep. as twenty foreign soldiers had come from the American Legation and were then guarding the All day the men built barricades and watched for the enemy and the girls. pre- pared them food. and kept watch lest the enemy burn our buildings. for if the Boxers came she would ring the bell. which would be the sign that we must once in all gather at if the schoolroom.

Since they had failed to get our blood on the i5th they decided that they would have it on the iQth. but again they were foiled. . In the evening we gave ourselves into the Lord's hands and mined went to sleep in the well fortified that it had been so was hoped they would not be able to break in. on the 1 5th. might bring forth. At midnight on the 1 Daily we thanked the Lord 6th. and the i8th was spent in guarding against their entrance to the compound or burning our buildings.142 CHINESE HEROES to get the blood of the school girls to offer in sacrifice to their gods. On a minute. . Once more. a second. but once more If they came by daythey were unsuccessful. but when morning came we were once more able to surely effect thank the Lord for protection. ! an entrance during the night. and if they did it would be a good place from which to go to heaven. for what was passed and prayed for protection in the future. just outside the city wall opposite the school. On street the evening of the i /th they burned the chapel and other churches and missions throughout the city. night was made hideous by a vast multitude of Boxers screaming at the top of their " Kill kill!" We thought they would voices. but throughout the day we knew not what an hour. the Boxers determined that they would have our blood for their gods. church for it the morning of the I4th we again thanked the Lord for raising us as it were from the dead.

and our joy was as great as our o pfrief had been. As there were four courts in the compound we put four girls in each company. This condition of affairs continued until ten o'clock of the 24th. and while she was trying to comfort us Miss Terrell brought the good news that a second message had arrived saying that not only the girls but all the Chinese Christians should go with the foreigners. announced to had ordered all the foreigners to leave the mission and go to the Legation. when Mrs. and it was feared that prise if they came upon us suddenly suffer defeat . requesting them to go to the Ya-men and talk the matter over. viously offered an escort to the foreign ministers to induce them to leave the city. Jewell with a sad face us that the American Minister assuring them that the soldiers would meet and protect them and that they stood ready to pro- . so that if anything happened in any part of the premises it would be reported at once. M. It was the next day that the treachery of the They had preTsung-li Ya-men leaked out. M. The school court was large. We divided into six companies and kept watch from 6 A. in our sur- we would we therefore sta- tioned girls in the upstairs rooms to keep a were lookout and warn us if they came. When she said this every one of us burst into tears. to 6 P.PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL light 143 we were ordered to gather in the north room of the school where the soldiers could protect us.

When we arrived we pulled dry grass and The largest of scattered it about to sit upon. Prince Su had been unwilling In to give it up. but were stopped by the foreign soldiers. which was to massacre the Christians as soon as they could induce the foreigners to leave the city. As we had just arrived and had but few soldiers we were unprepared to defend ourselves against an enemy which was like the sands of the sea for multitude . one suspected that it was their intention to massacre them. at 4 P. and in this we dwelt. No harmony with the order of the American Minister we left Hsiao Hsun Hu Tung and fled to Su Wang Fu. Morrison that they might batter down the gates and he would flee and we would have it. but he told Prof. we girls therefore resorted to prayer. Janes and Dr. as was the case with the German Minister. and half an hour later an innumerable company of Boxers together with Tung Fuh'siang's soldiers rushed up Legation Street. . ness to see that it was habitable and defensible.144 tect CHINESE HEROES the native Christians. M. which would prevent his losing favor with our enemies and preserve his These two gentlemen made it their busihead. Thenceforward we were aware of their deceit and their intention. the buildings was prepared for our accommoWe arrived there dation. intending to massacre all the Christians. lest he himself should be supposed to be in league with the foreigners.

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two of our pastors. but before it was ready fire broke out in the region of our new refuge. The building next to the one in which we were living caught fire and in the twinkling of an eye our house was in flames. Thence we fled to a pawn-shop. and we soon discovered that Prince Ch'ing's troops time. had overcome the Boxers for the we could do was to make sand bags The bullets fell like hail and for our defenders. On the 28th there were conflagrations everywhere and the fighting was almost hand to hand.PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL 147 asking the Lord to open a way and help the men to fight. there being only a wall between our men and the enemy. to our great dismay. who were ers set fire throwing bricks at each other as well as fighting with weapons. It was now nine o'clock at night and we had not yet had our breakfast. we did not dare go out of the house. but as they had succeeded in extinguishing the fire at the Fu we w ere ordered to return to our origr . clung to the Lord. hoping to be safe there. but we had hardly saved ourselves when. had fallen. and we were compelled to flee. As there was rice in the pawn- work to prepare something to eat. The BoxAbout all on all sides in the hope of burning us and the fiercer the fire burned the closer we out. We fled to the Monset to shop we gol Encampment. Wang Ch'eng-p'ei and Liu Chi-hsien. Though we ran directly across the line of battle not one of us was killed.

but returned to the large " building in the evening. .148 inal CHINESE HEROES From that time until the dwelling-place. We again us. On the evening of the 3rd our big building fire caught it. 2nd of the 6th month there were fires and fightday. and our ing every home was once more Fu (the in- almost destroyed. and was utterly destroyed. and afterwards died. . The fire raged it seemed in reality like a great sun. was terrible That night the Chinese soldiers seemed debut clur- termined to rush upon and destroy the flashes of lightning the foreign soldiers encountered and defeated them and they fled. fled to the Mongol Encampment. As there were not mills enouo-h to o grind the wheat we ate it o We . nevertheless our trust was in the Lord and we were at peace." for the reason that the buildwere all huddled ing was half shot away. That night we could not sleep a wink. This time we fled to Chan Shih stitution that takes charge of the education of the heir apparent). We together in one corner and one of our number was wounded. When our food was almost exhausted we discovered a grainshop where there was an abundance of wheat and broomcorn. and we knew not at what moment it would consume us. the 5th of the 6th month the Boxers took an oath to annihilate us or be blotted out themselves. On prayed that their oath might be fruitless and our prayers were answered.

Jewell divided us up into companies. as there had been no opportunity to bury them. saying that from this time they would fight no more. and continued their work of All fortification. awaited the arrival of the foreign soldiers. ing thirty. lines of communication between us and the world had been severed and the British Le- gation repeatedly sent couriers to Tientsin to Each time let the world know of our condition. and so when there were not enough men to do the gation. but their idea was simply to bury their dead and begin the battle again. but we began sewing again on fifty. we wrapped our queues around our heads like boys and joined in the work of carrying bricks. as they work Mrs. but this was not enough to keep us busy. Each day it we washed clothes for the foreigners in the Le- had brought but few with them.PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL 149 whole. the until men were overworked. On the 1 9th of the 7th month we heard the firing of their guns and our joy was such that we could return in Every day we . makone hundred a day. By the latter part of the 6th month there had been so many of the Chinese killed that the decaying bodies caused a continual stench. was not long sand-bags. a courier left we prayed that he might go and anxiously safety. Happily the foreigners were not deceived by their wiles. The Chinese asked for a truce. and what flour we had we saved for the It seemed sad that we were idle while soldiers.

borwere. Thereour time washing clothes for the spent soldiers. and on the 26th of the 7th moon we were finally settled in the American section of the Tartar City. with what we earned with our needles or by washing. however.150 CHINESE HEROES not sleep. west of the Ch'ien-men. without books. but this we soon vacated for the accommodation of the soldiers. enabled us to plied our needs. but still found it necessary for several girls to We We . that we might be able to earn enough with our needles to clothe our backs. The character of the food and air during the many of the girls in a debilitated condition which began to manifest itself left 6th month had soon after we reached our new home. rowed what we could from the American Board. As we had lost all our possesin fever sions the principal sought work for us. From the Legation we were first moved into a house in the Russian section. at which time a Mr. provide ourselves with clothes for the winter and we decided to begin our studies. But when the 8th month without wadded garments. Yang from the Mongol Encampment gave us a large number of old garments which when we washed and altered suparrived still we were These. and we divided ourselves into committees to care for them. first On the afternoon of the 2oth the of the troops arrived by all in way of the Water Gate and they were after we by evening.

the entire school having saved but five New Testaments and six hymnals. King gave us each a Bible and we bought forty or fifty hymnals. but a little later Mr. either schoolroom or dining room. When all these things were arranged we bebers. After a few weeks we made such alterations in two of the buildings as to enable us to utilize one for a chapel and the other for a dining room.PEKING GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL 151 were also without study from the same book. We gan school in earnest. Her beyond the power of words to express. Such were some of the experiences of the students of the Peking Girls' High School to return to . the elder girls acting as teachers for the younger. study and sleep in our cham- We were without a chapel. even her salary was spent in purchasing materials for us to use. so that we were forced to eat. When we were in our most straitened circumstances we received aid which was subscribed and sent to us by some of the Japanese and Fukien school girls. When she was about America we made a number of dolls which she took with her. Our hymnals and Bibles were nearly all lost. hoping that she would be able to sell them there. but we all gathered together and worshiped in the court. spending any extra time we had on work which Miss Gilman sold for us whenever is kindness to us she had opportunity.

but his answer was. About eighty li from Peking the troops of Tung Fu-h'siang on their to the city." The railroad had been destroyed. shepherd should be. Some scowl brought them to their senses and we arknew we were rived at T'ang Shan in safety. and to better prevent inquiry we concluded to call our presiding elder Chang- of the students at times forgot this rule and called him pastor. and whether we live or die we are in the Lord's keeping. yet our method of protecting ourselves by calling our " " furnished the younger memchief pastor Boss bers of the company with no little amusement. . and though we had Christian books in our carts they were not discovered and we suffered no inconvenience. Though the road was quiet all the way to T'ang Shan \ve did not dare to let the people know we were Christians. We surrounded by danger on every side. and he and Presiding Elder Wang Ch'ing-yun hired carts and we all started across " Where the flock is there the we met way country together. but a stare or a kuei-ti.152 CHINESE HEROES THE FLIGHT OF TEACHERS LIU FANG AND many of the WANG AFTER T'lEN-HSIANG the Conference at Peking brethren urged Pastor Ch'en Heng-te not to return to his work at Lao T'ing.

(The lady in front of him is his wife. He was at Tsun-hua superintending the building of the Girls' School when the Boxer trouble began. On his way home he was captured while at the inn.ivi Fang and older man is Mr. head of the Industrial School of Peking University. and taken before a Boxer chief. Liu. builder of Durbin Hall and Asbury Church. and his daughter. the child his son. by whom he was liberated. On reaching home he found that his wife had been killed. Mrs. carried to Prince Tuan's palace.L. Li (page 217). He hid until the trouble was past.) The . and is now helping to rebuild the mission.

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arrived at An Ke Chuang on the I5th of We the 5th month. holiday a number of Boxers The i3th being a came and examined the church door. P'ang Chan-hai place. now they were like grasshoppers which the wind had brought. and Liu Fang and I. Many of the people supposed we had been killed in Peking. remained ing our wives away to the in the chapel as a guard. on a donkey and dwelt with me later Pastor and a few to this Ch'en Heng-te.THE FLIGHT OF TWO TEACHERS When we arrived in the region of 155 Lan Chou. but as the situation . days and others yin. where Liu Fang was pastor. During the night Liu Fang brought his wife to An Ke Chuang for a time. and the Lan Chou church was closed and sealed by the official. On Sunday the people gathered at the church as they gather at a market-place. we could not but compare the conditions with what they were when we left. Rumor was rife in all this section. with foreign arms for our r own defense. the village elders interfered and trouble was avoided. Two weeks before not a Boxer was to be seen anywhere. the Christians scattered. and various reports w ere circulated to the effect that we had brought foreign soldiers and secreted them in the church. Wang Maofled On and the i2th of the 6th to moon the Boxers arose avoid trouble the elders of the village closed and sealed the chapel. after send- homes of Christians where we thought they would be safe. and principal of the Intermediate School.

On the 2Oth the effects of Mrs. who had been to T'ang Shan to prepare a place for his family.156 CHINESE HEROES in seemed dangerous we spent the night homes of Christians. of the village of Chun Ying. possibly. On the train o we we met Ch'en Heng-te. Daily we prayed. Chefoo. Ch'en were seized by the Boxers. Rumor arose among the villagers that we were sorcerers. to the effect that he desired to consult with us regarding various im- portant matters. Danger seemed to be on " " " every side and so we slept in a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. north of Lan Chou. becoming more and more firm in our religious convictions and having greater peace. read our Bibles and conversed about our spiritual condition. and a disposition was manifested to rob us of all our possessions. Ch'en free but had kept all her We returned to the chapel. we suppose. but on the ist of the 7th moon word came from one Han. but finding it unsettled there returned to An Ke Chuan^. where we things." The night was spent in prayer. remained a few days thanking God that no one was killed. The next day we the fled to T'ang Shan. At Chang Ke Chuang. concerning . but as Ch'en Heng-te had given up the hope of such good fortune we did the same. we found a place where we could live for a short time and on the iQth we went to Heng Shan Here we hoped to get a boat for Ying. and on inquiry we learned that the Boxers had set Mrs.

but that at night he had come to him secretly and during a long conversation had asked the reason for his fearless courage &> and the nature of his religion. that the this strange Mr. Just at this Yti-t'ing. concluded to flee thither as a place of still We knelt and prayed that the Lord would guide us. standing and the people alive. Wang informed us that Tientsin had been successful in overcoming the Boxers. church was and we safety. time a Christian named Wang a colporteur. joined us from Tientsin. tears streaming from our eyes. our freedom and the peace of the neighborhood but on inquiry we found that he hoped to bring about peace by inducing us to deny the faith. whereupon he had planned his escape and requested that when the trouble was over and peace restored he would return and teach the Boxer leader about way. and committed ourselves into his hands. who had already been captured by the Boxers under charge of poisoning the wells and had been liberated by the Boxer chief because of his fearless testimony to his faith.THE FLIGHT OF TWO TEACHERS 157 . and we concluded that unless we fled to a distant place the persecutions might be so strong as to tempt us to recant. . He told us that the Boxer leader had ordered him to be returned to the place whence he had been brought and kept until he could be delivered to the district judge. that there was neither joy in life nor fear feeling in death.

sat down by the side of little ate a melon. since to go back was impossible. within seventy did li of Tientsin. where we hired a small boat and on the 4th arrived at P'an Erh road was We Chuang. having been relieved of . At Lei Chuang we boarded the train on which we traveled to Ho T'o. where we arrived about sundown. but as we could find no inn we compelled to spend the night in a small cake shop or restaurant. We observed the position of their large guns and cavalry (which we and revealed to the Allies after it we arrived at Tientsin and as was of no faint we were the road and drank we some water and service to them). but found the road almost impassable. The and we were compelled to go muddy barefoot. The next morning we went along the river side to the East gate. W passed through the Ying gate and hastened the to West were gate. and rested at a small The people told us it would be difficult village.158 CHINESE HEROES started on the 3d of the 7th moon. prayIn ing all the time for grace and protection. and for a while we hesitated but decided to try. Our feet were covered with blisters and our legs ached but we limped forward. not dare travel the great road As we we went around by Pei Ts'ang and found ourselves in a camp of Chinese soldiers. to get into Tientsin. We crossed the river twice. this condition we took advantage of a small boat that overtook us and rode to the gate of T e Tientsin.

who would rescue his friends but other . They did so. Wang. Pyke. but not finding him he mixed in with the coolies of the o Japanese and went with them through the French settlement till he came near to Wesley Chapel. The hardships of the way was and went in Yii-t'ing were set free. and he was not able to control himself. Later we went to the where the American soldiers were quartered. o T'ien-hsiano. o soon set free Wang' T'ien-Hsiangsearch ot Liu rang. In the evening Liu Fang and Wang faint they of joy. Here came to the chapel weeping tears we lived for a month. where he saw Mr. it entire was intensely without either food or drink. and asked them to give us a South gate. though hot. Pyke and other friends. He hastened on in hope of reaching the Methodist mission and finding Mr. Weary and left Liu Fancy o in a weak condition and he was . soldiers took him the at him and kept coolie work during day. but we had no sooner entered the Concession T'ien-hsiang and Wang Yii-t'ing were taken and beaten by the French soldiers. than Wang Liu Fang being set free.THE FLIGHT OF TWO TEACHERS 159 our Mexican dollars by the Japanese soldiers whom we met by the way. pass to enter the foreign settlement. but tears gushed from his eyes and he thanked God for his rescue.

But none of these things moved glad that We were " we could bear the cross for Christ's sake. is determination to follow Christ.160 CHINESE HEROES work prostrated with fever. fever. and followeth not worthy of me. which was opened inside the city. Here we arrived a few weeks later to find all our possessions taken away. cross. and remembering his words. that after he that taketh not his me. our friends having suffered as much as we. until it was safe to return to our homes. and to crown it all we were kept at the point of death for some weeks with typhoid us. but the others were put to either as laborers or in the Young Men's Christian Association." we renewed our .

of equal faith and devotion. at the close of 11 . piety and scholarship. always in the front rank of the best students as to appearance. He was a member During a revival service. A few days before the outbreak. There were others. better prepared to battle with the new conditions now being thrust upon the Mongolian race by who had Western governments and peoples. conduct. already been proved by years of service and were thus rewarded with a martyr's crown. both because they were of the second or third generation of Christian manhood and womanhood and because in their youth they had secured the advantages of a better education.MARTYRS 161 MARTYRS OF death the Christians who were at faithful unto we have spoken some length concerning Pastors Ch'en Ta-yung and Wang Ch'eng-p'ei. he found the fullness of blessing only a few months before he was called upon to endure persecution. Among these none stand out more prominently than WANG CHIH-SHEN of the senior class of Peking University. and ready to enter upon a life of usefulness. the influence of which was felt throughout the various churches and schools of Peking and vicinity.

162

CHINESE HEROES

the college year, he went to his home, two hundred miles distant from Peking. When the

storm approached he was urged by all his friends to escape, as he was a marked man, but he reHe was taken by the fused to desert his family. Boxers and was offered the choice of recantation
or death.
his

To make
it

it

easier for

him

to

deny

Master

was proposed by the
his friends

be the idols in his stead, in which case they could " secure his release. "I will No," said he neither burn incense to idols myself nor allow any one to do it for me; not to mention the fact that it would be denying my Lord, I should never dare to look my teachers in the face
that
;

some of

village elders allowed to worship

again."

then exhorted his persecutors to personal repentance and an acceptance of Christianity.
to cease his preaching, which he refused to do, whereupon they cut off his

He

They ordered him

His arms and limbs were then severed from his body, which was hacked to pieces. Not less noble was the death of
lips to

stop his exhortations.

DR.

WANG CHUNG-LIN

The, first church established in his native village was opened in his grandfather's home by Rev. George Davis during one of his trips on
the

Nan Kung

circuit.

At

that time Chung-lin
in-

was a small but clever and mischievous boy,

MARTYRS
clined to have a will of his own.

163

Both his father and grandfather were anxious that he become a scholar, and so sent him to a Chinese school. There he was under strict supervision, while at home the parental government and mandates were equally rigid, until the boy concluded he could submit to it no longer. He begged a few cash from his father daily on the pretense of buying little things, all which he saved to help pay the expense of an adventure which he proposed soon to undertake. When all was in readiness he wrapped up his bedding but finding this too large a bundle he behind took a dollar of his father's it left money and turning his back upon his home
of fourteen, to face an unsympathetic world, like many another lacl beHis destination was fore and since his time.
started out, at the age

"outside the Great Wall;" an indefinite somewhere, nowhere, anywhere, everywhere. He did

what odd jobs a boy of that age can find, to fill an aching void which every uncared-for youth
of fourteen constantly carries with him, with but
indifferent success, until finally it dawned upon him, after two years of wandering, that his parents

were anxious
return.

to

see

him and longing

for his

was going along the road weary and almost starved, he met an old woman
as he

One day

whom
"

he greeted thus
lady,
I

:

Old

am

not a beggar, but

I

am

very

164

CHINESE HEROES

hungry; could you not give eat?"
"

me something

to

worthless boy," she rehow dare you, a big, strong boy, ask an plied " old woman to provide you with food ?
along,

Go
;

you

lazy,

"

This made him feel quite ashamed of himself, especially as he knew he was not a beggar though in truth he was in as dire distress as any

beggar could

be.

He
to

went- to an inn, but he was without

money

pay for his lodging and again he found himself compelled to beg, which with the rebuke the old woman had given him led him to decide to go home. It was some time after this when Dr. H. H. Lowry during one of his missionary tours found him at his home, poring over various Chinese medical books, and brought him to Peking. His father was an intelligent man and was made chapel keeper, while the boy was sent to school. For some years he studied and then entered
the church service as a local preacher, but his old medical tastes still clinging to him he asked
to be taken
Still later

as an assistant in the Dispensary.

he entered the Medical School, from which he graduated, and then completed his course in the Arts Department. Before the Boxer movement had reached

Peking he sent
father's

his

wife and children

to

his

home

Peking.

He

while he remained at his post in did not go into the Legation, think-

MARTYRS
ing, as did

165

others, that he would be safer was not long until he was aroutside. rested by the Boxers and taken into the college campus, where all kinds of threats were made and inducements offered to lead him to recant, What happened then we but all to no purpose. learned from our water-carrier, who had gone as a cook into the Boxer camp. One evening after they had massacred a num-

many
it

But

ber of Christians near the college he heard the following conversation
:

That pock-marked fellow was a brave one."* How was that?" " We wanted him to recant and worship idols, and threatened that if he did not we would kill him. It was a pity to kill as fine a scholar as he was and we did not want to do it." " What did he say ? Did he refuse ? " " Yes he grated his teeth together and said,
"
;
'

"

We
'

are

four

generations of Christians,

my
and

grandfather, my father, shall I be the first to recant
will
"
!

myself and
?

Kill

my son, me if you
a

"What
that kind
"
;

did you do?
"
?

Did you

kill

man

of

Yes we stuck a spear into him twice and threw his body under the college building." His bones and hair, with those of several other Christians, were found among the ruins and all buried together in the college campus,
*

Wang

Chung-lin.

166

CHINESE HEROES
this

where we hope that some one who reads
will offer to erect

a

monument over

them.

Both his father and grandfather were massacred, and only his wife and two little boys are
left,

but their story
in

is

left

for

the future to

write.

the early church, so in China, some of the noblest and bravest of our martyred dead

As

were women.
resisted

Among

these

none stand out

more prominently, both because of what they
and of what they endured, than two of
in

the

young lady teachers

our

eign Missionary hua, one hundred miles east of Peking. first of these was

Society Girls'

Woman's ForSchool at Tsun-

The

HSU HUI-FANG
who was originally a Peking school girl. She entered when she was but four years old and
till she was nineteen, being at that time esteemed by Miss Cushman because of highly her conduct and her ability. She was appointed

studied

as a teacher in the girls' school

at

Tsun-hua,

where she taught eleven years. She was at the compound in Peking when the trouble arose, and many of her friends urged her not to return to Tsun-hua. She answered " Miss Croucher has made me responsible for the girls and I must
:

go-"

She had been there but a short time when the
missionaries were ordered to go to Tientsin.

As

the pastor. where the Boxers followed and shot her in the face. they the night in prayer. after which she was sliced and burned. Liu Chi-lun. These were soon looted and the girls carried off prisoners. divided themselves spent into companies and fled to the homes of the Christians. but she refused to give up her religion for any inducement they could offer and this through thirty clays of trial the severity of which will probably never be known. Through the intercession of Rev." Ch'eng. but as she was without a home no one dared to receive her. As the wound was made by a Chinese matchlock it did not prove fatal. with these robbers to set them They pleaded in vain free. One of the Christians took her to the mountains. either as the concubine of a high official or the second wife of a wealthy farmer. Ch'in's story. but the An now " a The second of these young lady teachers was . where to behead her. plain." and is doubtless rejoicing in the possession of crown of life.MARTYRS we have 167 already seen. and being without food or drink they were forced to come down to the. in Mrs. She was " faithful unto death. She was once more caught and twice offered life and wealth. She was finally carried off to P'ing an attempt was made headsman's sword broke in twain upon her neck and the rabble rushed in and pierced her with their spears. and the interference of the official they were liberated.

She was faithful as good and upright as a a worker. afflicted enthusiastic as a Christian. espethe matter of Christian living and thus were moved by her influence or uplifted by . with seventeen of the girls and others. and became a teacher in school at Tsun-hua. " though we are not worthy to die for him we are ready and willing to do so. and killed. None moved however. it being feared by her teachers that she could live but a short time." The Boxers were angered by and threatened of their threats her exhorta- to kill her at once. her grace. " Lord for his own work as a teacher. She. grace to save tions us. and with consumption she Being left the school in Peking. diligent as a student. She exerted herself to develop the best that was in the girls. She daily be- came more respect of cially in all all prayerful. and will depend upon his ." says my in" seems to have been selected by the formant. and afterwards ascended into heaven how the disciples one after another had met death because of their faith. girls' however. She the rallied. her." girl. and thus won the loving the students. who from the time of her birth. and she continued.168 CHINESE HEROES LIU WEN-LAN. and without . As they were being led to the place of execution she reminded them how the Master was persecuted. was captured by the Boxers.

MARTYRS
a tremor she offered
as

169

her head to the sword, her fearlessness in death to though by strengthen her companions for the coming trial.

To\i Lien-ming

Coupled with the name of

Wang

Chih-shen
is

among

the students of the University

that of

TOU LIEN-MING
At
the revival service held in Peking in 1900,

not long before the close of school, he received a rich baptism of the Spirit. He was a member

170

CHINESE HEROES

of the senior preparatory class, and returned to his home near Tsun-hua well prepared for the
persecutions which awaited him. He was seized by the Boxers at
his

home,

taken to the temple and ordered to burn incense and knock his head on the ground before the idols, both of which he refused to do.
"

He
I

is

a devil of the second class," exclaimed

the crowd.
"

"

am not a devil," he answered. What are you, then ? "

The slender youth straightened himself up and without a sign of fear replied, " I am a Christian;" and in answer to further questions began to explain what it meant to be a follower of the Lord Jesus Christ. " " Kill him Kill him cried the mob. " No, no, not here it is not proper to kill him in front of the temple take him to the street which has been set apart for the slaughter of
!
! ;

;

devils."

While they led him forth he continued to exhort them, urging them to listen to the truth, until many of those who followed the irresponpricked to the heart, as they afterward reported, and would have saved him if they
sible
felt

mob

could.
"

It

was when they were about
kill

to put

him

to death that he said,

Though you can

our bodies, you cannot
will

kill

our souls; hereafter we

live forever,"

and with that they hacked him

to pieces.

MARTYRS
His death had a profound influence on
low-students.

171
his fel-

In relating it to his teacher they spoke of it as a triumph of faith, a victory over death and the grave, and when her eyes filled

with tears they gathered about her, saying, "Do Think what a not weep, do not weep for him.
glory
it

was

to die like a

for Christ, rather

man, bearing witness than to be killed like a dog in
all

the street.

We

would

be glad

if

our death

could be like that of
LI
"
"

Ton

Lien-ming."

TE-JEN

What

the matter, Te-jen ?" Nothing," answered the boy addressed, while
is
"

only my feet are blistered with walking." " You are too small to go all the way to Petears filled his eyes,

king we home."
;

will hire

a cart and send you back

"

I

will
"

not go back," answered the plucky

I am determined to go to school." This conversation occurred between a missionary and the smallest of a company of boys he was taking from Shan-tung to Peking, a distance of four hundred miles. He was a little boy, the son of a little woman, slender and undersized, but the disposition man-

lad.

ifested at this time

is

a fair index to his char-

and a criterion of his life. His virtue consisted not in quantity but in He was an quality, not in mass but in fineness.
acter

172
artist.

CHINESE HEROES

Sunday school lessons were made interesting to hundreds of little folks by his crayon drawings during his college course. Maps and

pictures illustrative of the branches he taught decorated the walls of the school in which he

became a teacher after his graduation, and the pupils who came under his tuition bore, not the impress of a master mind, but the marks of a devoted Christian character. At the close of the Conference of 1900 he with his family went to
visit friends

at

king.

What

Ch'ang P'ing-chou, north of Pehappened when the Boxer move-

ment reached

port has it with his wife and child was butchered
;

One rethat place we know not. that he fled to the mountains and
in

a cave

where they were in hiding while another says that he was returning to Peking in a cart and
outside the
that he

An Ting gate the carter reported was a Christian, when he was taken by the Boxers and, with his whole family, put to

death.

The persecutions reached their climax in our church at Ch'ien An, at which place there were a noble company of martyrs, less noted perhaps,
because occupying a more humble position, but none the less faithful to the Lord whom they had undertaken to serve. Among these their
pastor,

YANG NIEN-TSENG

Diligent as a student in his he early became a teacher of the various youth

stands at the head.

MARTYRS

173

native branches of learning, which were of no little assistance to him after he had embraced the

was an enthusiastic Christian and a preacher of some ability. His son was a student in the Peking University and had just returned home on his vacation when the Boxers first took him prisoner. The villagers besought them to
Gospel.
liberate him, offering themselves to go security for his good conduct. They did so, but the

He

next day they arrested both him and his son,
saying,
"

We

will

not

kill

die to propitiate the gods the sins you have committed."
"

must

you both, but one of you and atone for

have received the greatest grace," " I should be the one to die said the father,
Since
I
;

moreover, to lay the Master is the greatest glory that
life in

down

one's

the service of
is

vouch-

safed to

man;

I

gladly receive the sentence, that

may live." my He was taken away and

son

put to death and his

body was given to his son, who had it placed in a coffin and carried back to his native town for
burial.
it

people, however, refused to allow to enter the village, and the Boxers came
it

The

once more, took
coffin.

away, and burned
left

it

in

the

without any means which is usually the of support other than that Here is an heritage of a Methodist preacher.

His wife and son are

excellent

opportunity for

someone or some

so that he without an heir. bound him and hung him to a tree. League Not less enthusiastic as a disciple was LIU TUNG youth he was a lover of learning. and when the Gospel was brought to his attention he not only accepted it but spent a large portion of his time searching the Scriptures that he might under no circumstances be without a reason for the faith which he professed. His whole family became Christians as a result of his exhortations he was made a local preacher his . If I forsake God I am without hope of . as his family was well- a to-do. His wife returned to the home of her parents.174 CHINESE HEROES to establish a perpetual scholarship in his memory for the education of his son. From and spent large portion of his time in efforts to spread the Gospel without any assistance from the church. When after a night of suffering he died. with committing where prayers for his enemies upon his lips. but her reply was is not left Her parents in the God of : " I No shall Though they have killed my husband behold him again in the presence of the ! Father. the Boxer troubles were disturbing the country the people belonging to his own village took him prisoner. After a few months she gave birth to a son. himself to the hands of God. her to give up her belief urged her husband.

MARTYRS ever seeing him again. Many and of of the onlookers were his neighbors their dis- his own village and expressed approval by reviling the Boxers. why should you If the Lord has brought I me because " revile ? He was taken from the tree by the Boxers and led to a temple some forty li away. but I will never recant. He was made a local preacher and knew no weariness in his work for Christ. ceased not to persecute him. " He besought this punishment upon have been unfaithful in teaching the Gospel of the Lord Jesus. and that it was due to his devotion and enthusiasm many of the villagers and farmers were baptized and entered the Church. All the way he exhorted his . not believers respected him because of his patience. and so he was taken and hanged on the same tree with Liu Tung. saying. The same tree on which Liu fruit in Tung was hung bore other martyr the person of LIU SHEN Originally he was a Chinese doctor and was the first to accept Christianity at Ch'ien An. there to be put to death. them not to revile. either because of their own evil nature or because they misunderstood his motives." 175 kill No you may ! me. though there were Many of those who were others who. He was indifferent to reviling and always answered it with exhortations.

His interest in He church work soon led the missionary in charge to employ him as a chapel keeper and the love of the church to the members was a constant testimony wisdom of his choice. when. Even while he was dying. Even this did not silence him. their headquarters. was taken by the Boxers and led to the temple of Yii Huang. slapped him in the face. his face wore a look of happiness and peace. " Nay do . but they answered. put me to death at once. All the way to the temple and after he was bound he continued to exhort them. not put me to shame. angered by his exhortations. "You still preach." Not less enthusiastic as a Christian was the chapel keeper. one Still he ceased not. and the Boxers tried to induce him to sacrifice to their gods of clay. he captors. are told. smoked him with incense. but was so impressed with the doctrines of the Christian religion that he at once put away his false gods and joined the church. where he was bound to a stake. so much so as to cause the Boxers . and when they reached the temple.176 CHINESE HEROES would not listen. and they finally cut out his tongue. He condemned by their own consciences. do you ?"slit his mouth from ear to ear. LIU MING-CH'IN was originally a druggist by profession. or until a brute exclaiming. and cut off his we hands and feet.

12 .MARTYRS to 177 their only wonder and remark. Their prayers were finally conversion of his entire family." Among those of humbler station we may mention He was a YANG T'AI He was farmer. in the answered Before the Boxers came to his village he went to them. saying. and for it way of was. accounting " He has eaten the medicine of the foreigner until he does not fear to die. though his by were bitterly opposed to his joining the people church and put every possible obstruction in his his first He would steal out at night and meet way. was through my influence that my family became connected with the church. the persecutions were confined to no one class or condition. when together they would pray that a way might be opened for him to enter the Church. with the other Christians. who not only favored his becoming a Christian but joined the church with him. but let the rest go free. deeply impressed knowledge of the Gospel." After extorting a large amount of money from the family they put him to death. now I beg of you that they all may be saved and I will lay It " clown my life with pleasure. As with the early Christians.

Having secured his own liberty he then sought to secure the release of the rest of the family. who was at this time twenty-four years old. His whole family being Christians they were all together made prisoners. Among these was .178 CHINESE HEROES CHOU WAN-CH'UAN was a small merchant. and when she saw the whole family in the hands of their enemies she insisted on following them. being acquainted with some of the Boxer leaders." said the vil- lagers. This they refused. The wife of his fourth son. Roman or English predecessors. of these Chinese Christians exhibited a bravery in the presence of their enemies. a boldness in the fear of the Lord and an indifference to death worthy of their old Jewish. " And why live if family are put to death ? followed her people. her husband. When they came to the Boxer headquarters. He requested that they would allow him to die in the place of his mother. and my my husband " and all she asked and so . seeing the fidelity of his wife. in but allowed his mother to commit suicide her rather than be beheaded in the presence of this motley mob of human butchers. own home The rest of the family Many were all put to death. had been for some time in the women's training school. " You will be killed should I if you go. induced them to liberate him.

was taken prisoner on the charge of poisoning the wells. Boxers were so numerous that none of the Christians dared enter the city. so far forgot the prayer of their Lord as to seek the uncertain is human to the extent glory of a martyr's crown or a martyr's grave. bound. whose life had been so changed by his conversion that he was recognized by all who knew him tian's as a true believer in the Chris- God.MARTYRS LIU PI 179 a druggist. " " " Why do you bind me ? he asked. Under these . to the astonishment of the crowd. When named in the troubles arose a local preacher T'ang Chen-pang. and they were about to throw him in the fire to burn him to death. for we are told of one WANG who in HSI native village as well as the surrounding country had the reputation of possessing such strength that ten men could not hold his him. it is easy to die for the Lord. like some in the early Church. and thus perished. We cannot but fear that our Chinese Church of having in it those who. He was taken prisoner by the Boxers. in charge of the church a neighboring village." and with this he jumped into the flames. the common accusation in all cases where they could trump The up no other charge against the party.

whom he could easily have cast aside. while the former allowed himself to be arrested by two Boxer children. Can I and he knows now say I do not be- lieve in him ? You can deceive men but you deny him. No ! I will not Of like character was CHIA FU-SHAN carpenter. Hou Wang. curity for the imprisoned preacher." cannot deceive God." While there may be something about this case of which we have no knowledge it was the evident belief of our informant that it was an heroic deed a thing which we would not encourage in the present stage of the Church in China. his courageous defense of himself on account of some one who would go before the magistrate. we will liberate you.180 CHINESE HEROES circumstances Wang Hsi entered alone for the sepurpose of finding The latter. to deny the faith. HOU WANG a farmer. was liberated." they said." I replied believe in him." in have believed the Lord these " many years. " and promise henceforth not to worship the Lord " I Jesus. but at the time of his death the keeper of a small shop for the sale of originally a . The Boxers made strenuous efforts to induce . and without being bound he put his hands behind him and "willingly went to his death. "If you will give up your religion.

181 one of those ardent Chrisabsent from his place of He and his wife were taken and worship. but never . She had been for the training school in Tientsin several terms. " We. As they were being led out of the city to their execution the bystanders laughed at and He was who was never made sport of them. that of a Bible woman in the employ of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Do you then dare scoff at us?" . leaving but one child. Here she was in equal danger. to mourn the loss of her parents. bound. WU in and her family. and her life be threatened in Tai Ch'eng. She was taken to a temple where she was bound to a pillar and beaten across the breast. so that all could hear. the Lord Jesus. she returned to her home. thus well prepared for the work in engaged. and was which she was movement arose. a little girl. Not less pathetic is the story of MRS. which is when you come to die I fear that your lot will be much more pitiable than ours. the place to which she had been sent. because of our belief in go bound to our death. He called out. the Boxer to When seemed She was known to be an enthusiastic Christian and was one of the first to be captured. to us an honor They bent their heads to the swords of their murderers without fear.MARTYRS water tians pails.

The latter. returned him to the villagers. On the suggestion of a scoundrel it was decided to bury him alive. him and yet his enemies were not him free. notwithstanding he was recognized as one of the most patient men of the town. where they were beaten and then put into a cage. was constantly persecuted by certain worthless vagabonds because of his faith. finding nothing for which he could condemn No one was him. The father died of starvation and the wounds he had received. was also killed. As she refused to sacrifice to the idols a bunch of lighted incense was held to her face till the flesh was burned off.182 CHINESE HEROES uttered a cry. but the sons were afterwards liberated and thus escaped death. Boxers were greatly opposed to the unbinding their feet and as she had done so they first cut off her feet and hands and hung them on a tree. After they had dug the grave he threw himself willing to kill willing to set . Two other sons and her husband One were first taken to the official's. The women the Lord it so angered them that beheaded her and then hacked her body they praise to pieces. In this same village was a farmer named WANG TE-WEN who. and as she still continued to . together with his wife. of her sons. and at this time they brought him before the official.

A clay-stove maker. and requested that he be liberated. their wailing being heard for many li. His property was all taken from him and his wife and little son are left in a destitute condition." and for this reason they were burned at the stake. preferring rather to suffer with their son. fearing that the people would think that by thus accepting life they had renounced their faith. to die. before whom he had been brought." and also of being " able to ride on the clouds and the fog. But they. refused to be liberated. their The Boxer leader refused to request. by the name of CHIANG JUI-CH'UN were accused of being " rubbers of red and buriers of medicine. 183 show that he was not afraid to and thus they buried him. As a testimony to the good character of LIU SHU-FAN the people of his native place came in a crowd to the head Boxer. offering themselves to go security for his good grant conduct. and his wife A restaurant keeper named WANG CH'ING-WEN because of his enthusiasm spread the knowledge of Christ was treated with scorn in his efforts to . mother and wife at liberty instead.MARTYRS into the hole. When they were being exe- cuted the people wept bitterly. but offered to set his father.

and after that your gers hands and feet. fourth sons were also saved. though she will remain a Her third and lifelong cripple. she was saved. and though wounded in many places both with shot and knife. and see how you can stand But in spite of their reviling and of the pain. A man by the name of TS'AO YUNG-FU who kept city.184 CHINESE HEROES We will send your finand toes there first. Though she has teaches. still two sons to she trust the the oldest school. perished. but her husband.her suffered so much she Lord . others were cut into eight or more pieces. wounds were made in their chests. They were first shot with shot gate their clothing was then removed and guns taken . who as they hacked him to pieces said " You say that hereafter you : ascend to heaven. she crept to the home dead." will and reviling by the Boxers. his a leather shop in a village near the wife. and all were left for During the night his wife became conscious. sons and daughters were all prisoners and carried outside the East of the city. some had their ears. where. noses or lips cut off. with four sons and two daughters. of them sends to a Christian . his pain occasioned by their cruelty he neither lost peace with God nor his patience with his persecutors. of relatives.

Lord. which the Boxers were reluctantly compelled to grant. and as scholars are too rare in China to be promiscuously beheaded by an ignorant mob of superstitious ruffians. At nineteen he was married.MARTYRS JEN PANG-HSIANG 185 was a brilliant child and a good scholar. to study the Bible. and his life was so changed as to lead his father. . ardent than ever in the serv- was made lagers had been his pupils. they came out en masse and insisted on his liberation. but. his mother dying in his youth. to see if he could discover the cause of this remarkable change in the character and conduct of his son. he was left without proper care and grew up an unfilial boy. The young man was taken prisoner and the neighbors urged him to burn incense to their idols. On hearing the Gospel he was converted. or literary graduate. but this he steadfastly refused to do and His faithfulness joyfully went to the stake. but neither himself nor his wife was obedient to their parents. and as a consequence he also But as most of the vila prisoner. who was a Hsiu Ts'ai. and in this way the father was himself converted. who became more ice of the only served to strengthen the faith of his father.

"Yes." " " Bravo he replied. "You understand that there is great danger of your being killed.186 CHINESE HEROES CHENG TIEN-FANG: THE MESSENGER'S STORY ON the 3rd of the 6th month I was requested to go to Tientsin as a messenger for those who were besieged in Peking. but not for go money. I understand. rests with you." he continued." I answered." ' we will give " " is I do not go for money. and was first taken to see the chairman of the General Committee. ." I will The risk I will take the risk. Whether I ever return or not is in the hands of the Lord. ready to go to Tientsin to take a letter?" go gladly. who said to " me : Are you. "You are a true Chris! * One thousand ounces of silver." ." "If you bring us a letter back you a thousand taels. as a service to the besieged. I was in Su Wang Fu at the time. This a piece of business money could not hire me will It is an important matter and I to perform. " Yes I will " all " not take any responsibility." I answered. of your own free will.

with my head resting on my arms on the table. and while the thunder and lightning were keeping time to the shots of the Chinese soldiers and the howling of CHeng Tien-fang The successful messenger to Tientsin. He received $1. Lord go with you I returned to my duties. and may the rain. one half of which he gave to found a scholarship in Peking University. When I awoke and to Tientsin. . the Boxers without I knelt and prayed that the As I prayed Lord would go with me I wept praying and weeping again and again and finally.THE MESSENGER'S STORY tian. I fell asleep. 187 To-morrow you ! will start.000 for his service.

188

CHINESE HEROES

explained to my wife what I was about to do I found that she was bitterly opposed to my going. She wept, and begged me not to go, asking

what would become of her

if I

were

killed.

But

when I explained to her that I felt it was a duty I owed the Lord, and that perhaps the lives of
these people depended upon me, she submitted, promising to pray for me every day, which she was faithful to do, and her first greetall

ing

when

I

returned was,
"
!

"

My

prayers are an-

swered and you are safe The following day I went to see the professor of Japanese in the Imperial College (Tung Wen Kuan) and the Minister, to get the letter which they were to write. This I sewed in the heel of my shoe and started upon my journey. I had hardly left the defenses when a bullet I ran a few whistled close to my head. steps, rather frightened. Just then I saw a numbeing ber of people going along the street carrying bundles of things they had looted from burning buildings, and I mingled with the crowd, going
of Imperial Ancestors, where the decaying bodies of the dead, piled one upon the other, were so offensive as to compel

north past the

Temple

me

to hold
I

my

nose.

When

arrived at the

Tan

P'ai-lo,

the arch

where Von Ketteler was murdered, the stores were all closed and sealed and but few persons were abroad upon the street. I went past the Kuan Yin temple to the East gate of the city,

THE MESSENGER'S STORY
the two sides of
tents
all

189

and

soldiers.
;

the streets being lined with The gate enclosure was filled
I

with Boxers

went out with the crowd no one interfered and I was greatly comforted, and prayed that the Lord would go with me all
but as

the way. I arrived at
lined with

Tung Chou

entered a boat.

the evening and Both sides of the river were
in
arts.

Boxers practicing their

The

vile, and seemed and once more I like arrows entering my heart, I was worn out, and leaning against prayed.

conversation of the boatmen was

the side of the boat

I

slept.

not start, the Boxers were constantly coming on the boat to find Christians and their talk frightened me, but the Lord was with me and no one discovered my
errand.

The boatmen would

On

the 6th

we

started

and

after three

days and nights arrived at the red bridge at Tientsin and I continued to pray. On the east bank there were innumerable Chinese soldiers and so I could not go over there. I returned to

Fu bridge, where I went to a small inn. The innkeeper did not want to admit me but I begged so earnestly that he finally allowed me
the Pei
to stop.

went to the South gate, but strictly guarded by Chinese soldiers that I could do nothing, and I returned to the bridge and stayed all night. At daylight I went to the West gate, thinkthe loth
I

On

this

was so

190

CHINESE HEROES

ing I could get out and go to the French Settlement, but this again was guarded by Chinese soldiers, both outside and in, so I could
to
I once more prayed, thinking round by Yang Lu Ch'ing. forty li by the go When I got on river, and thus make my way.

not get through.

the boat a

day before he had gone to the Foreign Settlement but was beaten and could not get in, and I asked carelessly but particularly where the foreign soldiers were and where one could most likely get in. He said that both at the ticket office and farther north on the railroad there were numerous fortold

man

me

that the

eign soldiers. All of this I out seeming to be interested.

remembered with-

Ch'ing, where the innkeeper refused to receive me, as had been done at other places, saying that the Boxers
I

At dark

arrived at

Yang Lu

were hunting for Christians and would burn the inn if they found one there. I implored him as I had done the others, and as night was rapidly on he allowed me to remain. The next coming day was Sunday. I prayed all day in the inn, and with much care tried to find how I might be able to get to the Foreign Settlement, but I could secure no information and so on the I3th
returned to Tientsin, stopping at the Yti Lung inn, the proprietor being a native of my village. On the 1 4th I went to Ch'en Chia Kou, but

found the place carefully guarded by Chinese
soldiers

and again returned to the

inn.

That

THE MESSENGER'S STORY
night as

191

my brick bed I Lord would help me to get to
I I

lay on

prayed that the
Tientsin.

The

following day again went to Ch'en Chia Kou, where the Chinese and foreigners were fighting, the former being slain in great numbers and, piled one on top of the other, were being devoured by vultures and dogs, and as the firing continued I returned to the inn. Once more I prayed, and at daylight of the i6th I went to Ch'en Chia Kou. I walked to and fro till noon, but as the Chinese were on every hand I could not get in. The day was very hot and at noon the soldiers went
into their tents to rest.
this
I

Taking advantage of

hurried to the railway, where opportunity the foreign soldiers were on guard. They shot

Lord was round about me and their bullets went astray. As I waved a white handkerchief they knew I was not a Boxer and they allowed me to enter. After inquiring where I came from they sent
at

me

twice, but the

me

to the Japanese consul.

He

brought out a

Japanese map of Peking-Tientsin on which I pointed out to him the whole situation, telling

him where there were men, where none, where many, where few all which he wrote down, saying that if I had not come they would not have understood the situation in Peking and would not have dared to do anything. He then took the letters and went to see the commanders of
;

the Allied Forces.

On

the

1

8th they effected an entrance to the

192

CHINESE HEROES

native city of Tientsin at the sacrifice of a great

many, both soldiers and
away.

citizens.

A

large

num-

ber of Boxers were killed and the remainder ran

On every door a white flag was placed, and that night the people rested in peace. On
ter

the iQth the Japanese consul wrote a
it

let-

and gave

to

asking
ing
"
I

me to go me $200 in money.

to carry back to Peking, as quickly as possible and offer-

me

do not want the money," I said. " I came as a duty, and not for the purpose of making
money."
"

What

!

not want

"

money
to

?

he inquired with

surprise. " I will take

enough

pay

my

expenses,

if

you

please,"

I

replied.
I sewed the letter between $10. the outside of my shoe and left

He

gave me

the lining and the city by the East gate through the Russian The Russian soldiers arrested me, and district. as they would not allow me to proceed I was
forced to return to the consul.

The

following

day he sent soldiers with me to the Yii Lung Tien. All my clothes were stolen from me and I

was forced by the Japanese soldiers to return to I met him at the river, and when I the consul. told him all about it he sent others who conducted me to Pei Tsang. They had hardly left me when I met and was arrested by Chinese soldiers, who sought to find out whether I was a traitor, fearing, as they said, that I was a mes-

did they kill them?" "Why " They asked the men how matters stood in " From Tientsin and they said the Chinese had been deThis led the Boxers to suppose that feated. without this I I arousing suspicion. and they searched clothes except my shoes. The next day I went as far as Ho Hsi Wu. I That evening arrived at Tientsin.THE MESSENGER'S STORY senger for the foreigners. thanks to the protection of a good Providence." * ' and they " " How They which." did they kill them ? led them to the altar to burn incense it. having slept had nothing to eat all day. " sent up a dark When I heard as and leaving was greatly frightened. hurriedly as was possible." they answered. arrived at Tung Chou the following evening. and along the streets all the stores were closed and I Hua-men had 13 . as I 193 there was nothing all else meekly submitted. The gate enclosure was still held by the Boxers. but I was very hungry. when they burned smoke. my Yang Ts'un and on a boat. When I arrived at the Ch'i my head shaved and got something to eat. after which I entered the city. The Boxers here were as numerous as before but not so violent. where the Boxers had just killed three men. they were devils of the second class killed them. to do. " Where did they come from ? " I inquired.

000 English. i .000 Japanese. where the Chinese soldiers with Imperial edicts in one hand and swords in the other prevented the people from going to Legation Street. and inquiring about my adventures by the way. to see as a Messenger for the Besieged. The Ministers all wanted and shake hands with me. ters of all the countries was called and the letters were read which told them that on the 24th the Allies would start to Peking. .500 Americans. joined the crowd and went with it to the East gate of Su Wang saw the Japanese soldiers and told them I was the messenger returning from Tientsin with a message from their consul. ing and every one was happy praising the Lord. 4. with others soon to follow.000 Russians. i .194 CHINESE HEROES the people presented a frightened appearance. saying very many kind and comforting things. There were I Fu where 24. Such is the account of my experiences while going in the name and under the protection of the Lord. I passed the Tan P'ai-lo and went up the T'ai Chu Ch'ang. treating me with That night there was much singgreat respect.500 French. from Peking to Tientsin and return. 2. 300 Germans. As it was impossible to go further I walked back and forth. when suddenly I saw a crowd of people going through the Customs place carryI ing fruit to the Legation. They bade me come in and I gave them the A meeting of the Minisletters I had brought.

" Fu. Lord. " your name? " inquired one of them. How shall I ever be able to take these letters to Tientsin ?" Wang Fu I me breathed a simple prayer to God to " Give some method by which I might reach my destination in safety." The words had scarcely left my lips when I noticed on the wall a large straw hat. ripped it apart and concealed my letters between the two sections. .YUAN 195 THE ADVENTURES OF YAO CHEN-YUAN ONE OF THE FOUR SUCCESSFUL MESSENGERS TO AND FROM TIENTSIN WHEN the letters of the various Ministers had been committed to my care " I returned to Su saying to myself." is " What I am What " I re- plied.YAO CHEN. when do you wish me to it start " ? I the Legation I crossed the bridge and climbed over a wall of barricades into Su left When Wang me. and as was composed of two layers of straw I wet it. such as is commonly used by coolies in the summer time. after which I carefully sewed it together as before. where two Japanese soldiers said to are you doing here? going to Tientsin with letters. with the prayer " upon my lips.

had gone too far." careful or You must be took He me to a small lane at the outskirts of Yao CHen-yuan. I but . " told him he said. prayed the Lord for guidance and walked boldly onward. the barricades where he left me to go on alone.196 CHINESE HEROES I When ing tone. to turn back. in a kind but warnkilled you will be before you are well started on your way. had not gone far when I discovered that a Boxer watchman was stationed at the other end I of the street and my heart almost stood still. however. so I put on a bold front.

being early joined by a Boxer who invited to dine with him. but hsiang's soldiers to whom The I continued on its my way. satisfy who asked me my name. which was the destruction of a Catholic village and the murder of the Christians. He refused to accept payment for my entertainment and asked I me to take vows of friendship before left.YAO CHEN-YUAN " 197 Give me ten cents and I will let you pass. During the night a crowd passed by led by a woman Boxer a member of the Society of the Red Lantern ness. my busiand where I was going. which kindness I was glad to accept as I saw no other way of getting I continued with the solto the opposite side. As I seemed to them with my answer they went about their business. after which one of them offered to swim banks at across with me on his back. after which we separated. diers." was all he said. The next morning I continued on my way. joined myself and canal had overflowed the Eight Li bridge and at their suggestion we had our dinner. My way through the East gate was without when half way to Tung Chou I overtook some three hundred of Tung Fuincident. for which they paid. me That night I heard the keeper of the inn at . the which I was quite ready to do. stopping with them that night at a Mo- hammedan inn the proprietor of which was very kind to me.

so that his answer was not wholly fiction. [It ought to be said in Mr. saying that the The and Boxers were taking every one they suspected. The country was to flooded. and thus save me. while I at the same time thanked the Lord for putting it into the mind of a child to warn me. being crowded in . and perhaps the people of the Legation." and spent the night in peace." The readiness of my answer seemed to satisfy him and he allowed me to continue on my way. from a like horrible fate. I saw the fire kindled at which they burned twenty Christians. What for ? " "To find the head of a flower establishment which I was employed before this trouble broke out. I was compelled wade through water the depth of which I knew nothing about and I was wet and discouraged.198 CHINESE HEROES I which stopped say to a Boxer.] At the next village a shoemaker informed me that the road was dangerous. the head of which lived in Tientsin. Yao's defense that he had been connected with such a business. following day a child warned me not to go through a certain village. "Where are you going?" when a " " I am going to Tientsin." I answered. I had just emerged from the water his shoulder called man with a gun on out to me in a loud voice. I " We have no Christians here.

warning me not to go on the Great Road lest I fall into the hands ceed on my of the foreign troops and suffer at their hands. When man and " I came to the river I noticed a boat- accosted him as follows: Will you take me to the red bridge in Tient- sin ?" We do not he answered. I " to see that have taken nothing. " I understand." said he." " the Japanese soldiers are there shoot us. trouble you and I would spent in your camp." With pleasure. Please search me.YAO CHEN-YUAN . with a meaning which he did not comprehend." said I. 199 with Chinese troops a thing which I soon found to be true by being made prisoner and having my money all taken from me. and I left. but put me off some distance from the bridge. no." He returned my money. " the Japanese soldiers." far in the " protection of my enemies. and I in turn complained to the officer that I had been robbed by his troops. "do not is who let me did it." said he." can pro- On hearing this he readily consented." said I. and they will "You need tect you from " dare to go as far as the red bridge." I not be afraid. " until I see the day like to spend the night to that extent " . and I will pro- way. he . My money being all they wanted the soldiers at once set me free." said I." said I in the morning. So I spent the night No. " " Wait.

Where do you come from ? " they asked. to the British and American conI saw the American consul I him of all that the people in Peking were suffering how the Boxers were firing on them from all sides and trying to burn them out how each man was limited to a small cup of grain a day while at the same time they were compelled to labor like coolies. but waved my I was a mesand thus encountered no danger. to their headquarters. but the Russians refused to allow me to pass and I was They compelled to return to the red bridge.200 I CHINESE HEROES saw the soldiers in the distance. all of which he wrote writing. it began to rain." While he was they took me a higher official. where I and saw down." " Were you not afraid of the Boxers ? " " No. under burst into tears and told ." " You are a good man . dined with him. I took one of the letters out of the hat and showed it to " three Japanese officers who happened to be passing. handkerchief as a token that escorted me to the Foreign Settlement and then left me to go alone. in employments to which they . wait till I give you a pass. " From Peking. . as well as the condition of affairs in Peking. and then sent four of his soldiers to ac- company me sulates. and related all my adventures by the way. When a burning sun. senger.

He sent a man to take me to my room and I found among the servants one of my old acquaintances. " Where have you been ? " " To Tientsin. After a rest of two days I secured the letters where I siege similar to the one of the various consuls. "What for?" " To see the head of the flower establishment . I the city. and then had a good night's rest. met those who had passed through a I had left. robbed of all my money and taken to the tent of their officer. and started on my return journey. who when he saw my pass recognized it as that of a messenger from Peking and restored both my money and my liberty. Seven miles from the city I fell into a nest of Boxers. together with others from friends of some of the besieged. and found myself compelled to return and leave by way of the North gate of his protection. and I urged him to send soldiers at once to relieve them. the head of whom asked me.YAO CHEN-YUAN 201 were not accustomed. Benn saw how sore my feet were she washed and bandaged them with her own hands. depending upon the Lord for had not gone a mile from the city when I was arrested by two foreign soldiers. following day I went to the Methodist mission. When Dr. with whom I spent a pleasant evenThe ing. Two miles from the city I came to a stream I was unable to cross." I replied.

Outside the East gate I ate two bowls of vermicelli. where I turned west toward the British LeP'ai gation. wish to go to Peking can you tell me the safest route for me to take ?" After dinner I " . All the way through the city I was compelled . and I asked if I could dine with them. To Peking. I fol" . and after wishing him good-bye left. He I told me. thence south to the Tan P'ai Lou. I asked them to give me a melon. " lowed their direction. melon patch walked up to them and a Where are you going ?" they asked. taking the direction he suggested." I answered " can you tell me which road it would be safest for me to take?" They told me and.202 CHINESE HEROES I I with which was connected before answered. old he?" I "Seventy-six years. thinking that they would be less likely to disturb me if I first addressed them. as in the former case. reaching the city without further adventure other than that of avoiding several crowds of Boxers and Chinese soldiers. while I watched the soldiers and Boxers on top of the city wall. I went west to the Ssu Lou." replied without hesi- He said no more. is this trouble broke out. The following day. I said to the head Boxer. when passing watched by Boxers." "How tation.

as though to enter into a secret " I was alliance with him. originally a coolie in this place." he replied silver " . silver with "Only about " four or five ounces." " How much have you?" he inquired. Very well. Not that I want ." you ?" he asked. as 203 though I were merely lookabout and not going anywhere. noticed a Chinese soldier digging as though for treasure." " What is your name ?" he inquired further. The soldiers in the lines between the Chinese and foreign quarters were gambling as I passed and paid no attention In the Austrian Legation grounds I to me. " Yao Chen-yuan." Have you any replied. Please do not speak so loud." said I in an undertone. and finding them safe I have returned to get some treasure I have in the Su Wang Fu. What is your honorable name " " ? Wu Lien-t'ai. staring are you doing here ? speaking in a loud voice. " My home is in the country and I have just been to see if my family were killed. Walking up to him I addressed him thus " " : Hello! at What me and Captain. so that it ing took me from noon till evening to go from the East gate to the Legation. you give that to me." Well. " About one thousand dollars. now you go and get your " " and we two I will open an opium shop. what are you doing ?" " said he.YAO CHEN-YUAN to saunter slowly.

" Now are safe. : " passed on. here to make money out of the foreigners. "What " is this soldier's name?" asked the officer. and passed on to the Great street.204 CHINESE HEROES the silver. and the leader asked " What is this fellow doing here?" " Do not meddle with my affairs. Just then a crowd of Boxers came up. from the country." ." said I. him. Wu Lien-t'ai." said the " he is my friend." " If he is a " friend of yours." said the and get your money and if you cansoldier." and with this they soldier. While we were talking an officer with forty or and wanted to have me fifty soldiers came up killed." said the soldier to whom I had been talking " he is an old friend of mine " Do not kill . what is his name ? " Yao Chen-yuan. without hesita- tion. leaving us alone you go into Su Wang Fu. but it will cement our friendship and I will return it to you when you come back. Quite right. giving him what silver ' I had." "Very well." he said." I answered." he replied. not come out to-morrow stand behind the wall and hold your hand aloft that I may know you " . turning to me.

but I was led out through the Russian into the British Legation." replied. one after another. at which place I bade In a few moments the him good afternoon. he could not refrain from laughing. who had observed and recognized me. When he saw me ripping open the hat and taking them out. Here I met Mr. where as we entered he held aloft the letters. can sew it together again." he answered. to whom I told it much as have told it to you. Japanese soldiers. What do you want to do with it ? " I inquired. . I It is all Take it back to America as a relic of your trip. pulled me up over the wall and I was once more safe. where you will be safe.YAO CHEN-YUAN " " 205 Very I well. until I had given him eleven. who after a short conversation " asked I me for my hat. as I then supposed. Squiers. in order. not even concealing the deceit I was sometimes compelled to practice. He took me with him to the American Legation. King. I was at once taken to the officer and met Mr." said he. but how am I to get in?" " will take you to the end of that alley. to accomplish my ends. to whom I delivered the letters." he said. that While we were talking someone came to say Lady MacDonald wanted to see me and hear about I my trip. " " " ripped apart. The people clapped their hands and cheered and many of them wanted to talk with me." I replied.

1900. will never be forgotten by the church at Tsun-hua. to accomplish this end he circulated the report that in the mission com- . the matron of the girls' school and a few boys and girls who had no homes to which to flee. applied to for protection the official could only wring his hands and promise noth- Eleven men were appointed to watch the compound day and night. and girls. taken to the temple and placed on the throne of the "goddess of mercy.206 CHINESE HEROES THE STORY OF THE PERSECUTIONS AT TSUN-HUA. said to be possessed of a spirit." where he pretended to be sent from heaven to save the people of the place. When ing. 4th of May. was dressed in a long red garment. Two days later a child who sold sesame cakes. and before morning the compound was deserted with the exception of the pastor of the church. the missionaries received a telegram to leave the city. After darkness had fallen the missionaries drove away. for it was on that day that the schools. and we knew not whether we should ever see them again. containing one hundred boys 1 THE were closed. and the church members were advised to flee to their own homes.

all sides as well as the surrounding country the impeople flocked to burn incense to the little even the city official knocked his head to him but as the Boxers soon began to quarrel among themselves the child was pulled from the throne. Hsii Hui-fang. at the suggestion of postor . the official had him arrested. A few days later Dr. and a little later.PERSECUTIONS AT TSUN-HUA 207 pound there were nine large guns. with company of Boxers. Hsii had escaped and fled to the mountains. with the church and residences. if possible. and some of school girls the to the home of a Christian out- side the Great Wall. . The whole city was in an uproar and from . order. meantime his wife and Dr. Word Hsu went was Pastor Liu. and that if were not they. fared and was brought just in to them. The girls' school teacher was the only one of the party rescued. where they spent the night in a cave. Pastor In Liu. and Mrs. to save the women the the pastor sent their wives with the girls' and doctor school teacher. by a large to see how they time to be arrested. all destroyed calamity was sure to befall. who at once applied to of soldiers the official and secured a squad In the and went to their relief.

who was said to be so powerful and recruit in the skillful in the rites of the order as to be able to make a Boxer god out of a new short space of seven days. can The boy took off together. where they all remained that night. and they started about until nightfall. ." At this time but three caretakers. after which the girls were placed in three heathen homes. there is no one to help us " you not think of some way to save us ? " . " I am simply fleeing! I know not where to girls returning. Two of them were killed and the other returned to the school after the trouble was past. As the boy was leaving he met three of the school asked they. The following day the whole city was in an uproar. and rid the country of everything foreign. " Kill the followers of the foreigners o and burn their churches and homes.208 CHINESE HEROES the girls having been forced to wife with the robbers before the arrival of the soldiers. Thirteen days after the foreigners left the people went out en masse to meet a new Boxer teacher. and we could hear them calling out. " and where can we go ? going. wandering their bundles He then led them to the home of the mission gardener. three women and a boy were in the mission compound. " shall What we do ? " go" Brother. with tears " Where are you streaming from their eyes.

When they returned to the city to loot and burn the city chapel the pastor fled to the north side of the city followed by a of Boxers. looted and burned by the Boxers. The chief of police. " What " Come. only I am more anxious about three of the school girls than about myself. Yen. and sent him with several to a village north of the city where had his family had already been hidden fled to the North Mountains them.PERSECUTIONS AT TSUN-HUA " 209 said the chief of plans have you ? to Pastor Liu the following day. and I will " save you. have no objections." answered Pastor " other than to die for the Lord here." he proposed. crowd prom- rescued trusted men him." answered the pastor. who at great risk of her own life received both him but as they he followed sent to the home of one . and was finally Mrs. as he knew the character of such men to be too questionable to justify him " in entrusting school girls to their care. true to his ise. police " I have no plans for myself. and his family most hospitably and entertained them for a month. When the Boxers heard where they were they 14 . a relative of the chief of police. I let us become lifelong brothers." he answered. He therefore made other plans for the girls." Liu. too. No sooner had the people all left the com- pound than it was surrounded." " I will save them. This was a generous offer which Pastor Liu dared not accept.

" she said. M. and Mrs." " " weep What became She of her grandmother?" it mountains. What is the condition of affairs in and about " the city ? he asked at once. where she starved to death. the father. it is. the only " way to escape their wrath. I fear." At this time Pastor Liu received the following : terse note from the chief of police " Meet me at Ta Chu village as soon as Ho possible. and asked them for a drink of water. " and worship at the altar of the goddess of mercy ." At " three o'clock A. Yen came to the pastor in great agitation. " Come with me at once." posed "And the Tou family?" fled to the " is sup- Tou Pin.210 CHINESE HEROES threatened to take them all prisoners. why then should I worship that I would rather knock idol? my head to you It is than to that mud image." you who have entertained and cared for " us." he said he On ." said he. he started and walked to the village to adopted brother. They told him he did not need a drink as they were going to kill him in the mission premises. the way compound. was taken to the mission was thirsty. " Who of the church members have been murdered and who his meet are safe " " ? The girls' school teacher was brutally mas- sacred while exhorting her friends not to for her and to be true to their faith.

They were covered with mud. " offered them their lives if and worship their gods.his wife." " And His his family third. was massacred. with recant. were unwilling to renounce " " killed. where uous place for some " " was put up in a conspic- days. while the hair of each was clutched by a Boxer by whom they were led to the mission compound and there put to death. but all in said they would rather die than deny They their Lord." there any others killed in the mission compound ?" " Were One day I noticed the Boxers bringing in three persons whom on inquiry I found to be Yang Fu-chin." " Can you tell me of any of the suffered " ? others who "Scarcely a day has passed that has not wit- . and a Mrs. of the book-seller. ? fourth. Wang.PERSECUTIONS AT TSUN-HUA did he say ? " He said he never thought he should have the good fortune to die as a martyr at the place where he first heard the gospel and received baptism. and all fifth sons. with his daughter-in-law." " What " "How " did they kill him?" They cut out his heart and took it it to their headquarters." What became He. The Boxers would vain. and looked tired and hungry. Fu Tuan?" they Ho Ch'uan-sheng. as they were their faith.

giving half of it to his brother who had " . no doubt." " How was that?" " When they saw the Boxers coming they placed the women and children in the center with thirteen men around them. head." "What about the Christians at other places?" " I have heard that twenty-four of the Christians at Pao Tzu Yu.led by a helper. Chia." Did none of the I understand that Chang broke his spear in two. The Boxers attacked them with swords. rest escape " ? saved him. and they would have held out longer but for the fact that the children clung to their legs and It was thus the helper Chia fell garments. 'Every one for himself!' he pushed the Boxer before him through the mob and thus escaped. one of off his around " his queue." "Was he " He was which cut injured?" struck by a volley of stones. As Chang came up a Boxer made a lunge at him. Snatching it he thrust it through the Boxer's neck. and as he fell one Chang came to his aid and thus their lines were broken. spears and guns. which was wrapped and which thus. and calling out.CHINESE HEROES nessed the death of some of the boys or girls of your schools or some of your Christians. but the spear . went under his arm. a pistol and a few carrying poles resisted a company of Boxers with great bravery. went to the top of a mountain and with nothing but a spear.

where for more than a month I was During this time I prostrated with fever. A company of one thousand Boxers came to take us prisoners and we fled to a cave in the mountains. Yen and his own family had been taken prisoners by the Boxers.PERSECUTIONS AT TSUN-HUA fought caped." his way to his side. and tercede for the prisoners. let " the pastor Mrs. and the two es- Pastor Liu left the chief of police in heavi- ness at the news he had heard. ceased not to pray that the Lord would take me. tell : where she kept them for some days. At the same time the chief sent thirty From men to the head Boxer to in- After three days they were liberated on the payment of $60. . and not let me fall into the hands of my enemies for while thus weak and sick I could not but feel that it would be well if 1 could go and . Yen the story took my wife and child to an inn. to the city. bound. but his mind was soon turned in another direction by what he learned in an adjacent village that Mrs. after which she took them to the home of the chief of police. Advising him to flee to the mountains the chief returned in haste to Tsun- He hua to put family. where on the 22nd of the 7th month I saw them once more. hurried back and reported to the chief what he had heard. into operation plans for saving the the mountain peak Pastor Liu could see his wife and nephews with the others driven.

" When Pastor Liu began to recover he was taken to the arsenal and remained there for a Then news began to arrive that the fortnight.CHINESE HEROES be with those of my church members who had been massacred. decided to go at once to Tientsin. ground by the Chinese soldiers. and the official who had had charge of affairs during all these troublous times entreated him to act as middle man in the proposed This he did. and after the foreign had departed. at the request of the magistroops trate. On his way he found General Feng's soldiers fighting the Boxers. Here he found a company of English. French and Russian troops sent by the Allies to see to the settling up of the difficulties. The chief sent a doctor to see me but we dared not let our whereabouts be known. and the Boxers began to disperse. Chinese had been defeated at Tientsin and He Peking. the place where the most of the Christians had been taken Boxer altogether in that region villages were burned to the . official. he made out a list of the losses of the Christians. After remaining for a few weeks in Tientsin he returned to Tsun-hua. even the doctor deeming it necessary to change his name while attending on me. especially at P'ing to be put to death fifty-eight An Ch'eng. which were promptly paid by the settlement. . large proportion of the people of the city as well as of the surrounding A country fled.

.

Li and Her Child .Mrs.

While they were confined it was discovered that this child had recently been vaccinated and they were led to susAfter a pect that they were not Christians.MRS. were carried by the Boxers to the palace of Prince Tuan. little while the child crept out and began playing with the swords of the Boxers. LI AND HER CHILD MRS. Li and her child. with five other families. . which confirmed their suspicions. If they were Christians the child would fear rather than play with the sword. LI AND HER CHILD MRS. their chief. they reasoned." and at once they were liberated " and allowed to return to their home. for.

It was desired to know the various trials through which the members had passed during the Boxer troubles. those of the alumni we concluded to who were within easy invite reach. and make it more general. consulting the report of our stenographers we will select such as we think of interest to general readers and will best represent the experiand character of the members as a whole.218 CHINESE HEROES THE EPWORTH LEAGUE WE had Peking. some months rather a novel experience meeting in after the siege. just west of the Ch'ien Men. ences . In order to add to the interest of the assembly. and in order to do so we called them together. it being a large Boxer rendezvous contiguous to the city wall. It will be as impossible as unnecessary to give the experiences of all. but finally succeeded in bringing together a fairly representative audience. or principal gate of the city. The place of meeting was no less novel than the meeting itself. which I have no doubt will strike the reader as peculiar. both because of their number and their similarity but . had difficulty in securing the attendance We of some who were engaged in important work at a distance. even as it did the writer. and who had always been enthusiastic workers while in college.

THE EPWORTH LEAGUE It 219 was decided that we should not content ourselves with listening to the rehearsal of the experiences of each individual. discovered therefore when the meeting was over and the We minutes properly recorded." was echoed from ." began the chairman. " Ch in ' but feared to openly embrace Christianity when he returned to his native town but as he told us about it I became interested . part sev- eral parts of the house. that we had obtained short biographies of most of the members. for we were sure that certain modest facts of their past members would suppress such would prevent our seeing the persecu- tions in their proper settings." said the chairman. . you do not want said my " whole history. Yes tell us that of it. "joined the church on probation while in Tientsin. " Oh. They selected as their chairman one CH'IN an alumnus LUNG-CHANG enthusiastic in the who had been work of the League since its foundation. "Tell us how you became a Christian. but that we should admit any scraps of information by others concerning the character and conduct of the one in question lives as . My grandfather." one of the younger boys.

sister. Pyke. I put my wife and babies into the hands of her relatives. but was prevented from doing so by a revival service held about that time by Mr. friends " At who were heathen. fled to the mountains. When I graduated from college I was tempted to seek of official my maternal grandfather. as you all know. was not feasible we returned to Pei Tai MonAs this Ho. where we fell in with certain merchants . and necessary to leave the women in his hands while my brother and I fled to Shan Hai Kuan. and. or of my uncle. mother. only to find that the Boxers were on every hand. and with my mother. I became the principal of the Intermediate school. and some other friends. thinking that thus we might reach golia or Manchuria.220 CHINESE HEROES and joined the church. For a small hired a mountain shepherd to bring us food and water and keep us informed as to the Boxers' whereabouts. consideration we " it Among became the party was a heathen uncle. position through friends who had been a District Magistrate. Han the beginning of the uprising I took my family home. and of the brother and in Boxers. who was a Lin and Literary Chancellor. and thus became the humble instrument in the hands of God of leading father. brothers and sisters into the fold. or perhaps Korea. The ladies of the party were secreted caves and ravines during the day and at night fled to other places of refuge. by the sea.

which increased his hatred and led him to despise the ignorant people. had been an opium smoker and a worshiper of his ancestors. having properly arranged the He . and their destination the office or home of the foreigner. this young man had observed Chinese women in chairs going to church service.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE from Chefoo who told us that the presence of foreign war-ships guaranteed peace at the latter Whereupon we secured passage and place. named LU WAN TIEN During the course of the meeting it leaked in Shanghai. reached Chefoo in safety. and supposing their object evil." secretary of the meeting was a young grandfather of some fifty-one summers. more than the foreigners themselves. who were thus hoodwinked. weighing in The the neighborhood or two hundred and fifty pounds. In Tientsin he again crowds of men and women gathering at the saw foreigner's place. he conceived an inout that while tense hatred for the latter. some years ago. a certain Christian teacher named Ts'ai having furnished us with the requisite silver to defray our expenses. Here we were cared for by the Presbyterian mission until we secured employment as teachers of Mandarin or the condition of the country warranted our return to Tientsin and thence to Peking. and during a certain New Year's festival.

he had gone to call upon his friends. " Why I not give up the pipe " ? asked Conof science.CHINESE HEROES sacrifices before the ancestral tablets. you " Why " with but " little expense and no uncertainty. rememGo to the bering the things he supposed he had seen in Shanghai and Tientsin. All of these he used in some weeks without achieving any result other than a conviction that it was the same drug in a different form. and in a fit of anger he first beat and then dismissed the unprofitable servant." ! No I missionary hospital ? would rather die than come under the influence of the Foreign Devil!" he exclaimed. invented by incompetent or unprincipled physicians." said Appetite. not go to the missionary hospital ? " There. who had as much care for their purse as for their patient. But marble is not more certainly worn away . will obtain a sure cure few days' agony. but how ? " he inquired himself." he meditated. after a inquired one of his friends. " All this is the result of opium-smoking. On his return he found that his servant had allowed a cat to upset the tablets and devour the sacrifices. " will do it . He purchased a quantity of opium pills. " Let yourself up easy with opium pills.

year afterward he applied for baptism. They secured a copy of Martin's Evidences of Christianity. After a few days' treatment his opium appetite was permanently destroyed. addressafter A ing " them as follows : pupils. This he then to glanced to at with indifference surprise. opened with a sneer. which he returned to the school he was teaching and called together his pupils. I have that to say to you which have some influence upon our future relamay My . admiration.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE by the constant dropping of water than was his prejudice by the daily urging of his friends and he was finally persuaded to apply for admission. having all the pride that with all deference to its other virtues Confucianism lends to its votaries. which soon changed and finally to interest. "Ah what is this!" said he to himself. loathing for such a display of plebeian taste. and he was shut up in a . while they were only uneducated followers of the Foreigner. "are these foreigners also able to write books in our " classical language ? and he read the book with avidity. but all to no purpose. During these days the assistants tried to regale him with conversation and books. prison ward. They gave him copies of the Gospels written in the Mandarin or spoken language but they only aroused within him a . He was a literary graduate. which was granted.

A short time thereafter the Peking Universeeking a teacher. he.CHINESE HEROES tions. which has since been published and has a good circulation All but four of his students left in others. Japan as well as in China. line. in which position he still remained when the Boxer movement broke out. He had withstood the temptations of a lucrative position in secular employment and had entered the min- . and I shall be glad to continue to teach you all if you so desire but if you do not wish to remain in school I will be . on the principle that the advice of an educated man who tips the scales at two hundred and fifty pounds is more valuable than his prowess when the thermometer registers one Few perhaps endured hundred in the shade. and as he kept a diary. when employed him. frank with you and let you termined to live a Christian know life that I am de- hereafter. When organization became necessary to selfpreservation Teacher Lu was made the chairman of the General Committee of the Chinese Forces." and he found himself under the necessity of seeking other employment or another school. discovered and sity. I am a Christian. like many proved himself useful in his particular WANG CHIH-P'ING class was a member of the of 1900. more than he did during the siege. though his sufferings were thermic and gastronomic rather than nervous.

as we were allowed but nine ounces of flour apiece. " As 15 it was impossible for us to go to our ap- . My own greatest suffering. I therefore re- mained " in Peking." he says. was caused by hunger. but as my appointment was two weeks' distance from Peking by mule-cart. " 225 what he had been been preaching one year. the latter event coming off on May 23rd. work as soon as the conference adjourned discovered that the railroad but we soon had been torn up and all Those traffic had ceased. I had "and on May loth I returned to Peking for the double purpose of attending the annual con- ference and being married. who had come alone went away in carts. I was made one of the mesI confess I was very senger boys. as they would easily discover that we were Christians. it did not seem wise to start on such a trip through Boxer regions with Wan * a newly married wife.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE istry on a salary one fifth of offered elsewhere. Our intention was to return to our . I think. much afraid of the whistling bullets and shriekDuring the siege At first. ing shells. but after a few days they did not disturb me. and the conference began a week " later.

as a bribe.226 CHINESE HEROES pointments at the close of the siege because of the disturbed condition of the country. LIU KUANG-CH'ING graduated from the Peking University with the It was a strong class. where his . "While I was working in the police station of the American district. Entering the conference as a Methodist minister he was appointed to a circuit outside the Great Wall beyond Shan Hai Kuan." ought to be remarked that it leaked out in conversation with others during the meeting. and as a consequence tempting offers of five times what the church could pay for his services were made to him without eliciting even so much as his consideration. I was employed by one of the military officers as an interpreter. he gave up his position and salary of $100 per month and went to his appointment on his small salary leaving his young wife in It Peking. but as I refused it they presented me with an honorary scroll instead. and he was class of '98. the best English speaker. and that as soon as the country became settled. that the subscription mentioned by Mr. Wang would have amounted to several hundred ounces of silver. which position I retained till the country resumed its normal condition. the Chinese of that region offered to take up a subscription which they intended to present to me. no doubt.

and they can only give what they have received. 1900 " A recent trip into the country was a source of deep satisfaction to me. ^p IA . summer vacation in in and printed : the World-Wide Missions of January. but in advanced manhood have taken a course in our Bible training schools and while.t ^^ ers > Christianity has not m been bred in the bone. have lived in a Christian atmosphere. for the most part. prayerful. they are earnest work. Now there is coming on a new class of preachers. trained from who have been . young Lixi men from Peking childhood in our schools. not been educated in Christian schools.. made at the close of her 1899. and have had careful. personal atten- Tang University. showing as as it did the re- sult of Christian education r a preparation for our preachers for the spreading Liu K/uangJ-cH'ing of the Gospel Most of our preachers at this of our work are necessarily men who have stage here in China.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE work during his first year will be best understood from the following narrative of "A Missionary Trip" by Miss Alice Terrell.

the knowledge of the work done among these young men by young Durst brings a thrill of deep gratitude. but has also organized and has charge of Young Men's Christian Association of telegraph students. China. his simple home. his bride. finally buries As I stepped from the train its head in the sea. eager for souls. the evangelization of China. and on Sept. and the preacher in Earnest. " I had long wished to visit some of their a new era in work. He is one of our graduis ates of the class of 1895. as he is known to his patron in America. creeping over the mountains. This was Tseng or. a sweet. so neat you and clean. charge at this point. among whom he is doing a noble work. and we give tions to which open door and entered it. To one who knows the fearful temptaa Western progress exposes the young men of China. These young men show their appreciation of his services by furnishing his I wish I could tarry longer and let support. Kuo-chih. the point where the great wall of up to this time prevented.228 CHINESE HEROES Their preaching marks tion through the years. modest girl from sincere thanks that he has seen this . 9 I landed in Shan Hai Kuan. Peter Durst. warm welcome. but my connection with the university had This year I had the opportunity. see more of his life. and is the promise of the coming of the kingdom here. a me young man sprang through the crowd and gave a quick. he not only performs his duties as pastor of the church.

Shih Men Chai. which had now grown hard and wooden.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE our Girls' . . grown stiff by travel. Te Mu-shih. when it appeared. I was obliged to push on to my second point. without which one by my boy In this way. and ropes strung on the mal's back. but a wooden frame fitted over the ani- my and no stirrups. but as there Shan Hai Kuan. sitting astride my pack. with its wide bed of cobblestones. forded a river. then pushed on eagerly to avoid the rain which now threatened to envelop us and. consumption. I set out. but later. and the presiding of fifteen miles over the mountains. saw the mountains their lofty heads on every side. we both fell . escorted carrying on a pole neces- cannot pass the night in China. a distance School . we waited till they came in with coal. The rocky road was slippery twice my donkey fell. to find no pack. its torrents. passed over low mountains. This jour- are none in ney was to be taken on donkeys. and one of the beasts which fuel carried brought the me back. whose lovely daughter lay dying of that fell disease of China. and a man sary clothing and my bedding. Once I sprang and saved myself. A comforter folded and placed over this wooden arrangement up soon served as pack. 229 but after one night with them elder. What was consternation. to save precious time eating my lunch of crackers and Chinese apples as we journeyed. hid trees while a sudden shower poured lift We under the down . sides did duty as stirrups.

230 in CHINESE HEROES a heap. helping me with one hand and raining blows on the unfortunate donkey driver with the other. jumped to the rescue.' Don't ask Whereupon my boy interfered. as is to be expected in China. of the class of 1898. him again he only tells lies. ' Twenty more . all of seven after. gether after a separation of nearly a year and a half. and presently passing through the city we were at the door of our chapel. The pastor here is Liu Kuang-ch'ing. for. did not I ' mind me did he . with warm greetings and the word that for . I will not attempt to describe him. " ' He ' . O. The pastor and the young student who assisted him for the summer were both away at a wedding feast. with a terrified exclamation. and she and I were glad for a few minutes to.' But it may have later. of the neighborhood at once filled room. Only li. lead the donkey.' then again. . he replied shameI told him to facedly: It could not be helped. At last the walls of Shih Men Chai arose before our eyes. ?' At ' different li times asked ' the distance. for a foreign woman is a rare sight deed but several Christian women came my inin. my letter had not reached him. been the curves in the road. too. ' Twenty-five li long three li . The women . and I was not looked for but his wife and three young children were not lacking in hospitality. whereupon my boy. but rather let his work speak for him. ' Receiv- ing an all-too-gentle reproof. a young man only twenty-three years of age.

I . and you are ' here. that end so the doors were thrown open and . eager As they came in. personal His one thought was for the good of the Liu. ' Well ' ? and Tsai-hsin responded. Liu had sent for her husband. men and women. both the women invited in. faces. Mrs. and with It the perspiration pouring from their faces.' "It was the truest welcome I ever received. After greetings had been exchanged a beautiful expression came over Mr. breathless with the race. with the chapel keeper. looked up and said. and the singing * still continued. as a Many a man would have visit to taken my coming . until within half an hour a full chorus told the story of a full house. O. I both with bright. began to sing. Kuang- . and in less than an hour he and the young man mentioned came in. was a glad reception I received on my first visit to the field of labor of a very dearly loved pupil.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE weeks they had been expecting their pastor's teacher. Liu's face as he said. In a few minutes the young men returned. himself and family not so Mr. God has answered my prayer. and my visit was to be made a means to work. arrived on Saturday the few remaining hours till the evening meal were spent in seeing the church members. Soon the swell of voices showed an increase in the number. I After our supper (on this trip adapted myself to Chinese custom and ate two meals a day) Kuang-ch'ing and Tsai-hsin went to the chapel and.

they sang was time for Sunday school. service. and as we stood again he was not ashamed of the tears which he wiped away.CHINESE HEROES ch'ing has a ' piece of business in his heart. Sunday morning. Mr. with a membership of over five hundred. had made over his Sunday school came the preaching . the " has recently established Sunday schools the only Sunday schools in the district.' So together we knelt. but every availI talked for a while able corner was crowded.' want to pray together for our meeting to-night. earnest prayers testified. One very zealous old man. and God's Holy Spirit came down as those is it?' What 'We young voices pleaded for God's blessing on the people. till not only my kang. or brick bed. a few hymns. and the people felt it. some of whom understood so little of what the new life meant. and it with the women. Liu has a circuit of three stations. . and at all of these three points he over. as soon as breakfast was women came crowding in. As my own earnest prayer went up for a special blessing upon this earnest young pastor for that night I heard his sobs. was full. who had no heirs. as the reverent attention and short. After the and in the evening the usual service but in between I heard many words of quiet exhortation to one and another of the members. " Can I ever forget that meeting led by those two young men fresh from their knees ? The Spirit was there.

She preferred to stay by the stuff. a worldly-minded. and she came. gave her tea. shrewd old Christian. and to see a wardrobe only five years out from America were too much for the old lady. and was a devout and constant attendant upon the divine service. Not so his wife. Liu and his wife received her most kindly. to tears.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE 233 houses and land to the church. anyrut. The . Mr. and then with glowing. wistful I was moved eyes he would renew the charge. closed in prayer. whose superior ability had been largely the means of collecting all this property. Mr. and then our young brother came in. prayed silently. and most respectfully and gently I never heard led up to her soul's welfare. to inquire of all the strange doings of our far-away country. Liu thought my visit an opportunity to get her out of the and suggested to her husband that he bring her to spend Monday with me. in the corner. and as took her hand and began the young evangelist at once sat down by the table and bowed his head on his hand. thing more tender or more searching than his As she responded his eyes would be plea. and let her rest on my kang and satisfy her curiosity. The temptation to meet a foreign woman. As I listened was at last led to say a few words. while Tsai-hsin. and felt that I was I in the very presence I of the Master. and no persuading could move her to leave her home to be ravaged by servants or thieves while she worshiped the Lord in his temple.

and was ac"Tuesday we started for complished partly on foot and partly on donkeys. touched at last. and said. promise/ Huang Tu Ying. before the doors telling nothing of the story of poverty and wretchedness within. Liu's second charge. it seemed to had gathered. which is set on a the pretty. but community to be only the church members. a expects to preach. I spent two days at this place. and the place of the The journey of original church on that circuit. and thus you can help me. seeing and hearing more and more of Mr. and I will come to church will think . self-forgetful work and its results. You go to Tientsin and study and learn to understand this teaching. " As we reached the village. for she I I seemed about it. made when the family was still heathen. seven miles was most picturesque.CHINESE HEROES word and said.' " I think the worldly all old ' heart caught a glimpse of what this meant. but whose wife has no education to speak of one of those unforIt " tunate early marriages. stonewith their trellises of squash vines paved streets. between a boy of eleven and a . who am so old man added his ' stupid. boy who was here that one of our students lived. hillside. who it proved were expecting us. He never in any way seemed to think of we passed up " When we reached the chapel me that the whole himself. Mr. narrow. Liu's earnest.

after ten wonderful days. I did not think of it at but our pastor talked to me. in by the gathering fagots. has sitting sometimes all night earned. I I ' : O and first. as she said yes. am going. to go to the Lord empty-handed. Here again our young preacher had exerted his influence. to begin to study books in which she is now able to recognize not more than half a dozen characters." Some of the most interesting features of . woman is leaving her little home. and rejoice at this decision. cost sacrifice. and the wife and mother were both coming to Mrs. It was touching to see this old woman. I am over sixty years old. what may. which she. selling cloth. I call is it true heroism. that I daughter-in-law is going. because of what great power to use consecrated. and now I know must help my son's wife to be a helpmeet in his life's work and as to myself. and my am so glad to go. comforted in I heart. Many a man on so it the district wife.' And so this old .THE EPWORTH LEAGUE girl 235 of thirteen. and I want to do a I don't want little for my people before I die. filled with great had seen of the Lord's joy. Gamewell's training school for a three years' course. educated young men in China. exalted in spirit. working fields. doing anything and everything by day and at her loom. with her shrewd old face working with emotion. of loving " returned. who we greatly I hampered by an uneducated pulls down as fast as he builds up.

During the year in question he had seventybaptisms and one hundred and twenty united with the church on probation. the Tientsi-n-Peking railroad was being torn up. in his Temperance work. During the Boxer troubles he was stationed on the Shih Men Chai circuit. and. As Miss Terrell was about to leave he inquired.236 CHINESE HEROES Kuang-ch'ing's work as exhibiting other phases of his character were his devotion to his people and his constancy in prayer. if the all. " Can you stand a bad smell ? " I " think so. there were Boxer rumors and they when began to practice their gymnastics." said thought opening a door and exhibiting a cupboard of old pipes and wine-cups he had induced in " his members to give up. I would show I you my curios. there was no little plundering by the yamen runners as well rural robbers." she answered. while the district suffered less than in many other places. Chu Ts'ao Ying and Huang T'u five Ying. as by the common fifth During the the time first ten days of the month. but though two large altars had been established in Shan Hai Kuan there was none at Shih Men Chai. they would start from Shan . on which are two other chapels. The pastor at Chu Boxers came at Ts'ao Ying supposed that. full years Why do you ask ? Peking. feeling that such a question was unnecessary to one five " who had spent " he.

" said Mr. and set the free. the Boxers. beaten and dragged to the robbers' home. kicked. and as they were armed they fired a few shots into the From this time crowd. come to our place and thence to his place but on the 24th of the fifth month he was attacked. It senger to see long till was not we had more convincing proof than by our messenger. The members of the Catholic church united with our own. for that that brought same evening in an incredibly short time several hundred people surrounded our chapel and broke in pieces the tablet on which Jesus was inscribed. where he was forced to knock his head to their idols and burn . After this they returned to the chapel. and it is impossible for either tongue or pen to describe what the members " A suffered during those awful days. dozen or more of the Christians stayed . When we " I Liu. smashed the doors and windows and the tablet on which the name pastor " of the chapel was inscribed. sent a mesit. could not believe if heard of this uprising. they threatening to behead him in case he refused. yamen runners and robbers plundered the Christians at will. which soon dispersed. and as we were not a match for such a crowd we fled from the back door and thus escaped with our lives. incense to their ancestral tablets. * ' Several of the Peking students were with me at the time.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE 237 Hai Kuan. and I the report was true. captured.

as many of the Chris- had already done.238 CHINESE HEROES me at the chapel and acted as a guard. as to what was best to be done. day. but on the 2nd of the sixth month I went to Shan Hai Kuan to consult with Te Jui. distant fourteen miles from the church Durst. to deliver us to the Boxers but the people interfered in our behalf. Hoodlums all over the country were engaged in persecution for the sake of pelf and the Chris. in Jr. Ten days later soldiers came from Shan Hai Kuan and captured some twenty of the Christians.). fled to a place in the I served." after clubs. and by giving $16 we were allowed to go free. " As I had sent my family away on the 23rd month they escaped the outbreak of I was very thankful. their "This is the which they beat : them with rather than murder. I On the evening of that (Peter same company with Chang Chan-ao mountains called Shan C'ha. our presiding elder. for which ing water on their heads. Just then the persecuat Shan Hai Kuan and it became began all necessary for us tians to flee. saying way we will baptize you. " The following day ten soldiers came to our hiding-place in the mountains to capture and take us to Shan Hai Kuan. and he suggested that the chapels be turned over to the with official tions for protection. object being extortion from this time on there . whom they bound and took to an inn and poured boilof the fifth the 24th. and was constant persecution.

This was likewise done at Huang T'u Ying. captured and killed one. Chiang Ch'iin. The following day they went to Chu Ts'ao Ying. who instigated the people to persecute and kill all the Christians they could find both inside and outside the Great Wall. and hung his head on the chapel door " Ten days later which they went to the homes of the Christians and robbed them of all they possessed. " There was a Boxer headquarters at I Yuan K'ou led by one Liu Ping-ch'ang. Boxers came a second time from Shan Hai Kuan and with the local members of their society razed our chaped to the ground. the third place on the district. until all danger was past. in the chapel.THE EPWORTH LEAGUE tians fled in every direction. As soon as it seemed safe to do so I moved my family to Lan Chou where I lived with the Presiding Elder of that district. dwelling among the rocks and caves of the mountains exactly as was predicted in the Scriptures. It was as if I had awakened from a dream." for ten days. "Thereafter it gradually became quiet and the Christians returned to their desolated homes. When the official at Shan Hai Kuan heard that the Chinese had been defeated at Tientsin by the foreigners he sent a company of cavalry to tear down the house of this Boxer leader. taking prisoner all those he taught. being the worst persecution our Christians endured. after .

Chain." en-en. Ch'en's third son. that they cared for him. A few years ago a Christian gentleman and his wife. in not the things he did not know. the third and whom have graduated from the Peking University. .240 CHINESE HEROES THE CH'EN BROTHERS IN the story of Ch'en Ta-yung dentally fourth of referred to his we have inci- sons. while taking a trip around the world came from Tientsin to Peking in company with Mr. who acted as interpreter for them " up so the river." that telling before leaving the city they made a trip of four miles through the dust of Peking to bid him good-bye in other words. them " It was this incident that made Wei-p'ing. and his spine stiffened to this time . Up he had always seemed to feel that because he was undersized. and without a particularly pleasing personality. they took an interest in him. wei-p-i n g They were ^d impressed with his honesty j^s frankness. he could amount to But now some persons had shown nothing. and Mrs. Mr. Ch'en Wei-p'ing.

his salary would of silver a month. He at once passed the examinations Chinese Imperial Customs be twenty-five ounces He had hardly received the intelligence that he was accepted by for entrance to the Service. where 16 . accepting a pastorate outside the Great dollars Wall with a salary of two and seventy-five cents per month and . who graduated the next year after his brother. We ought to mention that this may have been the CK last ' en good work of Mr. This he at once refused. there was offered him a position in Shanghai which would bring him forty dollars per month. and Mrs.THE CH'EN BROTHERS and he went about with his face turned toward heaven rather than toward earth. the place where his parents and his sister brother were death. in addition to other temp- tations to go into business. afterwards The put nobility of his to conal- ( duct at that time has ready been referred to. Ch'en was Ch'en Wei- ch'eng. and all Nature seemed to him to smile where formerly she had frowned he had discovered himself. When he graduated. He seemed to have grown a few inches. as they were on the fated "Bokhara" and were lost before leaving Chinese waters. . Chain. The fourth son of Mr.

from fifty to one hundred dollars per month. offering him thirty-five ounces of silver a month if he would do so. which they voluntarily relinquished as soon as it was possible for them to resume their work in church or school. with no hope the Customs Service when he of ever getting more than his ten.CHINESE HEROES voluntarily gave up that position and accepted a position as teacher of English. and Wei-ch'eng has in 1902 visited Sweden. in his alma mater on a salary of five ounces of silver a month. . after which he passed through the United States on his return to his work here. sent by the Young Men's Christian Association to attend their conference. He had just begun work when the secre- Hung-chang asked him to teach the grandsons of the latter two hours a day. This he consented to do on condition that it did not interfere with his other work in the university and that he be not required to teach on the Sabbath and when he received his thirty-five ounces of silver he put it into the treasury of the university for the education of another boy. During and after the siege both of these young men acted as interpreters on salaries of tary of Li .

That was the question which came to . and during his first year gave ten ounces of silver to" . he came off victor and an- nounced himself as ready to preach the Gospel. thousand dollars a reader Lixa Ma-K' year within my reach would I be willing to " preach the Gospel for five hundred dollars ? Mark. as we have always called him. preached for nothing. or Mark. married upon graduation a sister of Wang Ch'eng-p'ei. I will.PASTORS AND TEACHERS 243 PASTORS AND TEACHERS LIU MA-K'E Liu MA-K'E. but after days of half-yielding uncerand a night of tainty prayer with Sarah. and his answer was. who as long as she lived acted as a ballast to his uncertain barque. his wife." Mark had ability and he knew it and after preaching for three years he voluntarily gave up his small salary. His first temp- was to go into business where the remuneration was ten times what we could offer him tation in the church. taught English in official families for a living. to This may seem a small matter the asks five unless he "If I had himself.

244 CHINESE HEROES ward the building of a street chapel. LIU MING-CH'UAN Liu Ming-ch'uan graduated from the Peking University he was allowed to paste the When . ready to make himself useful as a leader of the Chinese in the siege of Tientsin and. the west of Tientsin. according to the time limit. for none of our young men handles a Chinese official with more ease than Mark. in the settlement of the difficulties. This promised to be the last straw. and he was there when the Lix. from the place where he could preach for nothing and at the same time influence official families in which he taught. but the camel's back did not break. He had served this appointment five years and was at the pinnacle of his popularity when he had to be removed. ten ounces more toward the building of a dispensary in connection with the church of which he was pastor. later. and collected almost enough from his official non-Christian friends to complete the building of the dispensary. and Mark submitted to being removed and being placed in the most difficult charge of our North China work.

PASTORS AND TEACHERS 245 names of the students upon the bulletin board outa privilege which is granted side the front gate only to those who are leaders in their class. He at once went to the United States. One of the Censors and an official afterwards took an active part in protecting foreigners from the Boxers. entered De Pauw University. Liu Ming-ch'uan and others were made the leaders to put of gangs of tifications. free of charge. out of which he gave enough to support a student as he had been supported. and returning to China he tor. T'lEN SHU-NIEN T'ien Shu-nien was the best English speaker of his class. workmen in and did excellent the British Legation forservice. and was offered one thousand dollars a year if he would remain in America as an interpreter and assistant translaThis he refused. When the Boxer movement began he. and. began preaching on a salary of eighty-four dollars a year. though deeply in debt. being interested in him. as teacher in Peking University. . after which he returned and took a position as teacher of English in his alma mater. After they were relieved he acted as an interpreter in the American Forces for a living. lent him enough money. has given two years of excellent service. without security. who him through the Arts course of the Ohio Wesleyan University. where he graduated from the Theological School.

It was sent. among them the Senior Secreof the Board of Revenue. Earl. and others. by the official of Excellency Li Hung-chang. Grand Tutor of the Heir Apparent. it over to the American Leit requesting that be Moore. Ch'en Heng-te. making it his special work to exhort men to do right. that in all his intercourse with the people there was nothing that was not worthy . Wan Your tain of petitioner humbly represents that certhe gentry and people of his un- district. Liu Chu. tion of the document as it came to the mission: Petition of Ho-yin. the matter of the Wan Ho-yin.. The perhaps. etc. Li. Ch'en Heng-te. saying that the American Methodist Episcopal Mission had been established many years in Lao-t'ing and that the Missionary. E. Bishop he accede to the sent to wishes of the District Magistrate and the peo- The following is a translaple of Lao-t'ing. joined in a petition. if possible. Grand Secretary. as the petition indicates. among the annals of China. and that. etc. respectfully presents this petition to H. District Magistrate of Lao-t'ing. for some time previous had propagated the religion. tary and the Secretary of the Grand Secretariat. Ts'ui Ping-wen. in American Methodist Episcopal Mis<sionary. District Magistrate of Lao-t'ing.246 CHINESE HEROES CH'EN HENG-TE following testimony to the services of a native preacher from high officials stands unique. Lao-t'ing to His The latter turned gation.

PASTORS AND TEACHERS in 247 accordance with friendly relations.had for many years preached his . that whenever there had been any trouble between the Church and people there never had been any other than a just settlement. On receiving the above. but among the stupid villagers there was not one who did not put hand to forehead in respect for the Rev. that on this account serve him. and be of great benefit to the place that the people of the city as one man really desire this. which would secure good feeling between the people and the Christians of Lao-t'ing. while they ought to rejoice that he was held in such esteem as to be thus selected for employment. religion in Lao-t'ing. yielding to their private feeling of affection. were loth to hear of his leaving them. that all had considered that each should attend to his own business and all dwell together in harmony. and that they therefore petitioned me on their behalf to address Your Excellency. and that. Mr. stating the circumstances and begging that he might be retained. and was thoroughly con- versant with the circumstances of the place. Mr. that on any when the Church and people were at cross purposes the matter was always settled all were pleased to justly. Ch'en had been promoted to a post in Shan-tung. etc. the people of the town nevertheless. Ch'en Heng-te. . and that . that they had now heard that Rev. your petitioner made inquiries and learned that the said missionary. that the number of those turning to occasion righteousness was daily increasing and that the Christians and people were having no trouble that not only in their relations with each other those who entered the Church were greatly indebted to his practical virtue. Ch'en's virtues.

to Your Excellency. said missionary's great merit in exerting himself to admonish and lead. petitioner desires to express his good wishes for Your Excellency's prosperity and begs that Your Excellency will cast a favorable glance upon this humble petition of the unworthy Magistrate. is To determine whether this begs Your Excellency pedient. according to the of the said gentry and others. Now. since statements the aforesaid missionary has been promoted to a post in Shan-tung. > therefore there were none in this unworthy diswho did not trust and respect him. (That is. requesting him to order the missionary to postpone his going to Shan-tung and remain for the present in Lao-t'ing. Ho-yin. but the Christians of this District have done nothing of It cannot be but that it is due to the this sort. and to beg that Your Excellency will give the matter consideration and issue instructions. with a statement of the circumstances. which will be for the real benefit of the people and the Church. possible or not to write your petitioner and consult with the Bishop of the American Church. of himself. have recently heard that in other places the Christians have relied upon their connection with the Church to practice extortion. In presenting this respectful petition. Duty requires your petitioner to submit this request.) THE END . they have united in a petitrict We tion urging his retention. that he may respectfully obey This will certainly be just and exthe same.248 CHIN ESE HER( * i.

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