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GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 78, NO. 3 (MAY-JUNE 2013); P. B111–B119, 5 FIGS., 2 TABLES.


Case History

Mineral Exploration using CSAMT data: Application to Longmen region

metallogenic belt, Guangdong Province, China

Xiangyun Hu1, Ronghua Peng1, Guiju Wu1, Weiping Wang2, Guangpu Huo1, and Bo Han1

alization zones of the Nanling metallogenic belt. However, due

ABSTRACT to the mountainous terrain, dense forest, and thick vegetation
cover within this region, little geophysical and geochemical
A controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric prospecting has been done since the 1990s, except for some funda-
(CSAMT) survey has been carried out to investigate poten- mental geologic surveys. Owing to the difficulties in ground
tial iron (Fe) and polymetallic (Pb-Zn-Cu) deposits in Long- exploration, the China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sen-
men region, which is one of the main metallogenic belts in sing Center for Land and Resources has conducted a frequency-
southern China. Conducting geophysical surveys in this domain airborne electromagnetic (FAEM) and aeromagnetic
area is quite difficult due to mountainous terrain, dense for- reconnaissance survey using the IMPULSE system from Canadian
est, and thick vegetation cover. A total of 560 CSAMT Scintrex Limited over the Longmen region from January to May of
soundings were recorded along twelve surveying lines. 2005. Three frequencies (930 Hz, 4650 Hz, 23,250 Hz) were used
Two-dimensional Occam’s inversion scheme was used to in- for the FAEM reconnaissance survey. Analysis of the airborne elec-
terpret these CSAMT data. The resulting electric resistivity tromagnetic (AEM) and aeromagnetic data showed several high
models showed that three large-scale highly conductive electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic anomalous zones (Wang et al.,
bodies exist within the surveying area. By integrated inter- 2007). Usually, the intensity of regional EM field is inherently re-
pretation combined with available geologic, geophysical, lated to rock properties. Wang et al. (2007) show that the spread of
and geochemical data in this area, three prospective mineral EM and magnetic anomalies is related to a great extent to the pre-
deposits were demarcated. Based on the CSAMT results, a sence of Pb-Zn deposits in the Longmen region. Previous geochem-
borehole penetrating approximately 250-m depth was drilled ical measurements in this area also indicated that it is rich in
at the location of 470 m to the northwest end of line 06, manganese and lead metal elements. However, the prospecting
defined with a massive pyrite from the depth of 52– depth of the FAEM survey is limited due to few working frequen-
235 m with 7%–16% Fe content, as well as locally high- cies, usually no deeper than 200 m, and the effective prospecting
grade Pb-Zn- and Ag-Ti-bearing ores. depth of AEM will be significantly reduced by the presence of
a conductive overburden (Wang and Wang, 2003; Zhu et al.,
2008). Thus, detailed ground geophysical exploration is required
to identify the potential deposits associated with these EM anoma-
INTRODUCTION lies defined by AEM. On the other hand, the electric resistivity
images of subsurface structures play an important role in assessing
The Nanling metallogenic belt, one of the sixteen main metallo- the location and extent of mineral deposits considering that the elec-
genic belts in China, is an important prospective region abundant tric resistivity is a primary physical property of rocks, e.g., the re-
with metalliferous and radioactive mineral resources. Longmen is sistivity of major kinds of sedimentary rock is from hundreds to
located in north-central Guangdong Province, China (Figure 1), thousands of ohm-meters, whereas it is from tens to hundreds
which has attracted interests as one of the key concentrated miner- of ohm-meters for mineralized ores. The difference in electric

Manuscript received by the Editor 1 April 2012; revised manuscript received 27 December 2012; published online 3 May 2013.
China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan, China. E-mail:;;;;
China Aerogeophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources, Beijing, China. E-mail:
© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

B112 Hu et al.

resistivity between rocks and mineralized ores establishes a solid geothermal (e.g., Sandberg and Hohmann, 1982; Bartel and Jacob-
foundation for electric or EM prospecting. EM methods (including sen, 1987; Bromley, 1993; Wannamaker, 1997a, 1997b), mineral
the natural- and controlled-source) have proven to be very useful in (e.g., Strangway et al., 1973; Boerner et al., 1993; Kellett et al.,
imaging electric resistivity of subsurface structures (e.g., Sandberg 1993; Chen et al., 2010; An and Di, 2010), and hydrocarbon
and Hohmann, 1982; Sinharay et al., 2010), and controlled-source (e.g., Hughes and Carlson, 1987). Other applications included
groundwater surveys (e.g., Carlson et al., 2005), fault-zone map-
EM (CSEM) techniques are more effective in complex environ-
ping (e.g., Theodore and Sweetkind, 2011), and engineering detec-
ments (e.g., strong cultural noise) and provide greater prospecting
tion (e.g., Unsworth et al., 2000).
depth (e.g., Boerner et al., 1993; Unsworth et al., 2000).
In the present paper, we conducted a CSAMT survey to establish
The controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric
the electric resistivity structure and detect and delineate the location
(CSAMT) as an extension of conventional MT methods (e.g.,
and characteristics of potential polymetallic deposits within the
AMT) that use natural sources, was first introduced by Goldstein
three selected anomalous zones in the Longmen area (Figure 1) de-
in the 1970s (Goldstein and Strangway, 1975). Compared with
fined by the previous AEM surveys (Wang et al., 2007).
EM methods that employ natural sources, the CSAMT signal
strength can be controlled and is independent of the time of day
and season. In addition, field polarization can be selected by adjust- GEOLOGIC AND GEOPHYSICAL
ing the orientation of the transmitter antenna (Bartel and Jacobsen, CHARACTERISTICS
1987). Hence, CSAMT often has the advantages of higher lateral The Longmen area lies in the transection zone bounded by the
and vertical resolution and greater exploration depths over other Fugan–Heyuan latitudinal structural belt to the north, Zhaoqing–
electric and EM techniques, particularly in areas with a high level Haifeng latitudinal structural belt to the south, northeastward
of environmental noise and rough terrain. Since Goldstein and Guangzhou–Conghua fault belt to the east, and southwestward
Strangway (1975) validated this technique in a massive sulfide de- Dongjiang fault belt to the west. From a regional tectonic perspec-
posit, CSAMT has been widely applied in a variety of exploration tive, it relates to the South China fold belts, and many complicated
problems worldwide. These applications primarily focused on anticlines and synclines have developed. A myriad of fractures dis-
playing trends from northeast to southwest,
northwest to southeast, west to east, and north
to south intersect one another near this area,
which control the distributions of sedimentary
strata and igneous rocks. The sedimentary strata
are mainly distributed within the Longmen de-
pression, whereas the igneous rocks are distrib-
uted along the margins of the depression (Wang
and Fang, 2008). The northern part of the survey
area (Figure 1) is essentially covered by Late
Jurassic granites, which intruded during the
Yanshanian cycle period. Lower Carboniferous
strata are sparsely exposed in the central part
consisting of a mixture of sandstone, shale,
and limestone interbedded with fine-grained con-
glomerates, cherts, and thin dolomites. Jurassic
sediments, mainly quartzose sandstone and
shale, are exposed in the central-southeast part
of the study area as well as in the southwest.
Quaternary unconsolidated alluvium, which in-
cludes sand, gravel, and grained clay, and pluvial
sediments occupy the northwest part of the study
area (Wang and Fang, 2008).
Many metalliferous deposits have been found
and exploited near this area (Figure 1), which in-
clude Pb-Zn-Cu-, W-Sn-, and Fe-bearing depos-
its. Pb-Zn deposits are dominant in this area and
occur mainly within the transition zones or frac-
ture belts. Usually, Pb-Zn deposits in this area are
accompanied by Ag, Cu, W-Sn, and Fe occur-
rences which broadly distribute along fracture
belts in the Longmen area (Gu, 2011).
The rocks in this area have a wide range of
electric resistivities due to the diversity in
Figure 1. Simplified geologic map of the Longmen region and locations of CSAMT lithological characteristics (Table 1). Mesozoic
profiles. sediments (mainly limestones and sandstones)
CSAMT survey for mineral exploration B113

are generally resistive with values from ∼1000 to 10,000 Ωm, data. Many researchers have extensively studied this effect and de-
whereas those in the Mesozoic granites are from 10,000 Ωm to veloped many methods for its removal (e.g., Zhang, 1987; Bahr,
a few tens of thousands of ohm-meters. Conversely, breccia- and 1988; Jones, 1988; de Groot-Hedlin, 1991; Singer, 1992; Chave
skarn-type rocks are weakly conductive from a few tens to hundreds
of ohm-meters. Lead-zinc ores are more conductive with resistivity
values from a few ohm-meters to hundreds of ohm-meters relative Table 1. Estimated range of electric resistivities for main
rocks and ores in the survey area.
to the pyrite contents, whereas the resistivity of zinc blende ranges
from approximately 100 Ωm to more resistive values of 1000–
10,000 Ωm. Range of resistivity
Geologic units and rocks or ores (Ωm)
AND INVERSION Quaternary sand, gravel 25–120
Tertiary sandstone, conglomerate 50–150
Data acquisition Mesozoic sediments (mainly limestones and 7000–14,000
The entire CSAMT survey within the Longmen region consisted sandstones)
Mesozoic granites 11,000–83,000
of 12 surveying lines in three sections with a high EM anomaly, as
defined by the AEM surveys (i.e., lines 01–04 in section I, lines 05 Breccias, hornstone 750–2400
and 06 in section II, and lines 07–12 in section III, shown in Skarn 42–547
Figure 1). The station spacing during the entire measurements Lead-Zinc ores 1–140
was fixed at 50 m. Because the three surveying sections are far apart Zinc blende 110–10,000
and surveying lines in different sections are not parallel to each
other, we selected independent transmitter location for each survey-
ing section to acquire high-quality data. CSAMT
data were acquired in a total of 560 locations
using GDP-32 II multifunction receiver and
GGT-10 (10KAV) transmitter, produced by
Zonge International. At each location, a pair of
horizontal electric field components and ortho-
gonal magnetic field components were recorded
simultaneously, and 25 frequencies were used
ranging from 2 to 8192 Hz.

Data processing
In this survey, because we selected independent
transmitter locations for each surveying section,
most of the CSAMT data were recorded in the
far-field. Thus, data at each location were pro-
cessed to estimate the apparent resistivity and
phase using the standard formulas by Cagniard
(1953). Figure 2 shows some plots of the apparent
resistivity and phase for some of the sites. A few
outliers are present in either the curve of apparent
resistivity or phase or both (e.g., line 04, site 16).
Often, in a survey area with mountainous ter-
rain and thick vegetation cover, the galvanic dis-
tortion effect is obvious due to the presence of
near-surface conductive inhomogeneities, which
is the case at the Longmen area. The apparent re-
sistivity of some sites indicates a static shift
problem, which is very common in MT methods.
The static shift effect is caused by charge buildup
at the boundaries of near-surface conductive inho-
mogeneities near the sites (Berdichevskiy and
Dmitriev, 1976; Kaufman, 1988; Jiracek, 1990),
which leads to fictitious subsurface structure
and, thus, to incorrect interpretation of the targets
Figure 2. CSAMT data for some sites. (a) Resistivity and phase data for site 05 of line
of investigation if data with static shift are used for 01. (b) Resistivity and phase data for site 16 of line 04. (c) Resistivity and phase data for
inversion. Therefore, correction for this effect is site 09 of line 12. The error bars on the field CSAMT data are small, generally less than
crucial prior to any interpretation of the CSAMT 5% in resistivity and 2° in phase.
B114 Hu et al.

and Smith, 1994; Tournerie et al., 2007). In this paper, we employ the INTEGRATED INTERPRETATION
spatial filtering method (Torres-Verdín and Bostick, 1992) for static
shift correction because of the continuous measurements of CSAMT The interpretations of the subsurface electric resistivity structure of
data along each profile in the survey. A low-pass filter was employed the Longmen region presented in this paper were based on the
with the Hanning window (Torres-Verdín and Bostick, 1992): CSAMT inverted models and controlled by other available data sets,
including AEM and limited geologic and geochemical data (Wang
1 et al., personal communication, 2006). Interpretation developed from
1 þ cos 2πx
W ; jxj ≤ W
hðxÞ ¼ W (1) a wide range of data sets collected from the same region provides a
0; jxj > W
2 higher credibility than that from only the CSAMT data. For brevity,
we selected three representative profiles in different survey sections
where W is the Hanning window width. In practice, hðxÞ is applied to for elaboration.
seven points.
Another problem in CSAMT is the terrain effect caused by un- Profile of line 02
even topography along the profile, which can add noise to data.
Usually, the topography simulation in EM induction is implemented Line 02 is 1.95 km long and extends along the south-to-north
using the finite-element method because triangular elements could direction (section I in Figure 1). The electric response characteris-
allow to precisely model the arbitrary surface. By moving the nodes tics along this profile can be divided into two major domains: The
of triangular or rectangular elements in the vertical direction accord- south conductive domain and the more resistive domain in the north
ing to the elevation of the air-earth interface, we can obtain the (Figure 3a).
topographic response of EM induction (Holcombe and Jiracek, The conductive domain, characterized by an extremely low resis-
1984; Wannamaker et al., 1986; Lee et al., 2009). In this study, tivity of less than 20 Ωm, is in the interval between the south end
the topography had been integrated into the inversion program and 700 m along the profile, and within which, a central conductive
OCCAM2DMT to model the terrain effect. body is at a depth of approximately 100 m but extends down to 700-
m depth. The AEM responses (Figure 3b) in this domain become
2D inversion stronger with the decrease of the working frequencies from 23,250
to 930 Hz, which indicates a more conductive block underlying the
The conventional approaches developed for the MT data can be less conductive surface layers. This domain is dominated by Lower
applied to the CSAMT data. In past decades, various schemes for Jurassic shale and sandstone layers dipping to the south with an
MT 2D modeling and inversion were proposed (e.g., de Groot- angle of approximately 76° (Figure 3c). As shown in Table 1,
Hedlin and Constable, 1990; Smith and Booker, 1991; Rodi and the Mesozoic sediments in this area usually have a resistivity ran-
Mackie, 2001). In this study, 2D inversions of all CSAMT lines ging from a few thousands of ohm-meters to tens of thousands of
were carried out using the program OCCAM2DMT developed
ohm-meters, obviously not in agreement with the characteristics of
by de Groot-Hedlin and Constable. Then a sensitivity analysis
this domain observed in the CSAMT section. On the other hand, the
was performed by the 2D forward-modeling (actually,
geochemical section in this domain shows a Pb anomaly at 200 m
OCCAM2DMT can run a forward-mode only) to ascertain that
and an Mn anomaly at 700 m (Figure 3d) that are located near the
the features in obtained models were required by the data itself.
boundaries of the underlying conductor. Due to the relatively higher
OCCAM2DMT uses a finite-element algorithm developed by
elevation of the two anomalies over vicinities, we infer that they are
Wannamaker et al. (1987) to calculate the forward-solution and
probably parts of primary halos reflecting subsurface concealed
is a intrinsically modified Gauss-Newton optimization approach
to minimize the objective function for the inverse problem. The
The north resistive domain is between ∼1000 m and the north
Occam scheme searches for the smoothest possible structure while
end with a resistivity from 200 to 500 Ωm up to a few thousands
fitting the data at a given level of misfit (Siripunvaraporn, 2012).
of ohm-meters, which corresponds to Late Jurassic granites widely
The grid design for 2D inversion model involves a trade-off be-
distributed in the north end (shown in Figure 3c). Within this resis-
tween precision and computation burden. The node separation is
tive domain, there is a weakly conductive zone extending vertically,
closely related to the electromagnetic skin depths (Simpson and
Bahr, 2005). Usually, the number of horizontal and vertical nodes which indicates an alteration zone. The Pb anomalies at 1600 and
for forward modeling is greater than that required by inversion. In 1900 m in this domain we infer are the surface indicators of this al-
the OCCAM2DMT algorithm, it will automatically add some nodes teration zone within granites. The transition zone between ∼700 and
in the horizon to obtain a more accurate forward solution. The in- 1000 m, with an abrupt shift in electric resistivity from an average of
version model meshes used for CSAMT data are listed in Table 2. 20 Ωm to a highly resistive value of 1000–5000 Ωm, as well as the
sharp decrease in AEM response shown by Figure 3b, indicates a
steeply dipping fracture zone between the conductive and resistive
Table 2. Two-dimensional inversion resistivity model meshes
and final overall rms misfit for line 02, 06, and 10. domains, which dominates the spread of the conductive block.
Based on the above comprehensive analysis, we interpret the
highly conductive body within this profile as a potential target
Model name Model meshes Final overall rms misfit for Pb-Mn ore-bearing deposit.
Line 02 82 × 52 3.94
Profile of line 06
Line 06 42 × 52 5.66
Line 10 82 × 52 5.85 The 0.95-km-long survey line 06 of section II follows a north-
west-to-southeast trend. The remarkable characteristic of its electric
CSAMT survey for mineral exploration B115

resistivity structure is that it is a highly conductive body surrounded The soil geochemical data show Mn and Pb element anomalies at
by a resistive basement (Figure 4a). The conductive body (<25 Ωm) both sides of this line (Figure 4d) that are not coincident with the
lies in the domain from 400 to 600 m along the line and between the high electric characteristics suggested by the AEM and CSAMT
surface and approximately 200–300-m depth, which corresponds to results. The southeast anomalies are considered to be related to
the high anomaly found by AEM at low frequency (Figure 4b). the fracture indicated by a discontinuity between Carboniferous
Lower Carboniferous sediments (e.g., sandstone, shale, and lime- and Jurassic strata, providing a passage for manganese and lead
stone) are widely distributed in the northwest part and dip to the elements to migrate up to the surface. Afterwards, the surface Pb
southeast at 50°, whereas outcrops in the southeast are mainly Low- and Mn concentration at the discontinuity would probably be
er Jurassic conglomerate, shale, and sandstone (Figure 4c). damaged and transported down along the slopping terrain under

Figure 3. Integrated profile of line 02. (a) The 2D inversion results of CSAMT data. (b) Apparent conductivity from AEM data; σ930, σ4650,
and σ23250 represent 930, 4650, and 23,250 Hz, respectively. (c) Sketch of the geologic section. (d) Soil geochemical section.
B116 Hu et al.

the impact of exogenic process. For the northwest anomalies, no have been subjected to the surface transport and thus concentrated
trace exists to indicate a fracture at the surface from the geologic in the northwest end of this line.
image (Figure 4c). However, a strong gradient in electric resistivity Based on the above analysis, we consider the central conductive
from ∼300 to ∼400 m to the northwest end (Figure 4a) suggests a body as a target for potential Mn-Pb-bearing mineral deposit.
buried fracture dipping into the southeast within the Jurassic strata. A borehole was drilled at the location of 470 m to the northwest
This fracture would provide a passage for the uplift of Mn and Pb end of this profile to investigate the central conductive body. The
elements. Due to the sloping terrain, the Mn and Pb elements may borehole penetrated approximately 250 m deep and continuous pyrite

Figure 4. Integrated profile of line 06. (a) The 2D inversion results of CSAMT data. (b) Apparent conductivity from the AEM data; σ930,
σ4650, and σ23250 represent 930, 4650, and 23,250 Hz, respectively. (c) Sketch of the geologic section. (d) Soil geochemical section.
CSAMT survey for mineral exploration B117

was discovered at the depth of 52–235 m. Chemical component be divided generally into three domains: (1) a western domain with
analysis conducted on the pyrite indicated Fe content of 7%–16% deep conductive body (approximately 300–600 m depth) covered
and locally high contents of Pb, Zn, Ag, and Ti. by relatively resistive blocks; (2) a highly conductive central do-
main; and (3) a central-eastern deep domain characterized by high
Profile of line 10 resistivity with sparse shallow conductive bodies.
The western domain consists of two zones: A deep minor con-
Line 10, located in the northernmost part of Section III, has a ductive block and a shallow resistive body. The shallow resistive
length of 1.95 km and nearly follows a west-to-east trend. The elec- block has resistivity values that varied from hundreds to thousands
tric resistivity structure characteristics of this profile (Figure 5a) can of ohm-meters, whereas the conductive block has resistivity values

Figure 5. Integrated profile of line 10. (a) The 2D inversion results of CSAMT data. (b) Apparent conductivity from the AEM data; σ930,
σ4650, and σ23250 represent 930, 4650, and 23,250 Hz, respectively. (c) Sketch of the geologic section. (d) Soil geochemical section.
B118 Hu et al.

of 5–30 Ωm extending downward to −400 m from the elevation of robustness and credibility of data interpretation, which in turn can
approximately −200 m. However, no obvious signature of the deep reduce the potential risks in mineral exploration.
conductive block is observed from the AEM curves in this domain
(Figure 5b) due to the limited investigation depth. Based on the out-
cropping Triassic granites in the west of this profile, we inferred that CONCLUSIONS
the near-surface Quaternary alluvium overlies the more resistive We have successfully applied CSAMT to carry out a detailed in-
Triassic granite, whereas the deeper conductive block suggests vestigation of the anomalies identified by an AEM reconnaissance
an alteration zone within the granite unit. survey in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China. The CSAMT re-
The central domain, characterized by low resistivity, is in the in- sults have provided a laterally and vertically better image of the
terval between 500 and 1000 m along the profile. The highly con- subsurface electric resistivity structure than the AEM results. Data
ductive characteristic (<10 Ωm) in the uppermost 200 m of this from 12 CSAMT surveying lines in three sections effectively de-
section is consistent with the AEM anomalies. As shown in marcated the subsurface conductive bodies, which corresponded
Figure 5c, the upper part of this domain is dominated by Carboni- to the high AEM anomalies. Combined with the geologic, geophys-
ferous shale and mudstone that usually have a few hundreds up to ical, and geochemical data in this area, we have deduced three pro-
thousands of ohm-meters, whereas the lower part of this domain we
spective mineral deposits and delineated their characteristics. The
infer is a granite unit intruded in Triassic age. In reference to the soil
dominantly conductive body identified by line 02, estimated to
geochemical data (Figure 5d), the Mn and Pb anomaly peaks occur
be 700 m long, 500–700 m wide, and extending down to the depth
at the east end of this profile, but no corresponding AEM or
of 400–700 m in section I, is considered to be located near the frac-
CSAMT highly conductive anomalies were detected (Figure 5b).
ture zone within the lower Jurassic strata and controlled by the con-
Hence, we infer that these anomalies probably are the trace of
tact zone between Lower Jurassic shale–sandstone and Late Jurassic
the central conductor. The Mn and Pb elements would have been
granites. With regard to the geochemical data, the manganese and
transported to the ground along a fracture zone indicated by a strong
lead element anomalies are closely related to the surface trace of the
gradient in electricity between the central domain and central-
contact zone, which implies that the conductive body is a massive
eastern domain, then migrated eastward along the sloping terrain.
potential Mn-Pb-Zn mineral deposit. The dominantly conductive
Based on the integrated analysis, we consider this central conductor
body identified by line 06, estimated to be 800 m long, 200–
as a target for potential Pb-Mn-bearing deposit.
400 m wide, and extending as deep as 300–500 m in section II,
The central-eastern deep domain has a very high-resistivity base-
is interpreted to be located along the edges of concealed rocks
ment and shallow minor conductive blocks. The resistive basement
and controlled by regional structure. The presence of Mn and Pb
is interpreted to be a Triassic granite unit with observed outcrops at
anomalies in the vicinity as well as nearby ferromanganese outcrops
the vicinity of this profile. The shallow, moderately conductive
and quarry indicate that the conductive body is a potential Fe-Mn-
blocks with resistivity values of 100–200 Ωm is the response of
Pb-Zn mineral deposit. On the other hand, the dominant conductor
the Quaternary alluvium overlying the resistive bedrock units
identified by line 10 follows a north-to-south trend in section III. It
(Figure 5c).
is estimated to have a width of 200–400 m and a depth of
100–500 m. The conductor is inferred to be situated within Lower
DISCUSSION Carboniferous layers, and be related to the Mn and Pb element
anomalies in this section, which suggests another target for potential
Comprehensive geophysical investigation is becoming a standard
Mn-Pb mineral deposit.
pattern in geophysical exploration, and multiple data sets can
Drilling investigation is necessary to verify the inferred potential
widely reveal the properties of subsurface rocks or geologic struc-
deposits demarcated by the CSAMT survey and to determine their
tures. In this work, integrated interpretation to the electric resistivity
concentrated grades. A borehole was drilled at the location of 470 m
structures revealed by the CSAMT data set has been made based on
to the northwest end of line 06, penetrating approximately 250-m
different kinds of data sets, including AEM and magnetic data and
depth. Pyrite at a depth of 52–235 m along the borehole is visible,
soil geochemical data, as well as surface geologic control. FAEM,
and the Fe content in the pyrite is approximately 7%–16%. The
due to the few working frequencies used, is usually used as a re-
pyrite contains significantly high Mn and Pb content and partial
connaissance survey tool to map the near-surface conductivity and
high-grade Ag- and Ti-bearing ores. Therefore, the CSAMT tech-
to demarcate prospecting targets for potential polymetallic or mas-
nique can provide detailed information about subsurface electric
sive sulfide deposits. CSAMT, as a controlled electromagnetic tech-
nique, provides higher lateral and vertical resolution and greater structure and is a powerful tool for mineral prospecting in moun-
exploration depths compared with FAEM method, and reveals sub- tainous environments with dense vegetation.
surface detailed electric resistivity structure of a prospective area.
On the other hand, soil geochemistry reflects the concentration ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
of different mineral elements in this surveying area and provides
important reference for identifying the type of potential mineral de- We appreciate the financial support from Innovative Group Pro-
posit. However, as a surface mapping tool, the soil geochemistry is ject of Hubei Province (NO. 2011CDA123) and National Natural
easily subjected to surface transport because of exogenic process, Science Foundation of China (NO. 41274077), and part of
especially in sloping terrain area. Therefore, the current location of this work was supported by China Geological Survey (NO.
element concentration is not necessarily coincident with the source 12120113101800). This manuscript benefited greatly from reviews
at depth. This is what we should bear in mind when we trace the by Yaoguo Li and Mason Andy Kass, and the constructive sugges-
source of these surface geochemical anomalies. In conclusion, the tions from anonymous reviewers really helped improve the clarity
integrated interpretation based on various data sets can increase the of this manuscript.
CSAMT survey for mineral exploration B119

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