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Web Based Automatic Irrigation System Using Wireless

Sensor Network and Embedded Linux Board


Student,Dept.of E&CE, Asst prof.Dept,ECE
BKEC,Basavakalyan BKEC,Basavakalyan

This paper presents an automation of farm irrigation
system using a wireless sensor network (WSN) and
condition and act accordingly by switching on
embedded Linux board. The system provides a web interface
the pump to make the soil wet in case of dry condition.
to the user so that the user can control and monitor the
At the receiver we are using 16X2 LCD for the purpose
system remotely. Embedded Linux board makes the
communication with all distributed sensor nodes placed in of display. At the same time we have also interfaced an

the farm through ZigBee protocol and itself act as a IOT module to update the status in the web. This project
coordinated node in the wireless sensor network. The goal of uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three
coordinator node is to collect the parameters like soil terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation.
moisture and soil temperature wirelessly. Each sensor node Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the
consists of soil moisture and soil temperature sensor and one
output of lead acid battery.
ZigBee RF antenna device for communication with the
coordinator node.The system will work according to the
algorithm developed for watering the crop. Hence
coordinator collects the data over ZigBee wireless Domain : Embedded
communication protocol and allow user to monitor the data
from a web browser. User can make the irrigation system ON
Software : C, Keil, Proload
or OFF remotely. The system will reduce the water
consumption and giving uniform water to the crop results in
Power Supply : +5V, 500mA Regulated
increasing yield.
Power Supply

1.INTRODUCTION Controller : AT89S52 MCU

In this project we are using Zigbee Communication Device : Zigbee Module

communication to know the condition of the soil
Crystal : 11.0592MHz

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An Embedded System is a combination of computer

hardware and software, and perhaps additional
mechanical or other parts, des igned to perform a
specific function.The various building blocks of the
hardware of an embedded system. As shown in Fig. the
building blocks are;
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Memory (Read-only Memory and Random Access
• Input Devices
• Output devices
• Communication interfaces POWER SUPPLY:

• Application-specific circuitry. The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated
power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains
supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is
fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier
is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c

4.WORKING voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a

filter to remove any a.c components present even after
rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage
regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.

230V AC D.C Output


Step down Bridge

transformer Rectifier

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the mains voltage and load is maintained constant.
Fig: Power supply However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage
received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is
applied at the output stage.
Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various
electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or
As the name itself implies, it regulates the input
12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly.
applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical
Thus the a.c input available at the mains supply i.e.,
regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant
230V is to be brought down to the required voltage
voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and
level. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down
12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels,
transformer is employed to decreas e the voltage to a
7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used.
required level.

The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It
converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a
half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a
bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good
MOISTURE SENSOR (Dry and Wet sensor)
stability and full wave rectification.
Operation of the sensor depends upon the adsorption
of water vapour into a porous non-conducting
"sandwich" between two conductive layers built on top
of a base ceramic substrate. The active sensor layer and
the porous top conductor, that allows transmission of
water vapour into the sensor, are engineered very thinly.
Therefore the sensor responds very rapidly to changes in
applied moisture, both when being dried (on process
start-up) and when called into action if there is moisture
ingress into a process. Despite this extreme sensitivity
to changes in moisture content, the Impedance Moisture
Sensor can be incredibly rugged due to the nature of its
construction. To protect the sensor further against
contaminants and pipe swarf it recommended that the
Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the
sensor is housed in a protective sintered stainless steel
ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the
D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until

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The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS
8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system
programmable Flash memory. The device is
manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile
memory technology and is compatible with the
industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.
The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional
nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a
versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash
on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful
5.INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and
COMMUNICATION cost-effective solution to many embedded control
ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY The AT89S52 provides the following standard features:
Zigbee is a low power spin off of WiFi. It is a 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines,
specification for small, low power radios based on IEEE Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit
802.15.4 – 2003 Wireless Personal Area Networks timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt
standard. Zigbee devices can form networks with Mesh, architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator,
Star and Generic Mesh topologies among themselves. and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is
The network can be expanded as a cluster of smaller designed with static logic for operation down to zero
networks. A ZigBee network can have three types of frequency and supports two software selectable power
nodes: Zigbee Coordinator (ZBC), Zigbee router (ZBR) saving modes.
and Zigbee End Device (ZBE) each having some unique
property. RELAYS
A relay is an electrically controllable switch widely
used in industrial controls, automobiles and
appliances.The relay allows the isolation of two separate
sections of a system with two different voltage sources
i.e., a small amount of voltage/current on one side can
handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other
side but there is no chance that these two voltages mix


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• Home automation.
7.1 KEIL SOFTWARE: • Civil infrastructure &
Keil compiler is a software used where the machine • Security.
language code is written and compiled. After
compilation, the machine source code is converted into 10. CONCLUSION
hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller This paper designs the automated wireless
for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C irrigation system using WSN and embedded Linux
language. board. In this we have used A89S52 controller as an
embedded Linux board which allows collecting the
7.2 PROLOAD: sensor information from sensor node continuously, store
Proload is a software which accepts only hex files. Once it in a database and providing the web interface to the
the machine code is converted into hex code, that hex user. The system is watering to the crop uniform by
code has to be dumped into the microcontroller placed analyzing the soil parameters, it will help to reduce the
in the programmer kit and this is done by the Proload. fresh water consumption. By providing the web
Programmer kit contains a microcontroller on it other interface and automation user can easily monitor the
than the one which is to be programmed. system and it will minimize the human intervention.
The ZigBee protocol is used here for wireless
8. ADVANTAGES communication it will create network easily.
• Low cost.
• Easy to implement. 11.REFERENCES
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