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FRETTING WEAR

• Fretting is a small amplitude oscillatory motion, usually tangential, between two


solid surfaces in contact.

• Fretting wear occurs when repeated loading and unloading causes cyclic
stresses which induce surface or subsurface break-up and loss of material.

• Vibration is a common cause of fretting wear. Fretting wear is aided by corrosive


environment Tangential
Load

Oscillations of very small Amplitude


FRETTING WEAR

Blades fitted to the Hub

Fretting fatigue failure


on a compressor blade dovetail

Turbine rotor
FRETTING WEAR

Fretting fatigue induced failure Fretting wear on bolts


on a casing flange
FRETTING WEAR

• Oxide film on the surface gets disrupted exposing the clean or


active metal
• Presence of an oxygen environment again forms the oxide
layer
• Newly formed layer breaks leading to further exposure of new
surfaces (Ref. Pilling Bedworth Ratio)
• Flanges, Couplings, Joints
• Many time the oxides formed are thicker than the parent
material hence seizure occurs
FRETTING/CORROSIVE WEAR

Pilling Bedworth Ratio


RPB < 1: the oxide coating layer is too thin, likely to be broken and
provides no protective effect (for example magnesium)
RPB > 2: the oxide coating chips off and provides no protective effect
(example iron)
1 < RPB < 2: the oxide coating is passive and provides a protecting
effect against further surface oxidation (examples aluminum, titanium,
chromium-containing steels).
PREVENTION OF FRETTING WEAR

 Reduce the applied stress


 Coating with oxides
 Chemical treatments
 Make the environment chemical free
FRETTING WEAR TEST SETUP
RECIPROCATING
ARM WITH
SPECIMEN
CORROSIVE WEAR
• Occurs when sliding in a chemical environment
• Also known as oxidative wear
• Corrosive wear leads to blistering and cracking of the surfaces
• Blistering occurs when the stresses developed are more than the
adhesive strength between the parent metal and the oxide
• Cracking occurs when the oxide film fails in tension
• Depends on the film thickness
• Important in mining, mineral processing, slurry handling etc.
CORROSIVE WEAR

• Rate of wear depend on load as well as hardness of


the material- proposed by Archard.
• Chemical corrosion enhanced by temperature and
humidity
• Corrosive fluids provide a conductive medium for
galvanic action to take place
• Mild wear and Severe wear depending on the wear
volume
EROSIVE WEAR
Several different kinds of erosive wear

• Solid particle impingement

• Impingement of liquid droplets

• Flow of hot gases

• Collapsing of Bubbles - cavitation effects


EROSIVE WEAR
Erosion as a function of the following variables:
• Ductility of material being eroded
• Microstructure
• Velocity of particles
• Impingement angle
• Particle size
• Hardness of particles
• Strength of particles
• Temperature
EROSIVE WEAR
• Roughly proportional to V n where n for ductile metals is 1.7 to 2.8 and
1.4 to 5.1 for brittle materials

• Severe when impinging angle is 20 degree for ductile materials and

around 90 degree for brittle materials

• Similar to abrasive wear.

• Function of temperature - In general, the erosion rate of ductile metals

decreases with increase in temperature.

• Erosion rate, in general, decreases with increase in hardness and

toughness.
QUANTIFICATION OF EROSIVE WEAR
Mass of material removed
Dimensionless Erosion Ratio =
Mass of erosive particles striking the surface

Quantification done by specific weight loss


Specific weight loss = Loss of material from the surface due to unit
mass of impinging particles

  KV
K, n = Constants
n
V- Impinging Velocity
EROSIVE WEAR

Unproductive Erosive wear


• Found in helicopter and aircraft propellers, gas turbine blades, wind
shields and wings of aircrafts, nozzles of sand blasters, Polymer
processing machines, centrifugal separators and others – Coal plants
(transport of pulverized coal) – Gas turbines – Power plants –
Pipelines - Ship propellers.

Productive Erosive wear


• Industrial applications in abrasive deburring, sand blasting,
erosive drilling of hard materials
DELAMINATION THEORY OF WEAR

• Put forward by Suh (1973)


• Asperities on soft surface get flattened and fractured by repeated
loading
• Surface traction exerted by hard particles induces incremental
plastic deformation which accumulates with repeated loading
• Nucleation of the cracks take place
• Cracks extend and propagate eventually joining with the adjacent
cracks
• Cracks propagate parallel to the surface
• Long thin sheets of material delaminates
DELAMINATION WEAR

10 mm

Delamination
Blister on surface

P.M. Anil, Assistant Professor (S.G), SMBS


FATIGUE WEAR

• Caused due to cyclic stresses

• Induces surface and subsurface cracks


• Leaves large fragmentation on the surface known as pitting
• Negligible wear takes place prior to this
• Even though the amount of material removed is small, the damage
caused due to fatigue cycles is much high
FATIGUE WEAR

Rolling Contact

Sliding Contact
FATIGUE WEAR
Rolling Contact
• Well lubricated bearings, no material contact takes place
• No occurrence of abrasive or adhesive wear
• High contact pressures causing stresses in the material
• Life affected by Fatigue
FATIGUE WEAR
Sliding Contact
• Fluid film present gets disrupted due to sliding action
• Leads to contact of surfaces
• Subjected to fatigue during the rotation of the shaft or journal
WEAR OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

Metals
Wear in Vacuum is high

Ceramics
Limited plastic flow due to strong covalent bonds
More prone to brittle fracture

Laminar composites
Wear is mainly due to delamination
Wear in various machine elements

In sliding and rolling contact pairs


 Bearings
 Gears
 Cams
 Machine tool mechanisms
 Tools
 Automobile tires
WEAR – Other fields of research

Wear in Bio-Tribology

 Wear of artificial dental implants

 Wear of contact lenses

 The wear of replacement heart valves

 Wear of artificial knee and hip joints

 The wear of screws and plates in bone fracture repair


IDEAL TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

 Minimal wear
 Minimal friction
 Minimal heat generation
 Ideal hardness
 Ideal roughness
 Minimal corrosion
 Minimal interaction
 Minimal effect due to the environment
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS - Defined

Wear debris analysis (WDA) is an attempt to

determine the condition of machinery through

the examination of the particles generated by

wear process.
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS

• To detect potential failures before they occur


• To determine the root cause of failures after
they occur
• To detect abnormal machine or lubricant
conditions
• To determine wear particle concentration
OIL SAMPLING AND OIL ANALYSIS

• Oil sampling is a procedure for collecting oil from


lubricated or hydraulic machinery for the purpose of oil
analysis.
• Oil analysis involves analyzing oil for various properties
and materials to monitor wear and contamination in an
engine, transmission or hydraulic system.
• Sampling and analyzing on a regular basis establishes a
baseline of normal wear and can help indicate when
abnormal wear or contamination is occurring.
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS

Sampling of wear particles


Particles are:
– extracted from oil samples
– removed from filters- oil/fuel
– removed from magnetic plugs
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS
Analytical Ferrography
(Bowen and Westcott-1976)
• Ferrous Density determination is used to measure the
amount of ferrous material present in a sample
• To identify
 Particle size, shape, color, texture
 Particle concentration
 Optical properties of the particle (s)
Analytical Ferrography
Analytical Ferrography
Ferrogram
WEAR PARTICLE EXAMINATION

White light microscope


– The most popular technique used in the oil testing industries
– The particles are observed and the morphology of the particles are
recorded
– The origin and cause of wear debris and/or contaminant are
speculated.
– Resolutions - about two tenths of a micron
– Magnification - up to 1000X maximum
– Material identification is difficult and at best qualitative
WEAR PARTICLE EXAMINATION

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy


dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)
– magnification up to 100,000X with a resolution
down to 50 Angstroms
– EDS - determine the chemical composition on the
particles of interest
Oil Analysis-Wear of Various Materials
Aluminum (Al): Thrust washers, bearings and pistons are made of this metal.
Boron, Magnesium, Calcium, Barium, Phosphorous, and Zinc: These metals
are normally from the lubricating oil additive package. They involve detergents,
dispersants, extreme-pressure additives, etc.
Chromium (Cr): Normally associated with piston rings.
Copper (Cu), Tin: These metals are normally from bearings or bushings and valve
guides.
Iron (Fe): From many places in the engine such as liners, camshafts, crankshaft,
valve train, timing gears, etc.
Lead (Pb): Use of regular gasoline will cause very high test results.
Silicon (Si): High readings generally indicate dirt or fine sand contamination from a
leaking air intake system.
Sodium (Na): High readings of this metal normally are associated with a coolant
leak, but can be from an oil additive package.
TESTING METHODS
Standardized tests
– Various tests available (ASTM standard)
– Selection depends upon what is being investigated

Ring on ring

Pin (or ball) on disc

Pin on flat
(linear
Block on ring reciprocating)
FRICTION AND WEAR TEST
EQUIPMENT