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The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or
the governments they represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB
official terms.

Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia
21 September 2018
Development Partner Presentation
Fecal Sludge Management:
Lessons Learned From Large-scale Experiences In Asia

Jingmin Huang
Principal Urban Development Specialist
South Asia Department,
Urban and Water Division, ADB
ADB ongoing initiatives for Target 6.2:
Achieve access to sanitation and hygiene and end open defecation
2 billion people Asia-wide need Fecal Sludge Management (FSM)
ADB Urban Sanitation and Sewerage portfolio, 2003-2016
By Region No. of Projects $ million
ADB-Asia wide 131 3,806
Central West 21 669.2
East Asia 36 1,160
Pacific 12 88.6
South Asia 37 979.3
22% 72%
Southeast Asia 19 379
51% 40% PSOD 6 529.9
20% 79% Source: IED, 2018
38% 57%
40% 18% “Most of the investments in South and
Southeast Asia are for sewerage and
Legend: 43% 61% wastewater treatment despite large parts
50% 7% 13% 87% of South and Southeast Asia remain
Sewer dependent on On-site sanitation system
On-site Sanitation for decades.” --- ADB Independent
Figure 1. Sanitation system map (Strande et al., 2014) Evaluation Department, 2018
Why is Fecal Sludge Management important?

2 billion people Asia-wide need Fecal Sludge Management (FSM)

Capital cost 5-10x less than sewer It is the most viable solution
Annual O&M cost1.5x less than for semi-nomadic community,
sewer floating settlements and low
density area.

No data nor typical Many sewer & WWTPs
management system in place constructed in low-income
for FSM countries result in failures
Case study of Large scale FSM of Jakarta, Malaysia and Manila

• Jakarta: 8.4 million using OSS (71% of Jakarta population ), desludging coverage is 3%,
which is scheduled but not mandatory, it is increasing due to structured institution
arrangement, scheduled desludging & donors involvement;

• Malaysia: 6.4 million using OSS (26% of country population), FSM business grew with
record until 2008; desludging activities shrank from 2008 after it was not mandatory,
shifting regulator and framework also made the business shrinking.

• Manila: 11.2 million musing OSS (88% of Manila population), desludging coverage is
34% and increasing, private sector is active with the government records onsite
sanitation ownership and scheduling. It is financially sustained business with a big FSM
operation potential based on strong ownership and leadership from local government.
Leadership and Institutional arrangements for sustainable FSM

Key factors for Large scale sustainable FSM cases
• Strengthen the govt's ownership of the FSM instead of leaving it to the
private sector;

• Set FSM as govt's investment priority instead of alternative choice of
sewer connection;

• Make desludging as a mandate/scheduled activities with proper
recording instead of demand driven activities; and

• Charge the fee under regular monthly water/utility billing instead of
collecting it separately.
Financing/Business models for sustainable FSM

• Private sector would be better to be the sub-contractors of the
government’s agency instead of free competitive operators;

• Provide technical support for mandatory/ scheduled desludging
practice for private operation; and

• Final sludge disposal can be an issue.
Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

Thank You for your attention !