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The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the
governments they represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB
official terms.

Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

20 September 2018

Development Partner Presentation

“Sharing from Nepal”

Vivian Castro-Wooldridge
Urban Development Specialist, ADB
Initiatives in Nepal supported by ADB
Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

Small Towns Project
• Construction of FSM systems in 4 small towns
mostly sludge drying beds/evaporation pond (excess
liquid)/composting (dried solids); one wetland
• Soft support – WASH plans, business models for FSM, tariff

• Construction of 3 centralized WWTPs - total capacity - 138 MLD –
(2 accept sludge in rainy season)

• City-wide sanitation planning with some investments

General challenges
• Confusing institutional framework
• Community buy-in ($$ contribution; NIMBY)
• Finding the right designers for FSM
• Massive investment required for full sewerage
• Social issues (encroachment on rivers, etc..)
Next Steps and Enabling Environment
Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

Opportunities ü Leadership to clarify roles &

1. Kathmandu - Updating sanitation master plan for capital region responsibilities
(2018-2020) ü Convince decision makers that
• Catchment wide approach sewerage is not the only solution
• Opportunity to develop integrated FSM systems ü Allocate resources for OPEX (subsidy
• Support required on financial/institutional viability aspects from budget, taxes, tariff)

2. Policy dialogue
• enabling environment – PPPs, financial sustainability
• Clarity on institutional roles & responsibilities
• Separation of stormwater drains from sewerage (where possible)

3. More FSM schemes in small towns (moving beyond ODF) ü City wide planning adds value
§ Business models that ensure safe and efficient emptying, ü Requires substantial upstream
transport, treatment, and reuse of bio solids technical support – engineering,
business planning, sound
institutional models
Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

Thank You for your attention !