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The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the
Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the governments they
represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any
consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Scaling Non-Sewered Sanitation and City Wide Inclusive Sanitation

September 20, 2018
Development Partners Roundtable and Policy Dialogue

Roshan Shrestha Ph.D
Initiative Lead – Urban Sanitation Market, Water Sanitation Hygiene
Global Growth and Opportunity
Many parts of the world will continue to lack access to sewers

2030 sewer access projections
0%-20% 21%-40% 41%-60% 61%-80% 81%-100%

Note: countries in gray do not have data reported
1
Source: JMP 2017 Report; BCG analysis
2
Poor FSM: institutional open defecation
Sludge direct to the environment: no service chain

Effectively 2%
20% Leakage
treated
WC to
sewer
Not effectively
of fecal sludge
Safely emptied
Illegally
dumped
treated
2% safely disposed

Unsafely emptied of fecal sludge
79% 98% unsafely disposed

On-site
facility Left to overflow
or abandoned

1% 1% 69% 9% 9% 1% 9%
Open defecation
Source: WSP analysis, using BMGF funded research Residential environment Drainage systems Receiving waters
2
Khulna City, Bangladesh (1.5 million population) toilet coverage 99%

Safe Sanitation- means entire sanitation value chain

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Only 3% increase in access to safely
managed solutions over the last 5 years

Safely Managed
Improved and not shared - excreta
safely disposed in situ or off-site1

Basic
Improved and not shared - excreta not
safely disposed

4.5B Limited
Improved (e.g. sewer, septic, VIP
latrines) and shared facilities
people globally lack access to Unimproved
safely managed sanitation Use of pit latrines without a slab or
platform, hanging and bucket latrines

Open Defecation
Disposal of human faeces in fields, or
other open spaces or with solid waste
§ Some 3 in 10 people worldwide, or 2.1 billion,
lack access to safe, readily available water at
home,
Faster progress required to achieve the SDG goal of
§ 6 in 10, lack safely managed sanitation, (WHO) safely managed sanitation by 2030
and UNICEF 2017) 4
1. Transported and treated offsite Source: JMP 2017 Report
Need to address entire sanitation chain

• Containment quality • Desludging equipment • Selection of right treatment
• Public toilet and institutional and vehicles • Reuse of by products
toilet management • Occupational health
• Financing • Service and business
model

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Through partnerships, fundamentally transform the
sanitation sector to reach universal use of sustainable
OUR STRATEGY sanitation, contributing to better health, economic, and
gender equality outcomes for the world's underserved

Systems & Infrastructure Policy & Regulation Product Innovation Behavior Change & Demand
• Inspire funding of Fecal Sludge • Develop appropriate policies, • Fund technological innovation to • Drive not just access to toilets but
Management (FSM) systems & regulations, institutional frameworks provide disruptive alternatives to also usage of toilets and treatment
markets, not just sewerage systems • Partner with key groups to help sewers, WWTPs and latrines of fecal waste, esp. for the poor
and basic latrine construction governments implement non- - Reinvented Toilet • Leverage user centered design to
• Support innovative financing sewered solutions (NSS) & provide - Omni Processor ensure products meet user needs
mechanisms for city sanitation enabling environment that allows - Omni Ingestor of both men and women
private sector to help scale service • Commercialize with private sector
• Drive capacity development across companies for sustainability
the FSM value chain delivery and treatment operations
• Show promise via city wide
inclusive sanitation

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 6
TRANSFORMATIVE TECHNOLOGIES: 3 SUB-PORTFOLIOS

REINVENTED TOILET OMNI INGESTOR OMNI PROCESSOR

Single-unit (SURT) Multi-unit (MURT)

Household scale Multi-unit scale Pumping and processing

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 7
Example of core processing technologies

ELECTROCHEMICAL WET OXIDATION DRY COMBUSTION BIOLOGICAL

2014 © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | Confidential 8
NANO-MEMBRANE TOILET (CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY)

Project Innovation Awards – Gold winner!!

http://www.nanomembranetoilet.org/
JANICKI OMNI PROCESSOR (JOP) TECHNOLOGY
PATENTED TECHNOLOGY DESIGNED FOR CITY LEVEL USE, PRODUCES USABLE OUTPUTS
JOP TECHNOLOGY TO BE ADAPTED BY THREE
DIFFERENT COMMERCIAL PARTNERS

Qingdao,
China

Dakar,
Senegal Vadodara,
India

Current JOP Version 2 characteristics – varies
by commercial partner adaptations
• Population served: ~ 300k-400k people (v2 size)
Learn More:
• Janicki Bioenergy:
• Kills all pathogens; no harmful emissions
https://www.janickibioenergy.com/janicki-omni-
• Produces:
processor/how-it-works/ - Electricity: 300 kW (250 kW net)
• Ankur Scientific: https://www.ankurscientific.com/ - Dry sterile ash (fertilizer)
• CRRC: http://www.crrcgc.cc/en - Distilled / potable water: 80,000 liter/day

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 10
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Nairobi Freetown

Nouakchott Lagos
CITY-WIDE INCLUSIVE SANITATION
§ City-wide planning and service delivery: Everybody
benefits from adequate sanitation service delivery
outcomes;
§ Full value chain: human waste is safely managed along
the whole sanitation service chain;
§ Focus on the need: Prioritizing the unserved in low-
income and vulnerable communities
§ Innovation and RRR: Effective resource recovery and
re-use are considered;
§ Integrated and incremental: A diversity of technical
solutions is embraced for adaptive, mixed and
incremental approaches; and
§ Beyond conventional approach: onsite and sewerage
solutions are combined, in either centralized or
decentralized systems
https://citywideinclusivesanitation.com/

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 12
OUR STRATEGY

Market Development Financing:
for Transformative City Wide Inclusive Policy & Advocacy Multi- & Bi-Lat;
Technologies Domestic
Sanitation at Scale
Platforms for Replication; Institutional and Regulatory Environment

Capacity Building CWIS City Investments Local Financing Service Models

• Develop knowledge and • Proof points in archetype • Establish sustainable • Demonstrate how cities
expertise on FSM amongst locations demonstrate how mechanisms for cities, enable financially
sanitation professionals, cities can ‘bend the curve’ entrepreneurs and sustainable service
policymakers and other to achieve inclusive, households to finance FSM models in sanitation
stakeholders sustainable sanitation solutions including PPPs, utility
models, etc.

Inclusiveness; Gender Equity; Data & Measurement

Last updated: October 1, 2018 2018 © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | Confidential 13
www.sanitationeducation.org

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Government in South Asia – Leading new direction towards NSS

India

Primer on FSSM released at National
National Workshop on Urban Sanitation, MoUD at FSM4 International Conference, National FSSM Policy released at National
Workshop on City’s Journey Beyond ODF –
April 2016 February 2017 Workshop on UD, 28th February 2017
FSSM, September 2016

Bangladesh and Nepal

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CWIS -CITIES
INDIA

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

BANGLADESH

Maharashtra Dakar,
Senegal
Kampala,
Telengana
Telengana Uganda
Wai Warangal
Andra
Pradesh
Lusaka,
Narsapur Khulna Zambia

Tamil
Nadu
Trichy

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 16
PRIMARY OUTCOMES OF CWIS CITIES

• X% of fecal sludge is safely managed city-wide by end of project. X% of fecal sludge in all low-income
settlements is safely managed by end of project.
• Service authority has the resources and accountability to fully delivery inclusive sanitation services.
• Women’s agency (decision-making power) in sanitation decision-making is improved (consider all:
household, community, institutional, private sector, internal project team).
• Service models and procurement models enable deployment of innovative technologies and services.
• Replication, knowledge management, COP.

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 17
Partnership for Scaling

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ADB’s Evaluation on Urban Sanitation Investment
Reason for the Success Reason for the Failure

• Long-term relationships for policy dialogue o No targets for the poor in inclusive planning
• Policy regulatory system and rules for private o Lack of a thorough capacity assessment of local
sector investment in sanitation implementing agencies
o Not supporting small-scale independent sanitation
• National campaigns for investment in sanitation,
providers for fecal sludge management
• Combining water supply and sanitation
o Not monitoring of environment and health impact
institutions and cost recovery mechanisms, indicators
• Encouraging partnerships with other utilities in o Not incorporating gender analysis and actions,
member countries, and and
• Encouraging demonstration effects of pilot fecal
sludge management at municipality level for a
wider effect

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World Bank Evaluation Report

Challenges Recommendation

• Do not prioritize reaching the poorest/poor within a • Formal diagnoses of disparities in access across
project area areas and within areas to inform strategies for
• Weak self-monitoring to facilitate dialogue and reaching the poor
improvements • Align Project RFs and KPIs with SGD6-relaed
• Lack of country/city data on existing service delivery indicators and support systems to track their
performance weakens quality of market progress
assessments, recommendations for new • Client government engagement on sector reforms
interventions/investments to strengthen the financial viability of service
• Missing incentives for improved performance, lack providers and to create conditions for increased
of accountability of service providers, and fostering access to commercial finance
citizen engagement and feedback. • Improve cross-sector collaboration within the Bank
• Over emphasis on tracking indicators associated and externally to improve investment design
with access than service delivery • Enhance knowledge and learning in the WSS sector
• Convening role at country level tends to be low and in client countries through effective partnerships
uneven, and needs to be strengthened in line with and capacity building
the scale of its lending and knowledge presence in
client countries. 20
OUR PRICIPLES OF ENGAGEMENT WITH DEVELOPMENT BANKS
WHAT:
• Through long-term partnerships, commit to shared poverty alleviation agenda, support scalable
interventions and innovation uptake, and target ambitious systemic changes that impact quality
of outcomes (e.g. internal project preparation and lending practices)
HOW:
• Provide targeted capacity building to create sanitation champions who advocate for our work
from within the Development Partners
• Understand bank staff incentives to unlock operational changes that increase effectiveness
and efficiency of lending practices for NSS/FSM/CWIS
• Support the use of evidence-based documents, consistent monitoring systems and rigorous
results measurement in investments to promote effective interventions and adoption of innovative
sanitation technologies
• At country level, complement partnership with MDBs with government engagement strategy
to align on results and maximize impact
• Internally, commit to a harmonized framework and process for tracking progress

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 21
HOW WE MEASURE SUCCESS

Goal: Increase the quantity and quality of bank funding to CWIS

Illustrative Metrics:

• # of projects (and/or project preparations) in the pipeline w/ CWIS

• xx% and $ increase in CWIS investments

• CWIS projects lead to significantly increased xx% levels of safely managed sanitation amongst the
poor

• Increased investment ratio for NSS/FSM under urban projects

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 22
OUR LEARNING AGENDA

q How development partners and banks measure performance related to sustainable sanitation?
q Safe and Equitable service delivery; Viability
q How MDBs ensure the right institutional framework that defines roles, responsibilities and
accountability?
q How MDBs facilitate the establishment of the right institutional and service models for
sustainable, pro-poor service delivery?
q How MDB ensure that the service reaches the poor?
q Do MDBs have adequate tools and knowledge to design service models, business models, and
institutional frameworks for sanitation?
q What are the capacity gaps and/or bottlenecks?

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THE EQUITY DASHBOARD
The Equity Dashboard maps market performance / gaps; identifies leverage points for shifting
overall performance with investment and/or institutional change
Illuminates market performance on equity & viability and safety

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AN APPROACH OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

National, state
government and city
authorities
Fund for
technical Services as
assistance per need
BMGF Development Banks

Development
Partners (USAID…..)

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 25
THE IMPACT WE AIM TO HAVE WITH OUR STRATEGY

Goal #1: Increase effective Goal #2: Strengthen capacity of Goal #3: Test and adopt new
coverage of non-sewered governments and cities to technology solutions, business
solutions in cities effectively implement fecal sludge models, and implementation
management across the sanitation approaches in cities
value chain

© Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 26
Thank you