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Camera model

Camera: optical system


Y

dα=α −α
2 1
curvature radius
ρ ρ2 Z
1

thin lens

Y Y
small angles: α1 ≅ + α2 ≅ −
ρ1 ρ2
Y
incident light beam
lens refraction index: n

deviated beam
Z
θ − α1 sin(θ − α1 )
≅ =n
θ '−α1 sin(θ '−α1 )
θ ' '−α 2 sin(θ ' '−α 2 )
≅ =n
θ '−α 2 sin(θ '−α 2 )
deviation angle ? Δθ = θ’’−θ
1 1
Δθ ≅ (n − 1)Y ( + )
ρ2 ρ1
Thin lens rules
a) Y=0 Æ Δθ = 0 beams through lens center: undeviated
1
b) f Δθ = Y Æ f = independent of y
1 1
(n − 1)( + )
ρ1 ρ2
parallel rays converge onto a focal plane

f
Δθ
Where do all rays starting from a scene point P converge ?

f P
h r− f
=
Y f Y

h O Z
h r
r? =
p Y Z

1 1 1
Fresnel law + = Obs. For Z Æ ∞, r Æ f
Z r f
if d ≠ r … image of a point = blurring circle

image plane Z P
f

O
a
p

r Φ(blurring circle)=a (d-r)/r

d focussed image:
Φ(blurring circle) <image resolution

depth of field: range [Z1, Z2] where image is focussed


Hp: Z >> a rÆf

the image of a point P belongs to the line (P,O)


P

image plane
O

p = image of P = image plane ∩ line(O,P)


interpretation line of p: line(O,p) =
locus of the scene points projecting onto image point p
Y P
X
c f O Z
x
y
p

X perspective projection
x= f
Z
-nonlinear
Y -not shape-preserving
y= f
Z -not length-ratio preserving
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