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The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the
Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and
accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Development Partner Roundtable on Sustainable Sanitation in Asia
21 September 2018
Development Partner Presentation
Fecal Sludge Management:
Lessons Learned From Large-scale Experiences In Asia
Jingmin Huang
Principal Urban Development Specialist
South Asia Department,
Urban and Water Division, ADB
Introduction of sustainable sanitation for all
ADB Urban Sanitation and Sewerage portfolio,
• SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable 2003-2016
By Region No. of $
management of water and sanitation for all; Projects million
ADB-Asia wide 131 3,806
• Sewer network &WWTP vs non-sewer Central West 21 669.2
East Asia 36 1,160
sanitation; Pacific 12 88.6
South Asia 37 979.3
• Government has investment preference on Southeast Asia 19 379
PSOD 6 529.9
sewer network & WWTPs;
“Most of the investments in South and
Southeast Asia are for sewerage and
• How to make large scale FSM sustainable; wastewater treatment despite large parts
of South and Southeast Asia remain
dependent on On-site sanitation system
for decades.” --- ADB Independent
Evaluation Department, 2018
Why is Fecal Sludge Management important?
2 billion people Asia-wide need Fecal Sludge Management (FSM)

WWTPs: 80-90% removal It is the most viable solution
NSS: 20-30% removal for semi-nomadic community,
Capital cost 5-10x less floating settlements and low
Annual O&M cost1.5x less density area.

No data nor typical Many sewer & WWTPs
management system in place constructed in low-income
for FSM countries result in failures
Three Large-scale FSM Cases

Jakarta, Malaysia Metro
Manila, The
Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia

Access to
toilet & Emptying & Disposal or
transporting Treatment reuse

8.4 million using 31 Trucks One FSTP Landfilled 100%
NSS (71% of city belongs to PD. capacity As Fertilizers (on
population) PAL Jaya 900m3/day study)
Mostly not +/- 300 trucks or 300 Briquette (on
standard septic from private trucks/day study)
tanks operators
Jakarta Service chain for FSM
Institutional framework and Facts in Jakarta, Indonesia

FS desludging regulated by provincial gov
Annual Average: 52,936 m3
Before 2015 96204 97001
• Desludging operated by govt and
private operators without schedule. 61365 65112 64136 64667
56227 57417
37485 40910 38278 43408
After 2015 24558
• Scheduled operation by PD. PAL 16327
Jaya(provincial-owned company) and
private operators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2014 2016 2017
Sludge Treatment Volume (m3) House (unit)
Scheduled service
No scheduled service by PD.PAL Jaya
Huge increase of desludging activities
Jakarta FS treatment services volume and coverage in 2009-2017 (Source: PD. PAL Jaya, 2018)
Donors’ support on promoting and improving desludging service
After the campaign, the government increased the budget from 2017 to 2022
from US$32 million to US$258 million to commence regular desludging

Introducing Scheduled Desludging Service Helping in promoting and marketing
Case Summary of Jakarta, Indonesia

• Desludging activities increase after the scheduled service was provided;
• Scheduled desludging service available but not mandatory;
• low participation: until 2017 this service only covered 3% out of (approx.)1.7
million on-site sanitation system;
• The government aims to cover 85% of the city by sewer connections till 2050,
FSM is considered as a temporary solution, not their priority.
Case Study: Malaysia

Access to Emptying & Treatment Disposal or
toilet & transporting reuse

6.4 million using 596 Trucks by IWK Most go landfilled
29 Sludge
NSS (26% of 2-6 trucks/city by med- Composting used
country large private; for non food crop
population) 1 Truck/city by small throughout the
private operators country

Malaysia Service chain for FSM
FSM institutional framework and regulation in Malaysia

Desludging was mandatory Desludging was arranged on
and scheduled demand

IWK via
Sanitary IWK via authorised
Board concession Integration of
Municipalities MOF took person Water and
& MOH over IWK Sewerage
1900 1990 2000 2006 2007 2008 2010 2020
1993 1994

Sewerage Service Dept. WSIA and SPAN
Service Act formed SPAN passed established
(SSA) passed

Regulatory and institutional evolution of sewerage services (including FSM) in Malaysia (SPAN, 2018)
Facts: Scheduled desludging in Malaysia

400000 100%
350000 90%
80% “After 2008, regulator
Number of attempts

70% and operators were

Success rate
250000 60% both changed.”
200000 50%
150000 40%
50000 10%
0 0%
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
No mandatory desludging any more
Total Desludged Total unsuccessful %successful

Malaysia Septic Tank scheduled desludging activity (SPAN, 2018)
Facts: demanded desludging in Malaysia

60000 100%
50000 80%
Mandate desludging is a
40000 must
Number of attempts


Success rate
30000 50%
20000 30%
10000 20%
0 0%
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
desludging demanded is
Total Desludged Total unsuccessful %successful
Figure 7. Malaysia Septic Tank demand desludging activity (SPAN, 2018)
Case Summary of Malaysia

• Proper FSM operation & record was maintained based on mandatory
desludging regulation from 1994 to 2008;

• FS desludging business was shrinking from 2008
After 2008, the desludging was no more mandatory and market was opened to
independent private operators, resulting in a decrease of desludging demand and

• No systematic septic tanks desludging record was kept anymore after
Case Study: Metro Manila in the Philippines

Access to toilet Emptying & Disposal or
& collection transporting reuse

Operates by MWCI: 2 FSTP Landfilled 100%
11.2 million using MWCI (814 m3/day) (and informal reuse)
NSS (88% of Manila (50 trucks and MWSI: 1 FSTP
population) additional from (250 m3/day)
Metro Manila Service chain for FSM
Manila Water Desludging Activities


291 282
264 259
242 252
227 223 219
204 213

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

FS treated Volume (10^3m3) Household No. served by Manila Water (in thousands)

East Manila FSM services volume and coverage in 2009-2016
Government’s ownership & leadership of FSM in Metro Manila

Encourage a good Enforce the Accelerate
relation between the scheduled desludging improvement and
city and operators through ordinance innovation
Case Summary of Metro Manila, Philippines

• Major private operators and the government have established a partnership;
• Self sustained business of desludging operated by private and public sectors;
• Coverage is 34%, but has big potential to grow;
• The government records onsite sanitation ownership and scheduling.
ADB Projects and Lessons Learned Nepal & India Projects and IED Evaluations

• FSM is small investment, but commitment
comes from state(e.g. Rajasthan) government

to conduct FSM as a loan component; • Low priority from the local
• FSM proposals mostly initiated by the donors,
NGO, and/or water operator, but not Gov; • Customize technology to be
accepted by the community.
• Absence of regulation; and

• Mostly works in pilot scales.
Table: Key factors for large scale sustainable FSM

List of Key Factors Jakarta Malaysia Metro Manila

A structured Institutional
Technical support and awareness
campaign on desludging
Scheduled desludging service
FSM regulation as mandatory Mandatory before Partially
requirement 2008

Government as an active Before 2008
regulator and keep the record
Private sector as the sub- Before 2008
contractor of the major service
• Jakarta: desludging is scheduled&
increasing with increasing investment; • Strong government ownership and leadership
of FSM is needed;
• Malaysia: shifting regulator and
changing regulatory framework made • Private sector would be better to be the
the business shrinking after 2008; sub-contractors of the government’s agency
instead of free competitive operators;
• Manila: strong ownership and from
government, financially sustained • Mandatory/Scheduled desludging is a key for
business by private operators for a big sustainable FSM business;
FSM operation potential;
• Final sludge disposal can be an issue.
• Strengthen the govt's ownership of the FSM
instead of leaving it to the private sector;

• Set FSM as govt's investment priority instead
of second choice of sewer connection;

• Make desludging as a mandate/schedule
activities with proper recording instead of
demand driven activities; and

• Charge the fee in regular monthly
water/utility bill instead of separate collection.
Let’s discuss…

Message: no matter how poor
the existing sanitation is, there is a
way to improve;
• ADB. (2018). Leading Factors of Success and Failure in Asian Development Bank Urban SanitationProjects.
Retrieve from:
• Dodane, P. H., Mbéguéré, M., Sow, O., & Strande, L. (2012). Capital and operating costs of full-scale fecal
sludge management and wastewater treatment systems in Dakar, Senegal. Environmental Science &
Technology, 46(7), 3705-3711.
• PUPR. (2017). Dasar pengelolaan air limbah (Basic for wdomestic wastewater management). .
• Strande, L., & Brdjanovic, D. (Eds.). (2014). Faecal sludge management: Systems approach for implementation
and operation. IWA publishing.