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International Journal of Exclusive Global Research - Vol 3 Issue 3 March

AchyranthesAspera, Euphorbia Hirta and Parthenium Hysterophorus Medicinal Plants


Phytochemistry study of Haryana and Uttarkhand Region

Dr.K. S. Manjunatha

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Post Graduate Centre,


Kadur-577548, Karnataka, India.

Abstract
Medicinalplantsarethemajorsourceofrawmaterialsandgoodresourcesforpharmaceutical
industry.Thesearethegoodsourceofprimaryandsecondarymetabolites.Inpresentstudyphytochemicalscreeningofthree
medicinalplantsofHaryana and Uttarkhand.
Achyranthusaspera,EuphorbiahirtaandPartheniumhysterophoruswerecarried
outbyusingstandardmethodsforconductingQualitativephytochemicalanalysisandstudyingthepresenceofactive
compoundslikeAlkaloids,Tannins,Saponins,Glycosides,Phenols,Flavonoids,Anthroquinone,TerpenoidsandSteroid
s.
Achyranthusasperashowedmaximumofthesephytocompoundsinethanolicextract.Ethanolicextractsofallplantspecies
revealedthepresenceofmostofthephytochemicals.

Keywords:Primarymetabolites,Ethanolicextracts,Qualitativephytochemicalanalysis.
Introduction cityiscarriedonwithaviewtoanalysethepresenceof
ThehistoryofmedicineinIndiacanbetracedto chemicalconstituentsthatincludedprimary&secondary
theremotepast.Theearliestmentionofthemedicinaluse metabolites.
ofplantsistobefoundinRig-Veda[1].Medicinalplants
synthesizeprimary&secondarymetabolitesbydifferent Materials and methods
pathways,whichareknownasphytochemicalcompounds Collectionofplantmaterials
orbioactivecompounds.Knowledgeofthechemical Thewholeplantpartsinthisinvestigationwere
constituentsofplantsisdesirableforthediscoveryof collectedfromdifferentlocalitiesofHaryana and
therapeuticagents[2]. Uttarkhandcityduring
Nowadaytheanalysisofphytochemicalsis thefloweringperiod.Theplantmaterialswere
carriedoutbyusingdifferentlatesttechniquesalongwith taxonomicallyidentifiedandauthenticatedbyDr.S.K.
chemotaxonomy.Indianpharmaceuticalindustriesareusing Upadhyaya(WellknownBotanistofIndia)asAchyranthusasper
thesephytochemicalsonlargescale,forthesameitis a(Amaranthaceae),Euphorbiahirta
essentialtofindoutthephytochemicalsinmedicinalplants. (Euphorbiaceae),Partheniumhysterophorus(Compositae).
Henceduringthepresentinvestigations Freshplantmaterialswerewashedwithtapwaterandwith
phytochemicalscreeningofcertainplantsofHaryana and distilledwater,airdriedmaterialgroundedtofinepowder
Uttarkhand andstoredinairtightbottleswithproperlabelling.

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PreparationofExtracts Steroids:
25gofcrudepowderofthemedicinalplantswere LiebermannBurchardreaction:
takenwith150mloforganicsolvents(Ethanoland 200mgplantextractin10mlchloroform,filtered
Acetone)andkeptintothesoxhletapparatuswhichwasrun andconcentratedH2SO4wasaddedsidewise.Aredcolour
upto48hrstillthegreencolouroftheplantmaterial producedinthelowerchloroformlayerindicatedthe
disappeared.Thenbothaqueous(crude)&solventextracts presenceofsteroids.Anothertestwasperformedbymixing
werecollectedandstoredat4 oCinairtightbottlesand crudeextractwith2mlofchloroform.Then2mlofeachof
testedforvariousphytocompoundsqualitatively. concentratedH2SO4andaceticacidwerepouredintothe
Qualitativephytochemicalanalysis:[3,4] mixture.Thedevelopmentofagreenishcoloration
Alkaloids: indicatedthepresenceofsteroids.
About2.5gofplantmaterialwasextractedwith Tannins:
solventandevaporatedtodryness;theresiduewasheated 1gofplantmaterialwasextractedwithsolvent
onaboilingwaterbathwith2NHCl(5ml).Aftercooling, andevaporated.Theresiduewasextractedby10mlofhot
themixturewasfilteredandtreatedwithfewdropsof 0.9%NaClsolution,filteredanddividedinto3equal
Mayer‟sreagent.Turbidityoftheresultingprecipitatewas portions,(1)NaClsolutionwasaddedtooneportionofthe
takenasevidenceforthepresenceofalkaloids. testextract,(2)1%gelatinesolutiontoasecondportion(3)
Flavonoids: gelatine-saltreagenttoathirdportion.Precipitationwith
5mlsolventextract(correspondingto1gofplant thelatterreagentorwithboththesecondandthirdreagent
material)wastreatedwithfewdropsofconcentratedHCl isindicativeofthepresenceoftannins.Positivetestsare
andmagnesiumturnings(0.5g).Thepresenceofflavonoids confirmedbytheadditionofFeCl 3solutiontotheextract
wasindicativeifpinkormagenta–redcolourdeveloped andthatresultedinacharacteristicblue–black,greenor
within3min. bluegreencolourandprecipitate.
Glycosides: Saponins:
Keller-kilanitest: About2.5goftheplantmaterialwasextracted
0.5gofsolventextractwasmixedwith2mlof withboilingwater.Crudeextractwasmixedwith5mlof
glacialaceticacidcontaining1-2dropsof2%solutionof distilledwaterinatesttubeanditwasshakenvigorously.
FeCl3.Themixturewasthenpouredintoanothertesttube Theformationofstablefoamwastakenasanindicationfor
containing2mlofconcentratedH 2SO4.Abrownringatthe thepresenceofsaponins.
interphaseindicatedthepresenceofcardiacglycosides.
Phenols: Results and discussion
TheSolventplantextractwastreatedwithfew TheresultsofanalysisaretabulatedinTable01,
dropsofneutralFeCl3solution5%,intensecolour Table02andTable03.Thephytochemicalstudyreveals
developedindicatesthepresenceofphenols. thepresenceofvariousphytochemicalsinaqueousand
Terpenoids: solventextracts.
TheSolventextractofplantmaterialwastakenin IntheEthanolextractofAchyranthusaspera,
atesttubeandthenaddedfewpiecesoftinand3dropsof variousphytochemicalsasAlkaloids,Flavonoids,Saponins,
thionylchloride,originofvioletorpurplecolorindicated Glycosides,Phenols,Anthroquinones,Terpenoids&
thepresenceofterpenoids. SteroidswerepresentexceptTannins.
Anthraquinones: EthanolextractofEuphorbiahirtashowedthe
Borntreger’stest: presenceofallphytochemicalsanalysedexceptPhenols.
5gofplantextractwasshakenwith10mlofC 6H6 IntheEthanolicextractofPartheniumhysterophorusAl
andfiltered,5.0mlof10%ammoniasolutionwasaddedto kaloids,TanninsandFlavonoidswere
thefiltrate.Themixturewasshakenandthepresenceof present,restofthecompoundslikeSaponins,Glycosides,
violetcolourindicatedthepresenceoffreehydroxyl Phenols,Anthroquinons,TerpenoidsandSteroidswere
anthroquinones. absent.(Table01)

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Table01:Qualitativeanalysisofvariousphytochemicals
PlantNameAchyranthusasperaEuphorbiahirtaPartheniumhysterophorus
LocalNameChirchitaDudhghas,dudhiGajorGhassFamilyAmaranthaceaeEuphorbiac
eaeCompositaeAlkaloids+++ Flavonoids+++ Glycosides++- Phenols+--
Terpenoids++- Anthraquinone++- Steroids++- Tannins-++ Saponins++-

Solvent Used for Extraction: Ethanol


Note: Analysis is the average of three Independent Determinations.
InAcetoneextractofAchyranthusaspera, InAcetoneextractofPartheniumhysterophorusshowe
Saponins&Tanninswereabsentandothercompounds dthepresenceofAlkaloids,Glycosides,Flavonoids,
werefoundtobepresent. TerpenoidsandSteroidswhereasTannins,Saponins,
InAcetoneextractofEuphorbiahirtashowedthe PhenolsandAnthroquinonswereabsent.(Table02)
presenceofGlycosides,Phenols,FlavonoidsandSteroids
andrestofthePhytocompoundswereabsent.

Table02:Qualitativeanalysisofvariousphytochemicals
PlantNameAchyranthusasperaEuphorbiahirtaPartheniumhysterophorus
LocalNameChirchitaDudhghas,dudhiGajorGhassFamilyAmaranthaceaeEuphorbiac
eaeCompositaeAlkaloids+-+ Flavonoids+++ Glycosides+++ Phenols++-
Terpenoids+-+ Anthraquinone+-- Steroids+++ Tannins--- Saponins---
Solvent Used for Extraction: Acetone
Note: Analysis is the average of three Independent Determinations.

Table03:Qualitativeanalysisofvariousphytochemicals
PlantNameAchyranthusasperaEuphorbiahirtaPartheniumhysterophorus
LocalNameChirchitaDudhghas,DudhiGajorGhassFamilyAmaranthaceaeEuphorbiac
eaeCompositaeAlkaloids--- Flavonoids-+- Glycosides+++ Phenols---
Terpenoids+++ Anthraquinone+-- Steroids+++ Tannins-+- Saponins-+-
Solvent Used for Extraction: Water
Note: Analysis is the average of three Independent Determinations.

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constitutedofvariousprimary&secondarymetabolites
InAqueousextractofAchyranthusasperaonly
whereasinPartheniumhysterophoruswereportedvarious
Glycosides,Terpenoids,AnthroquinonesandSteroidswere
foundtobepresent,whiletherestofthecompoundswere
foundtobeabsent.
InAqueousextractofEuphorbiahirta,Tannins,
Saponins,Glycosides,Flavonoids,TerpenoidsandSteroids
werepresent,whereasAlkaloids,Phenolsand
Anthroquinoneswerefoundtobeabsent.
InAqueousextractofPartheniumhysterophorustheaq
ueousextractshowedthepresenceofonly
Glycosides,TerpenoidsandSteroids,restofthecompounds
werefoundtobeabsent.(Table03)
Medicinalplantshaveawidevarietyofchemical
compounds,whichcanbesortedasprimary&secondary
metabolites[5].Traditionally,theplantisusedinasthma
andcough.Itispungent,antiphlegmatic,antiperiodic,
diuretic,purgativeandlaxative,usefulinoedema,dropsy
andpiles,boilsanderuptionsofskinetc.Crushedplantis
boiledinwaterandisusedinpneumonia.Infusionofthe
rootisamildastringentinbowelcomplaints.Theflowering
spikesorseeds,groundandmadeintoapastewithwater,
areusedasexternalapplicationforbitesofpoisonous
snakesandreptiles,usedinnightblindnessandcutaneous
diseases[6].Theplantisusedindropsy,piles,andskin
eruptions,colic,asdiuretic,astringentandpurgative[7-9].
E.hirtapossessesantibacterial,anthelmintic,
antiasthmatic,sedative,antispasmodic,antifertility,
antifungal,andantimalarialproperties.Rootsarealsoused
forsnakebites.[10].E.hirtaisreportedtohavean
antiasthmaticactivityduetotherelaxationeffectonthe
bronchialtubesandadepressantactiononrespiration[1].
ThedecoctionofP.hysterophorushasbeenused
intraditionalmedicinetotreatfever,diarrhoea,neurologic
disorders,urinarytractinfections,dysentery,malariaandas
emmenagogue[11].Partheniumhysterophorushasbeen
foundtobepharmacologicallyactiveasanalgesicin
muscularrheumatism,therapeuticforneuralgiaandas
vermifuge[12].Inbook„DictionaryofEconomicPlantsin
India‟Partheniumhysterophorusv,isdescribedasweed
foundinPoonaandisreportedtobeusedastonic,febrifuge
andemmenagogue.Thedecoctionofrootisusefulin
dysentry[13].Partheniumisalsoreportedaspromising
remedyagainsthepaticamoebiasis[14].InJamaica,the
decoctionisusedasaFlea-repellentbothfordogsandother
animals[15].
Thepreliminaryphytochemicaltestsleadthe
quantitativeestimationtolocatingthesourceofbioactive
chemicalcompounds.TheQualitativephytochemical
studiesduringthepresentanalysisrevealedthat
AchyranthusasperaandEuphorbiahirtaaremainly

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phytochemicalsinacetoneextractionwhichcanbe
quantifiedfortheuseinpharmaceuticalindustryandother
plantscanalsobequantified.

Conclusion
Thisstudyofthequalitativephytochemical
analysisrevealedthatthesephytochemicalsaremainly
presentintheEthanolicextractascomparedtoAcetonicor
AqueousextractinAchyranthusasperaandEuphorbia
hirtaasshowninTables.SotheEthanolicextractofthe
samplesofplantmaterialwerefoundtocontainthe
requiredmajorphytochemicalsandothernutritive
compoundsneededbythepharamaceuticalcompaniesas
wellasinfoodsupplements.Wealsofoundvarious
phytochemicalsinacetoneextractionofPartheniumhysterophor
us.Thequantitativeanalysisofthese
phytochemicalswillbeaninterestingareaforfurtherstudy.

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