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Chapter 12 Promoting health and safety

Learning objectives:
 Summarize the common elements of federal and provincial occupational
health and safety legislation.
 Describe the measures managers and employees can take to create a safe
work environment.
 Identify ways to control and eliminate various on-the-job health hazards.
 Describe the programs organizations utilize to build better health among
their workforces.
 Indicate the methods for coping with stress.

Occupational injury: Any cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation resulting from a

workplace accident or from an exposure involving an accident in the work

Occupational illness: Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting
from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors
associated with employment

 The fundamental duty of every employer is to take every reasonable

precaution to ensure employee safety.
 Employers must inform their employees about safety and health requirements.
 Employers are also required to keep certain records, to compile an annual
summary of work-related injuries and illnesses, and to ensure that supervisors
are familiar with the work and its associated hazards

 Duty for Employees: required to comply with all applicable acts and
regulations, to report hazardous conditions or defective equipment, and to
follow all employer safety and health rules and regulations, including those
prescribing the use of protective equipment.

 Occupational health and safety acts require supervisors to do the

following: advise employees of potential workplace hazards; ensure that
workers use or wear safety equipment, devices, or clothing; provide written
instructions where applicable; and take every reasonable precaution to
guarantee the safety of workers.

 Duties of Joint Health and Safety Committees: establish a non-adversarial

climate for creating safe and healthy workplaces.

Workers’ compensation: injured workers can receive benefits in the form of a cash
payout (if the disability is permanent) or wage loss payments (if the worker can no
longer earn the same amount of money).
 Industrial disease: A disease resulting from exposure to a substance
relating to a particular process, trade, or occupation in industry


Creating a culture of safety: role of a safety awareness program is motivating
managers, supervisors, and subordinates to be champions of safety considerations.

Creating a culture of safety within in an organization: is to encourage

supervisors to incorporate safety into their inter- views with job candidates.

Supervisor’s major responsibilities: is to communicate to an employee the need

to work safely.

Proactive Safety Training Program: certain occupational areas, safety and health
training is legally required. When training is mandated, employers must keep
accurate records of all employee education. Violations can incur criminal penalties.
Enforcing safety rules: communicated through supervisors, bulletin board notices,
employee handbooks, and signs attached to equipment. Safety rules are also
emphasized in regular safety meetings, at new-employee orientations, and in
manuals of standard operating procedures.

 The supervisor and a member of the safety committee should investigate

every accident, even those considered minor. Determine the factors
contributing to the accident and reveal what corrections are needed to
prevent it from happening again.


 Fatigue: being tired on the job = bad

 Distracted driving: send texts doing dumb shit
 Workplace violence: Threatening behavior, such as shaking fists or
throwing objects, Verbal or written threats, Harassment—any behavior that
demeans, embarrasses, or humiliates, Verbal abuse, including swearing,
insults, or condescending language, Physical attacks, including hitting,
shoving, pushing, or kicking
 Workplace Emergencies: unforeseen situation that threatens employees,
customers, or the public; disrupts or shuts down operations; or causes
physical or environmental damage.
 Emergency action plan: A plan an organization develops that contains step-
by-step procedures for dealing with various emergency situations

Crisis management teams: composed of both hourly and managerial

employees, conduct initial risk assessment surveys, develop action plans to
respond to violent situations, and, importantly, perform crisis intervention
during violent, or potentially violent, encounters.

Cumulative trauma disorders: Injuries involving tendons of the fingers, hands,

and arms that become inflamed from repeated stresses and strains

Computer Workstation Issues:

1. Visual difficulties. VDT operators frequently complain of blurred vision, sore
eyes, burning and itching eyes, and glare.
2. Muscular aches and pains. Pains in the back, neck, and shoulders are common
complaints of VDT operators.
3. Job stress. Eyestrain, postural problems, insufficient training, excessive
workloads, and monotonous work are complaints reported by three- quarters of
VDT users.

Depression: Negative emotional state marked by feelings of low spirits, gloominess,

sadness, and loss of pleasure in ordinary activities

Stress: Any adjustive demand caused by physical, mental, or emotional factors that
require coping behavior
Sources of Job-Related Stress
 High demand: having too much to do in too short a time
 High effort: having to expend too much mental or physical energy over too
long a period
 Low control: having too little influence over the way a job is done on a day-
to-day basis
 Low reward: receiving inadequate feedback on performance and no
recognition for a job well done

Burnout: The most severe stage of distress, manifesting itself in depression,

frustration, and loss of productivity