Organism Synonyms Disease Distribution Infective Stage
IH: procercoid larva DH: plerocercoid larva


PSEUDOPHILLIDEAN Adult:-Ivory or grayish yellow -almond shaped scolex -mature proglottid 4/5 of entire length of worm -mature proglottid: both m/f organs -gravid proglottid: rosette-like coiled uterus, does not separate but disintegrate after reprdxn


Life cycle





Diphyllobotrium latum

Dibothriocephalus latus, fish tape worm, broad tapeworm

Diphyllobothriasis Bothriocephaliasis Fish tapeworm infxn

Northern temperate zones (fresh water fish)

IH: Fresh water fish

-Yellowish brown -single shell -inconspicuous operculum and small knobs at ends -ova discharge in cycles of 3 days -immature when laid -11-15 days in fresh water to hatch -40, 000 eggs -pale yellow to dark brown -embryophore is thick-walled w/ minute canals that give it striated appearance -liberated by rupture of proglottid LARVA -cysticercus cellulosae, filled with liquid w/ invaginated scolex, suckers and hooks -100,000 eggs -could not be distinguished from T. solium, multiceps, echinococcus LARVA: cysticercus

Coracidium (ciliated embryo) > ingested by copepod > procercoid larva in 3 weeks > procercoid larva (fish) > plerocercoid larva (man)

Small intestine (grown in 7-30 days)

-presence of human and I or animal definitive hosts -presence of suitable IH -food habits of human population -amount of pollution of natural fresh waters by DH

-Recovery of eggs -scolex and proglottid recovered after reatment

Thorough cooking of fresh water fish

Taenia solium

Pork tapeworm, armed tapeworm

Taeniasis solium, pork tapeworm infection


Ingestion of insufficiently cooked pork with cysticersus cellulosae

IH: Pork

CYCLOPHILLIDEAN 800-1000 proglottids -Scolex: globular, 4 cupped-chaped suckers, rostellum w/ double crown of small hooks -Neck: short and slender -Immature segment: broader than long -mature segment: nearly square -Gravid segment: diagnostic, inactive

Man is only DH, Adult worm- 25 yrs life

Small intestine (grown in 5-12 weeks)

-gravid proglottid found -scolex after therapy -xray, ct scan -intradermal test -precipitin test -CFT

-Ingestion of pork -thorough cooking of pork -adequate disposal of excreta -treatment of infected persons

Taenia saginata

Beef tapeworm, unarmed tapeworm

Taeniasis saginata, beef tapeworm infection


Ingestion of insufficiently cooked beef with viable cysticerci

IH: Cattle, buffalo, giraffe

Adult:-larger than T. solium, 1,000-2,000 proglottids -Scolex: quadrate, 4 prominent hemispherical suckers, no rostellum and hooks -Neck: several times the length of head

Man is only DH, life span of 25 yrs

Small intestine (grown in 8-10 weeks)

-finding the characteristic proglottid in stool* -ova in feces/perianal swabbing





Infective Stage


Morphology -Mature proglottid: broader than long, vagina with sphincter, 300-400 testes -Gravid proglottid: distal 5th in worm, narrower and longer than broad, detached singly, capable of independent motion, expel milky fluid -smallest tapeworm of medical importance -scolex, neck and 3 segments -Scolex: pyriform, 4 suckers, prominent rostellum, 2 rows of rostellar hooks -Immature segment: only 1 -Mature proglottid: narrowest among the segments, follicular testes, 2 lobes of ovaries by a noarrow band, single vitelline gland -Gravid proglottid: -terminal proglottid, broadest and longest Adult: -small, size inversely proportional to number of worms present in host -scolex: minute, rhomboidal in shape, 4 hemisperical suckers, short rostellum, 1 row of 20-30 spines -neck: long and slender, connected with narrow immature segment -Mature proglottid: single genital spore, 3 testes arranged in a line -gravid segment: sacculate uterus

Ova/Larva bovis- in catles -ovoidal in shape ,filled with liquid, 1 larval scolex, 4 suckers

Life cycle





Echinococcus granulosus

Taenia echinococcus, hydatid worm

Unilocular echinococcosis, hydatid disease

Cosmopolitan, in sheep raising countries

DH: dogs and wolves IH: sheep, cattle, goats, camel

Egg: similar with Taenia LARVA: -hydatid larva, contains fluid, brood capsules, scolex (hydatid sand)

Larva found in: liver- 70% lungs- 20% other tissues- 10%

Hymenolepsis nana

Dwarf tapeworm, Taenia murina, T. nana

Cosmopolitan, common in warm than cold countries

Ingestion of egg

IH: none

80-100 eggs -spherical or subspherical -oncosphere with 3 pairs of hooklets -inner envelope has 2 polar thickenings w/ 4-8 polar filaments on each


Intestinal villus

Finding the characteristic eggs

Improve personal hygiene

Organism Hymenolepsis diminuta

Synonyms Rat tapeworm


Distribution cosmopolitan

Infective Stage Ingestion of parasitized IH

Hosts IH: Moths, cockroaches, Fleas, beatles, mellipedes

Morphology -Adult: larger than H. nana, 800-1000 proglottid -Scolex: small, rounded w/ 4 suckers, apical invagination cavity w/c the unarmed pyriform rostellum is retracted -mature/gravid segment: similar to H. nana

Ova/Larva -subspherical, larger than H. nana -oncosphere w/ 6 hooklets arranged in a fan-shaped pattern -inner membrane has 2 polar thickening -in between, colorless gelatinous mix

Life cycle Scolex evaginates > attach to mucosa to mature > gravid segment detach > eggs ingested by arthropods > oncosphere in hemal cavity > cysticercoid larva Scolez evaginates > attach to intestine > gravid proglottid separate singly or in 2-3 > disintigrate in ground > ingested by larval IH > intestine of IH > oncosphere hatch > hemal cavity 24 hrs > cysticercoid Cysticercoid in ant > ingested by rats/children > proglottids passed out in feces

Habitat mucosa


Dx Stool exam > characteristic egg


Dipylidium caninum

Taenia canina, dog tapeworm, double pored dog tapeworm

Dog tapeworm infection, dipylidiasis


Bite of cysticercoid in insects

IH: insects DH: dog, cat, occasionally man

-Adult: pale reddish, 175 proglottids -Scolex: rhomboid, 4 prominent oval suckers, ovoid rostellum w/ 6-7 rows of hooklets -Neck: short and slender -Mature proglottid: longer than broad, pumpkin seed shaped, double set of organs/ genital pore on lateral margin -Gravid proglottid: pumpkin seed shaped, can creep out of anus, separate from strobila singly or in groups of 2-3

-8-15 eggs -spherical -enclosed in 1525 embryonic membrane -3 coverings: outermost shell, albuminous layer, embryonic membrane -fully developed embryonated (hexacanth embryo)

Small intestine

Recover of gravid segments

Raillietina celebensis

Common parasite of rats in the orient

IH: species of ants DH: rats

Adult: 4 suckers, retractile rostellum, double rows of small hooks, saclike uterus up to 400 egg capsules each w/ 1-4 large eggs

Finding characteristic proglottids

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