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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Aside from pimples and dandruff, tinea versicolor locally known as an-an is one of the

common skin problems experienced among people. These are white patches on the skin which is

caused by fungi called Malassezia furfur.

Tinea versicolor is not painful or contagious. But it can lead to emotional distress or self-

consciousness. Teenagers in the community with this infection refuse to go outside which leads to

lack of self-confidence to go out and interact with other people. Some also do not have the means

to buy treatments for these.

Bitter gourd, which is known in the Philippines as ampalaya, is an annual plant that is

native in this country. It is botanically known as Momordica charantia L. It can be grown anytime

of the year for its edible shoots and fruits and offers a good supply of vitamins and minerals.

(Bureau of Agricultural Research, 2012)

Study also showed antifungal activity of ampalaya against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus

niger, and Candida albicans. Phytochemicals identified included steroids, tannins, alkaloids,

anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (Stuart, G. Jr., 2017)

Acapulco is widely used as herbal medicine and is a shrub that grows wild in the tropical

climate of Philippines. The acapulco leaves contain chrysophanic acid, a fungicide that is used to

treat fungal infections, like ringworms, scabies and eczema. Thus, it is of great significance to

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know the potential use of the aqueous form of acapulco leaves in treating other superficial fungal

infections, particularly Tinea versicolor.

The abundance of the antifungal properties of ampalaya and Acapulco which can be locally

grown and abundant in the locality of Baggao, this prompted the researchers to conduct this study

entitled, Relative Healing Effect of Ampalaya, Acapulco, Combined Ampalaya and Acapulco, and

Commercial Ointment to the Skin Disease (Tinea Versicolor).

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Statement of the Problem

The main objective of the study is to determine the relative healing effect of Ampalaya,

Acapulco, combined Ampalaya and Acapulco, and Commercial Ointment to the skin disease Tinea

Versicolor. This study aims to determine if the herbal ointments can be a viable alternative to the

commercial product. It is done so by measuring the effectivenss (measured through degree of

visibility of the tinea versicolor in the affected are of the skin) and the amount of time (in days) it

takes to heal tinea versicolor using the herbal ointments and commercial product.

1. Are the herbal ointments more effective in treating tinea versicolor than the commercial

one?

2. Is the ampalaya ointment more effective in treating tinea versicolor than the Acapulco

ointment?

3. Is the healing time of tinea versicolor faster using the herbal ointments than the commercial

one?

Hypothesis

1. There are no significant differences between the healing time of tinea versicolor using the

herbal ointments and the commercial one.

2. There is no significant differences between the effectiveness of ampalaya ointment and

Acapulco ointment in treating tinea versicolor.

3. There is no significant difference between the healing time of tinea versicolor using the

herbal ointments and the commercial one.

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Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to determine the relative healing effect of Ampalaya,

Acapulco, Combined Ampalaya and Acapulco, and Commercial Ointment to the skin disease

(Tinea Versicolor). Specifically, this study aims to:

1. Compare the ampalaya leaves ointment and the commercial ointment in terms of its

effectiveness in treating tinea versicolor.

2. Compare the ampalaya leaves ointment with the commercial ointment in terms of its

healing time.

3. Compare the acapulco leaves ointment and the commercial ointment in terms of its

effectiveness in treating the tinea versicolor.

4. Compare the acapulco leaves ointment with the commercial ointment in terms of its healing

time.

5. Compare the combined ampalaya and acapulco leaves ointment with the commercial

ointment in terms of its effectiveness in treating tinea versicolor.

6. Compare the combined ampalaya and acapulco leaves ointment with the commercial

ointment in terms of its healing time.

7. Compare the ampalaya leaves ointment with the acapulco leaves ointment in terms of its

effectiveness in treating tinea versicolor.

8. Compare the ampalaya leaves ointment with the acapulco leaves ointment in terms of its

healing time.

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Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following:

People

Giving prior knowledge or ideas about herbal plants this will prompt them not to buy synthetic

drugs that burden their pockets especially the teenagers who are prone to this type of skin

disease.

Pharmaceutical Industries

These industries can make parallel product basing from the study to produce more affordable

medicines.

Department of Health (DOH)

They may use the result of the study to promote locally processed medicines made out of herbal

plants which have been found to be safe and effective at a low cost.

Researchers

This would motivate them to make a further study for the benefit of mankind.

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Scope and Delimitation

This study will only focus on determining the relative healing effect of the herbal ointments and

commercial products in terms of the healing rate measured in days. This study is going to be

conducted at Poblacion, Baggao, Cagayan on August to September 2018.

Definition of Terms

Acapulco- the plant that has an antifungal property which is used in the study

An-an- common term for tinea versicolor

Ampalaya- the plant that has an antifungal property which is used in the study

Malassezia furfur- the fungi causing tine versicolor

Tinea versicolor- white patches on the skin caused by fungi

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Botanical Description of Ampalaya

Ampalaya Bitter Melon (Momordicacharantia) also known as Bitter Melon is a tropical

and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in the Amazon, Carribean, South

East Asia such as Philippines for its edible fruit. Ampalaya or bitter melon also known as bitter

gourd as the name implies has a bitter taste due to the presence of momordicin, and is believed to

be among the most bitter of all vegetables.

Ampalaya Bitter Melon is a climbing vine that grows up to 5m, with tendrils up to 20cm.

long. Amplaya leaves are heart-shaped, 5-10 cm across, cut into 5-7 lobes. Each Ampalaya Bitter

Melon plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. Ampalaya bears fleshy green fruit,

oblong shaped with pointed ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds.

Ampalaya seeds are flat with ruminated margins. (MedicalHealthGuide, 2011)

Medicinal Uses of Ampalaya

Despite its bitter taste, studies have shown antidiabetic, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory,

membrane stabilizing, antioxidant, cholinomimetic, analgesic, antimicrobial,

gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-dengue, antifungal properties of Ampalaya. (Stuart, G. Jr.,

2017)

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Antifungal Activity of Ampalaya

Antifungal activity in aqueous and organic extracts from Momordicacharantia and

Momordicabalsamina were evaluated against three pathogens: Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. melonis,

Macrophominaphaseolina, and Alternariasolani. Cold-water extracts of 12 Momordica accessions

exhibited various degrees of inhibition of the three pathogens: A. solani was more suppressed by

the different extracts than F. oxysporum or M. phaseolina. Extracts from accessions 5 and 10 from

M. balsamina were the most effective at inhibiting the tested fungi. Accession 10 exhibited the

highest suppression level, more than 30% higher inhibition relative to the untreated control.

Heating the cold extracts resulted in loss of antifungal activity in all cases. Hot ethanol extracts of

the studied accessions exhibited a somewhat different pattern: F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina

were strongly inhibited relative to A. solani. Interestingly, accession 10, which excelled in its

inhibitory activity in the cold-water extract, was not effective when extracted in hot ethanol. Hot

petroleum ether extracts inhibited F. oxysporum and A. solani, while M. phaseolina was not

affected by any of the extracts. The variability in antifungal activity exhibited by the different

Momordica extracts suggests that there are a variety of antifungal compounds with different

characteristics and probably different modes of action. (Burger, Y., et al, 2010)

Study also showed antifungal activity of amplalaya against Aspergillusflavus,

Aspergillusniger, and Candida albicans. Phytochemicals identified included steroids, tannins,

alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (Stuart, G. Jr, 2017).

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Momordica.charantia, was investigated

against S.aureus (gram+ve), E.coli (gram-ve) and C.albicans using the Stokes disc diffusion, the

pour plate, well diffusion and streak plate methods. The solvent type extracts were obtained by

three extractions with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol respectively. Solvents

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were removed in vacuo to yield viscous oils and paste which were made up to a concentration of

0.03g in 10 mL of the respective solvents. These were tested in varying volumes of 100-600

uL/plate (i.e. concentrations of 0.03-0.18 mg/10 mL agar). The solvents were used as control

whereas ampicillin and nystatin were used as references for bacteria and fungal species

respectively. The solvents had no effect on the microorganisms whereas ampicillin and nystatin

inhibited microbial growth. Momordica.Charantia showed antimicrobial inhibitory activity at

0.18mg/10mL plate of medium with activity most prominent with the ethanol extracts and

negligible with the hexane. This study suggests that the ethanol extracts of M

Momordica.Charantia,can be used in the control of E.coli and S.aureus induced diseases as herbal

medicines following clinical trials. (Jagessar, R., et al., 2007)

Botanical Description of Acapulco (Cassia alata)

Acapulco is an erect, shrubby legume with dark green compound leaves. Acapulco leaves

have orange rachis that has 16-28 leaflets. Acapulco produces an axis of golden yellow flowers

that has 4-winged pods containing 50-60 flattened, triangular seeds. Acapulco flowers are enclosed

by yellow-orange bracts that are later shed in time. (MedicinalHealthGuide, 2011)

Medicinal Uses of Acapulco (Cassia alata)

Acapulco is used as herbal medicine and is a shrub that grows wild in the tropical climate

of Philippines. Acapulco is widely used in the Philippines as herbal medicine. The Acapulco leaves

contain chrysophanic acid, a fungicide that is used to treat fungal infections, like ringworms,

scabies and eczema. Acapulco leaves are also known to be sudorific, diuretic and purgative, used

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to treat intestinal problems including intestinal parasites. Acapulco is also used as herbal medicine

to treat bronchitis and asthma. Because of Acapulco’s anti-fungal properties, it is a common

ingredient in soaps, shampoos, and lotions in the Philippines. The Philippine Council for Health

Research and Development (PCHRD) has helped develop the technology for a Acapulco herbal

medicine lotion. (MedicinalHealthGuide, 2011)

Tinea versicolor

Pityriasisversicolor, also known as tinea versicolor, is a frequent, benign, superficial fungal

infection of the kin. It belongs to Malassezia-related diseases. Clinical features of

pityriasisversicolor include either hyperpigmented or hypopigmented finely scaly macules. The

most frequently affected sites are the trunk, neck, and proximal extremities. The diagnosis of

pityriasisversicolor is often made on clinical grounds alone. The ultraviolet black light and the

microscopic examination of scales soaked in potassium hydroxide may be helpful in doubtful

cases. Pityriasisversicolor responds well to induction therapy. However, long-term maintenance

treatment often is required because of high recurrence rate. (Karray, M. et al., 2018)

Malassezia Furfur

Malassezia furfur is an anthropophilic fungus that belongs to the physiological skin flora.

The fungus can grow in a yeast phase as well as in a mycelial phase; on nonaffected skin the fungus

is mainly prevalent in the yeast phase. The organism has complex lipid requirements for growth,

which also explains its occurrence on the skin. This also leads to the requirement for specially

supplemented media for in vitro cultivation. Malassezia furfur is the causative agent of

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pityriasisversicolor. It also seems to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff

formation, folliculitis, confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, and the provocation of psoriatic

lesions. Many substances for topical application, such as azole antimycotics, ciclopiroxolamine,

piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur-containing substances are effective in the treatment

of these diseases. In recent years rare cases of systemic infections and fungemias caused by

Malassezia have been reported. (Schmidt, A., 1997)

Beeswax

Beeswax is the substance that forms the structure of a honeycomb; the bees secrete wax to

build the honeycombs where to store honey. Thanks to its rich hydrophobic protective properties,

the beeswax is in fact present within cosmetics and body products. Also, beeswax is used in the

food industry: as a film to wrap cheese for maturing or as a food additive (E901) to give shine to

the products. Exactly as the honey which it contains, beeswax is also characterized by several

therapeutic properties of great interest to us; it is thought to be particularly effective in healing

bruises, inflammation and burns. Recently, the interest of researchers has moved even

on antimicrobial properties of beeswax although there are still few studies in the literature focused

only on the action of beeswax. The few studies showed an antimicrobic effectiveness of beeswax

against overall Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Candida

albicans and Aspergillusniger; these inhibitory effects are enhanced synergistically with other

natural products such as honey or olive oil. This minireview aims to be a collection of major

scientific works that have considered the antimicrobial activity of beeswax alone or in combination

with other natural products in recent years. (Fratini, F., 2016)

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Healing Duration of Tinea Versicolor

Ketoconazole, an imidazole, was the first broad-spectrum antifungal used in the treatment

of superficial and systemic mycoses. Through inhibition of the enzyme lanosterol 14α-

demethylase, ketoconazole disrupts ergosterol biosynthesis to limit cell function and growth.

Multiple formulations have proved effective in treating PV, including cream, shampoo, and foam,

with the most common regimen being once daily application of cream or foam for 14 days.

Ketoconazole cream has been shown to be as effective as 1% clotrimazole and 1% terbinafine

cream, whereas ketoconazole shampoo was shown to be as effective as 2.5% selenium sulphide

and 1% flutrimazole shampoo.

Application of ketoconazole shampoo has varied across studies, including once daily for 3

or 14 days, and once weekly for 3 weeks. Lange et al. (1998) conducted a multi-center, double-

blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of a single application

of ketoconazole shampoo vs. daily application for 3 days. Patients used ketoconazole shampoo

either daily for 3 days, ketoconazole once followed by placebo shampoo for 2 days, or placebo

shampoo for 3 days. Thirty-one days from the start of treatment, there were no significant

differences between the two ketoconazole regimens in mycological or complete cure rates. Both

ketoconazole regimens, daily application for 3 days and one application, were significantly more

effective than placebo shampoo for mycological cure (84% vs.78% vs. 11% respectively, p <

0.001) and complete cure (73% vs. 69% vs. 5% respectively, p < 0.001).

In studies that followed patients well beyond the treatment period (3–24 months), relapse

and/or lower cure rates were observed. However, ketoconazole foam or cream applied once daily

for 14 days appear to have some ability in maintaining complete cure 3–12 months post-treatment.

Seventy nine percent of patients displayed complete cure at 12 months post-treatment with 2%

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ketoconazole cream, while 82% and 92% of patients displayed complete cure measured 3 months

post-treatment with ketoconazole 1% foam and 2% cream, respectively. Potential advantages to

using 1% ketoconazole foam include a shorter evaporation time, and increased transcutaneous

penetration for a longer time in the epidermis compared to creams or lotions.

Recently, a combination of ketoconazole cream with 0.1% adapalene gel was compared to

ketoconazole cream alone in a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Adapalene gel is a derivative

of naphthoic acid used to treat acne that acts by inhibiting cellular differentiation. Previously, twice

daily application of ketoconazole 2% cream for 14 days was shown to be equivalent to 0.1%

adapalene gel in treating PV. In the latest study, patients applied either a combination of 2%

ketoconazole cream and 0.1% adapalene gel once daily for 14 days or 2% ketoconazole cream

twice daily for 14 days. Combination treatment produced clinical improvement and mycological

cure faster (within 2 weeks) than monotherapy. By week 4, the treatment with the combination of

ketoconazole and adapalene produced significantly greater clinical improvement and mycological

cure as compared to ketoconazole monotherapy (92% vs.72%, p = 0.009). Mild adverse events

were reported in treatment groups and included erythema, skin dryness, and burning sensation with

the combination treatment or mild irritation with monotherapy. Combination treatments may show

promise for future treatment of PV. The relative efficacy of different topical ketoconazole

formulations is difficult to ascertain, as cure rates at 2–4 weeks were high for all formulations.

(Aditya, G., et al., 2015)

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Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

A. Materials

Ampalaya leaves, acapulco leaves, candle wax, strainer, clean container, pot, gas stove,

sauce pan, knife, chopping board, syringe, olive oil/vegetable oil, weighing scale, essential

oil

Test plants: Ampalaya and acapulco

B. Procedure

a. Collection of Leaf Samples

Leaf samples were collected in Poblacion, Bagunot, and Masical, Baggao, Cagayan.

b. Preparation of Leaf Samples

Using a basin, the leaf samples were washed to remove the dirt. After washing, they

were air dried to remove the excess water. The leaves were chopped and weighed (60

g for ampalaya and 60 g for acapulco).

c. Making of the Ointment

To conduct the experiment, 3 treatments were prepared; Treatment 1 (ampalaya),

Treatment 2 (acapulco), Treatment 3 (combined ampalaya and acapulco). For each of

the treatment, 40 ml of olive oil was boiled for one minute. After boiling the olive oil,

the chopped leaves (20g each for both leaves) for treatment 1, 2, and 3 were cooked

separately until the color of the oil turned green.

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On a separate pot, the candle wax was melted. On a mixing bowl, 3 tablespoons each

of the infused oil of treatment 1, 2, and 3 were separately mixed with 1 tablespoon of

candle wax and 2 drops of essential oil to increase the surface area absorption. The

ointments were placed in a clean container to cool and were labelled accordingly.

C. Data Gathering

For each of the treatments (1,2, and 3) and commercial product, one respondent was

selected. Each of the respondent have mild tine versicolor visible in their face and back.

Each respondent was briefed about how to use the product and how much amount to apply.

The following are the following direction for use:

How to use the product:

1. Wash hands and affected area thoroughly with soap and water before applying. Pat

the skin dry instead of rubbing it.

2. Take an index full of the product and apply it to the affected area. Spread the

product using the index finger until all spots are covered.

3. Make sure to apply the product thinly and evenly by massaging it in the affected

area.

4. Wash hand after use.

The routine in applying the ointments was done every morning and night by the test

subjects. Gathering of data was done by observing and documenting the improvement

(healing) and giving the respondents evaluation sheets to rate the tinea versicolor on days.

D. Data Analysis

The researchers made use of descriptive statistics in analyzing the data.

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Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results in graphical form and their ensuing discussions of the

effectiveness of ampalaya, acapulco, combined ampalaya and acapulco, and commercial ointment

to the skin disease (tinea versicolor) based on the research questions and in terms of the following

parameter: 1.Effectiveness and 2. Healing Time.

As a guide to the discussion, the respondents were asked to use a four (4) point scoring

system, ranging from one to four (1-4) where one (1), being the lowest, correspond to not effective

(The discoloration of the skin is very visible), two (2) slightly effective (The discoloration of the

skin is visible), three (3) effective (The discoloration of the skin is slightly visible), and four (4)

being the highest, correspond to very effective (The discoloration of the skin is almost clear to no

longer visible), to rate the ampalaya, acapulco, combined ampalaya and acapulco, and commercial

ointment to the skin disease (tinea versicolor) on the two (2) above-mentioned parameters .

Table 1. Tabular Presentation showing the comparison of Ampalaya Ointment and

Commercial Ointment

Ampalaya Commercial
Day
Ointment Ointment
Day 0 1 1
Day 4 2 2
Day 8 2 3
Day 12 3 3
Average score 2 2.25
Average rate of
0.5 0.5
healing

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Figure 1. Graphical Presentation showing the comparison of Ampalaya Ointment and

Commercial Ointment

Very Effective 4

Effective 3

Slightly Effective 2 Ampalaya Ointment


Commercial Ointment

Not Effective 1

0
Day 0 Day 4 Day 8 Day 12

Research Question One: Is the ampalaya leaves ointment more effective in treating tinea

versicolor than the commercial one?

Figure 1 shows the comparison of the Ampalaya Ointment and the Commercial Ointment

by respondent 1. The rate of Respondent 1 using the ampalaya ointment is 1 (not effective), 2

(slightly effective), 2 (slightly effective), 3 (effective). On the other hand, the rate of the respondent

using the commercial ointment is 1 (not effective), 2 (slightly effective), 3 (effective), 3 (effective)

respectively. The average score of the ointments also shows that the commercial ointment is

12.5% better than the amplaya ointment. This means that the commercial ointment is slightly more

effective in healing tinea versicolor than the ampalaya ointment. .

Research Question Two: Is the healing time of tinea versicolor faster using the ampalaya

leaves ointment than the commercial one?

The result showed that on the 8th day, the commercial ointment was rated 3, higher than

the ampalaya ointment which was rated 2. It can be inferred from the given data that the

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dissapearance of the discoloration on the skin can be seen earlier using the commercial ointment

than using the ampalaya ointment. However, this does not mean that the the healing time of tinea

versicolor is faster using the commercial ointment than the amplaya ointment. The average rate of

healing for both of the ointments are equal which means that when it comes to healing time the

ampalaya and commercial ointments are at par with each other.

Table 2. Tabular Presentation showing the comparison of Acapulco Ointment and

Commercial Ointment

Acapulco Commercial
Day
Ointment Ointment
Day 0 1 1
Day 4 2 2
Day 8 3 2
Day 12 3 3
Average score 2.25 2
Average rate of
0.5 0.5
healing

Figure 2. Graphical Presentation showing the comparison of Acapulco Ointment and

Commercial Ointment

Very Effective 4

Effective 3

Slightly Effective 2 Acapulco Ointment


Commercial Ointment
Not Effective 1

0
Day 0 Day 4 Day 8 Day 12

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Research Question Three: Is the acapulco leaves ointment more effective in treating tinea

versicolor than the commercial one?

Figure 2 shows the comparison of the Acapulco Ointment and the Commercial Ointment

of Respondent 2. The rate of Respondent 2 in using the Acapulco ointment is 1 (not effective), 2

(slightly effective), 3 (effective), and 3 (effective) respectively. On the other hand, the rate of

Respondent 2 In using the commercial ointment is 1 (not effective), 2 (slightly effective), 2

(slightly effective), 3 (effective) respectively. The average score of the ointments also shows that

the acapulco ointment is 12.5% better than the commercial ointment. This means that the acapulco

ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the commercial ointment. .

Research Question Four: Is the healing time of tinea versicolor faster using the acapulco

leaves ointment than the commercial one?

The result showed that on the 8th day, the acapulco ointment was rated 3, higher than the

commercial ointment which was rated 2. It can be inferred from the given data that the

dissapearance of the discoloration on the skin can be seen earlier using the acapulco ointment than

using the commercial ointment. However, this does not mean that the the healing time of tinea

versicolor is faster using the acapulco ointment than the commercial ointment. The average rate of

healing for both of the ointments are equal which means that when it comes to healing time the

acapulco and commercial ointments are at par with each other.

Table 3. Tabular Presentation showing the comparison of Combined Ampalaya and

Acapulco Ointment and the Commercial Ointment

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Combined
Ampalaya and Commercial
Day
Acapulco Ointment
Ointment
Day 0 1 1
Day 4 2 2
Day 8 3 2
Day 12 4 3

Average score 2.5 2

Average rate of
0.611111111 0.5
healing

Figure 3. Graphical Presentation showing the comparison of the combined Ampalaya and

Acapulco Ointment and the Commercial Ointment

Very Effective 4

Effective 3

Combined Ampalaya and


Slightly Effective 2 Acapulco Ointment
Commercial Ointment

Not Effective 1

0
Day 0 Day 4 Day 8 Day 12

Research Question Five: Is the combined ampalaya and acapulco leaves ointment more

effective than the commercial one?

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Figure 3 shows the comparison of the combined Ampalaya and Acapulco Ointment and

the Commercial Ointment of Respondent 3. The rate of Respondent 3 in using the combined

Ampalaya and Acapulco ointment is 1 (not effective), 2 (slightly effective), 3 (effective), and 4

(very effective) respectively. On the other hand, the rate of Respondent 3, using the commercial

ointment is 1 (not effective), 2 (slightly effective), 2 (slightly effective), 3 (effective) respectively.

The average score of the ointments also shows that the combined amapalaya and acapulco ointment

is 25% better than the commercial ointment. This means that the combined ampalaya and acapulco

ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the commercial ointment. .

Research Question Six: Is the healing time of tinea versicolor faster using the combined

ampalaya and acapulco leaves ointment than the commercial one?

The result showed that on the 8th day, the combined ampalaya and acapulco ointment was

rated 3 while the commercial ointment was constant at 2. On the 12th day, the combined ampalaya

and acapulco ointment showed progress and was rated 4, higher that the commercial ointment

which was rated 3. It can be inferred from the given data that the disappearance of the discoloration

on the skin can be seen earlier using the combined amapalaya and acapulco ointment than using

the commercial ointment. The average rate of healing of the tinea versicolor also showed that the

combined ampalaya and acapulco ointment is 5.56% faster than the commercial ointment.

Table 4. Tabular Presentation showing the comparison of Ampalaya Ointment and Acapulco

Ointment

Ampalaya Acapulco
Day
Ointment Ointment
Day 0 1 1

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Day 4 2 2
Day 8 2 3
Day 12 3 3
Average score 2 2.25
Average rate of
0.5 0.5
healing

Figure 4. Graphical Presentation showing the comparison of Ampalaya Ointment and

Acapulco Ointment

Very Effective 4

Effective 3

Slightly Effective 2
Ampalaya Ointment
Acapulco Ointment
Not Effective 1

0
Day 0 Day 4 Day 8 Day 12

Research Question Seven: Is the ampalaya leaves ointment more effective than the acapulco

leaves ointment in treating tinea versicolor?

Figure 4 shows the comparison of the Ampalaya Ointment and the Acapulco Ointment of

Respondent 4. The rate of Respondent 4 in using the Ampalaya ointment is 1 (not effective), 2

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(slightly effective), 2 (slightly effective), and 3 (effective) respectively. On the other hand, the

rate of Respondent 4, using the Acapulco ointment is 1 (not effective), 2 (slightly effective), 3

(effective), and 3 (effective) respectively. The average score of the ointments also shows that the

acapulco ointment is 12.5% better than the amplaya ointment. This means that the acapulco

ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the ampalaya ointment. .

Research Question Eight: Is the healing time of tinea versicolor faster using the ampalaya

leaves ointment than acapulco leaves ointment?

The result showed that on the 8th day, the acapulco ointment was rated 3, higher than the ampalaya

ointment which was rated 2. It can be inferred from the given data that the dissapearance of the

discoloration on the skin can be seen earlier using the acapulco ointment than using the

commercial ointment. However, this does not mean that the the healing time of tinea versicolor is

faster using the acapulco ointment than the ampalaya ointment. The average rate of healing for

both of the ointments are equal which means that when it comes to healing time the acapulco and

ampalaya ointments are at par with each other.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary of Findings

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1. The average score of the ointments (Ampalaya ointment and Commercial Ointment) shows

that the commercial ointment is 12.5% better than the amplaya ointment. This means that

the commercial ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the

ampalaya ointment. .

2. The average rate of healing for ampalaya ointment and commercial ointment are equal

which means that when it comes to healing time the ampalaya and commercial ointments

are at par with each other.

3. The average score of the ointments (Acapulco Ointment and Commercial Ointment) shows

that the acapulco ointment is 12.5% better than the commercial ointment. This means that

the acapulco ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the

commercial ointment. .

4. The average rate of healing for Acapulco ointment and Commercial Ointment are equal

which means that when it comes to healing time the acapulco and commercial ointments

are at par with each other.

5. The average score of the ointments (Combined Ampalaya and Acapulco leaves Ointment

and Commercial Ointment) also shows that the combined ampalaya and acapulco ointment

is 25% better than the commercial ointment. This means that the combined ampalaya and

acapulco ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the commercial

ointment.

6. The average rate of healing of the tinea versicolor showed that the combined ampalaya and

acapulco ointment is 5.56% faster than the commercial ointment.

7. The average score of the ointments (Ampalaya Ointment and Acapulco Ointment) shows

that the acapulco ointment is 12.5% better than the amplaya ointment. This means that the

24
acapulco ointment is slightly more effective in healing tinea versicolor than the ampalaya

ointment.

8. The average rate of healing for Ampalaya Ointment and Acapulco Ointment are equal

which means that when it comes to healing time the acapulco and ampalaya ointments are

at par with each other.

Conclusion

Based on the results gathered it can be concluded that the commercial ointment is slightly

more effective than the amplaya ointment, the acapulco ointment is slightly more than the

commercial ointment, the combined ampalaya and acapulco ointment is slightly more effective

than the commercial ointment, and the acapulco ointment is also slightly more effective than the

amplaya ointment. On the other hand, the average healing time of the tinea versiolor on all of the

ointments are at par except for the comparison of combined ampalaya and acapulco to commercial

where it showed that the combined ampalaya and acapulco ointment has a faster healing time than

that of the commercial one.

Recommendation

The researchers would like to recommend the following:

1. All of the products should be tested on one respondent.

2. Replication should be done in order to determine the degree of effectiveness.

3. Determine the factors that can affect the healing time of tinea versicolor.

4. Improve the product.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

26
Bureau of Agricultural Research. (2012). AgFishTech Portal “Ampalaya” Reference List:

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ampalaya

Burger, Y., jonas levi, A., Gurski, E., Horev, C., Saar, U., and Cohen, Roni. (March 2010).

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n_extracts_from_Momordica_plants

Fratini, F. ,Cilia, G., Turchi, B., & Felicioli, A., (2016). Beeswax: A minireview of its

antimicrobial activity and its application in medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical

Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 9.

Reference List: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764516301407

Gupta, A. K., & Foley, K. A. (2015). Antifungal Treatment for Pityriasis Versicolor. Journal of

Fungi, 1(1), 13–29. Reference List: http://doi.org/10.3390/jof1010013

Jagessar, R.., Marsa , A., Gomes, G. Nature and Science, 2008:6(2), ISSN: 1545-0740. “Selective

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Karray, M. and McKinney, P.. (2018). StatPearls [Internet] “Tinea Versicolor”.

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MedicalHealthGuide.(2011). “Akapulko (Cassia alata) Herbal Medicine”

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Reference List: http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/akapulko1.htm

Schmidt, A. (1997). Malassezia furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its

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Stuart, G. Jr. (2017). Philippine Medicinal Plants “Ampalaya”. Reference List:

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Ampalaya

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DOCUMENTATION

Preparation of Leaf Samples

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Making the Products

30
Final Product

31
Ampalaya Ointment Compared to Commercial

DAY 0 DAY 4

32
Ampalaya Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

DAY 0 DAY 4

Commercial Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

Acapulco Ointment Compared to Commercial

DAY 0 DAY 4

33
DAY 0 DAY 4

Commercial Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

Combined Ampalaya and Acapulco Ointment Compared to Commercial

DAY 0 DAY 4

34
Combined Ampalaya and Acapulco Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

DAY 0 DAY 4

Commercial Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

Comparison of Ampalaya and Acapulco Ointment

DAY 0 DAY 4

35
Ampalaya Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

DAY 0 DAY 4

Acapulco Ointment

DAY 8 DAY 12

36