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Modeling and Simulation of Road Vehicle Dynamics
The VehicleDynamics Library (VDL) is a tool for modeling, simulation and analysis of the dynamics of vehicle motion. Handling behavior is the primary target, but the library is also well-suited for studies of other vehicle properties. Compared to other tools, VDL is easy to get started with and yet features versatile multidomain modeling, fast simulation, and flexible analysis of both full vehicles and relevant subsystems. Consequently, the tool grows with the user and lets system and component design as well as integration be made within the same environment. The VDL is a model library for Dymola* and is based on the Modelica* modeling language, with the implementation and model details fully open for the users. This gives an intuitive tool that is easy to get started with and yet gives advanced users total flexibility to define their own models and experiments. The flexibility also stretches over multiple engineering domains so that, for example, full multi-body mechanics, hydraulics, pneumatics and electrics can be integrated in one single vehicle model. As a consequence, the VDL is also well suited for design of unconventional configurations such as hybrid electric or concept vehicles. Dymola with VDL offers user-friendly graphical dragand-drop component-based modeling, with the option for advanced users to work also with Modelica source code editing, see Illustration 1. Modeling and simulation tasks are performed from an integrated environment with versatile features for post-processing, plotting and visualization of simulation results. Chassis, suspension, and steering Driveline and brake systems Active systems System integration and tuning Algorithm development and HIL
A stream-lined work flow is supported by structured partitioning of models into re-usable components, and the generous collection of model templates. Model variants of different fidelity are compatible and interchangeable, so that, for example, a brake system model can be tested with different chassis models and vice-versa. This makes it easy to set up different model variants and brings the effort of model maintenance to a minimum. The open environment allows users to customize models and templates to comply with in-house standards. This includes both components and complete systems. Simulation analysis of complete vehicles, subsystems, or components is intuitively carried out from experiment templates that mimic real-life tests on proving ground surfaces, roads, or in test rigs. Scripting enables automation of routine tasks so that, for example, batch simulations for tuning and sensitivity analysis can be set up. The possibility for users to encrypt models is very useful in industrial contexts since models can be shared without revealing modeling know-how or parameter tuning. This has proven to be an efficient mean to enhance communication among cooperating OEM's and suppliers.
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as seen in the diagram window in Illustration 1. the body with payloads and aerodynamic properties. This allows users to easily adapt the fidelity of composite models to any desired analysis. Chassis Design and Road Interaction Design and analysis of the chassis subsystem is the main focus of VDL. an evasive lane change or a slalom defined by cones. For conventional passenger cars. for example. . Driver models look ahead along the road to control the positioning of the car. NHTSA fishhook maneuver result plot and visualization. when negotiating a curve. The VDL contains chassis models that range in fidelity from planar to fully 3D multi-body representations with the same model interfaces. Full chassis analysis can be done with drivers or robots that control the vehicle on open surfaces or roads. chassis models are composed of front and rear suspension assemblies.VehicleDynamics Library Illustration 1: Dymola user view with chassis model diagram and Modelica text. as. and wheels with tires.
and thereby also the roll. Examples are following a curvy road. pitch and bounce dynamics. Another benefit of the 3D roads is that performance of observers and vehicle state estimators can be evaluated under realistic driving conditions. Full 3D roads are used for tests where a given track is to be followed. Road/vehicle interaction studies are performed either on a flat ground or on a 3D road. The open implementation makes it possible for users to inspect and modify the supplied models or add their own if desired. and Bakker87. be to control the instant turning curvature to generate a handling characteristics diagram. applying brakes. for example. A typical open-loop test is to apply a steering wheel input to trigger yaw and roll instability. or tip-in/tip-out maneuvers. Illustration 3: Avoidance of an unexpected obstacle behind a crest. for example. Test rigs are used to isolate vehicle behavior that requires constraints on the chassis. The 3D roads use tabular inputs that allow an arbitrary surface geometry to be represented.VehicleDynamics Library Robots are used with chassis and vehicles on flat ground and control the motion in either open-loop or closedloop based on vehicle states. Illustration 2: Vehicles and subsystems can be tested in rigs to isolate behavior. a generic tool is supplied that allows the user to define curvature. This gives great flexibility and examples show how to customize the tool for special purposes such as an ISO double lane-change. banking. surface conditions and more. performing a lane change. as shown in Illustration 2. as in Illustration 3. To simplify the generation of road data. going through a slalom course or avoiding an obstacle. Illustration 4: Running a wheel model in a test rig is a convenient way to compare the tire properties with measurements. shifting gears. negotiating a turn while braking. The flat ground has optional constant inclination and is intended for openloop or closed-loop maneuvers where the road positioning is of no importance. This specification is open and allows users to input their own information and even measurement data. A closed-loop test can. or maintaining a yaw velocity. there . To facilitate analyses of wheel components. There is also an event-based driver that can take sequences of instructions such as accelerating to a certain speed. A vehicle can. be mounted in a rig to excite the vertical motion of the wheels. Rill05. The VDL offers a set of commonly used tire models such as Pacejka02. to study ride and road holding.
A collection of variants of common suspension designs such as McPherson. . multilink. These can easily be modified and extended with losses. and kinematic imperfections of. Drivelines and driveline components for variants of FWD. there are standard multi-body primitives such as joints and bodies and dedicated components such as bushings. compliances. and rigid axle are pre-defined and readyto-use. Suspension systems can be simulated and analyzed both as parts of full vehicles and separately in test rigs to facilitate design and verification. cardan and tripod joints can be included when desired. links. accurate models of the kinematics. Illustration 6: Steering wheel torque characteristics for different combinations of primary and secondary friction. as well as different transmissions are supplied. joints. as in Illustration 4. as shown in Illustration 5. hubs. backlashes. inertial effects. A typical example is strut force elements that can be tested in a 1D model of a quarter car before mounted in a suspension or used in full vehicle analysis. RWD. and bushing elements. leaf springs. so-called secondary and primary friction. compliances and friction are included. This can also be done for individual suspension components. and geometric suspension where the actual mechanical topology is described by links. and also adapted to customized tests. for example. Elasticities. Suspension and Steering Systems The VDL features two main types of suspension models: tabular suspension where wheel motion constraints are described by table input. and similar systems. that efficiently represent the shaft motions also in three dimensions. additional gear sets and more. twist beam. Models for engines with tabular characteristics and throttle dynamics. respectively. Tabular suspension models are convenient to use when empirical suspension data from K&C analysis is used for model tuning. The blue curve shows the original lower friction level while the green and red curves indicate how characteristics change when primary and secondary friction increase. double wishbone. Illustration 5: Suspension mounted in a test rig for kinematic and compliance analysis. active front steering. struts. For users that want to design their own suspensions. The physical detail of the models makes it straightforward to add sensors and actuators to study new concepts in power assist. and AWD configurations are supplied. Special attention is given to the driveline since it has the most impact on vehicle dynamics. or to analyze or design actively controlled suspension with embedded actuators. trailing arm.VehicleDynamics Library are dedicated rigs that can be configured for a variety of standard experiments such as slip sweeps at various loads and camber angles. The geometric suspension models are useful to study the effects of mechanical re-design. steer-by-wire. To capture the steering-wheel moment characteristics. Powertrains and Drivelines Models of the powertrain are included to allow complete vehicle simulations. Illustration 6 shows the steering torque-angle characteristics for varying combinations of friction levels at the rack and steering column.
effects of brake vibration on steering feel. and wheel-brakes. and pneumatics. which is convenient for users that develop control algorithms in this tool. methods of brake force distribution. The friction models are designed to handle wheel lock in a numerically sound way and there are pre-defined components that allow temperature-dependent friction and interaction with other thermal components to manage heat accumulation and cooling. with and without stability control. Detailed models of electrical subsystems are available in the SmartElectricDrives library. the ability to handle multiple engineering domains. Brake Systems Brake systems include typical components such as the pedal. the development tools must manage the change from several systems acting independently towards more coordinated behavior. from mild to series hybrids or even pure electric vehicles. booster. for example. Active Systems and Signal Buses The open model architecture makes it easy to introduce sensors and actuators at virtually any location on a vehicle. and active systems such as ABS and ESP. Wheelbrake models are described with mechanical detail that allow all reaction torques to be described correctly. Illustration 8: Autonomous corner module applied on a compact car. The openness and flexibility of VDL allow arbitrary configurations to be defined. cylinders. for example. System Integration and Algorithm Development As the combination of several active systems such as ABS. The multi-domain support enables users to build actuator components including detailed models of. Illustration 7 shows an example of an active roll control system that enhances yaw stability by applying a pretension on the anti-roll bars based on lateral acceleration feedback.VehicleDynamics Library It is also possible to use detailed models from other model libraries specialized on engines and transmissions. valves. ESP. It is possible to use detailed vehicle models from VDL in Simulink. Signal passing between components in active systems is realized with models that represent multiplexed buses. and the variety of model fidelity levels. The hybridization of the powertrain is a field of increasing importance where the multi-domain capabilities are of significant importance. AFS. . The VDL supports this and offers a platform for efficient system integration by the openness and flexibility. hydraulics. Interaction with other subsystems such as the steering allow for detailed analysis of. The models are well-suited for studies on brake system dimensioning. such as the PowerTrain library and the Transmission library. Components from the Hydraulics Library can be integrated to obtain detailed brake system models with fluid dynamics effects. electric drives. Imperfections of the bus such as time delays are also included. Illustration 7: Evasive lane change of a fully a loaded vehicle. ARC and DYC gain in importance.
xPC Target. The ride height and thereby the load distribution can be set Illustration 10: Formula SAE chassis in a limit-handling analysis. One example is Volvo's Autonomous Corner Module Concept (ACM) in Illustration 8 that allows each wheel to be steered. This covers combinations such as trucks with full trailers and tractors with semi-trailers. Concept Studies The VDL has also proven to be an efficient tool when dealing with concept vehicles and other unconventional configurations. Suppliers can use VDL to analyze their particular component or subsystem in a realistic vehicle environment. for example. Since the models are open. liquid loads. electric wheel motors. New experiment templates include. this involves other types of aerodynamic devices and special suspension geometries used for formula cars. pneumatic brakes. implemented with three suspension subsystems. frames. and twin tires. G-G diagrams and lap time analysis. each wheel with its actuators is considered as an autonomous unit.VehicleDynamics Library individually for each axle to improve both driving stability and mobility. Heavy Vehicles Heavy vehicles benefit particularly from the open and flexible structure of VDL due to the large variety of configurations of axles. air suspensions. In this case. Another example is the six wheeled all terrain vehicle in Illustration 9. Rather than partitioning the vehicle into chassis. The component set is complemented with models of. . adjustable ride height and by-wire steering of the front and rear axles. etc. loads. Racing The VDL is currently being adapted also for racing applications. OEMs can conveniently integrate models of components or subsystems from suppliers into a complete vehicle environment to analyze behavior at system level. The model encryption features makes this type of model sharing easy to realize in competitive industrial environments. suspended. Illustration 9: Six-wheeled all terrain vehicle. driven and braked individually. An extension of VDL for heavy vehicles is under development. Illustration 11: Avoidance maneuver with a tractorsemitrailer combination. as exemplified in Illustration 10. for example. and an HMI form the complete vehicle. RT-LAB. as in Illustration 11. Dymola's support for real-time simulation gives the possibility to perform hardware-in-the-loop simulations on the most commonly used hardware platforms such as dSPACE. Compared to passenger cars. cambered. users can go beyond the predefined templates and define their own configurations. powertrain and brakes. and Cramas. Correspondingly. four corner modules together with the vehicle body. a vehicle motion controller.
Inc.modelica. These techniques together with special numerical solvers gives fast simulation of complex high-fidelity models. MultiON Consulting. non-governmental Modelica Association. electric power subcomponents.Bausch-Gall. Pricol technologies Pvt.kimhua. the interest in Modelica has grown rapidly and several suppliers has announced Modelica support in their products.com www. Sweden visiting address: Alfa-building Ole Römers väg 16 phone: +46 46 286 22 00 fax: +46 46 286 22 01 email: info@modelon. Modelon AB Ideon Science Park SE-22370 Lund.com email@example.com www. thermal.multion.pricoltech.com www. It has unique and outstanding performance for solving differential algebraic equations (DAE). The key to high performance and robustness is symbolic manipulation which also handles algebraic loop and reduced degrees-of-freedom caused by constraints.tec-serv.se www.co. Recently.dynasim.se web: www. SA de CV +46 46 286 2500 +81-565-43-2770 +49 (0)89 3232625 +1 (508) 653-6444 +44 1926 843721 +8610 82803303 +91-422-5332211 +82-2-556-1257 +52 (5) 559.mathpros.se firstname.lastname@example.org trafico@multion. BAUSCH-GALL GmbH MathPros. China India Korea Mexico Dynasim AB Toyota Techno Service Corp. control. Ltd. Hwa Create Co.mx www. www.com sales@claytex. containing for example mechanical.se www.4050 Ext 140 Sales@Dynasim. electronic. Ltd.claytex. AT and CH USA United Kingdom P. Kimhua Technologies Inc. electrical.jp www. hydraulic.cn www.com.mx .de sales@mathpros.VehicleDynamics Library Modelica The object-oriented modeling language Modelica is designed to allow convenient.com. component-oriented modeling of complex physical systems. Claytex Services Ltd.R. Modelica is maintained and developed by the nonprofit.co.co.kr www.se VehicleDynamics Library and Dymola are distributed through the Dynasim reseller network Sweden Japan Germany.org Dymola Dymola is a tool dedicated to modeling and simulation of models implemented in Modelica.jp info@Bausch-Gall.com.com.modelon.dymola.com www.cn email@example.com.Dynasim.hwacreate.com info@hwacreate. The organization also supplies the Modelica Standard Library (MSL) with open source standard models within different domains.tec-serv.
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