Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten

Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading
of a 90 m Steel Chimney
Pär Tranvik Alstom Power Sweden AB, Växjö
Göran Alpsten Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, Solna
Alstom Power Sweden AB Report S-01041
Stålbyggnadskontroll AB Report 9647-3
March 2002
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 1
Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................ i.4
Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... i.5
Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Scope of investigation.................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading........................................................ 2
1.2.1 General................................................................................................................. 2
1.2.2 Vortex shedding.................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Symbols and units......................................................................................................... 5
Description of the VEAB chimney............................................................................................... 7
2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant................................................................................................. 7
2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB chimney.................................................................... 9
2.2.1 General data......................................................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Structural details ............................................................................................... 11
2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics .......................................................................... 18
2.3 Mechanical damper..................................................................................................... 19
2.3.1 Common damping designs............................................................................... 19
2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney ........................................... 23
2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney .............................................................. 26
2.4.1 Natural frequencies........................................................................................... 26
2.4.2 Vortex shedding................................................................................................ 28
2.4.3 Elastic energy.................................................................................................... 30
2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney.......................................................................... 32
3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney........................................... 33
3.1 Observations of mal-functioning of the chimney ..................................................... 33
3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations.................................................................... 33
3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes ........................................................ 34
3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks........................................................................ 34
3.1.4 Summary of cracks ........................................................................................... 36
3.1.5 Notches not available for examination............................................................ 36
3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds ........................................................................... 36
3.2 Data recording system................................................................................................ 37
3.2.1 General............................................................................................................... 37
3.2.2 Strain gauges ..................................................................................................... 37
3.2.3 Wind data transmitter ....................................................................................... 38
3.2.4 Recording computer ......................................................................................... 41
3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range.................................................................. 45
3.2.6 Verification of the equipment .......................................................................... 45
3.2.7 Procedures......................................................................................................... 46
3.2.8 Operating experience........................................................................................ 46
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 2
3.3 Behaviour of the mechanical damper ........................................................................ 47
3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper .................. 47
3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper.............. 60
3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study .............................. 74
3.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney........................................................... 75
3.5 Observed wind properties........................................................................................... 80
3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams............................. 80
3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range.............. 83
diagrams
3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams.................................................................................... 87
3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station.................................. 89
3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams ............................................... 91
3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams .................................................................... 93
3.5.7 Load spectra...................................................................................................... 95
3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity............................................................................ 100
3.5.9 Iso wind velocity plots.................................................................................... 102
3.6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gage measurements............... 106
3.7 First and second mode oscillations .......................................................................... 112
3.7.1 Screen plots ..................................................................................................... 112
3.7.2 Logged files..................................................................................................... 113
3.7.3 First mode evaluation ..................................................................................... 114
3.7.4 Second mode evaluation................................................................................. 116
3.7.5 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 117
3.8 Temperature and temperature dependent properties............................................... 118
3.8.1 Mean temperatures ......................................................................................... 118
3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity .................................................................... 120
3.8.3 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 121
4. Fatigue action ....................................................................................................................123
4.1 Fatigue model considered......................................................................................... 123
4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with mal-functioning damper .............. 126
4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper ...................................... 129
4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency ..................................................................... 129
4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency............................................ 131
5. Crack propagation............................................................................................................133
5.1 Method of analysis ................................................................................................... 133
5.2 Results ....................................................................................................................... 133
6. Discussion...........................................................................................................................135
6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices.............................. 135
6.2 Comparable chimney data........................................................................................ 136
6.3 Codes ......................................................................................................................... 139
6.3.1 General............................................................................................................. 139
6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour the VEAB chimney ....... 140
6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney.................... 145
6.5 Second mode............................................................................................................. 146
6.6 The future .................................................................................................................. 146
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 3
7. Summary............................................................................................................................149
7.1 In English................................................................................................................... 149
7.2 In Swedish................................................................................................................. 150
8. References ..........................................................................................................................151
Appendices with recorded and calculated data (Not included in this printing but
enclosed in the covered CD):
Appendix A VEAB brochure for the cogeneration block at Växjö..................................... A.1
Appendix B Description of recording system for the VEAB chimney
(in Swedish)........................................................................................................B.1
Appendix C Behaviour of mechanical damper – Observations from the damping test......C.1
Appendix D Screen plots for first and second order oscillations ........................................ D.1
Appendix E Cumulative fatigue damage...............................................................................E.1
Appendix F Wind pressure and deflection range diagrams ................................................. F.1
Appendix G Recorded temperatures ..................................................................................... G.1
Appendix H Computer programs for data reduction............................................................ H.1
Appendix I Recorded dynamic behaviour of the chimney................................................... I.1
Appendix J Detailed examination of cracks .........................................................................J.1
Appendix K Finite element analysis of hot spots in chimney structure.............................. K.1
Appendix L Simplified crack propagation analysis ..............................................................L.1
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 4
Preface
This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high
steel chimney equipped with a mechanical damper at the top. Due to a mistake in installing
the chimney the damper was not active in the first period of service life, causing large
oscillations of the structure and fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service.
Because of this an extensive investigation was started to rectify the action of the damper,
repair the steel structure and to monitor the behaviour of the structure adopting a fail-safe
principle. Data from four years of continuous measurements are presented in the report.
VEAB of Växjö, Sweden is owner of the chimney, being part of a delivery of an electrostatic
precipitator of the Sandvik II biomass power plant at Växjö. ABB Fläkt Industri AB of Växjö
was contractor for the electrostatic precipitator including the chimney (activities of the
company later subdivided between Alstom Power Sweden AB and ABB). The chimney was
fabricated and erected by the subcontractor VL Staal A/S of Esbjerg, Denmark.
The authors are indebted to all parties involved for making it possible to present the results in
this form. Special thanks are due to Mr Ulf Johnson of VEAB, Mr Lars Palmqvist of ABB
Automation Systems AB, Mr Stig Magnell of Dryco AB, Messrs Rolf Snygg and Thomas
Väärälä of Alstom Power Sweden AB, and Mr Stig Pedersen of VL Staal A/S.
The investigation presented in this report was initiated by VEAB, for which the second author
acted as a consultant. The compilation of data and preparation of most parts of this report
were made by the first author. The second author has acted mainly as advisor for the
investigation.
Växjö and Solna in March 2002
Pär Tranvik Göran Alpsten
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 5
Abstract
The structural behaviour of the 90 m height VEAB steel chimney in southern Sweden has
been investigated. After only nine months of service a great number of fatigue cracks were
observed. The very slender chimney is equipped with a mechanical friction type damper to
increase damping and reduce displacements from vortex shedding. Initially the friction
damper did not operate properly and the chimney developed oscillations with large top
deflections in the very first period of service.
An extensive program was initiated to study and repair the fatigue cracks, restore the
mechanical damper, monitor the chimney behaviour and verify the chimney behaviour by
theoretical models.
This report summarizes results collected from about four years of continuous measurements
and regular observations of the chimney. The data obtained has some general relevance with
respect to wind data, behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading, and the effect of a
mechanical damper. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies
related to the investigation of the chimney.
A full scale damping test was performed. An improvement of a simplified theoretical
calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed.
The report present a number of diagrams for wind pressure and top deflection range,
accumulated wind pressure, accumulated top deflection range, elastic energy, wind
turbulence, load spectra and frequency of wind velocity.
A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB
chimney is unique in height and slenderness.
The economic incitements have to be great for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers.
This may not always be the case if inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost
estimate.
There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender
chimneys, that is for chimneys with slenderness ratio (height through diameter) above
approximately 30.
Key Words
Full scale measurements
Cross wind oscillations
Vortex shedding
Chimney
Mechanical damper
Dynamic wind loading
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 6
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
1
1. Introduction
1.1 Scope of investigation
This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high
steel chimney erected at Växjö in southern Sweden in 1995. The chimney is equipped with a
mechanical friction-type damper at the top.
Due to a mistake during erection and installation of the chimney the transport fixings of the
damper were not released properly and the chimney developed extensive oscillations in the
very first period of service. This caused a great number of fatigue cracks to occur within a
few months of service.
After the functioning of the damper had been restored and the fatigue cracks repaired an
extensive program was initiated in 1996 to monitor the structural behaviour of the chimney
under wind loading. This included continuous measurement of stresses in the structure in
order to record the stress history and thus monitor the risk for fatigue of the repaired structure.
Visual inspection and magnetic particle evaluation have been performed at regular intervals,
determined from a fail-safe principle.
This report summarises results collected from about four years of continuous measurements
and regular observations of the chimney. The data obtained has some general relevance with
respect to wind data, behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading, and the effect of a
mechanical damper. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies
related to the investigation of the chimney.
In addition to presenting results of general interest and discussions in the main part of the
report, original data and further compilations of detailed results are given in Appendices to the
report, in order to make possible further evaluation of the data for other investigators.
The observations and recordings from the VEAB chimney are unique because of the
following items:
- It is a high and slender steel chimney equipped with a tuned pendulum damper.
- The natural frequencies are low and therefore also the critical resonance wind
velocity for vortex-induced oscillations is low.
- Large top amplitude deflections have been observed with the damper mistakenly
inactive.
- Vortex shedding oscillations were observed at both first and at rare occasions
also at second mode of natural frequency.
- Field recordings have been made continuously during four years of service.
Wind and temperature data and the response of the chimney to wind loading
were recorded.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
2
- A full-scale damping test was performed.
- A detailed examination of cracks was performed.
- Comparisons between theory and observations were made for natural
frequencies, damping, dynamic behaviour, wind data, fatigue, cracks and finally
there are a discussion about the use of tuned dampers.
1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading
1.2.1 General
For slender structures subjected to wind loading there are three main actions to consider, gust
wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillation ovalling.
Gust winds displace the chimney in the same direction as the wind load. For a rigid structure
gust wind is independent of the dynamic properties of the structure but dependent for a
flexible structure.
Vortex shedding occurs when the natural frequency of a structure corresponds with vortices
shed from opposite sides of the structure resulting in cross gas flow oscillations. The vortex
shedding will be discussed more in detail in Section 1.2.2, 2.4.2, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7 and 6.
Ring oscillations (ovalling) are a pulsating oval oscillation of for instance a cylindrical shell
structure.
1.2.2 Vortex shedding
Vortex-induced oscillations occur when vortices are shed alternately from opposite sides of a
structure. It gives rise to a fluctuating load perpendicular to the wind direction as shown
schematically in Figure 1.2 a.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
3
Figure 1.2 a Vortices formed behind a cylinder. v is the wind velocity in the undisturbed
field. Distance between the vortices subject to wind loading L is approximately
4.3 times the diameter d.
When a vortex is formed on one side of the structure, the wind velocity increases on the other
side [1]. This results in a pressure difference on the opposite sides and the structure is
subjected to a lateral force away from the side where the vortex is formed. As the vortices are
shed at the critical wind velocity alternately first from one side then the other, a harmonically
varying lateral load with the same frequency as the frequency of the vortex shedding is
formed.
Oscillations generated by vortex shedding may occur in slender structures such as cables,
chimneys and towers. The risk of vortex-induced oscillations increases for slender structures
and structures in line with a small distance between them.
Usually the first mode is critical for vortex shedding in actual steel structures subjected to
wind loading, but in rare cases also the second mode is of interest.
The Reynold number is a non-dimensional parameter describing the influence of internal
friction in fluid mechanics. The Reynold number is expressed as
?
v d
Re


· .........................................................................................................................(1.1)
where d = Diameter of chimney

v = Undisturbed wind velocity
υ = Kinematic viscosity of the air according to Section 3.8
In general large Reynold numbers means turbulent flow. For chimneys with circular cross
section the flow is either in the supercritical or transcritical range for wind velocities of
practical interest.
Subcritical 300 õ Reõ 10
5
Supercritical 10
5
õ Reõ
6
10 5 . 3 ⋅
Transcritical
6
10 5 . 3 ⋅ õ Re
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
4
Aero elasticity causes a regular vortex shedding also in the supercritical range.
For a non-vibrating chimney the distance L between vortices rotating in the same direction is
proportional to the diameter of the chimney d. In slender structures, large oscillations may
occur if the frequency of vortex shedding coincides with the natural frequency for the
structure vibrating in a mode in the crosswind direction [1]. The proportionality factor for
vortex shedding is named Strouhal number.
The Strouhal number is expressed as


·
v
f d
St
0
............................................................................................................................(1.2)
where
0
f = Natural frequency
The Strouhal number describes the dependence of the cross section, the surface roughness and
the wind turbulence [1]. It depends on the Reynold number for a stationary smooth cylinder
and for an aeroelastic chimney. The Strouhal number depends on the motion of the structure
(aero elasticity).
Characteristic properties for crosswind are:
- Net gust load caused by lateral wind fluctuations.
- Loads caused by vortex shedding. The load occurs whether or not the structure is
moving, but may be strongly dependent on the size of the motion [1], [6], [25]. The
motion could start to rule the vortex shedding. This part of the load is called net vortex
shedding load [1].
- Motion-induced forces. Most important is the negative aerodynamic damping generated
by vortex shedding.
Vortex shedding structural oscillations are more probable if:
- Smooth laminar air flow which for instance occurs in the stable atmosphere during cold
winter days.
- Increased small-scale turbulence, for instance that occurring in the wake of a slender,
nearby structure of similar size.
Bearing in mind the risk of violent vortex-induced oscillations, aerodynamic damping is of
primary concern.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
5
The Scruton number is a non-dimensional parameter defined as
2
e s
2
d
m
Sc

⋅ ⋅
·
ρ
δ
.....................................................................................................................(1.3)
where ·
s
δ The logarithmic decrement of the structural damping
·
e
m Equivalent mass per unit of length according to the
mode considered
· ρ Density of air
A comparison of the predicted amplitudes for steel chimneys with full-scale measurements is
shown in [2]. Similar diagrams are found in [1].
1.3 Symbols and units
Symbols are explained in the text where they first occur. Unless otherwise noted basic SI
units has been used through out this report.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 1
6
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1
7
2. Description of the VEAB chimney
2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant
The VEAB Sandvik II cogeneration block is situated outside the
town of Växjö in southern Sweden at a height of 164 m above sea
level. Large forested areas and some lakes dominate the
surroundings. The plant can be fired with most kinds of biomass,
everything from wood chips to bark and peat. The boiler has an
output of 104 MW, of which 66 MW is heat. The generator has an
output of 38 MW of electricity.
The boiler is of circulating fluidised bed type, a so-called CFB-
boiler. The particle collection equipment consists of an electrostatic
precipitator for the separation of dust from the flue gases, an
induced fan, a flue gas condenser to utilize the energy content in
the flue gas, a dust transportation and storage system and a steel
chimney, see Figure 2.1 a.
This chimney, being the subject of this report, is referred to as the
VEAB chimney. A layout of the VEAB Sandvik II plant is shown
in Figure 2.1 b. A photo of the VEAB chimney from the South
showing neighbouring buildings is shown in Figure 2.1 c. More
data about the VEAB Sandvik II plant may be found in
Appendix A.
The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete
chimney is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB
chimney diameter. The distance is much larger than 15 times the
diameter were interaction between two equal chimneys may
become insignificant [3], [9]. Furthermore, the properties of the old
concrete chimney and the new steel chimney are drastically
different. Thus interaction between the two chimneys should be
insignificant.
Figure 2.1 a The VEAB chimney top half photographed from the
boiler outer roof.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1
8
Figure 2.1 b Layout of the VEAB Sandvik plant.
Figure 2.1 c The VEAB chimney from south showing neighbouring buildings.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
9
Figure 2.2 a Overall
dimensions of the VEAB
chimney.
2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB
chimney
2.2.1 General data
The VEAB chimney has the following overall data:
Height 90 m
Diameter of structural shell 2.3 m
Diameter of inner pipe 2.0 m
Thickness of inner pipe 3 mm
Outer diameter of top portion 2.8 m
with damper
The thickness of the structural shell varies from base to top
as shown in Table 2.2 a.
Table 2.2 a Thickness of structural shell of the VEAB
chimney.
Height Thickness
(m) (mm)
0
18
5
16
12.5
14
20
12
30
10
42.6
8
55.2
6
90

Weights
Structural shell 50 080 kg
Inner pipe 13 592 kg
Insulation 4 954 kg
Damper pendulum 1 246 kg
Miscellaneous 9 628 kg
Total 79 500 kg
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
10
Material
Structural parts Cor-ten, MPa 355
e
· R , MPa 000 210 · E
Inner pipe Steel SS2350
Foundation bolts Steel S355J2G3 according to EN10025, MPa 345
e
· R
Bolts at flanged splices 8.8, MPa 800 ·
m
R
Corrosion protection
Sand blasting to Sa 2.5
2 x 60 µm alkyd primer
2 x 60 µm top coat
For transport and erection purposes flanged splices are arranged at levels 30 m, 55.2 m and
82.2 m.
2 x 40 mm of thermal insulation of mineral wool are arranged between inner pipe and outer
shell.
Just below the top of the chimney a mechanical pendulum damper is arranged to decrease top
deflection caused by vortex shedding. The damper is described more in detail in Section 2.3.
Above the damper, at 88 m level, a platform is arranged.
From height 2.5 m level up to the platform at height 88 m level an outside ladder is arranged.
The distance between ladder and chimney shell (equal to connection gusset plates width) is
200 mm (see also Figure 2.2 m).
Three warning lights for aircrafts are connected to the outside plate shell of the damper unit.
Some buildings as boiler house and electrostatic precipitator are located close to the chimney.
Figure 2.1 b shows a layout of the VEAB plant and Figure 2.2 b a layout of the immediate
surroundings of the VEAB chimney.
Figure 2.2 b The VEAB chimney, neighbouring buildings and the location of the recording
computer.
Computer
N
Chimney
(h= 90 m)
Building
(h=25 m)
Building
(h=40 m)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
11
The slenderness ratio for a chimney may be defined as
d
h
· λ ..................................................................................................................................(2.1)
where h = height of the chimney
d = diameter of the chimney
For the VEAB chimney 39
3 . 2
90
· · λ which is greater than 30, the approximate limit value
according to [3] for applicability of the code model for calculating vortex shedding forces.
2.2.2 Structural details
The base details consist of a bottom ring, 40 gusset plates at outside and 40 at inside. A total
of 80 foundation bolts M56 connect the VEAB chimney to the concrete foundation structure.
See Figures 2.2 c and 2.2 d. Initially the design had no ring placed at the top of the gusset
plates.
Figure 2.2 c Base plate with 2 x 40 foundation gusset plates and 2 x 40 bolt holes.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
12
Figure 2.2 d Original base details with 40 gusset plates symmetrically at inside and outside
of the shell plate. 2x40 bolts M56 S355J2G3 (Details of the later modified
foundation ring are shown in Figure 2.1 g.
Flanged splices at 30 m and 55.2 m levels are shown in Figures 2.2 e and 2.2 f. Initially the
flanged splice design at 30 m level had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
13
Figure 2.2 e Original flanged splice at h=30 m level. 40 gussets symmetrically on outside of
the shell plate were applied (details of the later modified splice are shown in
Figure 2.1 i).
Figure 2.2 f Flanged splice at h=55.2 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
14
Figure 2.2 g shows the modified base details with the reinforcement ring on top of flanges.
Figure 2.2 g Modified base details. Modification made in December 1998. The original base
is shown in Figure 2.1 d.
The modified base details and details of the inspection door are shown in Figure 2.2 h.
Figure 2.2 h The modified base details and details of the inspection door. The cables above
the inspection door are a part of the data collecting system.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
15
Figures 2.2 i and 2.2 j show the modified flanged erection splice at 30 m level with the
reinforcement ring on top respective bottom of flanges.
Figure 2.2 i The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level. Modification made in
December 1998. The original flanged erection splice is shown in Figure 2.1 e.
Figure 2.2 j The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level. Modification
made in December 1998.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
16
Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct are shown in Figure 2.2 k.
Figure 2.2 k Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct. Midpoint of hole
at 13.3 m level. Thickness of the vertical reinforcement plates is 40 mm.
Figure 2.2 l Details of the inspection door at 1 m level (midpoint). See also Figure 2.1 h.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
17
Details on ladder connections and inner pipe supports are shown in Figures 2.2 m and 2.2 n
respectively.
Figure 2.2 m Details of the ladder connection gusset plates.
Figure 2.2 n Details of the support gusset plates for inner pipe at h=11 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
18
2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics
The manufacturing was intended to follow Swedish regulations for load carrying steel
structures [3], [4] and [17]. According to the manufacturers documentation:
Workmanship class GB
Cutting class Sk2
Weld class WC according to [4], that is, modified class C according
to ISO 5817
From inspection of the delivered structure, a number of deviations from the intended quality
were found. Most important, a large number of welds at base and at flanged erection splice at
30 m level not did satisfy weld class WC. Weld class WC is the lowest weld quality
applicable for load carrying steel structures according to [4].
The manufacturing was made at the VL Staal a/s workshop in Esbjerg, Denmark. In the
quality control of the chimney a third party was involved.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
19
2.3 Mechanical damper
2.3.1 Common damping designs
Two principal solutions to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding are described in the
literature, see for instance [1] and [6].
The first method is to apply helical strakes or any similar aerodynamic device for removing or
reducing the magnitude of oscillations induced by regular vortex shedding. The periodic
formation of vortices will be reduced or eliminated by the changed airflow. The design of the
helical strakes is important for an effective reduction of vortex-induced oscillations. A
disadvantage with the use of helical strakes is an increased projected area at chimney top and
increased drag coefficient, thus causing increased gust wind loads.
Another method for reducing or eliminating the risk of oscillations induced by vortex
shedding is to apply tuned mass dampers. There are two types of tuned mass dampers, passive
and active. An active mass damper requires an automatic engineering system to trigger the
mass damper to counteract any occurring oscillation.
The VEAB steel chimney uses a passive tuned mass damper and this type will be discussed
here. Several designs for a tuned mass damper are suggested in [6], [7] and [8]. Figures 2.3 a
through 2.3 g presents schematically some solutions for passive damping devices. The VEAB
chimney uses the principle found in Figure 2.3 f.
Figure 2.3 a The chimney is damped by connecting a damper to a neighbouring building.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
20
Figure 2.3 b The chimney is damped by using prestressed wires with spring-damper
elements.
Figure 2.3 c The chimney is damped by using wires with an end mass and a friction device.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
21
Figure 2.3 d The chimney is damped by using a pendulum ring connected to the chimney
shell plate by hydraulic dampers.
Figure 2.3 e The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod in a
damping material.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
22
Figure 2.3 f The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod. A
friction mass is guided by the rod. The damping is achieved by the friction
mass that slips on a bottom plate.
Figure 2.3 g The chimney is damped by using a dynamic liquid damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
23
2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney
Figure 2.3 h The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney (schematic drawn but in
scale). Compare with Figure 2.3 f.
The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney consists of a pendulum mass ring hinged
in three chains, located in 120 degrees direction, connected to the damper house roof. Three
symmetrically distributed guiding rods connect the pendulum mass movement to the
movement of the three friction masses. The damping is achieved by friction between the
friction mass and the damper house floor. The manufacturer calculated the generalised mass
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
24
to M
gen
=12 460 kg. The pendulum mass was selected to 10 percent of the generalised mass to
M=1 246 kg [6].
The generalised mass is defined as

,
`

.
|
⋅ ·
H
dx
y
x y
x m M
0
2
top
gen
) (
) ( ….............................…………........................................(2.2)
where
m(x) = Mass per length at height x
y(x) = Deflection at height x
y
top
= Top deflection
dx = Integration segment
H = Chimney height
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Height (m)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Figure 2.3 i Top deflection amplitude as a function of level according to the finite element
calculation in Sections 2.4.1 and 3.3.2.2
By a stepwise integration of Equation 2.2 rewritten as finite differences and using the results
from the finite element calculation in Section 2.4.1 and 3.3.2.2 it is found that
x
y
x y
x m M
gen
∆ ⋅

,
`

.
|
⋅ ∆ ·
2
top
) (
) ( ….............................…………........................................(2.3)
where
) ( x m ∆ = Mass per length at height x for a finite element
y(x) = Deflection at height x for a finite element
x ∆ = Chimney height integration step
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
25
The generalised mass may be achieved as kg 810 16
gen
· M which differs from 12 460 kg
according to above.
The pendulum angle is limited by the damper house walls shown in Figure 2.3 j to an angle of
° ≈


≈ 2 . 1 )
3550 2
100 250
arctan( α
Figure 2.3 j Maximum possible pendulum angle α for the VEAB chimney damper (measured
from the layout drawing).
The horizontal force necessary to accelerate the friction masses into motion by an inclination
of the pendulum damper is
g m N H ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
f
µ µ ........................................................................................................(2.4)
where µ = The friction coefficient which is 0.15 to 0.3 depending on the
surface properties of the steel.
m
f
= Friction mass
In Section 3.3.2.7 the influence of the magnitude of the acceleration is studied theoretically.
Both ventilation and drainage holes are arranged in the damper house.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
26
2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney
2.4.1 Natural frequencies
The three lowest modes of natural frequencies of the VEAB chimney were calculated with a
finite element program.
The following assumptions were made:
- The chimney was modelled as a fixed end cantilever.
- The actual variation with height of the mass and the stiffness of the structure
was considered
- An additional mass of 2 500 kg for the damper equipment was added in the
node
at the mass centre of the damper.
- Distributed masses of 310 kg/m were added to all nodes. It includes inner pipe,
insulation, ladder, electrical cables and other non-structural elements.
The three lowest modes of natural frequencies are shown in Figure 2.4 a.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
27
First mode of natural
frequency
Hz 282 . 0
5518 . 3
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Second mode of natural
frequency
Hz 44 . 1
6932 . 0
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Third mode of natural
frequency
Hz 86 . 3
2590 . 0
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Figure 2.4 a The three lowest modes of natural frequencies calculated for the VEAB
chimney.
These calculated natural frequencies might be compared with observed values for the actual
structure. The natural frequency was determined from observations of oscillations in the first
mode using a theodolite. Average values was:
0.287 Hz 1996-05-03
0.283 Hz 1996-10-29
In Section 3.7.2, the first mode of natural frequencies for the four years of measurements is
presented. Based upon an evaluation of the vast amount of recorded data the average value of
the first mode of natural frequency for the measurement period 1997 through 2000 was 0.288
with a total variation of t 0.005 Hz.
Thus the observed natural frequency, based on two different ways of measurement and
observed over a long period of time, corresponds well with the calculated value of 0.282 Hz.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
28
2.4.2 Vortex shedding
According to [3] the critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated as
St
d f
v

·
cr
.......................................................... .................. .............................................(2.5)
where f = Natural frequency (0.282 Hz used in this section)
d = Diameter
St = Strouhal number (Equation 1.2), 0.2 at ordinary vortex
shedding and lower if any lock-in phenomena occur
In Table 2.4 a the critical wind velocities for the three lowest natural frequencies are found.
Table 2.4 a The critical wind velocity for the three lowest modes for the VEAB chimney.
Strouhal number assumed to 0.2. Calculated values for natural frequencies have
been used.
Critical wind
velocity for first
mode
(Hz)
Critical wind
velocity for
second mode
(Hz)
Critical wind
velocity for
third mode
(Hz)
At chimney shell
d = 2.3 m
3.24 m/s 16.6 m/s 44.4 m/s
At damper unit
d = 2.8 m
3.95 m/s 20.2 m/s 54.0 m/s
In Section 3.2.3.2 the mean wind velocity at 90 m height was calculated to 34.2 m/s. Critical
wind velocity for both first and second mode is of interest for vortex shedding phenomena
because their magnitude is less than the mean wind velocity.
According to [3] the equivalent load during vortex shedding may be calculated as
m
cr tr eq
d
d p w
π
µ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ..........................................................................................................(2.6)
where
tr
µ = Shape factor for cross wind oscillations
cr
p = Wind velocity pressure (Pa)
d = Diameter (m)
m
δ = Logarithmic decrement, assumed to 0.07 for the VEAB
chimney with active dampers
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
29
Further the wind velocity pressure
cr
p is calculated as
2
cr cr
5 . 0 v p ⋅ ⋅ · ρ ...................................................................................................................(2.7)
where ρ is assumed equal to 1.25 kg/m
2
[3].
tr
µ is a function of the Reynold number, which is defined in Equation 1.1
In Table 2.4 b equivalent load during vortex shedding are found for the VEAB chimney.
Table 2.4 b Equivalent loads during vortex shedding.
d (m)
cr
v (m/s) Re
tr
µ
cr
p (Pa)
eq
w
(N/m)
Shell plate 2.3 3.24
5
10 97 . 4 ⋅
0.2 6.56 135
At damper 2.8 3.95
5
10 37 . 7 ⋅
0.2 9.75 245
Some comments about this model and values of the temperature dependent variables will be
discussed later in Section 6.
It is important to note that the VEAB chimney do not satisfy the restrictions in [3] for
applicability of the code model. The restrictions are:
d
h
õ 30 .....................…..........................................................................…………….........(2.8)
max
y õ d ⋅ 06 . 0 for the load
eq
3 . 1 w ⋅ .............….................................................…........…...(2.9)
where
max
y = Top deflection amplitude (m)
The maximum top deflection range during vortex shedding was calculated by the
manufacturer to mm 273 6 . 133 2 · ⋅ . The corresponding bending stress at the chimney base
was calculated to 11.6 MPa. For the VEAB chimney the slenderness h/d = 39 which means
that the restrictions for the applicability of the load model of the code [3] is exceeded.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
30
2.4.3 Elastic energy
To get an estimation of the energy added to the oscillating chimney the beam elastic energy is
calculated.
Figure 2.4 b A distributed load on a fixed cantilever beam.
Modulus of elasticity
MPa 10 21
4
⋅ · E
Height of the VEAB chimney
H=90 m
Bending moment in the beam loaded by a distributed load
( )
2
b
) (
2 2
) ( ) ( x H
q x H
x H q x M − ⋅ ·

⋅ − ⋅ · ......................................................................(2.10)
The VEAB chimney outer diameter is
D=2.3 m
Plate thickness varies according to Table 2.2 a.
Moment of inertia varies as
[ ]
4 4
) 2 (
64
) ( t D D x I ⋅ − − ⋅ ·
π
..............................................................................................(2.11)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
31
The beam elastic energy is described as

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅
·
H
dx
x I E
x M
W
0
2
b
) ( 2
)) ( (
.................................................................................................….(2.12)
For each part with a constant shell thickness the moment of inertia is constant. The integral is
therefore calculated separately for each part with constant shell thickness. The total beam
elastic energy is then calculated by superposition. The part integration will be
∫ ∫
⋅ −
⋅ ⋅
· ⋅
⋅ ⋅
·
2
1
2
1
4
part
2
2
part
part
) (
8
)) ( (
2
1
h
h
h
h
b
dx x H
I E
q
dx x M
I E
W
2
1
5
part
2
part
) (
5
1
8
h
h
x H
I E
q
W
]
]
]

− ⋅ −
⋅ ⋅
·
[ ]
5
2
5
1
part
2
part
) ( ) (
40
h H h H
I E
q
W − − −
⋅ ⋅
· ............................….....................................(2.13)
The numerical results are shown in Table 2.4 c.
Table 2.4 c Numerical integration of the beam elastic energy. It is assumed that q=w
eq
=135
N/m, the equivalent load during vortex shedding of the VEAB chimney
according to Section 2.4.2.
Part no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total
h
1
(m) 0.0 5.0 12.5 20.0 30.0 42.6 55.2
h
2
(m) 5.0 12.5 20.0 30.0 42.6 55.2 90.0
t (m) 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.010 0.008 0.006
I (m
4
) 0.0840 0.0749 0.0657 0.0564 0.0472 0.0378 0.0284
W (Nm) 37.9 47.5 36.8 34.7 24.7 10.8 4.5 197
This means that a distributed load of 135 N/m corresponds to a bending energy of 197 Nm for
a half oscillating cycle. The period of the oscillations is s 5 . 3
288 . 0
1 1
≈ · ·
f
T .
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.5
32
2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney
The VEAB chimney was erected in late November to early December 1995. It was snowy
weather and the temperature was a couple of degrees below zero Celsius.
During the first winter period after erection several persons made observations of oscillations
with large top deflections of the chimney. The potential for fatigue problems were first
pointed out in a report by the second author. During the spring of 1996 cracks were found.
Therefore an extensive crack examination program was carried out during the late summer
and early autumn of 1996. A large number of cracks were found, examined and repaired.
One important explanation to the unacceptable top deflections was that the damper was mal-
functioning. It was repaired but questions still remained if there could be other explanations
for the large oscillations. Therefore an extensive data collecting system was installed intended
to continuously monitor and record the response of the structure to wind loads. The data
collecting system has been in continuous operation since mid December 1996 until 2001.
In December 1998 some additional cracks were found at locations not examined before. A
couple of design changes were made. As part of the action to ensure a safe design the original
foundation ring was modified. On top of the gussets an additional ring was added aimed to
reduce stress concentrations at the horizontal welds between shell and gusset plates. The
same action was taken at the connection ring at the flanged splice on the 30 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
33
3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB
chimney
3.1 Observation of mal-functioning of the chimney
3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations
During the first nine months of the chimney in operation oscillations with large top
deflections were observed. Observations of some witnesses during the first winter period
December 1995 to April 1996 were later documented and are briefly related below.
The first working day after Christmas 1995 the temperature was about -20 °C with a sunny
clear sky. A supervisor discovered that the chimney top oscillated with an amplitude
approximately equal to the diameter and sounded like a chime of bells with a frequency of
about one second period. He estimated the magnitude of the top deflection from
measurements on the chimney shadow. His understanding was that the sound originated from
movements between the outer and inner pipe. At 10.30 to 12.30 h the top chimney shadow
moved about 4 m at the top of the power plant building. The chimney oscillated in west/east
direction. The smoke from the older concrete chimney was almost above the new one or a
little to the west. At 14.00 to 15.00 h the chimney again oscillated in a similarly manner. At
17.00 to18.00 h it oscillated again but not as much as before. The supervisor estimated that
the chimney oscillated from Christmas 1995 or April 1996 one or two days a week with total
top deflection amplitude of 0.5 to1.0 m.
A building worker observed on the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney
oscillated with a top amplitude equal to about the diameter. Later during the winter the same
building worker, working on the power plant roof, observed the chimney to oscillate with
amplitude of about 0.5 m at roof level.
Another building worker also made observations of the oscillations the same day as the
supervisor. The top deflection amplitude was not quantified. After that he saw the chimney
oscillate several times but not as much as on the first day.
Several design engineers and one structural engineer at a nearby engineering office of the
Fläkt Industri AB located about 600 m NW of the chimney observed from their windows
during the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated violently. The
structural engineer estimated the top amplitude to about half the diameter. The conditions for
estimating the magnitude of the oscillations were good because the new steel chimney is
almost in line with an older concrete chimney as viewed from the engineering office
windows.
Two other structural engineers at a separate engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB
located about 1 km NW of the chimney observed from their windows the chimney to oscillate
drastically during several times in January and February 1996. By levelling relative to a wall
they estimated the top amplitude to be about half the diameter.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
34
3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes
According to the manufacturer a documented quality control was made before the shipping of
the chimney and there where no detected cracks when it left the workshop. Personnel from the
manufacturer as well as external testing personnel were involved in the quality inspection and
testing.
Because of the observed behaviour of the VEAB chimney an inspection was made in May
1996 by the second author acting as a consultant for VEAB. At the foundation level cracks
were found at the weld toes to the gusset plates. Both the maximum bending moment from
wind loads and the large stress concentration at fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at
chimney coincided. The appearance of these cracks indicated that the cause was fatigue.
The main explanation for the cracks was that one of the three guiding bars for friction masses
of the damping pendulum at the top of the chimney was to long and therefore resting on the
bottom friction plate. The pendulum movements were partly restrained. Apparently the
damper gave only limited damping action until it was adjusted in September 1996.
3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks
As a result of the initial observations of cracks at the base a detailed examination of cracks
was made using magnetic particle and eddy current testing techniques. A description of the
detailed examination of cracks is found in appendix J. The first author conducted and
participated in all inspections and investigations and performed all evaluations.
Cracks were found at foundation ring gusset plates, at flanged erection splice gusset plates at
30 m level and at top and bottom of connecting gas duct vertical gussets. In Figure 3.1 a
typical cracks for vertical gusset plates at foundation ring and vertical gusset plates at flanged
erection splice at 30 m level are found. (a) denotes the initiation point at the weld toe where
the angle at several welds was too sharp. (b) denotes the initiation point at the weld root. (1)
shows the propagation direction for the weld toe initiated cracks. (2) and (3) shows the
propagation direction for the centre of weld-initiated cracks. The most common type of crack
was (1).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
35
Figure 3.1 a Typical cracks at horizontal fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at
chimney
At 12 of the 40 outside gusset plates and 37 of the 40 inside gusset plates at foundation level
cracks were indicated. At 30 m level almost all of the gusset plates had some kind of a linear
indication, probably from cracks. At both locations the crack lengths varied from 2 to 20 mm
and the depths 1 to 3 mm, except at (2) according to Figure 3.1 a where some of the cracks at
foundation level went through the weld. A picture of a typical weld is found in Figure 3.1 b.
← Crack at the weld toe
← Crack in centre of weld
Figure 3.1 b A weld after 1.5 mm of grinding.
At the weld toe of the horizontal welds at ends of the vertical plate reinforcements five cracks
were found as shown in Figure 3.1 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
36
Figure 3.1 c Detected cracks at gas duct inlet.
3.1.4 Summary of cracks
All detected cracks had started either from an sharp and unacceptable weld toe or from root
defects as shown in Figure 3.1 a. The weld roots had often remaining slag and cavities. The
weld quality did not satisfy the code requirements for the weld qualities used in the design
calculations. Most of the horizontal welds at top of gusset plates at foundation level and 30 m
level were damaged by cracks observed after only a few months of service of the chimney.
3.1.5 Notches not available for examination
A number of potential points for fatigue crack initiation were not available for examination,
such as welds at support gusset plates for inner pipe and guiding U-beams for inner pipe
between the inner and outer shell. Therefore knowledge about their condition is unknown.
3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds
All welds with indicated cracks were repaired and once again examined by the magnetic
particle method. This was made immediately after the testing.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
37
3.2 Data recording system
3.2.1 General
Because doubts remained about the reliability of the damper even after the adjustment in September 1996 it was
decided that oscillations of the structure had to be monitored and stored by a data recording system. The data
recording system consists of three main parts, the strain gauges, the wind data transmitters and the computer.
The data recording system was created primarily for studying the influence of first mode oscillations with
respect to fatigue strength. Daltek Probator, Sweden, was responsible for developing and installing the data
recording system.
3.2.2 Strain gauges
On the shell plate inside the stack at 4 m height above the concrete foundation strain gauges
were applied at 16 points symmetrically in circumferential direction. The section at 4 m level
was chosen in order to avoid influence of local stress concentrations from gusset plates at the
chimney base and from the inlet to the gas duct. The inside chimney location was selected for
weather protection reasons. The opposite strain gauges were coupled in pairs, bridges. For
access and serviceability of the strain gauges a platform was built inside the chimney at 3 m
height. Initially the recording system was aimed at monitoring the chimney behaviour for a
few months. The results obtained from such a short period were not convincing. Therefore the
monitoring period was extended. The first installation of the strain gauge system was aimed
for a short period. Thus, the selected glue for the strain gauges was not aimed for long-term
use.
The accuracy of the recorded values from the strain gauges were estimated to 1 percent.
Figure 3.2 a Designation and orientation of strain gauges and locations relative to gas
duct, inspection door and ladder of the VEAB chimney.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
38
3.2.3 Wind data transmitter
3.2.3.1 General
Figure 3.2 b The VEAB Sandvik plant. To the right Sandvik II unit and the 90 m steel
chimney. A balloon shows location of the wind data transmitter on top of the
power plant building of the Sandvik II unit.
The wind data transmitter, wind monitor 05103 Young, was installed on the top of the power
plant building on a 5 m height pole. The height of the power plant building roof is 40 m above
ground level. The horizontal distance between the wind data transmitters and the VEAB
chimney is 43 m. Therefore all recorded wind data refer to a 45 m height above ground level
and a point 43 m approximately north of the VEAB chimney. This is to be compared with the
height of the chimney, 90 m above ground level.
The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney, to the left in Figure
3.2 b is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter. It is much larger
than 15 times the diameter, below which interaction between two equal chimneys may
become significant [3], [9]. Furthermore the distance between the old concrete chimney and
the VEAB chimney (new steel chimney) are drastically different. Thus as stated in Section
2.1, interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
39
Figure 3.2 c The wind data transmitters on the Sandvik II unit roof.
Because of the small distance between the power plant outer roof and the wind data
transmitter some form of turbulent boundary layer disturbances in the recorded wind data may
be expected.
The wind data transmitter signals were also used by VEAB for their plant planning and for
monitoring environmental conditions.
3.2.3.2 Correction for wind at 90 m height
The wind mean velocity varies with height according to [3]
) ( ) (
exp ref mk
z C v z v ⋅ · ........................................................................................................(3.1)
where the exposure factor is
2
0
exp
ln ) (
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
⋅ ·
z
z
z C β for
min
z z > .................................................................................(3.2)
For the VEAB chimney, topographical category II that is similar to the code definition [3] of
an open terrain with small obstacles.
Reference wind velocity and terrain related parameters for topographical category II is [3]
m/s 24
ref
· v , 19 . 0 · β , 05 . 0
0
· z and m 4
min
· z
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
40
The height correction factor n
corr
for wind at height h
2
but measured at height h
1
above ground
level will be
) (
) (
1 mk
2 mk
corr
h v
h v
n · ....................................................................................................................(3.3)
Table 3.2 a Exposure factor, wind mean velocity and height correction factor to 90 m height
for some heights.
Height (m) C
exp
v
mk
(m/s) n
corr
10 1.01 24.2 1.41
45 1.67 31.0 1.10
90 2.03 34.2 1.00
Wind data presented in this report have been corrected with the correction factor n
corr
in Table
3.2 a.
3.2.3.3 Influence of distance between chimney and wind data transmitter
Because of the distance of 43 m between the chimney and the wind data transmitter wind data
were not measured at the same time as oscillations of the chimney. The wind mean values for
both wind velocity and direction were calculated at three arithmetic mean values 10s, 1 min
and 10 min. As found from Figure 3.2 d below error influence will be limited because the
time to create mean values will have greater influence on the results than the elapsed time for
wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitters or reverse.
Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to
wind transmitters or reverse. Distance 43 m.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Wind speed (m/s)
T
i
m
e

(
s
)
Elapsed time
10 s
Figure 3.2 d Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitter.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
41
Distance between chimney and transmitter is 43 m. Therefore, in this report no correction was
made to account for the distance between chimney and wind data transmitter.
3.2.4 Recording computer
The measurement equipment was based on a Pentium 100 MHz personal computer equipped
with a data collecting card with 16 analogue input ports and a separate card for signal
conditioning. At the time of installation it was a modern personal computer. Collection of
data, control and control of alarm functions were made by a computer program, a virtual
instrument especially developed for this project. Daltek Probator AB, Sweden developed the
LabVIEW application and was responsible for both program installation and hardware.
Both the strain gauges and the wind velocity and direction transmitter equipment were
connected to the computer. The computer was located in a partly heated and completely
weather-protected building intended for exhaust gas environmental control instruments. A
locked cabinet prevented the computer from unauthorized curiosity.
Figure 3.2 e The recording computer in its cabinet.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
42
Figure 3.2 f The recording computer.
The measurement program collected data continuously and supervised eight signals from the
eight strain gauge bridges and two signals from the wind data transmitter (velocity and
direction). On the computer screen a virtual instrument presented some output data. An
example is shown in Figure 3.2 g.
Figure 3.2 g The virtual instrument for recording and supervising the chimney.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
43
The terminology in Swedish of the virtual instrument screen as exemplified in Figure 3.2 g is
as follows:
Larmgräns vidd för
registrering
If the chimney top deflection range in any direction exceeds this
limit value the actual data was stored on the computer hard disk. The
virtual lamp Larm was lit only when the top deflection range exceeds
the limit value
Display Actual chimney maximum top deflection range in any direction. The
virtual lamp LED was lit once the limit value was exceeded. It has to
be switched off by pushing the button Återst.
Max. registerad vidd Maximum recorded top deflection range was shown. The value has
to be set to zero by pushing the button Återst. Max registrerad vidd.
Loggas till fil Shows name of file to which all recordings were stored.
Antal reg. svängningar Shows number of recorded registrations since last restart of the
program.
Vindriktn. 10s,
Vindriktn. 1min,
Vindriktn 10 min
Shows wind direction values in 360 degrees according to Figure 3.2
a. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s, 1 min and 10
min.
Vindhast. 10s,
Vindhast. 1 min,
Vindhast. 10 min
Shows wind velocity values in m/s. Mean values were calculated
over a period of 10s, 1 min and 10 min.
Stopp A button for stopping the program when copying recorded results.
Utböjningsamplitud
(mm) i resp.
kompassriktning
This diagram shows the actual amplitude in real time for all eight
strain gauge bridges. Results for the last 10 s were shown as default
value. For some screen plots other values have been used.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
44
The following data was stored in the recording file, see example in Figure 3.2 b.
1
.

T
h
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
c
o
r
d
i
n
g

s
i
n
c
e

l
a
s
t

s
t
o
p

o
f

t
h
e

c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
.
2
.

Y
e
a
r
3
.

M
o
n
t
h
4
.

D
a
y
5
.

H
o
u
r
6
.

M
i
n
u
t
e
7
.

S
e
c
o
n
d

a
s

a
n

i
n
t
e
g
e
r
8
.

T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

f
o
r

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

1

a
s

a
n

i
n
t
e
g
e
r

(
m
m
)
9
.






































2
1
0
.




































3
1
1
.




































4
1
2
.




































5
1
3
.




































6
1
4
.




































7
1
5
.




































8
1
6
.

M
e
a
n

w
i
n
d

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

1
0

s
1
7
.




































1

m
i
n
1
8
.


































1
0

m
i
n
1
9
.

M
e
a
n

w
i
n
d

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

1
0

s
2
0
.





































1

m
i
n
2
1
.



































1
0

m
i
n
Table 3.2 b An example from the recorded measurement files.
4449 1997 6 27 16 9 38 81 118 141 155 145 120 78 61 5.2 5 5 270 247 228
4450 1997 6 27 16 9 41 94 144 176 182 165 125 73 48 5.6 4.9 4.9 273 247 229
4451 1997 6 27 16 9 44 99 153 182 186 171 132 79 53 5.6 4.8 4.9 259 247 229
4452 1997 6 27 16 9 48 99 153 186 188 174 133 74 48 6.6 4.7 4.9 254 247 229
4453 1997 6 27 16 9 51 104 164 190 192 164 123 70 47 5.8 4.5 4.9 239 245 229
4454 1997 6 27 16 9 54 114 158 174 168 147 110 58 56 5.7 4.5 4.9 235 242 229
4455 1997 6 27 16 9 58 121 183 210 213 181 129 66 61 5.7 4.4 4.9 222 239 229
4456 1997 6 27 16 10 1 83 146 186 197 185 146 85 52 6.9 4.6 4.9 219 235 229
4457 1997 6 27 16 10 4 94 148 171 168 145 109 61 45 6.5 4.7 4.9 220 236 229
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
45
3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range
Signals from all strain gauge bridges and wind data transmitters were read with a sampling
frequency of 1000 values per second. With an interval of 67 ms five samples were collected
and mean values were calculated. With actual parameters for the strain gauges, strains were
calculated every 67 ms.
From the strains, chimney top deflection range was calculated with the following
relationships and Equation 4.6.
ε σ ⋅ · E
087 . 0 087 . 0
ε σ ⋅
· ·
E
y ...............................................................................................................(3.4)
(σ and E in MPa and y in mm)
From the bending moment the bending stress is calculated as:
b
M
W
b
· σ
2
d
I
W ·
d
I
M

·
2
b
σ .............................................................................................................................(3.5)
where σ = Bending stress at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
E = Modulus of elasticity
ε = Strain at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
M
b
= Bending moment at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
W
b
= Section modulus (4 m level)
I = Moment of inertia (4 m level)
d = Diameter
3.2.6 Verification of the equipment
During the installation of the data recording system calibrations were made. A/D and D/A
transducers were calibrated in the LABVIEW system. Signals from wind data transmitters
were checked. Strains for calculating top deflections were checked using a model chimney
with an equal strain gauge as on the chimney. An additional theodolite check of the
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
46
deflections to those obtained from the strain gauges was made during the damping tests in
August 1997 (see Section 3.3.1). Both deflection range and frequency were checked and
compared with computer results.
3.2.7 Procedures
A limit value for recording the results was set to 100 mm equivalent top deflection range to
ensure a reasonable amount of recorded data. This means that all results where the maximum
range was less than 100 mm were truncated except during the damping tests.
During the first months the computer was checked twice a week. Later the interval was
increased to once a week, twice a month and finally once a month. All data results were then
transferred to another computer where the evaluations were made. Maximum values were
checked and the evaluation computer programs were run (Appendix H). The results were
sorted and fatigue damage was calculated.
3.2.8 Operating experiences
The strain gauge equipment started to operate in December 1996 and operated without any
problem until January 2000. Two of the strain gauges, no 1 and 3, then started to present
unrealistic values and almost immediately became short-circuited. A decision was
immediately taken that all strain gauges should be replaced with new ones and that a long-
term glue should be used. Fortunately the strain gauge no 4, which was unharmed, had given
the largest ranges for the first three years of measurements. Therefore the data recording
system could operate satisfactory and deliver trustworthy recordings with only a short break
for the installation of the new strain gauges.
During the recording period there were also some small interruptions in recording of data
caused by short interruption of the plant electricity. Other interruptions were some minutes
each time when the recorded data was transferred from the recording computer to data
diskettes. The recording program was always shut off on such occasions.
The recording system has been in operation 99.8 percent of the time during the measurement
years.
During the month of July in 1998 the “Larmgräns vidd för registrering” (see section 3.2.4) by
a mistake was set to 200 mm instead of the intended value 100 mm. Therefore ranges below
200 mm were truncated that month. There was no correction made for this.
Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001 (see Section 6.6).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
47
3.3 Behaviour of the mechanical damper
3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper
3.3.1.1 Introduction
Tests were performed to determine the damping properties of the VEAB chimney, that is, the
logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper. The chimney was initially
forced to deflect and the resulting free sway of the chimney was recorded. Comparison tests
were also made for the chimney with the mechanical damper in a locked position.
The damping test was repeated a number of times in order to get a good mean value of the
logarithmic decrement, and to get some understanding of the variability in the measurements.
The damping tests were made in August 1997 in fairly calm weather. The wind was below 6 m/s
(10-minute mean) during all tests performed. The test instances were selected in order to avoid
influence of aerodynamic damping from gust wind during the damping tests.
3.3.1.2 Setup for Damping tests
A 20 mm nylon rope was attached to the top of the chimney and connected to a wheel loader
located approximately 150 m away from the chimney in southward direction. The wheel loader
pulled the rope until a desired deflection was obtained. Using a mechanical device the rope was
abruptly disconnected close to the wheel loader and the chimney started to oscillate freely. A
catch rope was connected to the pulling rope in order to prevent the rope from swaying
uncontrolled. The setup for damping measurements is shown in Figure 3.3 a and 3.3 b.
Figure 3.3 a Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney – view
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
48
Figure 3.3 b Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney - plan
The top of the chimney was forced to deflect a maximum distance of 200 mm for a free
mechanical damper and 100 mm for the chimney the comparison test with locked damper. This
limit was used in order to secure that the damping device would not be harmed in any way. The
normal recording program to determine oscillations from wind and other actions was in effect
during the damping tests.
Deflections at the top of the chimney were calculated from recordings of the strain gauges
attached to the chimney (see Section 3.2), which had been calibrated to the top deflections.
Deflections of the chimney were checked also using a theodolite. These visual observations
showed good agreement with the recordings obtained from the strain gauges.
Similar measurements of damping of other slender structures have been reported in the literature,
see for instance [2].
During the course of the damping measurements the wind velocity and direction were recorded
using the wind indicator located on the top of the adjacent power plant building at 45 m height
above ground and at a distance of approximately 43 m from the chimney (see Section 3.2.3.1).
The wind velocity during the damping tests was very low, and in no instances exceeded 6 m/s
(10-minute mean) or 8 m/s (10 s mean). The wind direction was approximately the same as the
pulling direction in the damping tests.
3.3.1.3 Recordings
A total number of 20 tests were performed to verify the damping of the chimney. Tests # 1
through 16 refer to the chimney with the mechanical damper acting in normal operation. Tests #
17 through 20 refer to the chimney with a locked damper.
Pulling
direction
Building
Building
N
Building
Chimney
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
49
The data was collected using strain gauge readings and the recording computer described
previously (se Section 3.2).
It should be observed that recordings refer to variations in actions, in this case deflection range
rather than the deflection itself. This is because the recording system was designed to verify
performance of the chimney with respect to fatigue, where variation of stress, that is, stress
range, is of utmost importance. Where required, deflection itself has been evaluated from the
deflection-range data, as discussed below.
Some examples of screen plots showing the parts of the oscillation behaviour during the damping
tests are shown in Figures 3.3 c, 3.3 d and 3.3 e.
The recorded natural frequency (first mode) of the chimney with the mechanical damper in
normal operation was 0.253 Hz. For the chimney with locked damper the recorded natural
frequency was 0.258 Hz.
The natural frequency obtained from the damping tests differ by 10 percent from the natural
frequency calculated theoretically for the chimney considering the actual distribution of stiffness
and mass along the chimney, see Section 2.4.1 and from that measured 0.288 Hz, see Section
3.7.2.
One explanation could be that the first cycles of time history for the two mass damped systems
have an irregular behaviour. This explanation is supported by the irregular curve for the first
cycles as shown in the screen plots in Figures 3.3 c, 3.3 d, 3.3 e and in Appendix C.
Another explanation could be that the damper may have been tuned by the manufacturer of the
chimney during the days of damping tests. A definite explanation for this discrepancy has not
been found. Thus natural frequency was about the same with and without an acting damper.
All recordings from the damping tests have been collected in Appendix C. A data file with
results from the recording program is shown in tables. Some explanations and support lines have
been included there to facilitate the interpretation of the data.
In Appendix C is also plotted the Deflection Range (that is, twice the deflection) as a function of
the order of the oscillation cycle.
Furthermore, in Appendix C is shown a screen plot of the virtual recording instrument for all
damping tests. In evaluating the results it should be observed that the recording limit of 100 mm
means that a few cycles at the end of the course of sway action may not be registered.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
50
Figure 3.3 c Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 1 of
chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.
Figure 3.3 d Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 4 of
chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
51
Figure 3.3 e Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 17 of
chimney with locked mechanical damper.
3.3.1.4 Error when calculating logarithmic decrement from recorded deflection range
All measurements and the calculations of logarithmic decrement were based on the deflection
range that is, not the deflection itself. This will cause an error in the calculated value of the
logarithmic decrement. The magnitude of this error is calculated in the following.
Symbols in this section, such as ω , differ from those used in others sections.
For a free single degree of freedom system with viscous damping less than critical the deflection
y is found from [10]
( ) θ ω
ω ζ
+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅ −
t e C y
t
d
sin
n
............................ ......................................................................(3.6)
where C = An arbitrary constant
ζ = Relative damping
n
ω = The undamped natural frequency
d
ω = The damped natural frequency
t = Time
θ = The phase angle
2
1
2
ζ
ζ π
δ

⋅ ⋅
·
f ⋅ ⋅ · π ω 2
n
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
52
2
1 ζ ω ω − ⋅ ·
n d
where
f = Natural frequency
δ = Logarithmic decrement
For the VEAB chimney the typical values are
Hz 288 . 0 · f , the observed natural frequency according to Section 3.7.2
07 . 0 · δ for functioning damper and 0.04 for mal-functioning damper, the observed
logarithmic decrement according to Section 3.3.1.6
Inserting these typical values into the parameter expressions will yield (the number of digits
required is large to obtain the required accuracy)
0111 . 0 · ζ (0.0065 for malfunctioning damper)
rad/s 809557 . 1
n
· ω
rad/s 809446 . 1
d
· ω
With the selected phase angle 90 degrees the deflection may be written

,
`

.
|
+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ −
2
809446 . 1 sin
02009 . 0
π
t e C y
t
.....................................................................................(3.7)
Figure 3.3 f Deflection as a function of time.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
53
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
54
3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Logarithmic Decrement
The logarithmic decrement δ was calculated from Equations 3.8.
k y y
k n n
/ ) / ln(
+
· δ .........................................................................................................................(3.8)
where
y
n
= Deflection for the first oscillation considered
y
n+k
= Deflection for the final oscillation considered
k = Number of oscillations considered
The first, and in some instances also the second, oscillation after loosening the pulling rope were
disregarded in evaluating the logarithmic decrement. This is because the start of the deflection
history may be non-linear, and causing the computer evaluation program to make an incorrect
calculation of the deflection range for the first and second oscillation.
Mean values of the logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ were obtained for each 20 damping tests from
this starting value until the deflection falls below the value of 100 mm, that is, a deflection range
of 200 mm. This would lead to 6 to 12 oscillations being considered for the chimney with the
damper in normal operation, and 3 to 9 oscillations for the chimney with locked damper. By
averaging over a number of oscillations the influence of damping due to action of any gust winds
or irregularities in the action of the damper during the tests should be minimized.
Alternate calculations of the logarithmic decrement were made applying a set of three
consecutive oscillations (that is, with n running from first to final value considered and k = 3) to
study the variation in the logarithmic damping as obtained in the test. Figure 3.3 g shows an
example of such an alternate calculations. From studying such variations it was concluded that
the variation was not significant and should be caused by various irregularities due to the fact
that the tests were made under field conditions. Data for such alternative calculations are
included in Appendix C.
The results of the 20 damping tests performed are summarized in Table 3.3 a. ”Initial deflection
range” in the table equals the sum of the initial deflection at the moment of loosening the pulling
rope and the following minimum value of the deflection, see Figure 3.3 h. “Number of
oscillations k” refers to the number considered in determining the logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ
given in the final column of Table 3.3 a.
Examples of deflection range as a function of time for two of the 20 tests performed are shown in
Figure 3.3 h and 3.3 i. The first diagram is for tests with the mechanical damper in normal
operation and the third for a test with a locked damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
55
Figure 3.3 g Example of variation in recorded logarithmic decrement δ determined for three
consecutive oscillations. Test no 8.
Test no 8, floating logarithmic decrement
y = -1E-04x + 0.0953
R
2
= 0.1787
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
200 250 300 350 400 450
Deflection range (mm)
L
o
g

d
e
c
r
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
56
Table 3.3 a Conditions and results from 20 tests of damping of VEAB chimney
Test Time Initial Wind velocity Wind direction Number Logarithmic
# of deflection (m/s) (degrees, 0 / 360) of oscill. decrement
test range (mm) 10 s 1 min 10 min 10 s 1 min 10 min k
k ave
δ
Chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation, date 97-08-05
1 * 11.22 376 8.0 6.5 5.3 194 161 159 6 0.072
2 ** 12.55 304 5.0 4.7 2.9 168 172 118 7 0.064
3 13.04 425 4.5 6.4 4.8 179 170 173 10 0.057
4 13.30 419 7.2 6.7 5.7 160 172 163 8 0.070
5 13.34 422 5.2 5.7 5.6 173 169 164 9 0.062
6 13.38 394 4.9 6.2 5.6 136 152 162 6 0.098
7 *** 13.41 382 6.3 4.8 5.6 156 154 164 6 0.081
8 16.45 507 4.3 3.6 3.1 181 187 169 12 0.065
9 16.55 415 3.3 3.7 3.3 219 191 184 10 0.068
10 16.59 411 4.3 3.5 3.4 170 193 186 7 0.070
11 17.01 421 3.7 3.8 3.5 168 172 185 7 0.078
12 ** 17.04 445 2.3 3.1 3.5 171 172 182 9 0.068
13 20.31 445 3.6 2.9 2.5 170 169 172 10 0.063
14 ** 20.36 426 1.9 2.7 2.7 185 173 172 6 0.068
15 20.40 397 3.4 2.7 2.8 157 165 170 8 0.068
16 ** 20.44 382 2.7 3.3 3.1 168 155 164 7 0.071
Mean 4.0 168 0.070
Standard deviation 0.009
Chimney with locked mechanical damper, date 97-08-06
17 10.55 184 2.9 3.6 3.6 195 182 172 4 0.038
18 10.58 202 2.4 2.5 3.8 210 191 175 9 0.031
19 11.04 191 4.8 5.8 3.9 184 182 175 5 0.056
20 11.09 185 3.7 3.3 3.9 137 131 170 3 0.048
Mean 3.8 173 0.043
Standard deviation 0.011
Notes to table:
* A technician was standing on the platform at the top of the chimney during the test.
** During the course of oscillations one or two irregularities were obtained. These oscillations
were disregarded in determining the mean logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ given in the table.
*** The pulling rope fractured near the top of the chimney instead of at the wheel loader.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
57
Figure 3.3 h Deflection range as a number of time (cycle number). Test no 1 with mechanical
damper in normal operation. One cycle corresponds to approximately 3.5 s.
Figure 3.3 i Deflection range as a number of time. Test no 17 with locked damper. One cycle
corresponds to approximately 3.5 s.
Test no 1, active damper
0
100
200
300
400
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Cycle no
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
Test no 17, locked damper
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Cycle no
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

w
i
d
t
h

(
m
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
58
Further examples are found in Appendix C.
The recorded damping expressed as logarithmic decrement δ consists of three parts:
d m a
δ δ δ δ + + · ............................................................................................................................ (3.9)
where
·
a
δ aerodynamic damping
·
m
δ mechanical damping of the chimney, without damper
·
d
δ mechanical damping of the damper
The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with the mechanical damper in
normal operation is 0.070. The logarithmic decrement in the 16 tests performed varies from
0.057 to 0.098.
The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with a locked damper is 0.043. The
logarithmic decrement variation in the four tests performed varies from 0.031 to 0.056.
Thus, the recorded logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal
operation was 63 percent higher than for the chimney with a locked damper. This beneficial
effect was smaller than could be expected, considering the fact that a theoretical study performed
by the supplier of the chimney claimed a tenfold increase in the logarithmic decrement when
adding the mechanical damper to the chimney. The probable cause for this is discussed in
Section 3.3.2.5.
3.3.1.6 Discussion of results
The recorded logarithmic decrement δ =0.043 is somewhat higher than the range 0.02 to 0.03, to
be used for design of normal steel chimneys with installations, such as internal ducts, ladder etc.
as given in [3], [5]. This increase in damping may at least partly be caused by some beneficial
action from the mechanical damper, although it was locked to minimise such action and from
effective damping of non-structural elements.
The mechanical damper will increase the mean value of the logarithmic decrement of the
chimney δ =0.07 over the normal upper design value of 0.03 [3], [5] by a factor of 2.3.
The relatively large variation in the logarithmic decrement obtained in the repeated tests,
expressed as a standard deviation of about 0.01, could be due to at least three reasons, listed here
in the order of estimated importance:
1) Accidental variations in the action of the mechanical damper
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
59
2) Disturbances from variations in environmental conditions, mainly aerodynamic damping
due to variations in wind velocity and wind direction, due to the fact that these tests were
made under field conditions
3) Inaccuracies in the recording system.
The recorded logarithmic decrement of the VEAB chimney, with the mechanical damper in
normal operation, agrees well with the damping assumed in the design calculations prepared by
the chimney supplier, but was considerably smaller than could be expected from a theoretical
study.
In [11] a full scale damping test for a 45 m chimney with a tuned damper was made. As in our
damping tests the damper was both locked and unlocked. The logarithmic decrement was found
to be 0.019 with locked damper and 0.5 to 0.6 with unlocked damper. Compared to the VEAB
chimney the damping arrangement as reported in [11] appears much more efficient.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
60
3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper
3.3.2.1 Model
Ruscheweyh has presented a simplified calculation model for a chimney provided with a tuned
pendulum mass damper [6]. In the model, damping from the mass damper k
1
was neglected. This
model has been extended in this section to account for the effect of the mass damper k
1
.
Figure 3.3 j Model of a two mass spring and damper system
) sin( ) ( ) (
2 1
2
1
1 2 1 2 1 1
2
1
2
gen
t F
dt
dy
dt
dy
k
dt
dy
k y y c y c
dt
y d
M ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ + ⋅ + − ⋅ + ⋅ + ω .....................(3.10)
0 ) ( ) (
1 2
2 1 2 2
2
2
2
· − ⋅ + − ⋅ + ⋅
dt
dy
dt
dy
k y y c
dt
y d
m .....................................................................(3.11)
where
gen
M = Generalised mass of the chimney
m = Damper pendulum mass
F = Amplitude for vortex shedding force
y
1
= Deflection of chimney
y
2
= Deflection of pendulum mass
c
1
= Chimney stiffness
c
2
= Damper stiffness
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
61
k
1
= Chimney damping
k
2
= Damper damping
v
1
= Velocity for
gen
M
v
2
= Velocity for m
a
1
= Acceleration for
gen
M
a
2
= Acceleration for m
ω = Angular frequency of vortex shedding
The differential equations were rewritten as finite difference equations and solved for a large
number of small time steps with a computer program. Accuracy and convergence was checked
by changing the time steps.
Start values are
10
v ,
20
v ,
10
y and
20
y where the second index means time zero.
The finite differences may be written
gen
20
2
10
2
10
1 20 2 10 2 1
1
1
) sin( ) (
) (
M
t F
t
y
k
t
y
k
t
y
k y c y c c
t
t
y

]
]
]

⋅ ⋅ +


⋅ +


⋅ −


⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ + − ·




ω ..........
(3.12)
m t
y
k
t
y
k y c y c
t
t
y
1
) (
20
2
10
2 20 2 10 2
2

]
]
]



⋅ −


⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ·




......................…...............................(3.13)
t
t
y
a




·
) (
1
1
...........................................................................................................................(3.14)
t
t
y
a




·
) (
2
2
............................................................................................................................(3.15)
t a v ∆ ⋅ · ∆
1 1
............................................................................................................................(3.16)
t a v ∆ ⋅ · ∆
2 2
...........................................................................................................................(3.17)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
62
1 10 1
v v v ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.18)
2 20 2
v v v ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.19)
t v y ∆ ⋅ · ∆
1 1
............................................................................................................................(3.20)
t v y ∆ ⋅ · ∆
2 2
...........................................................................................................................(3.21)
1 10 1
y y y ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.22)
2 20 2
y y y ∆ + · ........................................................................................................................(3.23)
Critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated according to Equation 2.5 and wind
velocity pressure according to Equation 2.7.
A computer program, see Appendix H, has been developed which takes into consideration all
variables above. It also deals with the wind turbulence by allowing a randomised relative level of
the amplitude for vortex shedding force and the frequency of the vortex shedding. The program
is capable of creating a dynamic response for a frequency spectrum and a time history.
3.3.2.2 Input data
The following data was used as input data for this theoretical study of the damped system.
Generalised mass,
gen
M 12 460 kg *)
Damper pendulum mass, m kg 246 1 460 12 1 . 0 · ⋅ *)
Observed natural frequency, f
e1
see Section 3.7.2
0.288 Hz
Optimum damper frequency tuning according
to [6]
Hz 262 . 0
1 . 0 1
1
1 2
· ⋅
+
·
e e
f f ...................(3.24)
For determining the stiffness of the VEAB chimney an equivalent load, calculated according to
Section 2.4.2, was applied on the complete height of the chimney in the same FE calculation as
in Section 2.4.1. The results are shown in Figure 3.3 k.
*) Data given by the manufacturer of the chimney. See also chapter 2.3.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
63
For a cantilever beam loaded by a distributed load the deflection is
I E
L q
⋅ ⋅

·
8
4
q
δ ............................................................................................................................(3.25)
For a cantilever beam loaded by a point load at distance L the deflection is
I E
L F
⋅ ⋅

·
3
3
F
δ ...........................................................................................................................(3.26)
The distributed load, when the complete chimney height is assumed to be loaded by vortex
shedding loads according to Table 2.4 b is
N/m 0 . 3 3 . 2 56 . 6 2 . 0
cr tr
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · d p q µ ..........................………….………………..........(3.27)
The point load replacing the distributed load will be
q F
δ δ · ⇒
N 102 90 0 . 3
8
3
8
3
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · L q F ...........…......................................…............(3.28)
Point load for calculating stiffness when q=135 N/m according to Table 2.4 b is used
N 4556 90 135
8
3
8
3
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · L q F ........................................................................................(3.29)
Model Reactions Deflections
Figure 3.3 k Deflections of the chimney loaded by vortex shedding.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
64
Chimney stiffness
N/m 000 52
0877 . 0
556 4
1
· · c ......................................................................................................(3.30)
Damper stiffness
N/m 372 3 ) 262 . 0 2 ( 246 1 ) 2 (
2 2
2 2
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · π π
e
f m c .....................................................(3.31)
Logarithmic decrement according to [12]
2
1
1
1
10
1
1
2
ln
ς
ς π
δ

⋅ ⋅
·

,
`

.
|
·
y
y
.........................................................................................................(3.32)
m c
k

· ⋅
1
1
1
2 ς ........................................................................................................................(3.33)
2
2
2
2
20
2
1
2
ln
ς
ς π
δ

⋅ ⋅
·

,
`

.
|
·
y
y
........................................................................................................(3.34)
gen
M c
k

· ⋅
2
2
2
2 ς ..................................................................................................................(3.35)
where ζ = The fraction of critical damping or relative damping
From Equations 3.33 through 3.35 the logarithmic decrement of the chimney 0.04 corresponds to
a damping of k
1
=324 kg/s. Similarly the logarithmic decrement of the pendulum damper 0.03
corresponds to a damping of k
2
=19 kg/s.
From a comparison study the time step found to be acceptable considering convergence and
precision is
∆t s · 0 001 .
Start values for dynamic response calculations during vortex shedding at time 0:
y
10
= 0
y
20
= 0
v
10
= 0
v
20
= 0
The density of air was assumed to 1.25 kg/m
3
.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
65
The actual wind is neither constant in frequency nor magnitude. The model applied in the
computer program was therefore created to consider a randomised turbulence vortex shedding
frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force. Both with and without the 50 percent
randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force were
applied in the computer program. According to Section 3.4, 50 percent is a reasonable value for
both frequency and magnitude. In the following calculations Figures 3.3 p and 3.3 q show two
examples.
When calculating the dynamic response the frequency step used in the finite difference
calculation has been 0.01 Hz.
Start values for the damping test calculations at time 0:
y
10
= 200 mm
y
20
= 0
v
10
= 0
v
20
= 0
The corresponding amplitude for vortex shedding force was then F=0.
3.3.2.3 Dynamic response during vortex shedding
Figure 3.3 l Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a locked
(mal-functioning) damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and vortex shedding
force were randomised by 50 percent. The vortex shedding force varies with the
oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude was calculated to 0.248 m (the
maximum point in the diagram) deflection at vortex shedding frequency 0.317 Hz.
Dynamic response, locked damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
66
Figure 3.3 m Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a tuned
functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity
during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. The vortex shedding force
varies with the oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude deflection was
calculated to 0.220 m at vortex shedding frequency 0.357 Hz.
Figure 3.3 n Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency
f=0.357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. Neither vortex shedding frequency
nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised.
Time history for top deflection, tuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Dynamic response, tuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
67
Figure 3.3 o Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency
f=0.357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and
critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent
according to figure 3.3 p and 3.3 q.
Figure 3.3 p The 50 percent-randomised vortex shedding force used for Figure 3.3 o.
Randomised vortex shedding force by 50 percent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
V
o
r
t
e
x

s
h
e
d
d
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Time history for top deflection, tuned functioning
damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
68
Figure 3.3 q The 50 percent-randomised vortex shedding frequency used for Figure 3.3 o.
3.3.2.4 Dynamic response during vortex shedding and a mistuned damper
To study the influence of an error in the tuning of the damper it is assumed that the first mode of
natural frequency is 0.34 Hz instead of the correct value 0.288 Hz (Section 3.7.2).
The frequency tuning is calculated to
Hz 31 . 0 34 . 0
1 . 1
1
1 . 0 1
1
e1 e2
· ⋅ · ⋅
+
· f f ..................................................................................(3.36)
This means that the damper stiffness will be
N/m 4727 ) 31 . 0 2 ( 1246 ) 2 (
2 2
e2 2
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · π π f m c ..........................................................(3.37)
Similar calculations as in Section 3.3.2.3 are performed with the new damper stiffness.
Randomised vortex shedding frequency by 50 percent
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Time (s)
V
o
r
t
e
x

s
h
e
d
d
i
n
g

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
H
z
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
69
Figure 3.3 r Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding force
and a mistuned functioning damper (frequency f
2
=0.31 Hz). Both vortex shedding
frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by
50 percent. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency. The
tuned damper to be compared with this one was found in Figure 3.3 m. Maximum
top amplitude was 0.191 m at vortex shedding frequency 0.380 Hz.
Figure 3.3 s Time history of top amplitude deflection at the oscillating frequency f=0.380
Hz, a variable vortex shedding force and tuned functioning damper (frequency
f
2
=0.31 Hz). Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during
vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. This was the case of a
functioning damper. The tuned damper to be compared with this one is found in
Figure 3.3 n and 3.3 o.
Dynamic response, misstuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Time history for top deflection, misstuned functioning
damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
70
3.3.2.5 Influence of the geometrical limitations of the damper house
As shown in Section 2.3.2, Figure 2.3 h and 2.3 j the space in damper house is limited and the
pendulum mass angle movement is therefore limited to approximately 1.2 degrees. The
maximum possible relative amplitude movement in horizontal direction is 75 mm. By plotting
the deflection for the pendulum mass it is obvious that the damper unit is not able to act in the
way as intended. That was also an explanation to the surprisingly low damping value delivered
by the damper unit. A reasonable assumption was that the damper units damping was achieved
by a combination of the limited pendulum movement, the stroke of the damper friction and/or
pendulum mass against the vertical damper unit walls and the energy losses in the chain
movements. Therefore the above-presented model still could be valid for principle calculations.
Figure 3.3 t Time history of required free functioning damper amplitude space at the vortex
shedding frequency f=0.357 Hz, a variable vortex shedding force and tuned
frequency f
2
=0.262 Hz. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity
during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. The horizontal line show
available damper space, 75 mm. Figure 3.3 o shows the time history diagram for
the chimney mass.
3.3.2.6 Influence of lock-in effects
Because of lock-in phenomena the amplitude could increase considerably because the vortex
shedding starts at lower wind velocities, and the chimney continues to oscillate with the same
frequency as the vortices were separated from the chimney. It is well known that the Strouhal
number could be reduced to half its normal value because of lock-in effects. The wind velocity
will be doubled and the wind pressure increases by a factor of four. Slender structures are more
sensitive for lock-in phenomena, see for instance [26]. The probability for conditions causing
this type of lock-in are low, but a chimney does have a lot chances during its long lifetime.
Therefore lock-in phenomena could be dangerous for slender chimneys. This is one of the
reasons for the limitation of the applicability of the equivalent load in [3] and [24].
Time history for required damper amplitude space
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

d
a
m
p
e
r

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

s
p
a
c
e

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
71
3.3.2.7 Accelerations
From the solutions of the finite difference equations, accelerations of the chimney mass and the
accelerations of the damper mass were calculated. The magnitude of the damper mass
accelerations is of great importance. The damper mass acceleration must be greater than the
friction force between damper friction mass and the damper house bottom.
Figure 3.3 u Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding
frequency f=0.357 Hz, tuned frequency f
2
=0.262 Hz and a functioning damper.
Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex
shedding was randomised. Figure 3.3 n shows the corresponding time history
diagram for the top amplitude deflection.
Time history of damper mass acceleration
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
D
a
m
p
e
r

m
a
s
s

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
2
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
72
Figure 3.3 v Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding
frequency f=0.357 Hz, a variable vortex shedding force, tuned frequency f
2
=0.262
Hz and a functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency or critical wind
velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. Figure 3.3 o
shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection.
By comparing figure 3.3 u and 3.3 v it is found that the mean damper mass acceleration is about
1 m/s
2
. The resulting horizontal force will be about 1200 N (pendulum mass 1246 kg). If the
friction masses weight is about 40 kg the maximum required friction force according to Equation
2.4 will be approximately 120 N. Therefore it is obvious that there will be enough acceleration
for activating the friction masses.
Time history of damper mass accelerations
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time(s)
D
a
m
p
e
r

m
a
s
s

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
2
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
73
3.3.2.8 Calculation the damping measurement conditions
Figure 3.3 w Time history of damping test with a functioning damper. The figure could be
compared with Figure 3.3 h representing the corresponding damping test.
Figure 3.3 x Time history of damping test with a mal-functioning damper. The damper
stiffness was assumed to zero and the chimney damper mass were added to the
generalised mass. Thus the damper mass will be neglected. The figure could be
compared with Figure 3.3 i, representing the corresponding damping test.
Time history for damping measurement with a
malfunctioning damper
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Time (s)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Time history for damping measurement with a
functioning damper
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Time (s)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
74
3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study
The solutions for the dynamic response, Equation 3.10 and 3.11, show a similar behaviour in the
solutions as in [6], [13] and [14].
It is important to note that the model does not include any advanced fluid mechanical behaviour.
According to the theory a sudden and quick increase of the top amplitude deflection will occur.
From the recorded data given in Section 3.4 a similar behaviour is observed. A very quick
increase of the top amplitude deflection and often an almost equal decrease was observed. The
quick decrease was explained by the turbulent behaviour of the wind. The recorded data also
show that the wind quickly and often change both velocity and direction. Thus the model only is
limited sensitive to relatively large randomised changes in frequency or vortex shedding force,
large amplitude deflection during vortex shedding will only occur for short periods at a time.
This corresponds also well to the recordings according to Section 3.4.
There were some deviations between theory and damping measurements that mainly may be
explained by the fact that theory comes to the conclusion that there is not enough horizontal
space in the damper house. Thus the damper produces less damping than expected.
Figure 3.3 l for the mal-functioning damper show a top deflection range of 496 mm. No lock-in
effects are included. If we assume a lock-in on the wind velocity of two times the top deflection
range will increase with a factor four to about 2000 mm. The calculations will then roughly
confirm the observations noted in Section 3.1 and studied further in an estimated load spectrum
in Section 4.2 and reverse.
Figures 3.3 m, 3.3 n and 3.3 o for the functioning damper show a top deflection range of
approximately 400 mm. With the same discussion as for the mal-functioning damper it seems
reasonable to expect a top deflection range of approximately 1600 mm for the functioning
damper and the same weather conditions.
It is worth noting that the mistuned damper in Figure 3.3 r and 3.3 s gives a little less top
deflection amplitude as compared to the tuned damper, but the vortex shedding frequency is
larger.
The accelerations are found to be large enough to overcome the friction forces between the
damper friction masses and the damper house bottom friction plate.
For the simulation of the damping tests, Figure 3.3 w and 3.3 x corresponding to the damping
tests, Figure 3.3 h and 3.3 i are found except for one behaviour. Figure 3.3 w shows two
superimposed oscillations, which could not be found in Figure 3.3 h. The superimposed
oscillations show the sum of oscillations of the both masses. This difference was an additional
argument to that only a minority of the damping is achieved from the friction masses. The major
part is probably achieved from friction losses in the chains etc.
The theoretical study supports the statement made in Section 3.3.1.6 that the VEAB chimney
damper is a not an optimum damper device.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
75
3.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney
From the recorded results, about two million loggings, all periods where the top deflection
range exceeds 267 mm have been identified. According to Section 4.1 maximum deflection
ranges during vortex shedding was calculated as 267 6 . 133 2 · ⋅ mm, the vortex shedding
top deflection range calculated by the manufacturer. Typical for vortex shedding is that
several large oscillations follow after each other in time. Typical for gust wind is that only
one or a few large oscillations follow after each other in time. By plotting all identified
results on the computer screen and truncating all periods where only a few cycles follow in
time the results according to Table 3.4 a and 3.4 b remains.
Table 3.4 a Number of occasions per month where top deflection range exceeds 267 mm for
more than a few cycles. Year numbers are vertical to the left and month number
horizontal at top.
Year/
Month no
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1997 0 8 9 5 5 4 4 0 9 0 0 0
1998 1 6 2 2 3 7 20 11 0 4 0 1
1999 12 4 0 4 3 2 11 2 1 3 5 10
2000 4 0 7 0 6 9 4 3 0 3 1 0
Table 3.4 b Relative time for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm. Year
number are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.
The differences between the two tables were due to that all cycles when top range deflection
exceeds 267 mm was included in Table 3.4 b. In Table 3.4 a the top range deflections less
than a few cycles were truncated.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Total
1997 0,000000 0,000870 0,000639 0,000259 0,000110 0,000295 0,000311 0,000005 0,000542 0,000009 0,000017 0,000005 0,000255
1998 0,000063 0,000185 0,000014 0,000075 0,000468 0,000331 0,001692 0,000758 0,000009 0,000183 0,000000 0,000065 0,000320
1999 0,000350 0,000418 0,000000 0,000215 0,000165 0,000578 0,000855 0,000067 0,000041 0,000079 0,000206 0,001174 0,000346
2000 0,000444 0,000019 0,000342 0,000004 0,000245 0,000446 0,000120 0,000226 0,000025 0,000262 0,000060 0,000027 0,000185
Total 0,000214 0,000370 0,000249 0,000138 0,000247 0,000413 0,000745 0,000264 0,000155 0,000133 0,000071 0,000318 0,000277
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
76
Figure 3.4 a Relative time of the measure period for the chimney when top deflection
range exceeds 267 mm.
It is well known, as described in for instance [1], that it is more probable for huge laminar
vortex shedding induced oscillations to occur during cold winter days with cold laminar
airflow. From Figure 3.4 a show large top range deflections during the winter time but in the
middle of the summer the largest amount of oscillations occurred. This was not expected.
Obviously large vortex-shedding oscillations could to be expected also during summer
periods.
Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations
exceeding 267 mm
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1 3 5 7 9
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
7
1
9
2
1
2
3
Time at the day (hr)
E
l
a
p
s
e
d

t
i
m
e

(
s
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.4 b Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding
267 mm.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
0
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.001
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

t
i
m
e
Month number
Year
Relative time for top range displacement exceeding 267 mm
0.0016-0.0018
0.0014-0.0016
0.0012-0.0014
0.001-0.0012
0.0008-0.001
0.0006-0.0008
0.0004-0.0006
0.0002-0.0004
0-0.0002
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
77
Figure 3.4 c A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a rather long period of large
deflection ranges. Range, wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a
function of time. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean
values over 10 seconds, 1 minute and 10 minutes.
Range at strain gauge no 4
2000-06-13 at 14.45 h
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
R
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
Wind direction average values
2000-06-13 at 14.45 h
0
90
180
270
360
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
W
i
n
d

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
3
6
0

d
e
g
)
r10s
r1min
r10min
Wind velocity average values at 90 m height
2000-06-13 at 14.45 h
0
5
10
15
20
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
W
i
n
d

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)
v10s
v1min
v10min
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
78
Figure 3.4 d A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a short period of large deflection
ranges. Range, wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function
of time. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values
over 10 seconds, 1 minute and 10 minutes.
Range at strain gauge no 5
2000-10-11 at 16.04 h
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
R
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
Wind velocity average values at 90 m height
2000-10-11 at 16.04 h
0
5
10
15
20
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
W
i
n
d

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)
v10s
v1min
v10min
Wind direction average values
2000-10-11 at 16.04 h
0
90
180
270
360
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
W
i
n
d

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
3
6
0

d
e
g
)
r10s
r1min
r10min
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
79
In Appendix I all identified periods with the criteria top deflection range exceeding 267 mm
for the year 2000 were plotted (see also Table 3.4 a and 3.4 b).
A typical time history response during vortex shedding was an immediate increase from small
deflection ranges to large deflection ranges. The large deflection ranges continues for
typically about 100 seconds and decrease immediate again.
It was also obvious that large deflection ranges occur even if the turbulence intensity of the
wind velocity is relatively large. About 50 percent turbulence intensity is typical if defined as
10 seconds mean value divided by 10 min mean value. The magnitude of 10 min mean values
seems to be most important for vortex shedding. The time required to obtain stationary top
deflection range during vortex shedding is > 10 minutes according to Section 3.3.2.
From Table 3.4 b it is found that the VEAB chimney oscillates with a top deflection range
exceeding 267 mm (mainly vortex shedding) for 0.028 percent of the time or about ten hours
during the four-year observation period discussed in this report. This corresponds to about
80 000 cycles ( 77760 0.288Hz
minute
second
60
hour
minutes
60
years 4
hours
10
years recording 4
service of year 30
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ )
above the design value for the top deflection range of 267 mm during a 30-year service life.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
80
3.5 Observed wind properties
3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams
For the measurement period wind pressure and top deflection range anthill diagrams are plotted
for the VEAB chimney. Dynamic wind pressure is assumed to follow
2
min 10
5 . 0 v p
Air dyn
⋅ ⋅ · ρ
where
min 10
v is mean wind speed calculated over 10 minutes and
Air
ρ = air density based on
daily mean values for temperature according to Section 3.8. All recorded data for the four years
1997 through 2000 are read, sorted monthly, calculated and finally plotted in anthill diagrams
by a couple of computer programs (Appendix H). The plotting was made in the Auto Cad dxf
drawing format. In this section a typical selection of periods are presented. If maximum top
deflection range was less than 100 mm the recording was truncated and dots were plotted for
wind pressure nor deflection range.
Additional plots are found in Appendix F.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
81
Figure 3.5 a Wind pressure anthill diagram for June 1997.
Figure 3.5 b Top deflection range anthill diagram for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
82
Figure 3.5 c Wind pressure anthill diagram for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 d Top deflection range anthill diagram for December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
83
3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range
diagrams
Similarly as in Section 3.5.1 and for the same months the sum of wind pressure (10 minutes
mean values) times number of cycles and the sum of top deflection range times number of
cycles are plotted. Wind pressure times number of cycles is a measure of the applied wind
energy. Top deflection range times number of cycles is a measure of the accumulated
deflection energy. Finally some summary plots are given.
In Appendix F additional diagrams are found.
The mean angle between wind pressure times number of cycles and deflection range times
number of cycles is about 67 to 90 degrees. The chimney oscillates with an angle almost
perpendicular to the wind direction. The year 1999 above is typical and all other recorded years
show the same behaviour. It is obvious that the dominating oscillations for the VEAB chimney
are in NNW direction and that the dominating wind causing those oscillations blows from SW
direction.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
84
Figure 3.5 e Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for June 1997.
Figure 3.5 f Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
85
Figure 3.5 g Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 h Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
86
Figure 3.5 i Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles year 1999.
Figure 3.5 j Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for year 1999.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
87
3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams
Similar as in Section 3.5.2 and for the same months the elastic energy diagrams, calculated
according to Section 2.4.3 are plotted for the VEAB chimney.
Figure 3.5 k Elastic energy diagram for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
88
Figure 3.5 l Elastic energy diagram for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 m Elastic energy diagram for the year of 1999.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
89
3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, administrates a net of observation
stations for meteorological and hydrological observations all over Sweden. The closest station
to the VEAB plant is Växjö A, located at latitude 56° 51´ and longitude 14° 50´, about four km
south of the plant. Height above sea level at the observation station is about 199 m. A slope in
northern direction and a sea separate the Växjö A station and the VEAB plant.
All wind data in this section origin from SMHI and Växjö A. The wind velocity is measured at
10 m height above the ground. A 360-degree compass has been used. 0 or 360 degrees means
that the wind blows from the north, 90 degrees means that the wind blows from east and so on.
In Appendix F diagrams for some additional periods are found.
Figure 3.5 n Wind pressure anthill diagram for February 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A
observation station.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
90
Figure 3.5 o Wind pressure anthill diagram for July 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A
observation station.
Figure 3.5 p Wind pressure anthill diagram for 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation
station.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
91
3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams
To study the combination of deflection and wind speeds, anthill diagrams for maximum top
deflection as a function of wind velocity at 10 min mean values are plotted for the VEAB
chimney. Below two typical anthill diagrams are shown in Figures 3.5 q and 3.5 r.
In Appendix F more diagrams are found.
Figure 3.5 q Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min
mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100
times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds
to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load
model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is January 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
92
Figure 3.5 r Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min
mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100
times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds
to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load
model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
93
3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams
Wind 1min/10 min mean values for June 1997
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d

1

m
i
n

m
e
a
n

v
a
l
u
e
s

(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 s Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June
1997.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for June 1997
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d

1
0

s

m
e
a
n

v
a
l
u
e
s

(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 t Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June
1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
94
Wind 1 min/10 min mean values for December 2000
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d

1

m
i
n

m
e
a
n

v
a
l
u
e
s

(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 u Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for
December 2000.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for December 2000
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d

1
0

s

m
e
a
n

v
a
l
u
e
s

(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 v Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December
2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
95
3.5.7 Load spectra
Figure 3.5 w Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10
minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period.
Figure 3.5 x Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10
minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.
Load efficiency per month
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
800000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
R
a
n
g
e

x

n
o

o
f

l
o
a
d

c
y
c
l
e
s

(
m
m
)
jan
feb
mar
apr
maj
jun
jul
aug
sep
oct
nov
dec
Load efficiency per year
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
R
a
n
g
e

x

n
o

f
o

c
y
c
l
e
s

(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
96
Figure 3.5 y Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per month for the recording period.
Figure 3.5 z Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per year for the recording period.
From Figure 3.5 α “mass centre” of the wind load was found to v
10min
=6.32 m/s at 1.75 10
6
cycles. It means 0.44 10
6
cycles per year or 13.1 10
6
cycles per 30 year. Shape factor in this
reverse calculation was 0.2.
No of cycles per month
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
N
o

o
f

l
o
a
d

c
y
c
l
e
s
jan
feb
mar
apr
maj
jun
jul
aug
sep
oct
nov
dec
No of load cycles per year
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
v10min (m/s)
N
o

o
f

l
o
a
d

c
y
c
l
e
s 1997
1998
1999
2000
Total
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
97
Figure 3.5 α Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per year for the recording period.
Critical wind velocity for vortex shedding has been calculated in Table 2.1 b to 3.24 m/s at
the diameter 2.3 m (the chimney shell except at damper house) and 3.95 m/s at the diameter
2.8 m (at the damper house with a height of 3.35 m). The damper house height was only a
little more than the diameter. Therefore its influence will be limited.
From [3] the number of load cycles during vortex shedding may be calculated from
) ( 10 2 . 1
0
7
v
v P f t n ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ………………………………………………………………(3.38)
where The factor 1.2 includes influence of different wind velocity directions
and that an amount of time is required for building up vortex shedding oscillations
f
0
= Natural frequency
P(v) = Probability for that mean wind velocity during one year
occurs in the interval between v
cr
and ε v
cr
where v
cr
is the critical
wind velocity for resonance vortex shedding oscillations.
P(v) is assumed to be a Rayleigh distribution.
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
| ⋅

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

− ·
) ( ) (
) (
z v
v
z v
v
cr cr
e e v P
ε
………………………………………………….…………..(3.39)
) ( ) (
exp 0
z C v z v ⋅ · ……………………………………..………………..……………..(3.40)
Average of number of load cycles per v10min 1997-2000
y = 0.1331x
6
- 7.3138x
5
+ 153.73x
4
- 1512.3x
3
+ 6648.8x
2
- 9330x + 2962.1
R
2
= 0.9615
0.0
2000.0
4000.0
6000.0
8000.0
10000.0
12000.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
v10min(m/s)
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

l
o
a
d

c
y
c
l
e
s
Mean
Poly. (Mean)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
98
where v(z) = Yearly mean wind velocity at the height z
v
0
= The modal value of the distribution, 5.5 m/s
ε = 1.25 but the difference between ε and ε v
cr
should be at least 2
m/s
v
cr
is defined in Section 2.4.2. C
exp
is defined and found from Table 3.2 a to 2.03.
Numerical values for the VEAB chimney gives
v(z) = 7.83 m/s
P(v) = 0.204
n
v
=
6
10 7 . 0 ⋅ oscillations per year or
6
10 21⋅ oscillations for a 30 year period
The wind velocity found is twice the value achieved if the code [3] is extrapolated outside its
limits but the number of cycles is less. In Figure 6.3 b the spectra for top deflection
(functioning damper) is shown for both the recordings and some codes.
The wind vortex shedding load on the VEAB chimney is 4 . 2
24 . 3 10 21
32 . 6 10 1 . 13
2 6
2 6
·
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
times larger
than what will be assumed from calculations according to [3] when limit restrictions are
neglected (gust wind is not considered).
In Figure 3.5 β cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4 is shown.
The data for 4 years of service 1997 through 2000, a graphically fitted lognormal distribution
for cumulative frequency of top deflection range and limits from Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
(α=0.05) are plotted.
Because of the truncation of the data, top deflection range100 mm, the fitted curve differs
greatly from measure data at the lower end. A log-normal representation has been chosen for
simplicity.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
99
Figure 3.5 β Cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
100
3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity
The frequency distribution of wind velocity for the recording period 1997 through 2000 is
plotted for 10 s, 1 min and 10 min mean values in Figure 3.5 γ , 3.5 δ and 3.5 ε . The
frequency distributions have a maximum at approximately 5 m/s. A Weibull distribution is
fitted to each frequency distribution. Because top deflection ranges below 100 mm were
truncated (Section 3.2.7) the fitted distribution consider the truncation effect.
The Weibull frequency distribution is described as
( )
α
β α
β
α
β α

,
`

.
|


⋅ ⋅ ·
v
b
e v v f
1
, , ……………………………………..………………….(3.41)
where v = Wind velocity in m/s
α = A Weibull distribution parameter
β = A Weibull distribution parameter
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v10s
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 γ Probability density function for wind velocity, 10-second wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.7) is included.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
101
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v1min
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 δ Probability density function for wind velocity, 1-minute wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.5) is included
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v1min
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 ε Probability density function for wind velocity, 10-minute wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.3) is included
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
102
3.5.9 Iso-wind velocity plots
Iso-wind velocity plots for the recording period 1997 through 2000 are found in Figure 3.5 ξ ,
3.5 η and 3.5 θ .
Figure 3.5 ξ Iso-wind velocity plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
103
Figure 3.5 η Iso-wind velocity plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s
Figure 3.5 θ Iso-wind velocity plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
104
Iso-wind velocity plots similar to those in Figure 3.5 ξ , 3.5 η and 3.5 θ , but where wind in
opposite directions are added, are found in Figure 3.5 ι , 3.5 κ and 3.5 λ .
Figure 3.5 ι Iso-wind plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
Figure 3.5 κ Iso-wind plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5
105
Figure 3.5 λ Iso-wind plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
It was expected that Figure 3.5 ι , Figure 3.5 κ and Figure 3.5 λ have shown iso-wind plots
as half circles. This is not the fact because wind from south west is dominating for the
recorded and truncated wind recordings (Section 3.2.7). The orientation of the Sandvik II
plant buildings cover the bottom half height of the chimney. Therefore the wind direction
could be partly influenced from the surrounding buildings.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
106
3.6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gauge
measurements
From the recorded data, calculations were made, the data sorted and load spectra plotted. In
Appendix E fatigue damage and cumulative fatigue damage are plotted for each month, per
year and for the measure period 1997 through 2000. In this section a typical selection of load
spectra (frequency distribution in the diagrams) and accumulated load spectra (spectrum in
the diagrams) diagrams are shown.
For definition of directions see Figure 3.2 a.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 a Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the
month of September years 1997 through 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
107
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Accumulated number of load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 b Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of
September years 1997 through 2000.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
No 1 - 103 deg
No 2 - 125 deg
No 3 - 148 deg
No 4 - 170 deg
No 5 - 193 deg
No 6 - 35 deg
No 7 - 58 deg
No 8 - 80 deg
Figure 3.6 c Frequency distribution of top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the
different directions.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
108
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
No 1 - 103 deg
No 2 - 125 deg
No 3 - 148 deg
No 4 - 170 deg
No 5 - 193 deg
No 6 - 35 deg
No 7 - 58 deg
No 8 - 80 deg
Figure 3.6 d Spectrum for top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different
directions.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 e Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for years
1997 through 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
109
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 f Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through
2000.
y = -69.147x + 493.1
R2 = 0.9956
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
10 log (accumulated number of load cycles)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
n
g
e

2
y

(
m
m
)








Mean average
Fitted straight
line
Figure 3.6 g Spectrum for top deflection range as mean per year in direction 170 degrees
years 1997 through 2000. The thick line is a straight line fitted (least square
method) to the results.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
110
The straight line fitted to the data in Figure 3.6 g may be written
( ) 247 log 35
t
10
+ ⋅ − · n y ......................................................................................................(3.43)
where n
t
=Accumulated number of load cycles
y =Top deflection amplitude in mm
By using Equation 4.6 the bending stress
b
σ in MPa per year at the chimney base is obtained as
( ) 5 . 21 log 01 . 3 087 . 0
10
+ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·
t b
n y σ ..............................................................................(3.44)
Bending moment at the chimney base per year in Nm is found from Equation 3.5
( ) [ ]
6 10 6
10 57 . 1 log 220 . 0 73000
2
10 ⋅ + ⋅ − · ⋅ ·

⋅ ⋅ ·
t b b b
n
d
I
M σ σ ....................................(3.45)
Equation 2.10 gives the distributed load q N/m per year in Pa to
( ) 387 log 2 . 54
90
2 2
10
2 2
+ ⋅ − ·

·

·
t
b b
n
M
H
M
q .....................................................................(3.46)
If we assume that the distributed load will correspond to a wind pressure p in Pa per year of
loads uniformly distributed over the chimney
( ) 168 log 6 . 23
10
+ ⋅ − · ·
t
n
d
q
p ...........................................................................................(3.47)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.6
111
Wind pressure as a function of number of load cycles
per year
0
50
100
150
200
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10 Log (Accumuoated number of load cycles )
W
i
n
d

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)
Figure 3.6 h Wind pressure, mainly caused by vortex shedding, as a function of number of
load cycles per year.
In Section 6.3 and 6.4 comparisons between recorded spectrum and code spectra are made.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
112
3.7 First and second mode oscillations
3.7.1 Screen plots
During the first half-year of measurements a lot of screen plots of the virtual instrument were
made mainly to document the second mode oscillating behaviour. Below three typical plots are
shown. More plots are found in Appendix D.
Figure 3.7 a Chimney oscillating in first mode and starting in second mode of natural
frequency.
Figure 3.7 b Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
113
Figure 3.7 c Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency.
By graphical determination in Figure 3.7 a to 3.7 c the natural frequency of the second mode
is calculated to 1.45 Hz (approximately 5 times the first mode). This value may be compared
to the calculated natural frequency of the second mode, 1.44 Hz.
From Figure 3.7 c maximum width for the second mode is found to be approximately 90 mm.
This is representative of the complete data recorded.
The second mode was only observed at rare occasions as when the wind velocity calculated as
a 10 min mean value exceeded approximately 10 m/s. The second mode frequency causes
approximately 5 times more load cycles per time unit but the total amount of time is low.
3.7.2 Logged files
From logged recorded data, about two million loggings, natural frequency for the first mode
has been calculated. In the log files there was no information about the second mode as
described in Section 3.2.1.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
114
VEAB chimney first mode observed natural frequency
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
1997 1998 1999 2000
Year
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
H
z
)
Figure 3.7 d Natural frequency as monthly mean values for the first mode during the
observation period of 1997 through 2000.
Mean value for the observation period 1997 through 2000 is 0.288 Hz. See also Section 2.4.1.
3.7.3 First mode evaluation
From Section 3.4 and Appendix I it is found that first mode vortex shedding oscillations occur
in the wind velocity interval of approximately m/s 4
1 45m 10min
· v to m/s 13
2 45m 10min
· v as
observed from the wind transmitter at 45 m height. The larger values may be a combination
between first and second order natural frequencies.
Wind velocities at the top of the chimney (90 m level) may to be corrected as (Section 3.2.3.2)
m/s 4 . 4 4 10 . 1
1 10min45m corr 1 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v to
m/s 3 . 14 13 10 . 1
2 10min45m corr 2 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v
It means that first mode natural frequency occurs at 4.4 to 14.3 m/s for 90 m level. According
to Section 2.4.1 theory give first and second mode natural frequencies at 0.282 Hz
respectively 1.44 Hz. Sections 3.7.1 and 3.7.2 gives 0.288 and 1.45 Hz respectively, which
will be used in the following.
Temperatures at the time when the plots were created are:
Figure 3.7 a: 1997-02-11 T=3.5 °C
Figure 3.7 b: 1997-03-03 T=6.1 °C
Figure 3.7 c: 1997-02-20 T=3.5 °C
For the following calculations at a temperature of T=5 °C is assumed. The kinematic viscosity
of the air is /s m 10 7 . 13
2 6 −
⋅ at T=5 °C according to Section 3.8. The Reynold number is
defined in Equation 1.1 and the Strouhal number in Equation 1.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
115
The chimney diameter is 2.3 m, except for the damper house at the top where the diameter is
2.8 m. Reynold and Strouhal numbers corresponding to the wind velocity interval of 4.4 to 14.3
m/s will be
For d=2.3 m
6
6
e1
10 739 . 0
10 7 . 13
4 . 4 3 . 2
⋅ ·


·

R 151 . 0
4 . 4
288 . 0 3 . 2
1
·

· St to
6
6
e2
10 401 . 2
10 7 . 13
3 . 14 3 . 2
⋅ ·


·

R 046 . 0
3 . 14
288 . 0 3 . 2
2
·

· St
For d=2.8 m
6
6
e1
10 899 . 0
10 7 . 13
4 . 4 8 . 2
⋅ ·


·

R 183 . 0
4 . 4
288 . 0 8 . 2
1
·

· St to
6
6
e2
10 923 . 2
10 7 . 13
3 . 14 8 . 2
⋅ ·


·

R 056 . 0
3 . 14
288 . 0 8 . 2
2
·

· St
The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in
Figure 3.7 e into a diagram with literature data.
Figure 3.7 e Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex
shedding in the first mode have been added.
Fatigue caused by oscillation in the first mode of natural frequency is studied in Section 4.2 and
4.3.1.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
116
3.7.4 Second mode evaluation
From the recordings, exemplified by Figure 3.7 a through 3.7 c, wind velocity mean value for
10 minutes is v
10min
=10.5 m/s as measured at the wind transmitter at 45 m level. At 90 m
height the corresponding wind velocity is (correction factor according to Section 3.2.3.2)
m/s 5 . 11 5 . 10 10 . 1
10min45m corr 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v
It means that second mode mean wind velocity occurs at 11.5 m/s. According to Section 2.4.1
second mode critical wind velocity is 16.6 m/s.
At d=2.3 m
6
6
10 76 . 1
10 15
5 . 11 3 . 2
⋅ ·


·

e
R 29 . 0
5 . 11
45 . 1 3 . 2
·

·
t
S
At d=2.8 m
6
6
10 15 . 2
10 15
5 . 11 8 . 2
⋅ ·


·

e
R 35 . 0
5 . 11
45 . 1 8 . 2
·

·
t
S
The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure
3.7 f.
Figure 3.7.f Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex
shedding in the second mode have been added.
Fatigue caused by oscillations in the second mode is studied in Section 4.3.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.7
117
3.7.5 Discussion
Strouhal number could be as big as 0.3, but forces exited are small. Therefore it is
recommended that a Strouhal number of 0.2 should be used for engineering design calculations
[1], [3], [5], [9]. For the first mode recorded results sometimes gives as small Strouhal number
as 0.06. The effect explaining this is lock-in, where the vortex shedding starts at a lower wind
velocities and continue to oscillate during increasing wind velocity. This is possible if the
design has big slenderness ratio. Some codes, i. e. the Swedish BSV 97 manual [3] have limited
the use of the code model to a maximum slenderness (height through diameter) of
approximately 30. The results of this investigation support such a limit unless design loads are
increased for slender structures, such as noted in some papers [1], [15]. The main problem with
creating a code calculation model valid also for slender structures (slenderness much greater
than 30) is the limited amount of recorded measure data. Sections 3.5.7 and 3.6 contain
suggested load spectra and that this is more complex. Furthermore, chimneys with oscillations
occurring in the second mode are more rare.
Second mode oscillations are seldom observed in structural steel chimneys [26]. For most steel
chimneys only the first mode of oscillation is of practical importance for vortex shedding
induced oscillations. The large slenderness of the VEAB chimney explains the relatively
common and large second mode oscillations.
Because of the slender VEAB steel chimney (height through diameter = 39) correspondence
between Strouhal number and Reynold number do not follow the predictions of Figure 3.7 e
and 3.7 f [6]. For slender chimneys several codes give unconservative design loads for vortex
shedding.
A damper applied at the top of the chimney is less efficient for second order than first order
mode.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
118
3.8 Temperatures and temperature dependent properties
3.8.1 Mean temperatures
VEAB Sandvik II plant records and stores in a database a lot of data about the plants
behaviour and its environment. From the database the daily mean temperatures are collected
and presented below. Appendix G contains a more complete description of the temperatures
during the observation period. Those temperatures are used in Section 3.5 for calculating
wind pressure. Some examples and a total summary are presented below.
Daily mean temperatures 1997
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Date
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
C
)
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Maj
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Figure 3.8 a Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the year of 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
119
Daily mean temperatures for January
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Date
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e 1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.8 b Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the month of January.
Monthly mean temperatures for 1997-2000
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
C
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.8 c Monthly mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant 1997 through 2000.
The VEAB Sandvik II plant was erected during the years 1995 and 1996. Therefore no
recorded temperatures before 1996 are available. But for vortex shedding oscillations, which
occurred during the interesting days between Christmas and New Year 1995 the temperature,
was very low, about -20 °C.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
120
3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity
Both density and viscosity of air vary with temperature. Unless otherwise is mentioned, all
calculations in this report follow the temperature data in this section. Thus both density and
viscosity follow the actual conditions. Influence of meterological pressure and humidity are
neglected because that no such information were recorded. Their influences are also limited
compared to the temperature.
According to [16] air densities follow the temperature as
T
T
0
0
⋅ · ρ ρ …………………………………………………………………………...(3.48)
where
3
0
kg/m 29 . 1 · ρ at 0 °C and meterological air pressure 1 013 mbar
K 273
0
· T
Air density as a function of temperature
1,150
1,200
1,250
1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Temperature (C)
A
i
r

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
k
g
/
m
3
)
Figure 3.8 d Air density as a function of temperature at sea level when influence of
meterological air pressure and air humidity is neglected.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
121
Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Temperature (C)
C
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c

v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

(
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

x

m
2
/
s
)
Figure 3.8 e Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature.
3.8.3 Discussion
Several codes and handbooks as for instance [3] suggest that the air density should be
selected to
3
m kg 25 . 1 and that cinematic viscosity should be selected to s m 10 15
2 6 −

when calculating vortex shedding oscillating forces.
The air density 1.25 kg/m
3
corresponds to an air temperature of 10 °C. At for instance a day
with a temperature of -20 °C the density is instead 1.40 kg/m
3
. Calculated dynamic wind
pressure will then be 12 percent greater than that determined for the nominal air density 1.25
kg/m
3
.
The viscosity s m 10 15
2 6 −
⋅ corresponds to an air temperature of 19 °C. At for instance a
day with a temperature of –20 °C the cinematic viscosity is s m 10 5 . 11
2 6 −
⋅ . Calculated
Reynold number Re will be 30 % greater on the –20 °C day than on the 19 °C day.
Extremely low turbulence levels due to stable stratification of the atmosphere (laminar air
flow) during cold winter days characterise the airflow.
From Section 2.1 it is noted that the VEAB chimney is situated at a height of 164 m above
sea level. The influence of air density depending of the height above sea level is being
limited to some percent [3].
In evaluating the recorded data, the actual daily mean temperatures were considered when
calculating the dynamic pressures and Reynold numbers. But the influence of level above
sea level has been neglected.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
122
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 4.1
123
4. Fatigue action
4.1 Fatigue model considered
For fatigue evaluation of the chimney the Swedish Manual for Steel Structures BSK 99 [4] is
followed.
The term stress range
rd
σ refers to the difference between maximum and minimum stress at
a defined point, stresses being calculated according to elastic theory as normal stresses
without consideration of local stress variations due to for instance the detailed geometry of
the weld.
For normal stress, the design criterion with respect to fatigue is
rd rd
f ≤ σ [4] ……………………………………………………………………………..(4.1)
where ) 1 . 1 /(
n rk rd
γ ⋅ · f f is the design value of the fatigue strength.
The characteristic fatigue strength,
rk
f is to be calculated with due regard to the stress
concentration effects characterised by the class of detail C in accordance with [4], the
number of stress cycles
t
n during the service life of the structure, and the shape of the stress
spectrum in accordance with [4].
The class of detail C is a measure of the characteristic fatigue strength for
6
10 2⋅ stress
cycles at a constant stress range.
Classes of detail for parent material and welded connections are given in [4]. The values
given assume Workmanship GA or GB in accordance with [4].
For a spectrum with a constant stress range the characteristic value of the fatigue strength is
3 / 1
t
6
rk
10 2
]
]
]


⋅ ·
n
C f ,
6
t
10 5⋅ ≤ n [4] ………………………………………..(4.2)
5 / 1
t
6
rk
10 2
885 . 0
]
]
]


⋅ ⋅ ·
n
C f ,
8
t
6
10 10 5 ≤ ≤ ⋅ n [4] ………………………………….(4.3)
For structures not appreciably affected by corrosion, for instance where the corrosion
protection is well maintained, it is assumed that the fatigue limit for a spectrum with
constant stress range is assumed to be reached at
8
10 stress cycles.
The relationship between the characteristic value of the fatigue strength and the number of
stress cycles is set out in [4].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 4.1
124

Figure 4.1 a Characteristic fatigue strength f
rk
[4]. The full lines are applied for a stress
spectrum with a constant stress range ( 1 · κ ). For a variable stress range,
reference is to be made to [4].
For a stress spectrum with a variable stress range, the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage
hypothesis is to be applied [4] on the basis of the characteristic fatigue strength. The design
value for each stress range is to be determined by multiplying the calculated nominal stress
range for the design load effect by a factor
n
1 . 1 γ ⋅ , where
n
γ depends on the safety.
In assembling the stress spectra, the 100 stress cycles that have the largest design values of
the stress range, and stress cycles for which the design values of the stress range are smaller
than values corresponding to the fatigue limit
8
t
10 · n , may be ignored.
The design criterion in conjunction with a variable stress range is as follows
0 . 1
ti
i

,
`

.
|
Σ
n
n
......................................................................................................................(4.4)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 4.1
125
where
·
i
n Number of stress cycles at a certain range
i
σ
i t
n = Number of stress cycles at a constant stress range which corresponds to the stress range
ri
σ .
Design is to be carried out in accordance with Equation 4.1, where
rd
σ is the largest nominal
stress range in the stress spectrum being considered. Assembly of the stress spectrum may
be carried out in accordance with the same principles, in accordance with the forgoing, apply
in using the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis.
[4] states that the design value of the fatigue strength shall be determined as follows
n
rk
rd
1 . 1 γ ⋅
·
f
f .....................................................................................................................(4.5)
Where
n
γ depends on the safety class according to [4].
For first mode oscillations, the relationship between top deflection in mm and characteristic
chimney base bending stress for a distributed load, was calculated by the manufacturer of
the chimney to
087 . 0
mm 6 . 133
MPa 6 . 11
Base rk
⋅ · ⋅ · y y σ .....................................................................................(4.6)
where y is in mm and
Base k
σ in MPa.
For second mode oscillations it is found from Section 2.4.2 and 3.7.1 that the relationship
between fictitious top deflection (superimposed oscillations on the first mode) and
characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load are the same as for the
first mode of natural frequency. But plate thickness decreases from base to top of the
chimney according to Section 2.1.2. A separate evaluation for the influence of second
mode oscillations at worst location was made.
0292 . 0
6 . 133 2
90
6 . 133
6 . 11
2 mode rk
⋅ ·

⋅ ⋅ · y y σ ........................................................................(4.7)
For fatigue design calculations [17] states that
rk rd
σ σ · ............................................................................................................................(4.8)
At chimney base gusset plates the class of detail should have been C = 45 MPa according to
Section 3.1. But because of defective manufacturing it was not achieved. Actual class of
details were estimated to C = 30 MPa according to Section 3.1. It is below the lowest
accepted level in [4] C=45 MPa.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
126
4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with
mal-functioning damper
From Section 4.1 we find that the damper was mal-functioning during the first nine months
of service.
Elapsed time in hours during nine months is hours 6480 hours 24 days 30 months 9 ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ .
By using the observations in Section 4.1 the following estimated distribution of top
amplitude deflections versus time for the first nine months in service were made:
Table 4.2 a Estimated top deflection distribution for the first nine months in service
Amplitude y +/-
(mm)
1 500 1 150 700 500 300 150 100 Total
Time t (h) 5 15 25 80 100 150 300 675
Relative time
(percent of
elapsed time)
0.08 0.23 0.39 1.23 1.54 2.31 4.63 10.42
The manufacturer calculated the stiffness/top amplitude deflection relationship to (Equation
4.6)
3
N/mm 087 . 0 ·
y
σ
The calculations in Section 3.3.2.2 give
Distributed load w
eq
= 135 N/m
Reaction bending moment at chimney base M
b
= 546 750 Nm
Top amplitude deflection y = 87.71 mm
Area moment of inertia at h=0 m I = 0.084 m
4
Diameter d = 2.3 m
Equation 3.5 and Figure 3.3 k give
MPa 5 . 7
3 . 2
084 . 0 2
546750
2
b
·

·

·
d
I
M
σ
3
N/mm 085 . 0
71 . 87
5 . 7
· ·
y
σ
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
127
The manufacturers calculation of ratio of bending stress through top deflection and the
corresponding calculation in this report gives similar result. In the following the
manufacturers result
3
N/mm 087 . 0 ·
y
σ
was used.
The mean value for the natural frequency for the period 1997 through 2000 f=0.288 Hz
(Section 2.4.1 and 2.7.2) was used.
From Section 4.1
MPa 1 . 22
5
2
30 ) 10 5 (
3
1
6
rk
·
,
`

.
|
⋅ · ⋅ · n f
MPa 1 . 12
10
10 2
30 885 . 0 ) 10 1 (
5
1
8
6
8
rk
·

,
`

.
| ⋅
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · n f
MPa 3 . 18
1 . 1 1 . 1
1 . 22
) 10 5 (
6
rd
·

· ⋅ · n f
MPa 0 . 10
1 . 1 1 . 1
1 . 12
) 10 1 (
8
rd
·

· ⋅ · n f
6
3
rd
ti
10 2⋅ ⋅

,
`

.
|
·
σ
C
n MPa 3 . 18
rd
≥ σ
6
5
rd
ti
10 2
885 . 0
⋅ ⋅

,
`

.
| ⋅
·
σ
C
n MPa 3 . 18 0 . 10
rd
≤ ≤σ
The cumulative fatigue damage values have been calculated in Table 4.2 b.
Table 4.2 b Cumulative fatigue damage according to Table 4.2 a for an estimated load
spectrum for the first nine months of service and 1 . 1
n
· γ .
y (mm) t (h)
rki
σ (MPa)
rdi
σ (MPa) n n
ti
n/n
ti
1500 5 261 315.8 5184 1715 3.02
1150 15 200.1 242.1 15552 3806 4.09
700 25 121.8 147.4 25920 16862 1.54
500 80 87.0 105.3 82944 46250 1.79
300 100 52.2 63.2 103680 213916 0.48
150 150 26.1 31.6 155520 1711325 0.09
100 300 17.4 21.1 311084 6308707 0.05
11.1
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
128
It means that the cumulative damage fatigue according to the Palmgren-Miner Hypothesis
will be about 11 at a resistance factor 1 . 1
n
· γ corresponding to a probability of damage of
approximately
4
10

.
If the probability of failure is set to 0.5 the resistance factor will be approximately
825 . 0 75 . 0 1 . 1 · ⋅ [18].
MPa 8 . 26
75 . 0 1 . 1
1 . 22
) 10 5 (
6
rd
·

· ⋅ · n f
MPa 1 . 12
75 . 0 1 . 1
0 . 10
) 10 1 (
8
rd
·

· ⋅ · n f
The cumulative fatigue damage will then be as calculated in Table 4.2 c.
Table 4.2 c Cumulative fatigue damage for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine
months of service and 825 . 0
n
· γ , which corresponds to a probability of
damage of approximately 0.5.
y (mm) t (h)
rki
σ (MPa)
rdi
σ (MPa) n n
ti
n/n
ti
1500 5 261 215.3 5184 5411 0.96
1150 15 200.1 165.1 15552 11999 1.30
700 25 121.8 100.5 25920 53198 0.49
500 80 87.0 71.8 82944 145888 0.57
300 100 52.2 43.1 103680 674469 0.15
150 150 26.1 21.5 155520 5743284 0.03
100 300 17.4 14.4 311084 42612809 0.00
3.50
The large number of cracks is in correspondence with the above-calculated cumulative
damage fatigues.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
129
4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper
4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency
4.3.1.1 Foundation level
The strain gauges were primarily aimed to study the influence of first mode of natural
frequency to the fatigue strength (Section 3.2.1).
The recording period is the years 1997 through 2000. To reduce the amount of data to be
stored, values were truncated if maximum range was less than 100 mm according to Section
3.2.7.
For strain gauge 1 and 3 there are a number of unrealistic values from January until April
2000. They are truncated because of errors at the strain gauges, see Section 3.2.8.
Cumulative fatigue damage has been calculated for the recording period 1997 through 2000.
Because of the difference between design assumptions and true values for class of detail both
C=45 and C=30 are assumed. C=45 is the design assumption and C=30 the accurate class of
detail. C=45 corresponds to a class of detail similar to a class of weld of WC according to [4].
It means that C=30 corresponds to a class of weld below WC. In the cumulative damage
calculations nothing else than geometric stress concentrations from the weld alone was
included. For the original design of the gusset plates at foundation level (Figure 2.2 c and 2.2
d) and 30 m level (Figure 2.2 e) it is reasonable to add an additional geometric stress
concentration. Because of the changed design after two years of service (Figure 2.2 g and
Figure 2.2 i) no additional stress concentrations are added to the class of detail C.
Table 4.3.a Damage fatigue for 1997 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.0016736 0.00625349 0.0099898 0.01003540 0.00578685 0.00235369 0.00080252 0.00067543
45 0.00013162 0.00057027 0.00102408 0.00099927 0.00052442 0.00019323 0.00006214 0.00005592
Table 4.3.b Damage fatigue for 1998 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00109454 0.00580580 0.01042424 0.01130228 0.00630474 0.00181172 0.00025356 0.00021740
45 0.00007902 0.00061170 0.00126551 0.00133086 0.00063884 0.00011620 0.00001215 0.00001095
Table 4.3.c Damage fatigue for 1999 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00171796 0.00612419 0.01083196 0.01212821 0.00726709 0.00267103 0.00077496 0.00070521
45 0.00013927 0.00056558 0.00115432 0.00128465 0.00070408 0.00023725 0.00006437 0.00005421
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
130
Table 4.3.d Damage fatigue for 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00102202 0.00559000 0.00897362 0.01298475 0.00749771 0.00227207 0.00054623 0.00033561
45 0.00017150 0.00040299 0.00084157 0.00117389 0.00056996 0.00012609 0.00004032 0.00001880
Table 4.3.e Damage fatigue for the entire measure period 1997 through 2000 at class of detail C=30
respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00566482 0.02405545 0.04046838 0.04659365 0.02689582 0.00911692 0.00238477 0.00197968
45 0.00053598 0.00218143 0.00430908 0.00479834 0.00243850 0.00067287 0.00017906 0.00014352
From Table 4.3 e it is found that greatest fatigue damage during the recording period (four
years) was at bridge no 4 where utilization was 0.047 at C=30 and 0.0048 at C=45. If the
measurement period is representative for the complete service life of 30 years the fatigue
damage for the service life will be
For C=30 35 . 0
Years 4
Years 30
04659365 . 0 · ⋅
For C=45 036 . 0
Years 4
Years 30
00479834 . 0 · ⋅
Figure 4.3 a Fatigue damage per year for recordings at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees) and
class of detail C=30.
In Figure 4.3 a the fatigue damage shows an increasing magnitude during the years. There
are only four years of recordings. Therefore the statistical material is limited. It is not
possible to determine if the increase is an actual trend accidental.
Damage fatigue per year at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees), C=30
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
1997 1998 1999 2000
Year
D
a
m
a
g
e

f
a
t
i
g
u
e
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
131
4.3.1.2 Other heights than base level
According to Section 2.4.3 the bending moment and the area moment of inertia (Equations
2.10 and 2.11) are described as
) (
2
) (
2 2
x H
q
x M − ⋅ ·
[ ]
4 4
) 2 (
64
) ( t D D x I ⋅ − − ⋅ ·
π
at each height x
By using Equation 3.5 bending stress is described as
d
I(x)
x M
x
b

·
2
) (
) ( σ ..........................……...............................................................................(4.9)
Bending stress as a function of heigt for q=135 N/mm
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Height (m)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Figure 4.3 b Bending stress as a function of the height for a distributed load of 135 N/m.
From diagram 4.3 b it is obvious that, for a given stress concentration effect, the base level
will govern the design.
4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency
Natural frequency at second mode was 1.44 Hz (Section 2.4.1). By comparing Equations 2.10
and 2.11 and considering Figure 4.3 b it was obvious that first mode oscillations govern the
design when the stress concentration effect is similar. Second mode oscillations are below the
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
132
endurance limit. Therefore no superposition of first and second mode oscillations has been
made.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5
133
5 Crack propagation
5.1 Method of analysis
To get an estimation of the safety against fracture of the VEAB chimney, at the point of time
when the damper was malfunctioning and before the cracks were repaired, a simplified crack
propagation analysis was made. The complete calculation is shown in Appendix L.
In this simplified estimation study the linear method was used as presented in [18].
The observed cracks at the erection splice at the 30 m level were found to be most critical.
The studied crack was of type 1 according to Figure 3.1 a. The shell plate thickness was 10
mm. Typical crack length was 10 mm and a crack depth of 3 mm into the shell plate
according to Appendix J.
The pitch is approximately 180 mm between the gusset plates. Several welds at the gusset
plates were damaged by cracks. Therefore acceptable crack width was expected to be <<
180 mm.
A lock-in factor of two is assumed for this analysis. It is based on results from Sections 3.4
and 3.5.
5.2 Results
From a simple finite element analysis (FEA) calculation the geometric stress concentration was
found to be 2 (Appendix K).
For the case with a functioning damper allowable crack length for a non-propagating surface crack
was calculated to 0.3 mm. For the case with a malfunctioning damper the corresponding crack length
was calculated to 0.2 mm.
The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is functioning after
1 200 000 +114 000 = 1 300 000 cycles, or 48 + 4.6 = 53 days of continuous vortex shedding
oscillation.
The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is malfunctioning after
225 000 + 21 400 = 250 000 cycles, or 9 + 1 = 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillating.
The corresponding number of load cycles during vortex shedding according to Section 3.5.7 is 13.1
.
10
6
according to the observations and 21
.
10
6
according to [3]. The load spectrum is discussed in
chapter 3.6.
Considering the assumed load spectrum it is obvious that the chimney before it was repaired had a
high probability for collapse.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5
134
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
135
6 Discussion
6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable
devices
The reliability of typical ordinary buildings is only depending on its support structure
transferring loads from the entire part of the building to the supports. A chimney or any other
construction equipped with a mechanical damper relies both on the support structure and on
the function of the damper.
Therefore the first question to discuss is whether reliability of building structures should be
depending on a devise or not. If the device is properly designed and functions as expected
there are no problems. But if the device is mal-functioning in any way it could be hazardous
for the reliability of the building.
For mechanical pendulum tuned dampers at steel chimneys we have noted the following risks:
- There will be condensation in the damper house. An estimating calculation shows that
there is risk of condensation in the damper house at some weather conditions, but the
amount of condensed water is small. Thus the friction between friction mass and damper
house bottom will be other than assumed in the design calculations and the damper
properties could be changed.
- There may be corrosion in the damper house caused by condensation in the damper
house. The friction mass could corrode and get caught to the damper house bottom and
the damper will be locked. There may require excessive accelerations to loosen the
friction mass from the damper house bottom.
- The friction mass will freeze to the damper house bottom caused by the condensation
water and the damper will be locked. There will be required large accelerations to
loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom.
- The chimneys are aimed to operate for a period of many years. For the VEAB chimney
the design lifetime was decided to 30 years, which is common practice for chimneys in
Sweden. Because of the long lifetime there could be worries about dangerous wear
eventually in combination with corrosion.
- Error in handling or careless handling during erection and service could make the
damper inoperable by mistake.
- Design errors as wrongly calculated natural frequencies, error in selection of pendulum
masses, error in selection of friction devices may result in a mistuned damper with
limited damping. [19] and Section 3.3.2.4 deals with the problem of mistuned dampers
on steel chimneys. There could be a lot of reasons for why calculated natural frequency
differ from the real one, such as errors in calculating the natural frequency, simplified
calculation model which miss some effects or different mass distribution than assumed.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
136
- The mechanical pendulum tuned damper requires a regular maintenance program. For
the VEAB chimney it was decided to once a year. If the maintenance is neglected the
reliability of the chimney is impaired. As for the aircraft and nuclear industry the
inspection interval has to be smaller than the time required for a crack to grow critical
with a mal-functioning damper. According to Section 5, 10 days of continuous vortex
shedding oscillations could create critical crack and collapse. For the VEAB chimney
there were only one yearly inspection planned and acceptable inspection interval
therefore were to long.
- Ice on the chimney during the winter periods add mass and changes the natural
frequency resulting in a mistuned damper.
- Reynold number is changed if the chimney is charged with rainwater as discussed in
[20]. Then the shape factor during vortex shedding oscillations could be increased with
hazardous consequences for the chimney.
By paying attention to the risks above the economic incitement have to be big for using
mechanical pendulum tuned dampers. According to our experiences that is not the fact
especially if the inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate. A
chimney with any form of not movable device to reduce oscillations caused by vortex
shedding is only requiring a limited amount of inspection and is therefore as economic as the
pendulum device.
To rely on movable devices in buildings is a form of risk management. Which risk is
acceptable for a building? Our recommendation is that chimneys as other important buildings
should not be depending on movable devices unless a careful risk management analysis have
been made.
By using two differently tuned mechanical dampers some of the above mentioned
disadvantages could be avoided.
Vortex shedding oscillations are also a little surprising, in fact that no appreciate oscillations
could appear for decenniums and suddenly a winter period when critical meteorological
conditions occur the chimney start to oscillate hazardous for a period as discussed in [1].
Therefore it is easy to be lulled into security about the reliability after some years of
satisfactory operating experience. Oscillations recorded during the current four-year program
on the VEAB chimney never approached those observed in December 1996.
6.2 Comparable chimney data
Some investigations similar to that presented in this report have been published after this
investigation was started. Those other investigations involving measurements over time are
limited to a much shorter time period than for this investigation. The investigation presented
in this report cover a measurement period twice or more that of other investigations [1], [2],
[15], [19], [21] and [22].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
137
In [1] Table 6.2 a data as Scruton number and calculated and observed top amplitude
deflection for a number of steel chimneys are shown. To the table has been added the VEAB
chimney, a chimney at Varberg [21] with great oscillations from vortex shedding, a chimney
at Magdeburg [15] and with four chimneys presented in [22].
In Table 6.2 a the chimneys from [1] are named number 1 to 9, the chimneys in [22] with long
term recordings number 10 to 14, the VEAB chimney number 15, the Varberg chimney [21]
number 16 and.
The following notifications are made in Table 7.1:
h = Height
d = Diameter
? = Slenderness ratio h/d
t
topp
= Top shell thickness
f = Natural frequency
d = Logarithmic decrement
Sc = Scruton number
v
cr
= Critical wind velocity
Re = Reynold number
c
lat
= The basic value of the aerodynamic exiting force
l
effcorr
= Effective correlation length
K
?
= Eurocode 1 calculation variable
K
w
= Eurocode 1 calculation variable
y
max
= Calculated top amplitude deflection according to Eurocode 1
y
obs
= Observed top amplitude deflection
y
measured
= Measured top amplitude deflection
M = Measured
O = Observed
* = The difference in Scruton numbers is due to differences in structural
damping and mode shape
** = The bigger diameter concern outer diameter of the damper.
*** = Estimated top mass
15a = The VEAB chimney with a mal-functioning damper.
15b = The VEAB chimney with a functioning damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
138
Table 6.2 a Data for a number of chimneys
1
6
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e
r
i
o
d
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
139
As [1] notifies Table 6.2 a show that Eurocode 1 often underestimates the top amplitude
deflections during vortex shedding oscillations. BSV 97 [3] has limits for slenderness and top
deflection as noted in Section 2.4.2.
It is worth noticing that non-professional persons often overestimate visual observations of
chimney top deflections. That is a reasonable fact, but that is not the same as saying that
visual observations of chimney top deflection always are overestimated. The professional is
aware of necessary references needed for the estimation.
6.3 Codes
6.3.1 General
Rules for designing slender structures under wind loading as chimneys are found in various
codes. Most countries have their own national codes but organisations such as CEN and
Comite International Des Cheminées Industrielles (CICIND) have developed common codes
as the Eurocode and the CICIND code.
There are great deviations between the national codes as well as the common codes. Most
codes deals with static wind loads in a similar way. However action from vortex shedding is
treated in different ways. Some codes limit the allowable slenderness ratio (height/diameter),
for applicability of the code design model. Limit restrictions for the top deflection at vortex
shedding are also used.
There is a discussion going on about the requirement of revision the codes. See for instance
[1] and [15].
For static design the 50-year maximum wind load (gust included) considering global and local
buckling and plasticity are applied combined with dead load and other loads.
For dynamic loads fatigue has to be considered. The spectra of fatigue effects will be made up
of response from gust wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillations (ovalling).
As a complement to the codes, handbooks have to be used for evaluation of buckling modes,
welds and details. In most cases also a finite element (FEA) computer program is necessary
for calculating natural frequencies with an acceptable accuracy.
Selection of the applicable code is in most cases depending on in which country the chimney
will be erected. Some codes for designing steel chimneys are found in [3], [4], [5], [9], [17]
and [23].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
140
6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour of the VEAB
chimney
6.3.2.1 BSV 97 - Snö och vindlast [3]
Calculations according to BSV 97 [3] are made in Section 2.4.2. In Section 3.3.2.2 the
corresponding top deflection is calculated and in Section 3.5.7 the number of stress cycles. It
is important to notice that BSV 97 is used outside of its limitations according to Section 2.4.2.
Therefore the results may be unconcervative. For the VEAB chimney with a locked damper
the top deflection will be a multiplication with the relationship between the logarithmic
decrements for the unlocked and locked dampers (0.07/0.04).
6.3.2.2 EC1 - Eurocode 1 [23]
In Section 6.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of
stress cycles. The number of stress cycles will be
2
0
2
0
0
7
10 3 . 6

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
U
v
cr
ct
e
U
v
f T N ε …………………..…………….…………………(6.1)
where T = Lifetime in years
f = Natural frequency
0
ε = Bandwidth factor
Li m, 0
5
1
U U ⋅ · ………………………………………………………………………………(6.2)

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ·
0
ln
z
z
v U
ref m
β …..……………….…………………………………………………(6.3)
For the VEAB chimney we achieve
s
m
8 . 33
05 . 0
2
1
3 . 2 6 90
ln 19 . 0 24
Li m,
·

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ · U at centre of the correlation length
s
m
76 . 6 8 . 33
5
1
0
· ⋅ · U
cycles 10 97 . 0
76 . 6
24 . 3
3 . 0 282 . 0 1 10 3 . 6
6 76 . 6
24 . 3 2
7
2
⋅ · ⋅
,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

,
`

.
|

e N for one year
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
141
6.3.2.3 DIN 4133 [9]
In Section 6.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of
stress cycles. The Eurocode 1 gives results as DIN 4133 except for the number of stress
cycles. The number of stress cycles for a 50-year period will be
2
0
2
0
9
10

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ·
v
v
cr
ct
e
v
v
f N ……………………………….………………………..……(6.4)
where
0
v = Reference wind velocity for vortex shedding number of stress
cycles (5 m/s)
6 5
24 . 3 2
9
10 55 . 1
50
1
5
24 . 3
282 . 0 10
2
⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ·

,
`

.
|

e N cycles per year
6.3.2.4 CICIND [1]
The CICIND model code is based on the spectral model using a large number of full-scale
observations to estimate relevant observations [1]. To the Figure 7.15 in [1] the VEAB
chimney is implemented.
Figure 6.3 a Relative amplitude as a function of Scruton number according to the CICIND
model code [1].
For the functioning damper the top deflection is found to be mm 530 2300 23 . 0 · ⋅ and for the
mal-functioning damper mm 940 2300 41 . 0 · ⋅ .
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
142
6.3.2.5 ISO 4354:1997(E) – Wind actions on structures [24]
Provided that
str
? >
2
i
2
air
C
m
D
aer


·
ρ
ρ the top deflection during vortex shedding is calculated
as
D
C
m
D
D
h
m
D
C
y ⋅

,
`

.
|
⋅ −

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅
·
2
2
air str
2
air 3
0
ρ ς
ρ
…………………………..…………………………(6.5)
where C
3
= A constant (2)
air
ρ = Density of air (1.2 kg/m
2
)
D = Diameter of chimney (2.3 m)
m = Mass per length of top third of the chimney ( ≈700 kg/m)
h = Height of chimney (90 m)
str
ς = Structural damping ratio
C
2
= A constant = 1.2
From Section 3.3.1.4
str
ς is found to be 0.0111 for the functioning damper and 0.0065 for the
mal-functioning damper.
For the functioning damper
str
? -
2
i
2
air
C
m
D

⋅ ρ
≈0
For the mal-functioning damper
str
? -
2
i
2
air
C
m
D

⋅ ρ
≈-0.0044
The motion will be unstable and large amplitudes up to the value of D may result [24].
Special treatment is then required either by referral to experts, special codes (e. g. on steel
stacks) or special investigations [24].
6.3.2.6 Measurements
From Equation 3.43 the top deflection for the recording period was found to follow
( ) 247 log 35
t
10
+ ⋅ − · n y mm
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
143
6.3.2.7 Observations
From Table 4.2 a the top deflection for the first nine months of mal-functioning damper is
found. For the comparison with the codes the load spectrum is extrapolated to one year of
mal-functioning damper.
Table 6.3 a Assumed top deflection amplitude distribution for the first nine months in
service.
Top deflection y +/-
(mm)
1 500 1 150 700 500 300 150 100 Total
Relative time
(percent)
0.08 0.23 0.39 1.23 1.54 2.31 4.63 10.42
Number of cycles 7 266 20 889 35 421 111 713 139 868 209 803 420 514 946 000
Accumulated number
of cycles
7 266 28 155 63 576 175 289 315 157 524 960 946 000 -
6.3.2.8 Comparison between the codes, measurements and observations
Spectra for top deflection, functioning damper
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 log (Accumulated load cycles)
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
BSV97
EC1
DIN
CISIND
ISO
Measurements
from four year
period
Figure 6.3 b Spectra for top deflection per year and a functioning damper. Codes discussed
in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
144
Spectra for top deflection, mal-functioning damper
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 log (Accumulated load cycles )
T
o
p

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
BSV97
EC1
DIN
CICIND
Observed
Figure 6.3 c Spectra for deflection per year and a mal-functioning damper. Codes
discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are
plotted.
For the functioning damper, Figure 6.3 b shows that only the CICIND code is safe to use
calculating top deflection. For the mal-functioning damper Figure 6.3 c, no code is safe
calculating top deflection. The influence on fatigue damage using the Palmgren-Miner
hypothesis is more complicated and could give other results.
Both BSV 97 and ISO 4354 have limitations for their use and do not cover the VEAB
chimney properties. Especially the limitations in ISO 4354 points out that the VEAB chimney
operates in or in the neighbourhood to an unstable vortex shedding section. The geometric
properties of the VEAB chimney had been different from the actual geometric properties if
one of the BSV 97, CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly.
There is a need for revision of the model to estimate the response caused by vortex shedding
of very slender chimney structures ( h/d ¤ 30).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
145
6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the
VEAB chimney
The long-term observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It
is two times longer than previously reported literature data. Detailed data about observation
time and structural data are found in Table 6.2 a.
In Figure 6.4 recorded spectra for Aachen, Colonge, Pirna, Recklinghausen [22] and the
VEAB chimney are drawn.
Measured amplitude spectrum
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Log (accumulated number of load cycles - 100 )
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

l
o
a
d
Aachen
Cologne
Pirna
Recklinghausen
VEAB
Figure 6.4 a Measured amplitude spectra for the chimneys [22] and the
VEAB chimney.
In Figure 6.4 b a typified load spectrum calculated with the least square method for the VEAB
chimney is drawn.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
146
Typified load spectra
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
log n / log nt
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

l
o
a
d
Recorded for
VEAB chimney
Fitted typified
load spectrum
Figure 6.4 e Typified amplitude spectrum for the VEAB chimney. κ=0.32.
6.5 Second mode
In this report reviews briefly the influence of second mode oscillations on the VEAB
chimney. Based on a limited number of observations the first mode is found designing for
fatigue strength. From Section 3.6 and 3.7.1 it is shown that the second mode occurs at rare
occasions and that the number of load cycles are low.
6.6 The future
Initially the recordings of the VEAB chimney were planned to continue until December 2003
followed by an evaluation of the recorded results as shown in Table 3.2 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
147
Table 6.6 c Actions to be taken for the VEAB chimney
Result of evaluation Action
1. Acceptable probability for collapse a. The VEAB chimney is OK.
Finish the recordings.
2. Unclear b. Continue the recordings.
c. Add additional damping to the
chimney. An assumption is that the
accumulated fatigue damage is
acceptable.
3. Unacceptable probability for
collapse
c. Add additional damping to the
chimney. An assumption is that
the accumulated fatigue damage is
acceptable.
d. Replace the chimney with a new
and modified one.
Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001, probably by mistake,
when applying corrosion protection on the inside of the chimney. It was expensive to repair
the recording system. For economic reasons it was decided that additional damping had to be
installed to provide an acceptable safety with respect to fatigue. Two dampers connected the
boiler house at roof level (45 m) to the chimney erection splice at 55.2 m level. That is action
3 c in Table 3.2 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
148
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 7
149
7 Summary
7.1 In English
The long-term observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It
is two times longer than previously available data in the literature for other chimneys.
The report contains data on the behaviour of a major chimney with a mass damper. The
measured damping was less than expected, probably because the limited space in the damper
house not did allow necessary pendulum movements, and too low pendulum mass.
The VEAB chimney was found to oscillate in both first and second mode of natural
frequency. Second mode oscillations are rare for normal chimneys. The damping of second
order oscillations is much greater than for first order. The evaluation of the measurements
showed that the influence of second order oscillations could be neglected.
A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB
chimney is unique in height and slenderness.
Typified linear load effect spectra describe the chimney behaviour well.
A full scale damping measurement was performed and evaluated for the VEAB chimney with
and without functioning damper.
A comparison with a number of code regulations has been performed.
A refinement of a theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was
performed.
Actual meterological data were considered in evaluation the action for the VEAB chimney.
Geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been selected to other dimensions if one of
the BSV 97, CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. The diameter had been
selected to a greater size.
There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender
chimneys, that is for chimneys with slender ratio height through diameter above
approximately 30.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 7
150
7.2 In Swedish
Mätsystemet för långtidsövervakning av VEAB stålskorsten har varit i drift under fyra år.
Det är två gånger längre än tidigare i litteraturen beskrivna mätningar för skorstenar.
Rapporten innehåller uppgifter om beteende för en skorsten försedd med massdämpare. Den
uppmätta dämpningen var mindre än väntat, antagligen på grund av att begränsat utrymme i
dämparhuset inte tillät nödvändig pendelrörelse samt att pendelmassan var för låg.
VEAB stålskorsten observerades svänga i både första och andra modens egenfrekvens.
Svängningar i andra moden är ovanliga för stålskorstenar. Dämpningen är mycket större för
andra modens svängningar än för första modens. Utvärderingen av mätdata visade att andra
modens inflytande kunde försummas.
En jämförelse med ett antal andra skorstenar beskrivna i litteraturen visade att VEAB
skorstenen är unik i höjd och slankhet.
Skorstenens uppförande beskrivs väl av ett lastspektrum.
En mätning av dämpning genomfördes i full skala för VEAB stålskorsten med både
fungerande och låst dämpare.
En jämförelse med ett antal normer är gjord.
Verkliga meteorologiska data beaktades vid utvärderingen.
En förbättrat förslag på beräkningsmodell för pendelförsedda massdämpare är utarbetat.
Aktuella meteorologiska data har beaktats vid alla utvärderingar.
Dom geometriska storheterna för VEAB stålskorsten hade valts annorlunda om någon av
normerna BSV 97, CICIND or ISO hade följts konsekvent. Skorstenens diameter hade då
valts större.
Det är behov av en översyn av beräkningsmodellen för att uppskatta responsen från
virvelavlösning för mycket slanka stålskorstenar. Med mycket slanka stålskorstenar avses ett
slankhetstalet (höjd genom diameter) över ungefär 30.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 8
151
8. References
[1] Claës Dyrbye, Svein O Hansen: Wind loads on structures, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[2] Hans Ruscheweyh, Thomas Galemann: Full-scale measurements of wind induced
oscillations of chimneys, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 65
(1996) 55-62.
[3] BSV 97, Snö- och vindlast (Snow and wind loading), 2nd Edition, Boverket 1997 (in
Swedish).
[4] BSK 94: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner, Boverket 1994 (in Swedish) later
replaced by BSK 99: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner, Boverket 1999 (in
Swedish).
[5] Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 3-2: Towers, masts and chimneys -
Chimneys, ENV 1993-3-2, 1997.
[6] Hans Ruscheweyh: Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken. Band 2: Praktische
Anwendungen, Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1982.
[7] Chr. Petersen: Windinduzierte Schwingungen und ihre Verhütung durch Dämpfer, Der
Stahlbau 11/1982, 336-341.
[8] Costantin Verwiebe: Überschlägliche Berechnung der Querschwingungsbeanspruchung
von Schornsteinen aus Stahl nach Din 4133, Stahlbau 68 (1999), Heft 10, 846-851.
[9] DIN 4133, Schornsteine aus Stahl, November 1991.
[10] Cyrril M. Harris: Shock and Vibration handbook, third edition 1988, Mc Graw-Hill Inc.
[11] Christian Petersen: Baupraxis und Aeroelastik, Probleme – Lösungen - Schadenfälle.
[12] Bengt Sundström: Handbok och formelsamling i Hållfasthetslära, Kungliga Tekniska
Högskolan 1999 (in Swedish)
[13] F. M. Sauer, C. F. Garland: Performance of the Viscously Damped Vibration Absorber
Applied to Systems Having Frequency-Squared Excitation, Berkeley, Calif., 109-117.
[14] Costantin Verwiebe: Winderregte Schwingungen und Massnahmen zur
Dämpfungserhöhung im Stahlschorsteinenbau, Schorsteinbau – Symposium 23. Januar
1997, Bad Hersfeld.
[15] Constantin Verwiebe & Waldemar Burger: Unerwartet starke wirbelerregte
Querschwingungen eines 49 m hohen Stahlschornsteins, Stahlbau 67, Heft 11, 1998, p
876-878.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 8
152
16] Dubbel: Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau, 14. Auflage, Springer Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg New York 1981.
[17] BKR 99: Boverkets konstruktionsregler, Boverket 1999 (in Swedish).
[18] Urban Bergström, et al: Plåthandboken, SSAB Tunnplåt AB, 1993, Utgåva 5.
[19] Max Beaumont, Dennis E. Walshe: Investigation into wind induced oscillation on three
76 high self supporting steel chimneys, 4
th
Chimney Symposium, 127-135.
[20] Costantin Verwiebe: Neue Erkenntnisse über die Erregungmechanismen Regen-Wind-
induzierter Schwingungen, Stahlbau 65 (1996), Heft 12.
[21] Göran Alpsten: Dynamisk vindlast av virvelavlösning (Dynamic wind loading from
vortex shedding), Document 9835a, Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, May 1998 (in Swedish).
[22] H. Ruscheweyh, W. Langer, C. Verwiebe: Long-term full-scale measurements of wind
induced vibrations of steel stacks, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial
Aerodynamics 74-76 (1998) 777-783.
[23] Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures, Part 2-4: Wind actions, ENV
1991-2-4, 1994.
[24] ISO 4354:1997(24): Wind actions on structures, International Organisation of
Standardisation, 1997.
[25] Kamal Handa: Kompendium i Byggnadsaerodynamik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola,
Göteborg, 1993 (in Swedish).
[26] Göran Alpsten: Svängningsproblem vid en 35 m stålskorsten utan spriralfenor
dimensionerad enligt SBN 1975 (Vibration problems for a 35 m steel chimney without
helical strakes designed according to SBN 1975), Internal report 8464-1,
Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, Feb. 1985 (in Swedish).
[27] Pär Tranvik: VEAB Steel Chimney – Computer programs for data reduction, Internal
report S 02 003 , Alstom Power Sweden AB, 2002.

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney

Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................ i.4 Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... i.5 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope of investigation .................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading........................................................ 2 1.2.1 General................................................................................................................. 2 1.2.2 Vortex shedding.................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Symbols and units......................................................................................................... 5 Description of the VEAB chimney............................................................................................... 7 2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant................................................................................................. 7 2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB chimney .................................................................... 9 2.2.1 General data......................................................................................................... 9 2.2.2 Structural details ............................................................................................... 11 2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics .......................................................................... 18 2.3 Mechanical damper..................................................................................................... 19 2.3.1 Common damping designs............................................................................... 19 2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney ........................................... 23 2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney .............................................................. 26 2.4.1 Natural frequencies........................................................................................... 26 2.4.2 Vortex shedding................................................................................................ 28 2.4.3 Elastic energy .................................................................................................... 30 2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney.......................................................................... 32 3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney........................................... 33 3.1 Observations of mal-functioning of the chimney ..................................................... 33 3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations.................................................................... 33 3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes ........................................................ 34 3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks........................................................................ 34 3.1.4 Summary of cracks ........................................................................................... 36 3.1.5 Notches not available for examination............................................................ 36 3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds ........................................................................... 36 3.2 Data recording system ................................................................................................ 37 3.2.1 General............................................................................................................... 37 3.2.2 Strain gauges ..................................................................................................... 37 3.2.3 Wind data transmitter ....................................................................................... 38 3.2.4 Recording computer ......................................................................................... 41 3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range.................................................................. 45 3.2.6 Verification of the equipment.......................................................................... 45 3.2.7 Procedures......................................................................................................... 46 3.2.8 Operating experience........................................................................................ 46

i.1

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney

3.3

3.4 3.5

3.6 3.7

3.8

Behaviour of the mechanical damper ........................................................................ 47 3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper .................. 47 3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper.............. 60 3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study .............................. 74 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney........................................................... 75 Observed wind properties........................................................................................... 80 3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams............................. 80 3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range.............. 83 diagrams 3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams.................................................................................... 87 3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station.................................. 89 3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams ............................................... 91 3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams .................................................................... 93 3.5.7 Load spectra ...................................................................................................... 95 3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity............................................................................ 100 3.5.9 Iso wind velocity plots.................................................................................... 102 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gage measurements............... 106 First and second mode oscillations .......................................................................... 112 3.7.1 Screen plots ..................................................................................................... 112 3.7.2 Logged files..................................................................................................... 113 3.7.3 First mode evaluation ..................................................................................... 114 3.7.4 Second mode evaluation................................................................................. 116 3.7.5 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 117 Temperature and temperature dependent properties............................................... 118 3.8.1 Mean temperatures ......................................................................................... 118 3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity .................................................................... 120 3.8.3 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 121

4.

Fatigue action ....................................................................................................................123 4.1 Fatigue model considered......................................................................................... 123 4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with mal-functioning damper .............. 126 4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper ...................................... 129 4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency ..................................................................... 129 4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency............................................ 131 Crack propagation............................................................................................................133 5.1 Method of analysis ................................................................................................... 133 5.2 Results ....................................................................................................................... 133 Discussion...........................................................................................................................135 6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices.............................. 135 6.2 Comparable chimney data........................................................................................ 136 6.3 Codes ......................................................................................................................... 139 6.3.1 General............................................................................................................. 139 6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour the VEAB chimney ....... 140 6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney.................... 145 6.5 Second mode............................................................................................................. 146 6.6 The future .................................................................................................................. 146

5.

6.

i.2

...............1 Recorded temperatures ....3 .................1 Wind pressure and deflection range diagrams ............................................................................. G......1 Screen plots for first and second order oscillations ................. F. H.......1 Finite element analysis of hot spots in chimney structure............................................................................................2 In Swedish ..........................1 Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K Appendix L i...................................1 Recorded dynamic behaviour of the chimney........1 Cumulative fatigue damage............................ I.....................................J.......................................................................... Summary ................................. A........ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney 7............. 150 References .............................B....................................................................................... Appendices with recorded and calculated data (Not included in this printing but enclosed in the covered CD): Appendix A Appendix B VEAB brochure for the cogeneration block at Växjö.1 Description of recording system for the VEAB chimney (in Swedish)............................................... 149 7......1 Detailed examination of cracks ....................151 8.....................................1 Computer programs for data reduction.................................................................................................................... K.......................................................................1 In English.......................................................................................L............149 7.. D.....1 Behaviour of mechanical damper – Observations from the damping test..............................................................................................Pär Tranvik.................E.........................1 Simplified crack propagation analysis ..C.............

causing large oscillations of the structure and fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service. ABB Fläkt Industri AB of Växjö was contractor for the electrostatic precipitator including the chimney (activities of the company later subdivided between Alstom Power Sweden AB and ABB). Sweden is owner of the chimney. being part of a delivery of an electrostatic precipitator of the Sandvik II biomass power plant at Växjö. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney Preface This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high steel chimney equipped with a mechanical damper at the top. Mr Stig Magnell of Dryco AB. VEAB of Växjö. The investigation presented in this report was initiated by VEAB. Denmark. Mr Lars Palmqvist of ABB Automation Systems AB. Växjö and Solna in March 2002 Pär Tranvik Göran Alpsten i. Due to a mistake in installing the chimney the damper was not active in the first period of service life. The chimney was fabricated and erected by the subcontractor VL Staal A/S of Esbjerg. Messrs Rolf Snygg and Thomas Väärälä of Alstom Power Sweden AB. Special thanks are due to Mr Ulf Johnson of VEAB. repair the steel structure and to monitor the behaviour of the structure adopting a fail-safe principle.Pär Tranvik. and Mr Stig Pedersen of VL Staal A/S. The authors are indebted to all parties involved for making it possible to present the results in this form.4 . The compilation of data and preparation of most parts of this report were made by the first author. for which the second author acted as a consultant. The second author has acted mainly as advisor for the investigation. Because of this an extensive investigation was started to rectify the action of the damper. Data from four years of continuous measurements are presented in the report.

Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies related to the investigation of the chimney. load spectra and frequency of wind velocity.5 . accumulated top deflection range. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney Abstract The structural behaviour of the 90 m height VEAB steel chimney in southern Sweden has been investigated. that is for chimneys with slenderness ratio (height through diameter) above approximately 30. monitor the chimney behaviour and verify the chimney behaviour by theoretical models. The data obtained has some general relevance with respect to wind data. This report summarizes results collected from about four years of continuous measurements and regular observations of the chimney. A full scale damping test was performed. There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender chimneys. elastic energy. behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading. An extensive program was initiated to study and repair the fatigue cracks. This may not always be the case if inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate. and the effect of a mechanical damper. wind turbulence. Initially the friction damper did not operate properly and the chimney developed oscillations with large top deflections in the very first period of service. Key Words Full scale measurements Cross wind oscillations Vortex shedding Chimney Mechanical damper Dynamic wind loading i. The very slender chimney is equipped with a mechanical friction type damper to increase damping and reduce displacements from vortex shedding. restore the mechanical damper. accumulated wind pressure. A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB chimney is unique in height and slenderness.Pär Tranvik. An improvement of a simplified theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed. The report present a number of diagrams for wind pressure and top deflection range. After only nine months of service a great number of fatigue cracks were observed. The economic incitements have to be great for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers.

6 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney i.Pär Tranvik.

After the functioning of the damper had been restored and the fatigue cracks repaired an extensive program was initiated in 1996 to monitor the structural behaviour of the chimney under wind loading. Large top amplitude deflections have been observed with the damper mistakenly inactive. The natural frequencies are low and therefore also the critical resonance wind velocity for vortex-induced oscillations is low. The chimney is equipped with a mechanical friction-type damper at the top.Pär Tranvik. In addition to presenting results of general interest and discussions in the main part of the report. The data obtained has some general relevance with respect to wind data. Due to a mistake during erection and installation of the chimney the transport fixings of the damper were not released properly and the chimney developed extensive oscillations in the very first period of service. original data and further compilations of detailed results are given in Appendices to the report. Field recordings have been made continuously during four years of service. - - - 1 . This included continuous measurement of stresses in the structure in order to record the stress history and thus monitor the risk for fatigue of the repaired structure. 1. The observations and recordings from the VEAB chimney are unique because of the following items: It is a high and slender steel chimney equipped with a tuned pendulum damper.Section 1 1. behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Vortex shedding oscillations were observed at both first and at rare occasions also at second mode of natural frequency.1 Introduction Scope of investigation This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high steel chimney erected at Växjö in southern Sweden in 1995. This caused a great number of fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies related to the investigation of the chimney. Visual inspection and magnetic particle evaluation have been performed at regular intervals. This report summarises results collected from about four years of continuous measurements and regular observations of the chimney. Wind and temperature data and the response of the chimney to wind loading were recorded. determined from a fail-safe principle. in order to make possible further evaluation of the data for other investigators. and the effect of a mechanical damper.

3. Vortex shedding occurs when the natural frequency of a structure corresponds with vortices shed from opposite sides of the structure resulting in cross gas flow oscillations. gust wind. damping.4. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . vortex shedding and ring oscillation ovalling. 3.4.2 1. A detailed examination of cracks was performed. cracks and finally there are a discussion about the use of tuned dampers.2 a. 1.2. 2. 2 .2.7 and 6.2. 3.2.2 Vortex shedding Vortex-induced oscillations occur when vortices are shed alternately from opposite sides of a structure.Section 1 - A full-scale damping test was performed. wind data. The vortex shedding will be discussed more in detail in Section 1. It gives rise to a fluctuating load perpendicular to the wind direction as shown schematically in Figure 1.1 Action of slender structures under wind loading General For slender structures subjected to wind loading there are three main actions to consider. dynamic behaviour. 1. Ring oscillations (ovalling) are a pulsating oval oscillation of for instance a cylindrical shell structure. Comparisons between theory and observations were made for natural frequencies. fatigue.5. Gust winds displace the chimney in the same direction as the wind load. For a rigid structure gust wind is independent of the dynamic properties of the structure but dependent for a flexible structure.Pär Tranvik.2.

... For chimneys with circular cross section the flow is either in the supercritical or transcritical range for wind velocities of practical interest. As the vortices are shed at the critical wind velocity alternately first from one side then the other. 5 ⋅ 10 6 õ Re 3 .3 times the diameter d....... Oscillations generated by vortex shedding may occur in slender structures such as cables.Section 1 Figure 1.................Pär Tranvik...... When a vortex is formed on one side of the structure.......8 In general large Reynold numbers means turbulent flow..... the wind velocity increases on the other side [1]........... a harmonically varying lateral load with the same frequency as the frequency of the vortex shedding is formed............... The risk of vortex-induced oscillations increases for slender structures and structures in line with a small distance between them....... v is the wind velocity in the undisturbed field... Usually the first mode is critical for vortex shedding in actual steel structures subjected to wind loading.. chimneys and towers... Subcritical Supercritical Transcritical 300 105 3... The Reynold number is a non-dimensional parameter describing the influence of internal friction in fluid mechanics...........2 a Vortices formed behind a cylinder.1) ? d v∞ υ where = Diameter of chimney = Undisturbed wind velocity = Kinematic viscosity of the air according to Section 3. This results in a pressure difference on the opposite sides and the structure is subjected to a lateral force away from the side where the vortex is formed...... but in rare cases also the second mode is of interest.... 5 ⋅ 10 6 õ Re õ 105 õ Re õ 3.........(1.. Distance between the vortices subject to wind loading L is approximately 4............ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ..... The Reynold number is expressed as Re = d ⋅ v∞ ..

........ This part of the load is called net vortex shedding load [1]. Bearing in mind the risk of violent vortex-induced oscillations.(1... ... . In slender structures... . but may be strongly dependent on the size of the motion [1]...........Section 1 Aero elasticity causes a regular vortex shedding also in the supercritical range.... The proportionality factor for vortex shedding is named Strouhal number....... the surface roughness and the wind turbulence [1]. for instance that occurring in the wake of a slender.. aerodynamic damping is of primary concern... Vortex shedding structural oscillations are more probable if: ..Increased small-scale turbulence.... For a non-vibrating chimney the distance L between vortices rotating in the same direction is proportional to the diameter of the chimney d....... Characteristic properties for crosswind are: ....Motion-induced forces........ 4 .....Loads caused by vortex shedding. It depends on the Reynold number for a stationary smooth cylinder and for an aeroelastic chimney.......... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .............. The Strouhal number is expressed as St = d ⋅ f0 .Smooth laminar air flow which for instance occurs in the stable atmosphere during cold winter days..... The motion could start to rule the vortex shedding....Net gust load caused by lateral wind fluctuations. Most important is the negative aerodynamic damping generated by vortex shedding...... large oscillations may occur if the frequency of vortex shedding coincides with the natural frequency for the structure vibrating in a mode in the crosswind direction [1]. nearby structure of similar size... The Strouhal number depends on the motion of the structure (aero elasticity).Pär Tranvik.. [25]....... The load occurs whether or not the structure is moving............2) v∞ where f0 = Natural frequency The Strouhal number describes the dependence of the cross section.......... [6].

........Section 1 The Scruton number is a non-dimensional parameter defined as Sc = 2 ⋅ δ s ⋅ me .........................................3) ρ ⋅d2 where δ s = The logarithmic decrement of the structural damping me = Equivalent mass per unit of length according to the mode considered ρ = Density of air A comparison of the predicted amplitudes for steel chimneys with full-scale measurements is shown in [2].........(1...... Unless otherwise noted basic SI units has been used through out this report... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ................... 5 .................. 1........... Similar diagrams are found in [1].......3 Symbols and units Symbols are explained in the text where they first occur..Pär Tranvik..

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Pär Tranvik.Section 1 6 .

a so-called CFBboiler. The distance is much larger than 15 times the diameter were interaction between two equal chimneys may become insignificant [3]. of which 66 MW is heat. The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter. Thus interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant.Pär Tranvik. everything from wood chips to bark and peat.1 2. a dust transportation and storage system and a steel chimney. Large forested areas and some lakes dominate the surroundings. The plant can be fired with most kinds of biomass. The boiler is of circulating fluidised bed type. Furthermore. More data about the VEAB Sandvik II plant may be found in Appendix A.1 b. A layout of the VEAB Sandvik II plant is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. an induced fan. A photo of the VEAB chimney from the South showing neighbouring buildings is shown in Figure 2. This chimney. The particle collection equipment consists of an electrostatic precipitator for the separation of dust from the flue gases.1 a.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant The VEAB Sandvik II cogeneration block is situated outside the town of Växjö in southern Sweden at a height of 164 m above sea level. a flue gas condenser to utilize the energy content in the flue gas. 7 . see Figure 2.1 a The VEAB chimney top half photographed from the boiler outer roof. Description of the VEAB chimney 2. being the subject of this report.1 c. The boiler has an output of 104 MW. The generator has an output of 38 MW of electricity. is referred to as the VEAB chimney. the properties of the old concrete chimney and the new steel chimney are drastically different. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. [9].

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1

Figure 2.1 b Layout of the VEAB Sandvik plant.

Figure 2.1 c The VEAB chimney from south showing neighbouring buildings.

8

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2

2.2
2.2.1

Data for structure of the VEAB chimney
General data

The VEAB chimney has the following overall data: Height Diameter of structural shell Diameter of inner pipe Thickness of inner pipe 90 2.3 2.0 3 m m m mm m

Outer diameter of top portion 2.8 with damper

The thickness of the structural shell varies from base to top as shown in Table 2.2 a.

Table 2.2 a Thickness of structural shell of the VEAB chimney. Height (m) 0 18 5 16 12.5 14 20 12 30 10 42.6 8 55.2 6 90 Thickness (mm)

Weights Structural shell Inner pipe Insulation Damper pendulum Miscellaneous Total 50 080 kg 13 592 kg 4 954 kg 1 246 kg 9 628 kg 79 500 kg

Figure 2.2 a Overall dimensions of the VEAB chimney.

9

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2

Material Structural parts Inner pipe Foundation bolts Bolts at flanged splices Corrosion protection Sand blasting to Sa 2.5 2 x 60 µm alkyd primer 2 x 60 µm top coat For transport and erection purposes flanged splices are arranged at levels 30 m, 55.2 m and 82.2 m. 2 x 40 mm of thermal insulation of mineral wool are arranged between inner pipe and outer shell. Just below the top of the chimney a mechanical pendulum damper is arranged to decrease top deflection caused by vortex shedding. The damper is described more in detail in Section 2.3. Above the damper, at 88 m level, a platform is arranged. From height 2.5 m level up to the platform at height 88 m level an outside ladder is arranged. The distance between ladder and chimney shell (equal to connection gusset plates width) is 200 mm (see also Figure 2.2 m). Three warning lights for aircrafts are connected to the outside plate shell of the damper unit. Some buildings as boiler house and electrostatic precipitator are located close to the chimney. Figure 2.1 b shows a layout of the VEAB plant and Figure 2.2 b a layout of the immediate surroundings of the VEAB chimney.
Building (h=25 m) N
Computer

Cor-ten, Re = 355 MPa , E = 210 000 MPa Steel SS2350 Steel S355J2G3 according to EN10025, Re = 345 MPa 8.8, Rm = 800 MPa

Chimney (h= 90 m)

Building (h=40 m)

Figure 2.2 b The VEAB chimney, neighbouring buildings and the location of the recording computer.

10

......... Initially the design had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates..... For the VEAB chimney λ = 2.. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2..2 Structural details The base details consist of a bottom ring.2 The slenderness ratio for a chimney may be defined as λ= h . 11 ..................... Figure 2..... A total of 80 foundation bolts M56 connect the VEAB chimney to the concrete foundation structure.. See Figures 2.......1) d h = height of the chimney d = diameter of the chimney where 90 = 39 which is greater than 30........2 d....Pär Tranvik............................... the approximate limit value 2.......... 40 gusset plates at outside and 40 at inside...3 according to [3] for applicability of the code model for calculating vortex shedding forces.........2 c and 2..........(2......2 c Base plate with 2 x 40 foundation gusset plates and 2 x 40 bolt holes.2...........

1 g. Initially the flanged splice design at 30 m level had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates.2 f. 12 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2 m levels are shown in Figures 2. Flanged splices at 30 m and 55. 2x40 bolts M56 S355J2G3 (Details of the later modified foundation ring are shown in Figure 2.Pär Tranvik.2 e and 2.2 d Original base details with 40 gusset plates symmetrically at inside and outside of the shell plate.2 Figure 2.

Pär Tranvik.2 e Original flanged splice at h=30 m level.2 Figure 2. 13 .2 m level.1 i). Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. 40 gussets symmetrically on outside of the shell plate were applied (details of the later modified splice are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.2 f Flanged splice at h=55.

The cables above the inspection door are a part of the data collecting system.2 h. Figure 2. The modified base details and details of the inspection door are shown in Figure 2.2 h The modified base details and details of the inspection door. 14 .2 g shows the modified base details with the reinforcement ring on top of flanges. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. Modification made in December 1998.2 g Modified base details.1 d. Figure 2. The original base is shown in Figure 2.2 Figure 2.Pär Tranvik.

2 i and 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1 e. Figure 2. Modification made in December 1998. The original flanged erection splice is shown in Figure 2. Modification made in December 1998.Pär Tranvik.2 Figures 2.2 j The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level.2 i The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level.2 j show the modified flanged erection splice at 30 m level with the reinforcement ring on top respective bottom of flanges. Figure 2. 15 .

Thickness of the vertical reinforcement plates is 40 mm. 16 .2 l Details of the inspection door at 1 m level (midpoint).Pär Tranvik.1 h.3 m level. See also Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. Midpoint of hole at 13. Figure 2.2 k.2 k Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct.2 Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.

2 Details on ladder connections and inner pipe supports are shown in Figures 2.2 n Details of the support gusset plates for inner pipe at h=11 m level. 17 . Figure 2.2 m and 2.2 n respectively. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.Pär Tranvik.2 m Details of the ladder connection gusset plates. Figure 2.

18 .3 Manufacturing characteristics The manufacturing was intended to follow Swedish regulations for load carrying steel structures [3].2 2. modified class C according to ISO 5817 From inspection of the delivered structure.Pär Tranvik. According to the manufacturers documentation: Workmanship class Cutting class Weld class GB Sk2 WC according to [4]. a large number of welds at base and at flanged erection splice at 30 m level not did satisfy weld class WC. The manufacturing was made at the VL Staal a/s workshop in Esbjerg. a number of deviations from the intended quality were found. Denmark. In the quality control of the chimney a third party was involved. Most important. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. [4] and [17].2. that is. Weld class WC is the lowest weld quality applicable for load carrying steel structures according to [4].

Several designs for a tuned mass damper are suggested in [6].3 g presents schematically some solutions for passive damping devices. The first method is to apply helical strakes or any similar aerodynamic device for removing or reducing the magnitude of oscillations induced by regular vortex shedding. Figure 2.1 Mechanical damper Common damping designs Two principal solutions to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding are described in the literature. The VEAB steel chimney uses a passive tuned mass damper and this type will be discussed here. There are two types of tuned mass dampers. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 2. Another method for reducing or eliminating the risk of oscillations induced by vortex shedding is to apply tuned mass dampers.Pär Tranvik.3 a The chimney is damped by connecting a damper to a neighbouring building. see for instance [1] and [6]. thus causing increased gust wind loads. passive and active.3 f. A disadvantage with the use of helical strakes is an increased projected area at chimney top and increased drag coefficient. The VEAB chimney uses the principle found in Figure 2. Figures 2.3. The design of the helical strakes is important for an effective reduction of vortex-induced oscillations.3 a through 2.3 2. An active mass damper requires an automatic engineering system to trigger the mass damper to counteract any occurring oscillation. [7] and [8]. 19 . The periodic formation of vortices will be reduced or eliminated by the changed airflow.

Figure 2.3 c The chimney is damped by using wires with an end mass and a friction device.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. 20 .3 Figure 2.3 b The chimney is damped by using prestressed wires with spring-damper elements.

3 d The chimney is damped by using a pendulum ring connected to the chimney shell plate by hydraulic dampers. 21 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.Pär Tranvik.3 Figure 2. Figure 2.3 e The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod in a damping material.

22 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 g The chimney is damped by using a dynamic liquid damper. Figure 2.Pär Tranvik. The damping is achieved by the friction mass that slips on a bottom plate.3 f The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod. A friction mass is guided by the rod.3 Figure 2.

3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney consists of a pendulum mass ring hinged in three chains. connected to the damper house roof. Compare with Figure 2. Three symmetrically distributed guiding rods connect the pendulum mass movement to the movement of the three friction masses.3 2. The damping is achieved by friction between the friction mass and the damper house floor. The manufacturer calculated the generalised mass 23 .Pär Tranvik.3 f.3 h The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney (schematic drawn but in scale). located in 120 degrees direction.

3.3.09 0....(2.......07 0.....(2.....01 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Height (m) Figure 2.Pär Tranvik....2 rewritten as finite differences and using the results from the finite element calculation in Section 2...............06 0.........2 it is found that M gen  y ( x)   ⋅ ∆x ….1 and 3........4....………….......2 By a stepwise integration of Equation 2.3 i Top deflection amplitude as a function of level according to the finite element calculation in Sections 2.3) = ∆m( x ) ⋅   y   top  ∆m( x) = Mass per length at height x for a finite element y(x) = Deflection at height x for a finite element ∆x = Chimney height integration step 2 where 24 ................... The pendulum mass was selected to 10 percent of the generalised mass to M=1 246 kg [6]..05 0.2) = ∫ m( x) ⋅   y  0  top  H 2 where m(x) y(x) ytop dx H = = = = = Mass per length at height x Deflection at height x Top deflection Integration segment Chimney height Displacement (mm) 0....... The generalised mass is defined as M gen  y( x)   ⋅ dx …...........1 0.....02 0..2......08 0......1 and 3..………….2.04 0..........4...........03 0...3 to Mgen=12 460 kg... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2...

........ Both ventilation and drainage holes are arranged in the damper house........ = Friction mass In Section 3.(2...Pär Tranvik..2 ° 2 ⋅ 3550 Figure 2. The pendulum angle is limited by the damper house walls shown in Figure 2.....4) where µ mf = The friction coefficient which is 0....7 the influence of the magnitude of the acceleration is studied theoretically.3 depending on the surface properties of the steel...................... The horizontal force necessary to accelerate the friction masses into motion by an inclination of the pendulum damper is H = µ ⋅ N = µ ⋅ mf ⋅ g .15 to 0......3 j to an angle of α ≈ arctan( 250 − 100 ) ≈ 1......2.......... 25 ......3 The generalised mass may be achieved as M gen = 16 810 kg which differs from 12 460 kg according to above.........3 j Maximum possible pendulum angle α for the VEAB chimney damper (measured from the layout drawing). Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2...........3................

4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.Distributed masses of 310 kg/m were added to all nodes. It includes inner pipe.1 Natural frequencies The three lowest modes of natural frequencies of the VEAB chimney were calculated with a finite element program.The chimney was modelled as a fixed end cantilever. The following assumptions were made: . . 26 . . ladder. electrical cables and other non-structural elements.Pär Tranvik.An additional mass of 2 500 kg for the damper equipment was added in the node at the mass centre of the damper.4 a.4 2.4.The actual variation with height of the mass and the stiffness of the structure was considered . insulation. The three lowest modes of natural frequencies are shown in Figure 2.

7.44 Hz T 0. Thus the observed natural frequency. 27 .282 Hz T 3.6932 f = 1 1 = = 3. based on two different ways of measurement and observed over a long period of time.86 Hz T 0.5518 f = 1 1 = = 1.005 Hz.282 Hz. Average values was: 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2. Based upon an evaluation of the vast amount of recorded data the average value of the first mode of natural frequency for the measurement period 1997 through 2000 was 0. corresponds well with the calculated value of 0.283 Hz 1996-05-03 1996-10-29 In Section 3.287 Hz 0.288 with a total variation of ± 0. The natural frequency was determined from observations of oscillations in the first mode using a theodolite.Pär Tranvik.2590 Figure 2.4 a The three lowest modes of natural frequencies calculated for the VEAB chimney. the first mode of natural frequencies for the four years of measurements is presented. These calculated natural frequencies might be compared with observed values for the actual structure.4 First mode of natural frequency Second mode of natural frequency Third mode of natural frequency f = 1 1 = = 0.

......... 0........2 at ordinary vortex shedding and lower if any lock-in phenomena occur In Table 2....282 Hz used in this section) d = Diameter St = Strouhal number (Equation 1......07 for the VEAB chimney with active dampers 28 ........... ........4...................8 m In Section 3.....2 the mean wind velocity at 90 m height was calculated to 34.2 Vortex shedding According to [3] the critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated as v cr = where f ⋅d ........ assumed to 0...6) dm µ tr = Shape factor for cross wind oscillations p cr = Wind velocity pressure (Pa) d = Diameter (m) δ m = Logarithmic decrement.......... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2...3.................4 2.................24 m/s 3.......95 m/s Critical wind velocity for second mode (Hz) 16..... Calculated values for natural frequencies have been used......(2........ Critical wind velocity for first mode (Hz) 3.4 a the critical wind velocities for the three lowest natural frequencies are found...................6 m/s 20.....2... Critical wind velocity for both first and second mode is of interest for vortex shedding phenomena because their magnitude is less than the mean wind velocity..2.........2 m/s Critical wind velocity for third mode (Hz) 44..4 m/s 54................Pär Tranvik....3 m At damper unit d = 2.. According to [3] the equivalent load during vortex shedding may be calculated as weq = µ tr ⋅ pcr ⋅ d ⋅ where π ........2 m/s.....(2...2)......... Strouhal number assumed to 0....4 a The critical wind velocity for the three lowest modes for the VEAB chimney...0 m/s At chimney shell d = 2......5) St f = Natural frequency (0. ... Table 2.

.....56 9...95 4....75 weq (N/m) 135 245 Some comments about this model and values of the temperature dependent variables will be discussed later in Section 6........9) where y max = Top deflection amplitude (m) The maximum top deflection range during vortex shedding was calculated by the manufacturer to 2 ⋅ 133 ....................8 vcr (m/s) Re 3......3 At damper 2....2 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2......................37 ⋅ 10 5 µ tr 0...... It is important to note that the VEAB chimney do not satisfy the restrictions in [3] for applicability of the code model......…...... which is defined in Equation 1........1 In Table 2.....7) where ρ is assumed equal to 1...(2..…………….......3 ⋅ weq . The restrictions are: h õ 30 ...............…............. The corresponding bending stress at the chimney base was calculated to 11.....Pär Tranvik.............4 b Equivalent loads during vortex shedding.... 29 ......(2...............4 Further the wind velocity pressure p cr is calculated as 2 pcr = 0...........…...2 p cr (Pa) 6..............8) d y max õ 0..........06 ⋅ d for the load 1...(2....6 MPa..... For the VEAB chimney the slenderness h/d = 39 which means that the restrictions for the applicability of the load model of the code [3] is exceeded......5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ v cr ..........…................ 97 ⋅ 10 5 7..............6 = 273 mm ... d (m) Shell plate 2..............4 b equivalent load during vortex shedding are found for the VEAB chimney.......24 3... Table 2... µ tr is a function of the Reynold number...........25 kg/m2 [3].

.............. Moment of inertia varies as I ( x) = π ⋅ D 4 − ( D − 2 ⋅ t )4 ............11) 64 [ ] 30 .....4 2..........2 a....3 m Plate thickness varies according to Table 2.(2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 Elastic energy To get an estimation of the energy added to the oscillating chimney the beam elastic energy is calculated......4 b A distributed load on a fixed cantilever beam........... Modulus of elasticity E = 21 ⋅ 10 4 MPa Height of the VEAB chimney H=90 m Bending moment in the beam loaded by a distributed load M b ( x ) = q ⋅ (H − x) ⋅ (H − x ) = q ⋅ ( H − x) 2 2 2 ...........................4......................10) The VEAB chimney outer diameter is D=2........ Figure 2....................................(2............Pär Tranvik.......

..(2....13) 40 ⋅ E ⋅ I part [ ] The numerical results are shown in Table 2..... The part integration will be W part 1 = 2 ⋅ E ⋅ I part q2 = 8 ⋅ E ⋅ I part h2 q2 ∫ (M b ( x)) ⋅ dx = 8 ⋅ E ⋅ I part h1 2 h h2 h1 ∫ ( H − x) 4 ⋅ dx W part 2  1  − ⋅ (H − x ) 5   5   h1 W part = q2 (H − h1 ) 5 − ( H − h2 ) 5 .5 0........010 0..0 5...0 0..2.0472 24..2 0...5 s ..…..0 12.........0 42..9 2 5........5 20.... The total beam elastic energy is then calculated by superposition...7 5 30.....014 0..4 c Numerical integration of the beam elastic energy....4..0 0.....0657 36.4 The beam elastic energy is described as H  (M b ( x )) 2  W = ∫   2 ⋅ E ⋅ I ( x )  ⋅ dx ..........…...........Pär Tranvik.. Table 2..2 90.....5 3 12.016 0..018 0...8 4 20.....0 0....012 0. the equivalent load during vortex shedding of the VEAB chimney according to Section 2..6 55..5 197 This means that a distributed load of 135 N/m corresponds to a bending energy of 197 Nm for 1 1 a half oscillating cycle....0840 37..006 0. The integral is therefore calculated separately for each part with constant shell thickness..0749 47... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2...... f 0.(2...4 c..8 7 Total 55...6 0.......0564 34... Part no h1 (m) h2 (m) t (m) I (m4) W (Nm) 1 0....288 31 .. The period of the oscillations is T = = ≈ 3........7 6 42..0 30..0378 10........0 0....0284 4.008 0.. It is assumed that q=weq=135 N/m...............12)  0 For each part with a constant shell thickness the moment of inertia is constant.

examined and repaired. As part of the action to ensure a safe design the original foundation ring was modified. Therefore an extensive data collecting system was installed intended to continuously monitor and record the response of the structure to wind loads. The same action was taken at the connection ring at the flanged splice on the 30 m level. 32 . The potential for fatigue problems were first pointed out in a report by the second author. Therefore an extensive crack examination program was carried out during the late summer and early autumn of 1996.5 2. It was snowy weather and the temperature was a couple of degrees below zero Celsius. A large number of cracks were found. It was repaired but questions still remained if there could be other explanations for the large oscillations. One important explanation to the unacceptable top deflections was that the damper was malfunctioning. The data collecting system has been in continuous operation since mid December 1996 until 2001. A couple of design changes were made. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. On top of the gussets an additional ring was added aimed to reduce stress concentrations at the horizontal welds between shell and gusset plates. In December 1998 some additional cracks were found at locations not examined before. During the spring of 1996 cracks were found.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney The VEAB chimney was erected in late November to early December 1995.Pär Tranvik. During the first winter period after erection several persons made observations of oscillations with large top deflections of the chimney.

At 10. Observations of some witnesses during the first winter period December 1995 to April 1996 were later documented and are briefly related below. The smoke from the older concrete chimney was almost above the new one or a little to the west.1 Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney Observation of mal-functioning of the chimney Observations of large oscillations During the first nine months of the chimney in operation oscillations with large top deflections were observed.0 m. The supervisor estimated that the chimney oscillated from Christmas 1995 or April 1996 one or two days a week with total top deflection amplitude of 0. After that he saw the chimney oscillate several times but not as much as on the first day. At 17. Several design engineers and one structural engineer at a nearby engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB located about 600 m NW of the chimney observed from their windows during the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated violently.Pär Tranvik. Two other structural engineers at a separate engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB located about 1 km NW of the chimney observed from their windows the chimney to oscillate drastically during several times in January and February 1996. The chimney oscillated in west/east direction. At 14. A building worker observed on the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated with a top amplitude equal to about the diameter.5 to1. Another building worker also made observations of the oscillations the same day as the supervisor. Later during the winter the same building worker. By levelling relative to a wall they estimated the top amplitude to be about half the diameter. He estimated the magnitude of the top deflection from measurements on the chimney shadow.00 to 15.5 m at roof level. 3.1 3.30 h the top chimney shadow moved about 4 m at the top of the power plant building. working on the power plant roof.1 3. A supervisor discovered that the chimney top oscillated with an amplitude approximately equal to the diameter and sounded like a chime of bells with a frequency of about one second period. 33 . observed the chimney to oscillate with amplitude of about 0.00 h it oscillated again but not as much as before. The top deflection amplitude was not quantified. The conditions for estimating the magnitude of the oscillations were good because the new steel chimney is almost in line with an older concrete chimney as viewed from the engineering office windows. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.30 to 12.00 to18.00 h the chimney again oscillated in a similarly manner. The structural engineer estimated the top amplitude to about half the diameter.1. His understanding was that the sound originated from movements between the outer and inner pipe. The first working day after Christmas 1995 the temperature was about -20 °C with a sunny clear sky.

1 a typical cracks for vertical gusset plates at foundation ring and vertical gusset plates at flanged erection splice at 30 m level are found. Personnel from the manufacturer as well as external testing personnel were involved in the quality inspection and testing. The pendulum movements were partly restrained. The most common type of crack was (1). 3.Pär Tranvik. The main explanation for the cracks was that one of the three guiding bars for friction masses of the damping pendulum at the top of the chimney was to long and therefore resting on the bottom friction plate. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1. The appearance of these cracks indicated that the cause was fatigue.3 Detailed examination of cracks As a result of the initial observations of cracks at the base a detailed examination of cracks was made using magnetic particle and eddy current testing techniques. Cracks were found at foundation ring gusset plates. A description of the detailed examination of cracks is found in appendix J. Because of the observed behaviour of the VEAB chimney an inspection was made in May 1996 by the second author acting as a consultant for VEAB. At the foundation level cracks were found at the weld toes to the gusset plates. (2) and (3) shows the propagation direction for the centre of weld-initiated cracks. (b) denotes the initiation point at the weld root.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes According to the manufacturer a documented quality control was made before the shipping of the chimney and there where no detected cracks when it left the workshop. 34 .1. The first author conducted and participated in all inspections and investigations and performed all evaluations. In Figure 3. (1) shows the propagation direction for the weld toe initiated cracks. Apparently the damper gave only limited damping action until it was adjusted in September 1996. at flanged erection splice gusset plates at 30 m level and at top and bottom of connecting gas duct vertical gussets. (a) denotes the initiation point at the weld toe where the angle at several welds was too sharp.1 3. Both the maximum bending moment from wind loads and the large stress concentration at fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at chimney coincided.

1 b. ← Crack at the weld toe ← Crack in centre of weld Figure 3. probably from cracks.1 a where some of the cracks at foundation level went through the weld. At both locations the crack lengths varied from 2 to 20 mm and the depths 1 to 3 mm. At 30 m level almost all of the gusset plates had some kind of a linear indication. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.5 mm of grinding. At the weld toe of the horizontal welds at ends of the vertical plate reinforcements five cracks were found as shown in Figure 3.1 Figure 3. 35 . A picture of a typical weld is found in Figure 3. except at (2) according to Figure 3.1 b A weld after 1.Pär Tranvik.1 a Typical cracks at horizontal fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at chimney At 12 of the 40 outside gusset plates and 37 of the 40 inside gusset plates at foundation level cracks were indicated.1 c.

3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. Therefore knowledge about their condition is unknown.1 a. Most of the horizontal welds at top of gusset plates at foundation level and 30 m level were damaged by cracks observed after only a few months of service of the chimney.5 Notches not available for examination A number of potential points for fatigue crack initiation were not available for examination.4 Summary of cracks All detected cracks had started either from an sharp and unacceptable weld toe or from root defects as shown in Figure 3.1. The weld roots had often remaining slag and cavities. 3.Pär Tranvik. 3.6 Repair of the damaged welds All welds with indicated cracks were repaired and once again examined by the magnetic particle method. The weld quality did not satisfy the code requirements for the weld qualities used in the design calculations. This was made immediately after the testing. 36 .1 c Detected cracks at gas duct inlet.1 Figure 3. such as welds at support gusset plates for inner pipe and guiding U-beams for inner pipe between the inner and outer shell.1.1.

was responsible for developing and installing the data recording system. the wind data transmitters and the computer.2 Strain gauges On the shell plate inside the stack at 4 m height above the concrete foundation strain gauges were applied at 16 points symmetrically in circumferential direction. The data recording system consists of three main parts. bridges. Sweden. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2 a Designation and orientation of strain gauges and locations relative to gas duct.2 3. The first installation of the strain gauge system was aimed for a short period. Figure 3. inspection door and ladder of the VEAB chimney.2 3.2. The inside chimney location was selected for weather protection reasons. The section at 4 m level was chosen in order to avoid influence of local stress concentrations from gusset plates at the chimney base and from the inlet to the gas duct. 3. Daltek Probator. Therefore the monitoring period was extended. Thus. 37 . For access and serviceability of the strain gauges a platform was built inside the chimney at 3 m height.2.1 Data recording system General Because doubts remained about the reliability of the damper even after the adjustment in September 1996 it was decided that oscillations of the structure had to be monitored and stored by a data recording system. The results obtained from such a short period were not convincing.Pär Tranvik. The accuracy of the recorded values from the strain gauges were estimated to 1 percent. the selected glue for the strain gauges was not aimed for long-term use. Initially the recording system was aimed at monitoring the chimney behaviour for a few months. The opposite strain gauges were coupled in pairs. The data recording system was created primarily for studying the influence of first mode oscillations with respect to fatigue strength. the strain gauges.

1. to the left in Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant.2 b The VEAB Sandvik plant. A balloon shows location of the wind data transmitter on top of the power plant building of the Sandvik II unit. Thus as stated in Section 2. 38 . This is to be compared with the height of the chimney. The height of the power plant building roof is 40 m above ground level. [9]. below which interaction between two equal chimneys may become significant [3]. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. was installed on the top of the power plant building on a 5 m height pole.3.2 b is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter.1 General Figure 3. To the right Sandvik II unit and the 90 m steel chimney. The wind data transmitter.2 3.2. The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney. wind monitor 05103 Young. 90 m above ground level. Furthermore the distance between the old concrete chimney and the VEAB chimney (new steel chimney) are drastically different.3 Wind data transmitter 3. It is much larger than 15 times the diameter.2. The horizontal distance between the wind data transmitters and the VEAB chimney is 43 m. Therefore all recorded wind data refer to a 45 m height above ground level and a point 43 m approximately north of the VEAB chimney.

..................... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.......2 c The wind data transmitters on the Sandvik II unit roof....Pär Tranvik...................19 .... 3.......................2 Figure 3..........2 Correction for wind at 90 m height The wind mean velocity varies with height according to [3] v mk ( z ) = v ref ⋅ C exp ( z ) . z 0 = 0................ topographical category II that is similar to the code definition [3] of an open terrain with small obstacles............ The wind data transmitter signals were also used by VEAB for their plant planning and for monitoring environmental conditions.............(3.1) where the exposure factor is   z C exp ( z) =  β ⋅ ln  z  0      2 for z > z min ..(3.......3....... Because of the small distance between the power plant outer roof and the wind data transmitter some form of turbulent boundary layer disturbances in the recorded wind data may be expected......... β = 0............05 and z min = 4 m 39 ...........2..2) For the VEAB chimney.................... Reference wind velocity and terrain related parameters for topographical category II is [3] v ref = 24 m/s ..

........3) v mk (h1 ) Table 3...0 34.........01 1... 3.03 vmk (m/s) 24. 40 ... Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind transmitters or reverse.... The wind mean values for both wind velocity and direction were calculated at three arithmetic mean values 10s..2 The height correction factor ncorr for wind at height h2 but measured at height h1 above ground level will be ncorr = v mk (h2 ) .....2 ncorr 1.2 d Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitter.2 d below error influence will be limited because the time to create mean values will have greater influence on the results than the elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitters or reverse....3 Influence of distance between chimney and wind data transmitter Because of the distance of 43 m between the chimney and the wind data transmitter wind data were not measured at the same time as oscillations of the chimney.................2....3......(3....... Height (m) 10 45 90 Cexp 1........Pär Tranvik... 1 min and 10 min.....67 2............ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...2 31....2 a Exposure factor...10 1.00 Wind data presented in this report have been corrected with the correction factor ncorr in Table 3............ Distance 43 m... 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (s) Elapsed time 10 s Wind speed (m/s) Figure 3. wind mean velocity and height correction factor to 90 m height for some heights..41 1....2 a.... As found from Figure 3..

The computer was located in a partly heated and completely weather-protected building intended for exhaust gas environmental control instruments. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2. At the time of installation it was a modern personal computer. 41 .2 e The recording computer in its cabinet. control and control of alarm functions were made by a computer program. Figure 3. Daltek Probator AB. Therefore.4 Recording computer The measurement equipment was based on a Pentium 100 MHz personal computer equipped with a data collecting card with 16 analogue input ports and a separate card for signal conditioning. in this report no correction was made to account for the distance between chimney and wind data transmitter. A locked cabinet prevented the computer from unauthorized curiosity. Collection of data. Both the strain gauges and the wind velocity and direction transmitter equipment were connected to the computer.2 Distance between chimney and transmitter is 43 m. Sweden developed the LabVIEW application and was responsible for both program installation and hardware. 3.Pär Tranvik. a virtual instrument especially developed for this project.

Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. An example is shown in Figure 3. On the computer screen a virtual instrument presented some output data. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2 f The recording computer.2 Figure 3. 42 .2 g The virtual instrument for recording and supervising the chimney. The measurement program collected data continuously and supervised eight signals from the eight strain gauge bridges and two signals from the wind data transmitter (velocity and direction).2 g.

The virtual lamp LED was lit once the limit value was exceeded. 10 min Stopp Utböjningsamplitud (mm) i resp. Vindhast. Vindhast. registerad vidd Loggas till fil Antal reg. Display Max. The value has to be set to zero by pushing the button Återst. Results for the last 10 s were shown as default value. 1 min. Shows name of file to which all recordings were stored. A button for stopping the program when copying recorded results. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s.2 The terminology in Swedish of the virtual instrument screen as exemplified in Figure 3. Vindriktn 10 min Shows wind direction values in 360 degrees according to Figure 3. 10s. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. 10s.2 a. This diagram shows the actual amplitude in real time for all eight strain gauge bridges.Pär Tranvik. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s. 1min. The virtual lamp Larm was lit only when the top deflection range exceeds the limit value Actual chimney maximum top deflection range in any direction. Vindriktn. svängningar Shows number of recorded registrations since last restart of the program. For some screen plots other values have been used. Max registrerad vidd. Maximum recorded top deflection range was shown.2 g is as follows: Larmgräns vidd för registrering If the chimney top deflection range in any direction exceeds this limit value the actual data was stored on the computer hard disk. It has to be switched off by pushing the button Återst. Vindriktn. kompassriktning Shows wind velocity values in m/s. 1 min and 10 min. Vindhast. 43 . 1 min and 10 min.

Minute 3.9 4.5 4.7 6.2 b.2 5.9 4. 10 min 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 min .6 4. 10.9 4. The number of the recording since last stop of the computer program.8 5. 1.9 4. Year 4. 15.6 5.2 b 4449 4450 4451 4452 4453 4454 4455 4456 4457 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 An example from the recorded measurement files.4 4.5 5 4. 13.Pär Tranvik. see example in Figure 3.2 The following data was stored in the recording file. Top deflection range for direction 1 as an integer (mm) 1 min 20.7 5 4. Day 18. Mean wind direction 10 s 16. 11.6 6.6 5. 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 10 16 10 38 41 44 48 51 54 58 1 4 81 94 99 99 104 114 121 83 94 118 144 153 153 164 158 183 146 148 141 176 182 186 190 174 210 186 171 155 182 186 188 192 168 213 197 168 145 165 171 174 164 147 181 185 145 120 125 132 133 123 110 129 146 109 78 73 79 74 70 58 66 85 61 61 48 53 48 47 56 61 52 45 5. 228 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 10 min 19.9 270 273 259 254 239 235 222 219 220 247 247 247 247 245 242 239 235 236 44 21.5 4.9 4. Mean wind velocity 10 s 7. Month 5.9 4. Table 3. 8.9 4.7 4. 9.9 6. Second as an integer 6. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.9 4. 12.8 4. 17. Hour 2.7 5. 14.

An additional theodolite check of the 45 ...................2...Pär Tranvik..... Signals from wind data transmitters were checked....6..... A/D and D/A transducers were calibrated in the LABVIEW system..................087 0..6 Verification of the equipment During the installation of the data recording system calibrations were made.......087 (σ and E in MPa and y in mm) From the bending moment the bending stress is calculated as: σ= Mb Wb W = I d 2 Mb ...... With an interval of 67 ms five samples were collected and mean values were calculated................................................2 3......(3........ strains were calculated every 67 ms.(3...............4) 0. With actual parameters for the strain gauges.. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.......5 Calculation of top deflection range Signals from all strain gauge bridges and wind data transmitters were read with a sampling frequency of 1000 values per second.......... chimney top deflection range was calculated with the following relationships and Equation 4......... From the strains............................................. Strains for calculating top deflections were checked using a model chimney with an equal strain gauge as on the chimney............. σ = E ⋅ε y= σ E ⋅ε = ..................5) 2⋅ I d σ = where σ E ε Mb Wb I d = = = = = = = Bending stress at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Modulus of elasticity Strain at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Bending moment at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Section modulus (4 m level) Moment of inertia (4 m level) Diameter 3..2....

3.1).2 deflections to those obtained from the strain gauges was made during the damping tests in August 1997 (see Section 3. During the recording period there were also some small interruptions in recording of data caused by short interruption of the plant electricity. Two of the strain gauges. had given the largest ranges for the first three years of measurements. The results were sorted and fatigue damage was calculated. then started to present unrealistic values and almost immediately became short-circuited. Therefore ranges below 200 mm were truncated that month.4) by a mistake was set to 200 mm instead of the intended value 100 mm. Both deflection range and frequency were checked and compared with computer results. During the month of July in 1998 the “Larmgräns vidd för registrering” (see section 3. Fortunately the strain gauge no 4. A decision was immediately taken that all strain gauges should be replaced with new ones and that a longterm glue should be used. There was no correction made for this.7 Procedures A limit value for recording the results was set to 100 mm equivalent top deflection range to ensure a reasonable amount of recorded data. Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001 (see Section 6. no 1 and 3. twice a month and finally once a month. 46 . Later the interval was increased to once a week.2.6). Therefore the data recording system could operate satisfactory and deliver trustworthy recordings with only a short break for the installation of the new strain gauges. which was unharmed. All data results were then transferred to another computer where the evaluations were made.3.2. Other interruptions were some minutes each time when the recorded data was transferred from the recording computer to data diskettes.8 percent of the time during the measurement years. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The recording system has been in operation 99. 3.2.8 Operating experiences The strain gauge equipment started to operate in December 1996 and operated without any problem until January 2000. This means that all results where the maximum range was less than 100 mm were truncated except during the damping tests. The recording program was always shut off on such occasions.Pär Tranvik. Maximum values were checked and the evaluation computer programs were run (Appendix H). During the first months the computer was checked twice a week.

Pär Tranvik.3.3 3.3. Figure 3. A catch rope was connected to the pulling rope in order to prevent the rope from swaying uncontrolled. that is. The wheel loader pulled the rope until a desired deflection was obtained. the logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper.3. and to get some understanding of the variability in the measurements.3 a and 3. The wind was below 6 m/s (10-minute mean) during all tests performed.3 b.1. Using a mechanical device the rope was abruptly disconnected close to the wheel loader and the chimney started to oscillate freely.3 a Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney – view 47 . The test instances were selected in order to avoid influence of aerodynamic damping from gust wind during the damping tests. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. Comparison tests were also made for the chimney with the mechanical damper in a locked position.3 3.1. The damping tests were made in August 1997 in fairly calm weather.1 Behaviour of the mechanical damper Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper Introduction Tests were performed to determine the damping properties of the VEAB chimney.1 3.2 Setup for Damping tests A 20 mm nylon rope was attached to the top of the chimney and connected to a wheel loader located approximately 150 m away from the chimney in southward direction. The setup for damping measurements is shown in Figure 3. 3. The damping test was repeated a number of times in order to get a good mean value of the logarithmic decrement. The chimney was initially forced to deflect and the resulting free sway of the chimney was recorded.

2. 48 . Deflections at the top of the chimney were calculated from recordings of the strain gauges attached to the chimney (see Section 3. Tests # 17 through 20 refer to the chimney with a locked damper. These visual observations showed good agreement with the recordings obtained from the strain gauges.3 Building N Building Pulling direction Chimney Building Figure 3. The wind direction was approximately the same as the pulling direction in the damping tests.Pär Tranvik.2). Similar measurements of damping of other slender structures have been reported in the literature.1). 3.3 Recordings A total number of 20 tests were performed to verify the damping of the chimney.3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.plan The top of the chimney was forced to deflect a maximum distance of 200 mm for a free mechanical damper and 100 mm for the chimney the comparison test with locked damper. which had been calibrated to the top deflections.3 b Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney . Tests # 1 through 16 refer to the chimney with the mechanical damper acting in normal operation. This limit was used in order to secure that the damping device would not be harmed in any way. Deflections of the chimney were checked also using a theodolite. The normal recording program to determine oscillations from wind and other actions was in effect during the damping tests. and in no instances exceeded 6 m/s (10-minute mean) or 8 m/s (10 s mean). The wind velocity during the damping tests was very low. During the course of the damping measurements the wind velocity and direction were recorded using the wind indicator located on the top of the adjacent power plant building at 45 m height above ground and at a distance of approximately 43 m from the chimney (see Section 3.1. see for instance [2].3.

deflection itself has been evaluated from the deflection-range data.288 Hz. A definite explanation for this discrepancy has not been found.7.Pär Tranvik. All recordings from the damping tests have been collected in Appendix C. This explanation is supported by the irregular curve for the first cycles as shown in the screen plots in Figures 3. Some examples of screen plots showing the parts of the oscillation behaviour during the damping tests are shown in Figures 3. 49 . This is because the recording system was designed to verify performance of the chimney with respect to fatigue. see Section 2.253 Hz.3 The data was collected using strain gauge readings and the recording computer described previously (se Section 3. is of utmost importance. Thus natural frequency was about the same with and without an acting damper. 3. The recorded natural frequency (first mode) of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation was 0. In Appendix C is also plotted the Deflection Range (that is. Some explanations and support lines have been included there to facilitate the interpretation of the data. twice the deflection) as a function of the order of the oscillation cycle. in Appendix C is shown a screen plot of the virtual recording instrument for all damping tests.3 e. in this case deflection range rather than the deflection itself. It should be observed that recordings refer to variations in actions. where variation of stress. One explanation could be that the first cycles of time history for the two mass damped systems have an irregular behaviour.4. see Section 3.3 c. Where required. The natural frequency obtained from the damping tests differ by 10 percent from the natural frequency calculated theoretically for the chimney considering the actual distribution of stiffness and mass along the chimney. 3. 3. stress range. that is. Another explanation could be that the damper may have been tuned by the manufacturer of the chimney during the days of damping tests.3 c.3 d and 3. Furthermore.1 and from that measured 0.258 Hz.2). as discussed below. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. A data file with results from the recording program is shown in tables. For the chimney with locked damper the recorded natural frequency was 0.2. In evaluating the results it should be observed that the recording limit of 100 mm means that a few cycles at the end of the course of sway action may not be registered.3 d.3 e and in Appendix C.

3 d Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope. Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.3 Figure 3. test no 1 of chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation. 50 .3 c Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. test no 4 of chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.

. test no 17 of chimney with locked mechanical damper... The magnitude of this error is calculated in the following..1...(3..... This will cause an error in the calculated value of the logarithmic decrement............. For a free single degree of freedom system with viscous damping less than critical the deflection y is found from [10] y = C ⋅ e −ζ ⋅ω n ⋅t ⋅ sin (ω d ⋅ t + θ ) .......... Symbols in this section....... differ from those used in others sections..........3...... not the deflection itself.... ..... such as ω .......4 Error when calculating logarithmic decrement from recorded deflection range All measurements and the calculations of logarithmic decrement were based on the deflection range that is....6) where C ζ ωn ωd t θ = = = = = = An arbitrary constant Relative damping The undamped natural frequency The damped natural frequency Time The phase angle δ = 2 ⋅π ⋅ζ 1− ζ 2 ωn = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f 51 ........... 3.3 Figure 3..........3 e Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope.Pär Tranvik.. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3..........

.....3......Pär Tranvik..0111 (0...2 δ = 0..7) 2  Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.. 52 . the observed logarithmic decrement according to Section 3........7.......(3............1.04 for mal-functioning damper... the observed natural frequency according to Section 3...........07 for functioning damper and 0............3 ωd = ω n ⋅ 1 − ζ 2 where f δ = Natural frequency = Logarithmic decrement For the VEAB chimney the typical values are f = 0....809557 rad/s ωd = 1.....288 Hz ..02009 ⋅t ⋅ sin 1.3 f Deflection as a function of time..809446 rad/s With the selected phase angle 90 degrees the deflection may be written π  y = C ⋅ e − 0...0065 for malfunctioning damper) ω n = 1...809446 ⋅ t +  .........6 Inserting these typical values into the parameter expressions will yield (the number of digits required is large to obtain the required accuracy) ζ = 0..

3 53 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.Pär Tranvik.

1. Data for such alternative calculations are included in Appendix C....3 h and 3......3 g shows an example of such an alternate calculations.......3 a..3 i..3 a. oscillation after loosening the pulling rope were disregarded in evaluating the logarithmic decrement... δ = ln( yn / y n+ k ) / k ...... and causing the computer evaluation program to make an incorrect calculation of the deflection range for the first and second oscillation... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3... Figure 3.. Mean values of the logarithmic decrement δ ave k were obtained for each 20 damping tests from this starting value until the deflection falls below the value of 100 mm....... From studying such variations it was concluded that the variation was not significant and should be caused by various irregularities due to the fact that the tests were made under field conditions................. ”Initial deflection range” in the table equals the sum of the initial deflection at the moment of loosening the pulling rope and the following minimum value of the deflection. The first diagram is for tests with the mechanical damper in normal operation and the third for a test with a locked damper... 54 .. “Number of oscillations k” refers to the number considered in determining the logarithmic decrement δ ave k given in the final column of Table 3..8. This is because the start of the deflection history may be non-linear.....3 h..... with n running from first to final value considered and k = 3) to study the variation in the logarithmic damping as obtained in the test.... The results of the 20 damping tests performed are summarized in Table 3. This would lead to 6 to 12 oscillations being considered for the chimney with the damper in normal operation.. and in some instances also the second..3........... and 3 to 9 oscillations for the chimney with locked damper..3 3.Pär Tranvik....5 Evaluation of Logarithmic Decrement The logarithmic decrement δ was calculated from Equations 3. see Figure 3.....(3............. a deflection range of 200 mm. By averaging over a number of oscillations the influence of damping due to action of any gust winds or irregularities in the action of the damper during the tests should be minimized......... that is......8) where yn = Deflection for the first oscillation considered yn+k = Deflection for the final oscillation considered k = Number of oscillations considered The first.... Examples of deflection range as a function of time for two of the 20 tests performed are shown in Figure 3.. Alternate calculations of the logarithmic decrement were made applying a set of three consecutive oscillations (that is.......

0953 R2 = 0.040 0.080 0.Pär Tranvik.1787 0. Test no 8.060 0. floating logarithmic decrement 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.100 Log decr 0.120 y = -1E-04x + 0.3 Test no 8.3 g Example of variation in recorded logarithmic decrement δ determined for three consecutive oscillations.020 0. 55 .000 200 450 400 350 300 250 Deflection range (mm) Figure 3.

8 3.3 3.01 17.070 0.1 160 173 136 156 181 219 170 168 171 170 185 157 168 172 169 152 154 187 191 193 172 172 169 173 165 155 168 163 164 162 164 169 184 186 185 182 172 172 170 164 6 7 10 8 9 6 6 12 10 7 7 9 10 6 8 7 0.22 376 8.063 0.8 210 19 11.057 0.31 20.7 3.38 419 422 394 382 507 415 411 421 445 445 426 397 7. date 97-08-06 17 10. date 97-08-05 1 * 11.1 2.59 17.3 4.1 3.048 0.009 7 *** 13.8 3.9 2.078 0.0 6.070 0.6 5.5 2.3 3.9 137 182 191 182 131 173 172 175 175 170 4 9 5 3 0.7 6. 56 .5 3.04 191 4.9 168 172 118 3 13.9 3.2 4.5 3.068 0.056 0.011 Notes to table: * A technician was standing on the platform at the top of the chimney during the test.9 184 20 11.7 2.038 0.04 425 4.6 195 18 10.0 5.2 5.55 184 2.068 0. decrement δ ave k k Chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.40 16 ** 20.8 5.4 2.8 3.4 4.071 0.9 6. ** *** During the course of oscillations one or two irregularities were obtained.7 3.3 4.5 2.081 0.7 5.3 194 161 159 2 ** 12.41 8 16.068 0.Pär Tranvik.5 5.8 179 170 173 4 5 6 13.7 2.55 10 11 12 ** 13 14 ** 15 16.072 0.30 13.6 1. 0 / 360) range (mm) 10 s 1 min 10 min 10 s 1 min 10 min Number Logarithmic of oscill.4 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.098 0.09 185 Mean Standard deviation 3.062 0.36 20.7 2.45 9 16.3 3.55 304 5.6 3.58 202 2.6 3.3 3.070 0.068 0.031 0.5 3.8 3.3 a Test # Time of test Conditions and results from 20 tests of damping of VEAB chimney Initial Wind velocity Wind direction deflection (m/s) (degrees.7 5. These oscillations were disregarded in determining the mean logarithmic decrement δ ave k given in the table.8 3.44 382 Mean Standard deviation Chimney with locked mechanical damper.065 0.34 13.6 5.043 0. The pulling rope fractured near the top of the chimney instead of at the wheel loader.3 3.9 3.04 20.0 4.7 2.4 3.2 4.064 0.3 Table 3.3 4.6 3.7 3.7 6.5 6.

Pär Tranvik. Test no 17.3 h Deflection range as a number of time (cycle number).3 Test no 1. One cycle corresponds to approximately 3. locked damper 500 Deflection width (mm) 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Cycle no 20 25 30 Figure 3.5 s.5 s. Test no 1 with mechanical damper in normal operation. active damper 400 Deflection range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Cycle no 20 25 30 Figure 3.3 i Deflection range as a number of time. One cycle corresponds to approximately 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. 57 . Test no 17 with locked damper.

......3... such as internal ducts... The logarithmic decrement in the 16 tests performed varies from 0.057 to 0... ladder etc.3. 3..07 over the normal upper design value of 0........056.......3 Further examples are found in Appendix C..6 Discussion of results The recorded logarithmic decrement δ =0.. as given in [3].... (3.........02 to 0. the recorded logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation was 63 percent higher than for the chimney with a locked damper..3..Pär Tranvik.2........031 to 0. The relatively large variation in the logarithmic decrement obtained in the repeated tests........ This beneficial effect was smaller than could be expected....9) where δ a = aerodynamic damping δ m = mechanical damping of the chimney... The mechanical damper will increase the mean value of the logarithmic decrement of the chimney δ =0...... The probable cause for this is discussed in Section 3.......070.03 [3].03. The logarithmic decrement variation in the four tests performed varies from 0...5..... could be due to at least three reasons.......1.... listed here in the order of estimated importance: 1) Accidental variations in the action of the mechanical damper 58 . Thus... expressed as a standard deviation of about 0. without damper δ d = mechanical damping of the damper The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation is 0. to be used for design of normal steel chimneys with installations.. [5] by a factor of 2....... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.. This increase in damping may at least partly be caused by some beneficial action from the mechanical damper. The recorded damping expressed as logarithmic decrement δ consists of three parts: δ = δ a + δ m + δ d ..01... The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with a locked damper is 0...098.043..... although it was locked to minimise such action and from effective damping of non-structural elements.....043 is somewhat higher than the range 0... [5]........... considering the fact that a theoretical study performed by the supplier of the chimney claimed a tenfold increase in the logarithmic decrement when adding the mechanical damper to the chimney...

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.6 with unlocked damper.Pär Tranvik. but was considerably smaller than could be expected from a theoretical study.019 with locked damper and 0. due to the fact that these tests were made under field conditions Inaccuracies in the recording system. 59 . 3) The recorded logarithmic decrement of the VEAB chimney. In [11] a full scale damping test for a 45 m chimney with a tuned damper was made.3 2) Disturbances from variations in environmental conditions. agrees well with the damping assumed in the design calculations prepared by the chimney supplier. As in our damping tests the damper was both locked and unlocked. with the mechanical damper in normal operation. mainly aerodynamic damping due to variations in wind velocity and wind direction.5 to 0. Compared to the VEAB chimney the damping arrangement as reported in [11] appears much more efficient. The logarithmic decrement was found to be 0.

... In the model..............(3....2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper 3........3 3..11) m⋅ 2 dt dt dt M gen where M gen = Generalised mass of the chimney m = Damper pendulum mass F y1 y2 c1 c2 = Amplitude for vortex shedding force = Deflection of chimney = Deflection of pendulum mass = Chimney stiffness = Damper stiffness 60 ..1 Model Ruscheweyh has presented a simplified calculation model for a chimney provided with a tuned pendulum mass damper [6].10) dt 2 dt dt dt 2 d y2 dy dy + c 2 ⋅ ( y 2 − y1 ) + k 2 ⋅ ( 2 − 1 ) = 0 ...............2......... damping from the mass damper k1 was neglected....(3.Pär Tranvik.................. Figure 3........... This model has been extended in this section to account for the effect of the mass damper k1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...3.....3 j Model of a two mass spring and damper system d 2 y1 dy dy dy + c1 ⋅ y1 + c 2 ⋅ ( y1 − y 2 ) + k1 ⋅ 1 + k 2 ⋅ ( 1 − 2 ) = F ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) ...3.

.....................…...........................................13) 2 20 2 2  2 10 ∆t  m ∆t ∆t   ∆y1 ) ∆t .........................(3........................3 k1 k2 v1 v2 a1 a2 = Chimney damping = Damper damping = Velocity for M gen = Velocity for m = Acceleration for M gen = Acceleration for m = Angular frequency of vortex shedding ω The differential equations were rewritten as finite difference equations and solved for a large number of small time steps with a computer program............................................................................................17) 61 ... v 20 ................................................................................ y10 and y 20 where the second index means time zero...................(3.. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.... Start values are v10 .......... Accuracy and convergence was checked by changing the time steps.....................................................(3...........................................................................(3.....(3.................................16) ∆v 2 = a 2 ⋅ ∆t .............15) a2 = ∆t ∆( ∆v1 = a1 ⋅ ∆t .........Pär Tranvik...14) a1 = ∆t ∆y ∆( 2 ) ∆t ..12) ∆( ∆y 2 ) ∆t = c ⋅ y − c ⋅ y + k ⋅ ∆y10 − k ⋅ ∆y 20  ⋅ 1 .. 1 2 10 2 20 1 2 2   M ∆t ∆t ∆t ∆t   gen (3...................................... The finite differences may be written ∆( ∆y1 ) ∆t =  − (c + c ) ⋅ y + c ⋅ y − k ⋅ ∆y10 − k ⋅ ∆y10 + k ⋅ ∆y 20 + F ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) ⋅ 1 ...............

.21) y1 = y10 + ∆y1 ........(3.............................................................................................262 Hz ....2.............. see Appendix H............. The program is capable of creating a dynamic response for a frequency spectrum and a time history................................................. M gen Damper pendulum mass....................................... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3............................................................... 62 .......1.. It also deals with the wind turbulence by allowing a randomised relative level of the amplitude for vortex shedding force and the frequency of the vortex shedding................ was applied on the complete height of the chimney in the same FE calculation as in Section 2.22) y2 = y 20 + ∆y 2 ..7.. m Observed natural frequency..19) ∆y1 = v1 ⋅ ∆t ...................................................(3.......3.................. fe1 see Section 3..................3 v1 = v10 + ∆v1 ........................288 Hz f e2 = 1 ⋅ f e1 = 0.2.............7...18) v2 = v20 + ∆v2 ........................(3.(3...........24) 1 + 0............ See also chapter 2.20) ∆y 2 = v 2 ⋅ ∆t .....................1 ⋅ 12 460 = 1 246 kg *) 0.........................(3...........................3............................. A computer program.....2 Optimum damper frequency tuning according to [6] 12 460 kg *) 0...4...............................(3.2 Input data The following data was used as input data for this theoretical study of the damped system.......................... The results are shown in Figure 3.............3 k..............Pär Tranvik..... calculated according to Section 2.......... Generalised mass............(3..... *) Data given by the manufacturer of the chimney.........1 For determining the stiffness of the VEAB chimney an equivalent load........................ 3.4..23) Critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated according to Equation 2...2...................5 and wind velocity pressure according to Equation 2. has been developed which takes into consideration all variables above.......

......................................... 63 ...............................(3..........29) 8 8 Model Figure 3...3 k Reactions Deflections Deflections of the chimney loaded by vortex shedding....3 For a cantilever beam loaded by a distributed load the deflection is δq = q ⋅ L4 .........…………........ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3......................................25) 8⋅ E ⋅ I For a cantilever beam loaded by a point load at distance L the deflection is F ⋅ L3 δF = .....(3....…..............................4 b is q = µ tr ⋅ pcr ⋅ d = 0......(3...............28) 8 8 Point load for calculating stiffness when q=135 N/m according to Table 2..............................2 ⋅ 6..56 ⋅ 2......................4 b is used 3 3 F = ⋅ q ⋅ L = ⋅ 135 ⋅ 90 = 4556 N ................................................0 N/m .......................26) 3⋅ E ⋅ I The distributed load.............0 ⋅ 90 = 102 N ..... when the complete chimney height is assumed to be loaded by vortex shedding loads according to Table 2................….....3 = 3..........(3......Pär Tranvik.................................27) The point load replacing the distributed load will be δ F = δq ⇒ F= 3 3 ⋅ q ⋅ L = ⋅ 3....(3..........................………………....

...............................04 corresponds to a damping of k1=324 kg/s.............................(3............................... Similarly the logarithmic decrement of the pendulum damper 0. 64 ..................262) 2 = 3 372 N/m ..................................(3..................001 s Start values for dynamic response calculations during vortex shedding at time 0: y10 y20 v10 v20 = = = = 0 0 0 0 The density of air was assumed to 1............(3..0877 Damper stiffness c 2 = m ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f e2 ) 2 = 1 246 ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0..................................................30) 0..........3 Chimney stiffness c1 = 4 556 = 52 000 N/m ......................(3.................... From a comparison study the time step found to be acceptable considering convergence and precision is ∆t = 0.......................31) Logarithmic decrement according to [12] y δ 1 = ln 10  y  1  2 ⋅π ⋅ ς1 = ........25 kg/m3......................................03 corresponds to a damping of k2=19 kg/s..................(3......33) y δ 2 = ln  20  y  2  2 ⋅π ⋅ ς 2 = ......... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...............................................35 the logarithmic decrement of the chimney 0........................................32)  2  1− ς1 2 ⋅ς1 = k1 c1 ⋅ m ................35) where = The fraction of critical damping or relative damping From Equations 3........................................................Pär Tranvik.........34)  2  1− ς2 2 ⋅ς 2 = k2 c 2 ⋅ M gen ζ .......(3....33 through 3...........................................................

Both vortex shedding frequency and vortex shedding force were randomised by 50 percent.317 Hz. 65 .3 The actual wind is neither constant in frequency nor magnitude.2 0. 50 percent is a reasonable value for both frequency and magnitude.25 0.35 0.01 Hz. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. locked damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 0. In the following calculations Figures 3. The model applied in the computer program was therefore created to consider a randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force.3 q show two examples.Pär Tranvik. According to Section 3.3 p and 3.3.1 0 0.4. 3.248 m (the maximum point in the diagram) deflection at vortex shedding frequency 0.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3. Both with and without the 50 percent randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force were applied in the computer program. Start values for the damping test calculations at time 0: y10 y20 v10 v20 = = = = 200 mm 0 0 0 The corresponding amplitude for vortex shedding force was then F=0.3 0.3 l Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a locked (mal-functioning) damper. Maximum top amplitude was calculated to 0. When calculating the dynamic response the frequency step used in the finite difference calculation has been 0.2.2 0.3 Dynamic response during vortex shedding Dynamic response. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency.

2 0.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3.35 0. 66 .357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper.357 Hz. tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.2 0.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.2 0. tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 n Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency f=0.25 0.220 m at vortex shedding frequency 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 Dynamic response.1 0 0. Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude deflection was calculated to 0.3 m Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a tuned functioning damper.3 0.3 0. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent.Pär Tranvik.3 0. Time history for top deflection.

357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 p The 50 percent-randomised vortex shedding force used for Figure 3. Randomised vortex shedding force by 50 percent Vortex shedding force (N) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.2 0.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.3 0.3 Time history for top deflection. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent according to figure 3. 67 .3 o Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency f=0.3 o.3 p and 3.Pär Tranvik. tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 q.

......4 0.......34 Hz instead of the correct value 0......2.... 68 ......4 Dynamic response during vortex shedding and a mistuned damper To study the influence of an error in the tuning of the damper it is assumed that the first mode of natural frequency is 0.........1 This means that the damper stiffness will be c2 = m ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f e2 )2 = 1246 ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0....2).3 q The 50 percent-randomised vortex shedding frequency used for Figure 3.......6 0...5 0.. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...3 Randomised vortex shedding frequency by 50 percent 0.....36) 1 + 0.1 1................2.........3 o.....(3...3......34 = 0...3 0.288 Hz (Section 3....... 3.................Pär Tranvik.....1 0 0 1000 2000 Time (s) 3000 4000 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3.31 Hz .3 are performed with the new damper stiffness............3. The frequency tuning is calculated to f e2 = 1 1 ⋅ f e1 = ⋅ 0.....(3...2 0....7..37) Similar calculations as in Section 3..31)2 = 4727 N/m ....

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.25 0.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3.2 0.31 Hz).191 m at vortex shedding frequency 0. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. This was the case of a functioning damper.31 Hz).3 Dynamic response. misstuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.380 Hz.3 r Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding force and a mistuned functioning damper (frequency f2=0.3 s Time history of top amplitude deflection at the oscillating frequency f=0.380 Hz. 69 .2 0. a variable vortex shedding force and tuned functioning damper (frequency f2=0. The tuned damper to be compared with this one was found in Figure 3.3 0.3 n and 3. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude was 0.Pär Tranvik.3 0.3 m.2 0.3 0.35 0. misstuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. Time history for top deflection.1 0 0.3 o. The tuned damper to be compared with this one is found in Figure 3.

6 Influence of lock-in effects Because of lock-in phenomena the amplitude could increase considerably because the vortex shedding starts at lower wind velocities.3 h and 2.Pär Tranvik. It is well known that the Strouhal number could be reduced to half its normal value because of lock-in effects. see for instance [26].3.3. a variable vortex shedding force and tuned frequency f2=0. By plotting the deflection for the pendulum mass it is obvious that the damper unit is not able to act in the way as intended.2.3 j the space in damper house is limited and the pendulum mass angle movement is therefore limited to approximately 1. and the chimney continues to oscillate with the same frequency as the vortices were separated from the chimney.2 0.2.5 Influence of the geometrical limitations of the damper house As shown in Section 2. 70 . The horizontal line show available damper space. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent.262 Hz. 75 mm.3 3. the stroke of the damper friction and/or pendulum mass against the vertical damper unit walls and the energy losses in the chain movements. Therefore the above-presented model still could be valid for principle calculations. The probability for conditions causing this type of lock-in are low.3 t Time history of required free functioning damper amplitude space at the vortex shedding frequency f=0. Time history for required damper amplitude space Required damper amplitude space (m) 0.3. 3.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.3 o shows the time history diagram for the chimney mass.357 Hz.2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. Therefore lock-in phenomena could be dangerous for slender chimneys. Slender structures are more sensitive for lock-in phenomena. That was also an explanation to the surprisingly low damping value delivered by the damper unit.3 0. The wind velocity will be doubled and the wind pressure increases by a factor of four. The maximum possible relative amplitude movement in horizontal direction is 75 mm. A reasonable assumption was that the damper units damping was achieved by a combination of the limited pendulum movement. This is one of the reasons for the limitation of the applicability of the equivalent load in [3] and [24]. but a chimney does have a lot chances during its long lifetime. Figure 2. Figure 3.2 degrees.

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2.5 1 0.5 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. accelerations of the chimney mass and the accelerations of the damper mass were calculated. 71 . Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised.3. The damper mass acceleration must be greater than the friction force between damper friction mass and the damper house bottom.7 Accelerations From the solutions of the finite difference equations.Pär Tranvik. tuned frequency f2=0.357 Hz.262 Hz and a functioning damper.3 3.3 n shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection. Time history of damper mass acceleration Damper mass acceleration (m/s2) 2 1. The magnitude of the damper mass accelerations is of great importance. Figure 3.3 u Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding frequency f=0.

If the friction masses weight is about 40 kg the maximum required friction force according to Equation 2.357 Hz.3 o shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection.5 1 0. Therefore it is obvious that there will be enough acceleration for activating the friction masses.5 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time(s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.3 v Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding frequency f=0. The resulting horizontal force will be about 1200 N (pendulum mass 1246 kg). By comparing figure 3.262 Hz and a functioning damper.Pär Tranvik. Figure 3. a variable vortex shedding force.3 u and 3.4 will be approximately 120 N. tuned frequency f2=0.3 v it is found that the mean damper mass acceleration is about 1 m/s2. 72 .3 Time history of damper mass accelerations Damper mass acceleration (m/s2) 2 1. Both vortex shedding frequency or critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.

The damper stiffness was assumed to zero and the chimney damper mass were added to the generalised mass.2 0. The figure could be compared with Figure 3.05 0 -0. representing the corresponding damping test.3 h representing the corresponding damping test.Pär Tranvik.1 -0.3 w Time history of damping test with a functioning damper.15 -0.3 x Time history of damping test with a mal-functioning damper. Time history for damping measurement with a malfunctioning damper 0.3 i.8 Calculation the damping measurement conditions Time history for damping measurement with a functioning damper 0.2 0 15 30 45 Time (s) 60 75 90 Top deflection (m) Figure 3.3 3.15 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The figure could be compared with Figure 3. Thus the damper mass will be neglected.05 -0.2.05 -0.1 Top deflection (m) 0. 73 .3.1 0 15 30 45 Time (s) 60 75 90 Figure 3.05 0 -0.1 0.

Figure 3.4. A very quick increase of the top amplitude deflection and often an almost equal decrease was observed. According to the theory a sudden and quick increase of the top amplitude deflection will occur. 3. [13] and [14]. With the same discussion as for the mal-functioning damper it seems reasonable to expect a top deflection range of approximately 1600 mm for the functioning damper and the same weather conditions. This corresponds also well to the recordings according to Section 3.3 o for the functioning damper show a top deflection range of approximately 400 mm. The recorded data also show that the wind quickly and often change both velocity and direction.11.3.3 s gives a little less top deflection amplitude as compared to the tuned damper.3 n and 3.3 h and 3. The major part is probably achieved from friction losses in the chains etc. The superimposed oscillations show the sum of oscillations of the both masses. Equation 3.3 x corresponding to the damping tests. Figure 3. The theoretical study supports the statement made in Section 3.3 i are found except for one behaviour.3 h.1 and studied further in an estimated load spectrum in Section 4. which could not be found in Figure 3. From the recorded data given in Section 3. 74 .Pär Tranvik. It is important to note that the model does not include any advanced fluid mechanical behaviour.1.3. It is worth noting that the mistuned damper in Figure 3.2 and reverse. show a similar behaviour in the solutions as in [6].4 a similar behaviour is observed. Thus the damper produces less damping than expected.3 3. large amplitude deflection during vortex shedding will only occur for short periods at a time. No lock-in effects are included.3 r and 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.10 and 3. If we assume a lock-in on the wind velocity of two times the top deflection range will increase with a factor four to about 2000 mm. The calculations will then roughly confirm the observations noted in Section 3. Figures 3.3 l for the mal-functioning damper show a top deflection range of 496 mm. This difference was an additional argument to that only a minority of the damping is achieved from the friction masses. Figure 3. Figure 3.3 w and 3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study The solutions for the dynamic response. Thus the model only is limited sensitive to relatively large randomised changes in frequency or vortex shedding force.6 that the VEAB chimney damper is a not an optimum damper device. The accelerations are found to be large enough to overcome the friction forces between the damper friction masses and the damper house bottom friction plate. For the simulation of the damping tests.3 w shows two superimposed oscillations. The quick decrease was explained by the turbulent behaviour of the wind. There were some deviations between theory and damping measurements that mainly may be explained by the fact that theory comes to the conclusion that there is not enough horizontal space in the damper house. but the vortex shedding frequency is larger.3 m.

001692 0.000004 0.000320 0.000318 0. Typical for gust wind is that only one or a few large oscillations follow after each other in time.000063 0.000067 0. Year number are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.000138 5 0.000071 12 Total 0. 1 0 1 12 4 2 8 6 4 0 3 9 2 0 7 4 5 2 4 0 5 5 3 3 6 6 4 7 2 9 7 4 20 11 4 8 0 11 2 3 9 9 0 1 0 10 0 4 3 3 11 0 0 5 1 12 0 1 10 0 Year/ Month no 1997 1998 1999 2000 Table 3.000758 0.000342 0.4 a and 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. about two million loggings. 75 .000009 0. Typical for vortex shedding is that several large oscillations follow after each other in time.000005 0.000311 0.000185 0.000155 10 0.000468 0.000165 0.4 b remains. the vortex shedding top deflection range calculated by the manufacturer.000214 The differences between the two tables were due to that all cycles when top range deflection exceeds 267 mm was included in Table 3.000331 0.000027 0.000542 0. 2 0. all periods where the top deflection range exceeds 267 mm have been identified.000295 0.000370 3 0.000255 0.000017 0.000870 0.000215 0.000000 0.4 a the top range deflections less than a few cycles were truncated.000745 8 0.000133 11 0.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney From the recorded results.4 b Relative time for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm.000247 6 0.000009 0.000079 0.000855 0.000264 9 0.000249 4 0.Pär Tranvik.000041 0.000262 0.000277 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total 1 0.000185 0. In Table 3.000000 0. Table 3.000444 0.000346 0.000206 0.4 3.000259 0.000060 0.000639 0.000418 0.000413 7 0.4 b. Year numbers are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.000120 0.000578 0.000350 0.000014 0.000110 0. By plotting all identified results on the computer screen and truncating all periods where only a few cycles follow in time the results according to Table 3.000183 0.000025 0. According to Section 4.1 maximum deflection ranges during vortex shedding was calculated as 2 ⋅ 133 .000000 0.000005 0.001174 0.000226 0.000446 0.000075 0.6 = 267 mm.000245 0.000065 0.4 a Number of occasions per month where top deflection range exceeds 267 mm for more than a few cycles.000019 0.

0006 0.0002-0.0012 0.0014 Relative time 0.001-0.0016-0.4 a show large top range deflections during the winter time but in the middle of the summer the largest amount of oscillations occurred.0014-0. It is well known. as described in for instance [1].4 Relative time for top range displacement exceeding 267 mm 0. This was not expected. 76 23 1 3 5 7 9 .0004 0-0.0012-0.0012 0.0002 10 11 12 Figure 3. Obviously large vortex-shedding oscillations could to be expected also during summer periods.0016 0.0008 0.0018 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.0004-0.0008-0.0006-0.4 b Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding 267 mm.0016 0. Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding 267 mm 3000 2500 Elapsed time (s) 1999 9 2000 8 2000 1500 1000 500 0 11 13 15 17 19 21 1997 1998 1999 2000 Time at the day (hr) Figure 3.0008 0.0004 0. From Figure 3.0014 0.Pär Tranvik.001 0. that it is more probable for huge laminar vortex shedding induced oscillations to occur during cold winter days with cold laminar airflow.0018 0.0002 0 1 2 5 6 Month number 3 4 7 Year 1997 1998 0.4 a Relative time of the measure period for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm.001 0.0006 0.

Pär Tranvik.45 h 20 Wind velocity (m/s) 15 v10s 10 v1min v10min 5 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 360 Wind direction average values 2000-06-13 at 14.4 c A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a rather long period of large deflection ranges.4 Range at strain gauge no 4 2000-06-13 at 14.45 h Wind direction (360 deg) 270 r10s 180 r1min r10min 90 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 Figure 3. 77 . Range. 1 minute and 10 minutes.45 h 500 400 Range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 Wind velocity average values at 90 m height 2000-06-13 at 14. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values over 10 seconds. wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function of time. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.

Range. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.Pär Tranvik.4 d A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a short period of large deflection ranges. 78 .4 Range at strain gauge no 5 2000-10-11 at 16.04 h 360 Wind direction (360 deg) 270 r10s 180 r1min r10min 90 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 Figure 3.04 h Wind velocity (m/s) 15 v10s 10 v1min v10min 5 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 Wind direction average values 2000-10-11 at 16. 1 minute and 10 minutes. wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function of time. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values over 10 seconds.04 h 500 400 Range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 20 Wind velocity average values at 90 m height 2000-10-11 at 16.

A typical time history response during vortex shedding was an immediate increase from small deflection ranges to large deflection ranges. 79 .028 percent of the time or about ten hours during the four-year observation period discussed in this report. From Table 3.4 In Appendix I all identified periods with the criteria top deflection range exceeding 267 mm for the year 2000 were plotted (see also Table 3.3.Pär Tranvik.4 b it is found that the VEAB chimney oscillates with a top deflection range exceeding 267 mm (mainly vortex shedding) for 0. The large deflection ranges continues for typically about 100 seconds and decrease immediate again. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. About 50 percent turbulence intensity is typical if defined as 10 seconds mean value divided by 10 min mean value.2.4 a and 3. It was also obvious that large deflection ranges occur even if the turbulence intensity of the wind velocity is relatively large. The magnitude of 10 min mean values seems to be most important for vortex shedding. The time required to obtain stationary top deflection range during vortex shedding is > 10 minutes according to Section 3.4 b). This corresponds to about 30 year of service hours minutes second 80 000 cycles ( ⋅10 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 0.288Hz = 77760 ) 4 recording years 4 years hour minute above the design value for the top deflection range of 267 mm during a 30-year service life.

5 3.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range. sorted monthly. The plotting was made in the Auto Cad dxf drawing format. In this section a typical selection of periods are presented.5 ⋅ ρ Air ⋅ v10 min where v10 min is mean wind speed calculated over 10 minutes and ρ Air = air density based on daily mean values for temperature according to Section 3. If maximum top deflection range was less than 100 mm the recording was truncated and dots were plotted for wind pressure nor deflection range. All recorded data for the four years 1997 through 2000 are read.8. anthill diagrams For the measurement period wind pressure and top deflection range anthill diagrams are plotted 2 for the VEAB chimney.Pär Tranvik. 80 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5.5 Observed wind properties 3.Section 3. Additional plots are found in Appendix F. Dynamic wind pressure is assumed to follow p dyn = 0. calculated and finally plotted in anthill diagrams by a couple of computer programs (Appendix H).

5 Figure 3. Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 b Top deflection range anthill diagram for June 1997. 81 .Section 3.5 a Wind pressure anthill diagram for June 1997.Pär Tranvik.

Pär Tranvik. Figure 3.5 c Wind pressure anthill diagram for December 2000. 82 .5 d Top deflection range anthill diagram for December 2000.5 Figure 3.Section 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .

5. Finally some summary plots are given. It is obvious that the dominating oscillations for the VEAB chimney are in NNW direction and that the dominating wind causing those oscillations blows from SW direction.Section 3.5.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . In Appendix F additional diagrams are found.5 3. The year 1999 above is typical and all other recorded years show the same behaviour. Wind pressure times number of cycles is a measure of the applied wind energy.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range diagrams Similarly as in Section 3. Top deflection range times number of cycles is a measure of the accumulated deflection energy.1 and for the same months the sum of wind pressure (10 minutes mean values) times number of cycles and the sum of top deflection range times number of cycles are plotted. The mean angle between wind pressure times number of cycles and deflection range times number of cycles is about 67 to 90 degrees. 83 . The chimney oscillates with an angle almost perpendicular to the wind direction.

Section 3.5 Figure 3. Figure 3.5 f Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for June 1997.Pär Tranvik. 84 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 e Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for June 1997.

85 .Section 3.5 g Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for December 2000.Pär Tranvik.5 h Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for December 2000. Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 Figure 3.

Pär Tranvik.5 i Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles year 1999. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 86 .5 Figure 3.Section 3. Figure 3.5 j Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for year 1999.

5.4.2 and for the same months the elastic energy diagrams.3 Elastic energy diagrams Similar as in Section 3.3 are plotted for the VEAB chimney.5 3. Figure 3.Section 3.5. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Pär Tranvik.5 k Elastic energy diagram for June 1997. calculated according to Section 2. 87 .

88 .5 Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.5 l Elastic energy diagram for December 2000.5 m Elastic energy diagram for the year of 1999. Figure 3.Section 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .

In Appendix F diagrams for some additional periods are found.5. Height above sea level at the observation station is about 199 m. The wind velocity is measured at 10 m height above the ground. located at latitude 56° 51´ and longitude 14° 50´.5 n Wind pressure anthill diagram for February 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station. The closest station to the VEAB plant is Växjö A.Section 3.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. administrates a net of observation stations for meteorological and hydrological observations all over Sweden. Figure 3. 89 . All wind data in this section origin from SMHI and Växjö A. A 360-degree compass has been used. A slope in northern direction and a sea separate the Växjö A station and the VEAB plant.Pär Tranvik. SMHI. 90 degrees means that the wind blows from east and so on.5 3. about four km south of the plant. 0 or 360 degrees means that the wind blows from the north. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .

Section 3. 90 . Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.5 o Wind pressure anthill diagram for July 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station.5 Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 p Wind pressure anthill diagram for 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station.

which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load model for vortex shedding in [3].06/1. Below two typical anthill diagrams are shown in Figures 3. 91 .Section 3.5 q Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min mean values).5 q and 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Figure 3. The actual period is January 1997.Pär Tranvik.3.5.5 r. The horizontal line corresponds to y/d = 0. In Appendix F more diagrams are found. Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100 times top range deflection divided by diameter.5 3.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams To study the combination of deflection and wind speeds. anthill diagrams for maximum top deflection as a function of wind velocity at 10 min mean values are plotted for the VEAB chimney.

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5

Figure 3.5 r Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100 times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is December 2000.

92

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5

3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams

Wind 1min/10 min mean values for June 1997
25 Wind 1 min mean values (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)

Figure 3.5 s Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June 1997.

Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for June 1997
25 Wind 10 s mean values (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)

Figure 3.5 t

Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June 1997.

93

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney - Section 3.5

Wind 1 min/10 min mean values for December 2000
25 Wind 1 min mean values (m/s)

20

15

10

5

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)

Figure 3.5 u Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December 2000.

Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for December 2000
25 Wind 10 s mean values (m/s)

20

15

10

5

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)

Figure 3.5 v Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December 2000.

94

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 w Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period. 95 .Section 3.5 3.7 Load spectra Load efficiency per month 800000 jan Range x no of load cycles (mm) 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 feb mar apr maj jun jul aug sep oct nov dec Figure 3.5.Pär Tranvik. Load efficiency per year 6000000 Range x no fo cycles (mm) 5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Figure 3.5 x Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.

75 106 cycles. No of load cycles per year 45000 40000 35000 No of load cycles 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 v10min (m/s) 12 14 16 18 20 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Figure 3.32 m/s at 1.5 y Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period. It means 0. From Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3.Pär Tranvik.5 α “mass centre” of the wind load was found to v10min =6.5 z Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period. 96 .5 No of cycles per month 7000 jan 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 feb mar No of load cycles apr maj jun jul aug sep oct nov dec Figure 3.1 106 cycles per 30 year. Shape factor in this reverse calculation was 0.44 106 cycles per year or 13.2.

(3.……………….1331x 6 .1 R2 = 0.Section 3.3x 3 + 6648...Pär Tranvik..0 0 2 4 6 8 10 v10min(m/s) 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3.2 includes influence of different wind velocity directions and that an amount of time is required for building up vortex shedding oscillations f0 P(v) = Natural frequency = Probability for that mean wind velocity during one year occurs in the interval between vcr and ε vcr where vcr is the critical wind velocity for resonance vortex shedding oscillations.0 2000.40) 97 .7.0 y = 0.1 b to 3.9615 10000.38) where The factor 1. P(v) is assumed to be a Rayleigh distribution. Therefore its influence will be limited.…………….5 Average of number of load cycles per v10min 1997-2000 12000.39) v ( z ) = v 0 ⋅ C exp ( z ) …………………………………….………….3 m (the chimney shell except at damper house) and 3.0 6000.8 m (at the damper house with a height of 3.0 Mean Poly. (Mean) 4000.(3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .0 0.2 ⋅10 7 ⋅ t ⋅ f 0 ⋅ P(v) ………………………………………………………………(3. From [3] the number of load cycles during vortex shedding may be calculated from nv = 1.24 m/s at the diameter 2.1512.0 Number of load cycles 8000.8x 2 ..9330x + 2962.3138x 5 + 153.95 m/s at the diameter 2. Critical wind velocity for vortex shedding has been calculated in Table 2. The damper house height was only a little more than the diameter.5 α Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.35 m). P(v ) = e   vcr     −     v( z)    −e   ε ⋅v cr     −     v( z)    ………………………………………………….73x 4 .

5 β cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4 is shown.83 m/s P(v) = 0.5 m/s = 1. The wind vortex shedding load on the VEAB chimney is In Figure 3.4 times larger 21 ⋅10 6 ⋅ 3. Because of the truncation of the data. Cexp is defined and found from Table 3. The data for 4 years of service 1997 through 2000. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 98 . Numerical values for the VEAB chimney gives v(z) = 7.Pär Tranvik.Section 3. top deflection range100 mm.7 ⋅ 106 oscillations per year or 21⋅ 106 oscillations for a 30 year period The wind velocity found is twice the value achieved if the code [3] is extrapolated outside its limits but the number of cycles is less. 13.24 2 than what will be assumed from calculations according to [3] when limit restrictions are neglected (gust wind is not considered).1 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ 6.2. A log-normal representation has been chosen for simplicity.4.2 a to 2.3 b the spectra for top deflection (functioning damper) is shown for both the recordings and some codes. 5.05) are plotted.5 where v(z) v0 ε = Yearly mean wind velocity at the height z = The modal value of the distribution.32 2 = 2. the fitted curve differs greatly from measure data at the lower end. a graphically fitted lognormal distribution for cumulative frequency of top deflection range and limits from Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α=0.204 nv = 0.03.25 but the difference between ε and ε vcr should be at least 2 m/s vcr is defined in Section 2. In Figure 6.

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 β Cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4.Section 3.Pär Tranvik.5 Figure 3. 99 .

10 0.7) is included. A Weibull distribution is fitted to each frequency distribution.20 0.5.α .1 and β=3.8 Frequency of wind velocity The frequency distribution of wind velocity for the recording period 1997 through 2000 is plotted for 10 s.5 γ Probability density function for wind velocity.5 δ and 3.2. The Weibull frequency distribution is described as α f (v.5 3. 3.5 γ . 10-second wind velocity mean value. The frequency distributions have a maximum at approximately 5 m/s. 1 min and 10 min mean values in Figure 3.41) = Wind velocity in m/s = A Weibull distribution parameter = A Weibull distribution parameter Frequency of wind velocity 0. 100 .00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3.15 Probability Data for v10s 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .05 0. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.(3. β ) = where α α −1 ⋅v ⋅ e βb v α β  v −  β      …………………………………….Section 3.…………………..5 ε .Pär Tranvik.7) the fitted distribution consider the truncation effect. Because top deflection ranges below 100 mm were truncated (Section 3.

1 and β=3.00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3.15 Probability Data for v1min 0.3) is included 101 .5 δ Probability density function for wind velocity.10 0.05 0. 1-minute wind velocity mean value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.20 0.5 Frequency of wind velocity 0.1 and β=3.05 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .15 Probability Data for v1min 0.5 ε Probability density function for wind velocity. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.5) is included Frequency of wind velocity 0.Section 3.10 0. 10-minute wind velocity mean value.00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3.20 0.Pär Tranvik.

5 ξ .9 Iso-wind velocity plots Iso-wind velocity plots for the recording period 1997 through 2000 are found in Figure 3. 3.5 θ .Pär Tranvik.5 3.5 η and 3. Figure 3. 102 .5 ξ Iso-wind velocity plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values.5. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Unit m/s.Section 3.

103 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Unit m/s Figure 3.5 θ Iso-wind velocity plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values.Pär Tranvik.5 Figure 3.5 η Iso-wind velocity plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values.Section 3. Unit m/s.

5 θ .5 Iso-wind velocity plots similar to those in Figure 3.5 ξ . Figure 3.Section 3.5 λ . 104 .5 κ and 3.5 ι .Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 ι Iso-wind plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added. 3. Figure 3.5 η and 3.5 κ Iso-wind plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added. but where wind in opposite directions are added. 3. are found in Figure 3. Unit m/s. Unit m/s.

5 λ have shown iso-wind plots as half circles.7). The orientation of the Sandvik II plant buildings cover the bottom half height of the chimney.Pär Tranvik.Section 3. This is not the fact because wind from south west is dominating for the recorded and truncated wind recordings (Section 3.5 ι . Therefore the wind direction could be partly influenced from the surrounding buildings.5 Figure 3. Figure 3.5 λ Iso-wind plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added.2. 105 . It was expected that Figure 3. Unit m/s. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 κ and Figure 3.

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .6 3. 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 1997 1998 1999 200 2000 300 100 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Number of load cycles Figure 3.6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gauge measurements From the recorded data.6 a Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of September years 1997 through 2000.Section 3. per year and for the measure period 1997 through 2000. 106 .2 a. In Appendix E fatigue damage and cumulative fatigue damage are plotted for each month. In this section a typical selection of load spectra (frequency distribution in the diagrams) and accumulated load spectra (spectrum in the diagrams) diagrams are shown. For definition of directions see Figure 3. the data sorted and load spectra plotted. calculations were made.Pär Tranvik.

6 b Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of September years 1997 through 2000.Section 3. 107 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .103 deg No 2 .58 deg No 8 .125 deg No 3 .6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 1997 1998 1999 200 2000 300 100 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Accumulated number of load cycles Figure 3.35 deg No 7 . 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 No 1 .80 deg 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 200 100 0 Number of load cycles Figure 3.170 deg No 5 .Pär Tranvik.6 c Frequency distribution of top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different directions.193 deg No 6 .148 deg No 4 .

170 deg No 5 . 108 .125 deg No 3 .Section 3.35 deg 100 No 7 .103 deg 300 No 2 .Pär Tranvik.80 deg 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 Figure 3. 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 1997 1998 1999 2000 200 100 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 Figure 3.148 deg 200 No 4 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .58 deg No 8 .193 deg No 6 .6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 No 1 .6 d Spectrum for top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different directions.6 e Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for years 1997 through 2000.

Pär Tranvik.9956 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 log (accumulated number of load cycles) Figure 3.6 g Spectrum for top deflection range as mean per year in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through 2000. 109 .1 R2 = 0.6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 200 100 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3.Section 3.6 f Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through 2000. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 500 Mean average 400 Top deflection range 2y (mm) Fitted straight line 300 y = -69.147x + 493. The thick line is a straight line fitted (least square method) to the results.

.......................................................................................5 M b = σ b ⋅10 6 ⋅ 2⋅ I = σ b ⋅ 73000 = − 0.........................(3................01⋅10 log(nt ) + 21..Pär Tranvik........44) Bending moment at the chimney base per year in Nm is found from Equation 3.........(3..........................45) d [ ] Equation 2.................6 g may be written y = −35⋅10 log(nt ) + 247 ....087 = −3........................47) d 110 ..........2⋅10 log (nt ) + 387 ........6 the bending stress σ b in MPa per year at the chimney base is obtained as σ b = y ⋅ 0........46) 2 2 H 90 If we assume that the distributed load will correspond to a wind pressure p in Pa per year of loads uniformly distributed over the chimney p= q = −23....57 ⋅10 6 ........(3.......(3........43) where nt y = Accumulated number of load cycles = Top deflection amplitude in mm By using Equation 4..6 The straight line fitted to the data in Figure 3..........(3..........220⋅10 log(nt ) + 1............................................6⋅10 log(nt ) + 168 .................Section 3.............. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ....................10 gives the distributed load q N/m per year in Pa to q= 2⋅M b 2⋅ Mb = = −54......5 ..

4 comparisons between recorded spectrum and code spectra are made. as a function of number of load cycles per year.Section 3.Pär Tranvik.6 h Wind pressure. In Section 6. mainly caused by vortex shedding. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .6 Wind pressure as a function of number of load cycles per year 200 Wind pressure (Pa) 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Log (Accumuoated number of load cycles ) Figure 3. 111 .3 and 6.

Pär Tranvik. Below three typical plots are shown.7 3.7 a Chimney oscillating in first mode and starting in second mode of natural frequency. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Figure 3.7 3.1 First and second mode oscillations Screen plots During the first half-year of measurements a lot of screen plots of the virtual instrument were made mainly to document the second mode oscillating behaviour. More plots are found in Appendix D. 112 .7 b Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency. Figure 3.7.Section 3.

By graphical determination in Figure 3.2 Logged files From logged recorded data. This value may be compared to the calculated natural frequency of the second mode.7 c Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency.1. The second mode was only observed at rare occasions as when the wind velocity calculated as a 10 min mean value exceeded approximately 10 m/s. 1. 3. In the log files there was no information about the second mode as described in Section 3. The second mode frequency causes approximately 5 times more load cycles per time unit but the total amount of time is low. about two million loggings.44 Hz. 113 .7 c the natural frequency of the second mode is calculated to 1. From Figure 3.7 c maximum width for the second mode is found to be approximately 90 mm.Section 3.7 Figure 3.45 Hz (approximately 5 times the first mode).7 a to 3. This is representative of the complete data recorded. natural frequency for the first mode has been calculated.Pär Tranvik.7.2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .

3 Natural frequency (Hz) 0.7 c: 1997-02-11 T=3.288 Hz.2 0. 114 . 3.4.10 ⋅13 = 14. Mean value for the observation period 1997 through 2000 is 0.7. The larger values may be a combination between first and second order natural frequencies.8.15 0.7. The kinematic viscosity of the air is 13.Pär Tranvik.3 First mode evaluation From Section 3.2.7 ⋅10 −6 m 2 /s at T=5 °C according to Section 3.1 and the Strouhal number in Equation 1.7. According to Section 2.1 theory give first and second mode natural frequencies at 0.3 m/s for 90 m level.7 a: Figure 3. The Reynold number is defined in Equation 1. See also Section 2.2) v10min90m 1 = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m 1 = 1.5 °C 1997-03-03 T=6.1 °C 1997-02-20 T=3.4 and Appendix I it is found that first mode vortex shedding oscillations occur in the wind velocity interval of approximately v10min 45m 1 = 4 m/s to v10min 45m 2 = 13 m/s as observed from the wind transmitter at 45 m height.3.2 gives 0. Wind velocities at the top of the chimney (90 m level) may to be corrected as (Section 3.4.44 Hz.7 VEAB chimney first mode observed natural frequency 0. Sections 3.7 d Natural frequency as monthly mean values for the first mode during the observation period of 1997 through 2000.288 and 1.1.25 0.5 °C For the following calculations at a temperature of T=5 °C is assumed.1 0.1 and 3.10 ⋅ 4 = 4.45 Hz respectively.4 m/s to v10min90m 2 = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m 2 = 1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .05 0 1997 1998 1999 Year 2000 Figure 3.7 b: Figure 3.4 to 14.3 m/s It means that first mode natural frequency occurs at 4. which will be used in the following. Temperatures at the time when the plots were created are: Figure 3.Section 3.2.282 Hz respectively 1.

7 ⋅10 Re1 = 2.151 to 4.899 ⋅ 10 6 −6 13.3 m 2.7 ⋅10 2.4 2. Figure 3.7 ⋅10 Re1 = 2.288 = 0.288 = 0.3 m.7 The chimney diameter is 2.401 ⋅10 6 −6 13.1.3 Re2 = = 2.183 to 4.056 St 2 = 14.Section 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .3 St1 = 2.8 ⋅ 0.3.Pär Tranvik.3 ⋅14.3 ⋅ 0.4 2.8 m.4 = 0.3 = 2.7 ⋅10 2.288 St 2 = = 0. Reynold and Strouhal numbers corresponding to the wind velocity interval of 4.4 = 0. 115 . except for the damper house at the top where the diameter is 2.739 ⋅ 10 6 −6 13.7 e Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex shedding in the first mode have been added.046 14.3 ⋅ 0.7 e into a diagram with literature data.288 = 0.8 ⋅ 14.3 m/s will be For d=2. Fatigue caused by oscillation in the first mode of natural frequency is studied in Section 4.8 ⋅ 0.8 m The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure 3.923 ⋅ 10 6 Re2 = −6 13.8 ⋅ 4.3 St1 = For d=2.2 and 4.3 ⋅ 4.4 to 14.

8 m 2.5 m/s It means that second mode mean wind velocity occurs at 11.5 = 1.10 ⋅ 10.7 f.2.15 ⋅10 6 −6 15 ⋅ 10 Re = 2.Section 3.f Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex shedding in the second mode have been added.5 m/s.3.3. At d=2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .35 11. 116 .5 m/s as measured at the wind transmitter at 45 m level.3 m At d=2. Fatigue caused by oscillations in the second mode is studied in Section 4.8 ⋅1.6 m/s.29 11.7 c. Figure 3.5 Re = = 2. exemplified by Figure 3.3 ⋅11.7. wind velocity mean value for 10 minutes is v10min=10.5 2.45 = 0.2.45 St = = 0.4 Second mode evaluation From the recordings.2) v10min90m = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m = 1.3 ⋅1.4.1 second mode critical wind velocity is 16. At 90 m height the corresponding wind velocity is (correction factor according to Section 3.8 ⋅ 11. According to Section 2.7 a through 3.76 ⋅ 10 6 15 ⋅ 10 − 6 2.5 St = The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure 3.5 = 11.7.7 3.Pär Tranvik.

chimneys with oscillations occurring in the second mode are more rare. Sections 3. Some codes. Therefore it is recommended that a Strouhal number of 0. [3]. This is possible if the design has big slenderness ratio. The large slenderness of the VEAB chimney explains the relatively common and large second mode oscillations. Furthermore. The main problem with creating a code calculation model valid also for slender structures (slenderness much greater than 30) is the limited amount of recorded measure data. The effect explaining this is lock-in. For most steel chimneys only the first mode of oscillation is of practical importance for vortex shedding induced oscillations. For slender chimneys several codes give unconservative design loads for vortex shedding.3.7 f [6]. the Swedish BSV 97 manual [3] have limited the use of the code model to a maximum slenderness (height through diameter) of approximately 30. [15].7 3.5 Discussion Strouhal number could be as big as 0. The results of this investigation support such a limit unless design loads are increased for slender structures. 117 .7 e and 3. but forces exited are small. [5]. e.2 should be used for engineering design calculations [1]. Because of the slender VEAB steel chimney (height through diameter = 39) correspondence between Strouhal number and Reynold number do not follow the predictions of Figure 3. A damper applied at the top of the chimney is less efficient for second order than first order mode. [9].6 contain suggested load spectra and that this is more complex. i.7 and 3. Second mode oscillations are seldom observed in structural steel chimneys [26].06.Section 3.Pär Tranvik.5. For the first mode recorded results sometimes gives as small Strouhal number as 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .7. where the vortex shedding starts at a lower wind velocities and continue to oscillate during increasing wind velocity. such as noted in some papers [1].

Those temperatures are used in Section 3.1 Temperatures and temperature dependent properties Mean temperatures VEAB Sandvik II plant records and stores in a database a lot of data about the plants behaviour and its environment. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. Daily mean temperatures 1997 30 25 20 Temperature (C) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 5 10 15 Date 20 25 30 Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Figure 3.8 3.8 a Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the year of 1997. Some examples and a total summary are presented below. Appendix G contains a more complete description of the temperatures during the observation period.8.5 for calculating wind pressure.8 3.Pär Tranvik. 118 . From the database the daily mean temperatures are collected and presented below.

about -20 °C.Pär Tranvik.8 Daily mean temperatures for January 30 25 20 15 Temperature 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 5 10 15 Date 20 25 30 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3. But for vortex shedding oscillations. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8 b Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the month of January. 119 . Therefore no recorded temperatures before 1996 are available.8 c Monthly mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant 1997 through 2000. which occurred during the interesting days between Christmas and New Year 1995 the temperature. was very low. The VEAB Sandvik II plant was erected during the years 1995 and 1996. Monthly mean temperatures for 1997-2000 30 25 20 Temperature (C) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3.

250 1.8 3.400 Air density (kg/m3) 1.8 d Air density as a function of temperature at sea level when influence of meterological air pressure and air humidity is neglected.450 1.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity Both density and viscosity of air vary with temperature.300 1. Their influences are also limited compared to the temperature...350 1.200 1.Pär Tranvik. all calculations in this report follow the temperature data in this section. Influence of meterological pressure and humidity are neglected because that no such information were recorded. According to [16] air densities follow the temperature as ρ = ρ0 ⋅ where T0 ………………………………………………………………………….48) T ρ 0 = 1.150 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (C) Figure 3.29 kg/m 3 at 0 °C and meterological air pressure 1 013 mbar T0 = 273 K Air density as a function of temperature 1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.(3. Unless otherwise is mentioned. Thus both density and viscosity follow the actual conditions. 120 .

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.25 kg/m3 corresponds to an air temperature of 10 °C. Extremely low turbulence levels due to stable stratification of the atmosphere (laminar air flow) during cold winter days characterise the airflow. But the influence of level above sea level has been neglected.1 it is noted that the VEAB chimney is situated at a height of 164 m above sea level. The viscosity 15 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s corresponds to an air temperature of 19 °C.8 Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature Cinematic viscosity (1000000 x m2/s) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (C) Figure 3. The influence of air density depending of the height above sea level is being limited to some percent [3].8.5 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s . At for instance a day with a temperature of -20 °C the density is instead 1.25 kg m 3 and that cinematic viscosity should be selected to 15 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s when calculating vortex shedding oscillating forces. 3. Calculated dynamic wind pressure will then be 12 percent greater than that determined for the nominal air density 1.40 kg/m3. The air density 1. In evaluating the recorded data. Calculated Reynold number Re will be 30 % greater on the –20 °C day than on the 19 °C day.Pär Tranvik. From Section 2.25 kg/m3.8 e Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature. At for instance a day with a temperature of –20 °C the cinematic viscosity is 11.3 Discussion Several codes and handbooks as for instance [3] suggest that the air density should be selected to 1. the actual daily mean temperatures were considered when calculating the dynamic pressures and Reynold numbers. 121 .

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.Pär Tranvik.8 122 .

the design criterion with respect to fatigue is σ rd ≤ f rd [4] …………………………………………………………………………….(4. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ..1 ⋅ γ n ) is the design value of the fatigue strength. Classes of detail for parent material and welded connections are given in [4]. Fatigue action 4.(4. stresses being calculated according to elastic theory as normal stresses without consideration of local stress variations due to for instance the detailed geometry of the weld.3) For structures not appreciably affected by corrosion.1) where f rd = f rk /(1. The class of detail C is a measure of the characteristic fatigue strength for 2 ⋅ 10 6 stress cycles at a constant stress range. for instance where the corrosion protection is well maintained..Pär Tranvik.1 Fatigue model considered For fatigue evaluation of the chimney the Swedish Manual for Steel Structures BSK 99 [4] is followed. For normal stress. The term stress range σ rd refers to the difference between maximum and minimum stress at a defined point. it is assumed that the fatigue limit for a spectrum with constant stress range is assumed to be reached at 10 8 stress cycles. The values given assume Workmanship GA or GB in accordance with [4]. 123 .Section 4.1 4. The relationship between the characteristic value of the fatigue strength and the number of stress cycles is set out in [4].2) 1/ 5 f rk  2 ⋅ 10 6  = 0. f rk is to be calculated with due regard to the stress concentration effects characterised by the class of detail C in accordance with [4].885 ⋅ C ⋅    nt  . For a spectrum with a constant stress range the characteristic value of the fatigue strength is  2 ⋅ 10 6  = C ⋅   nt  1/ 3 f rk .(4. the number of stress cycles nt during the service life of the structure. nt ≤ 5 ⋅10 6 [4] ………………………………………. and the shape of the stress spectrum in accordance with [4]. The characteristic fatigue strength. 5 ⋅10 6 ≤ nt ≤ 10 8 [4] ………………………………….

...1 a Characteristic fatigue strength frk [4]..............(4.1 Figure 4...... reference is to be made to [4].... For a variable stress range.. The design criterion in conjunction with a variable stress range is as follows n Σ i n  ti   ≤ 1.... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ............... The design value for each stress range is to be determined by multiplying the calculated nominal stress range for the design load effect by a factor 1............. In assembling the stress spectra. where γ n depends on the safety.......4)   124 ... may be ignored................. The full lines are applied for a stress spectrum with a constant stress range ( κ = 1 ).......0 ...... and stress cycles for which the design values of the stress range are smaller than values corresponding to the fatigue limit nt = 10 8 .......... the 100 stress cycles that have the largest design values of the stress range..Section 4......... the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage hypothesis is to be applied [4] on the basis of the characteristic fatigue strength... For a stress spectrum with a variable stress range...1 ⋅ γ n ..Pär Tranvik......

7.........Pär Tranvik..(4.......... But plate thickness decreases from base to top of the chimney according to Section 2................ Assembly of the stress spectrum may be carried out in accordance with the same principles.. Design is to be carried out in accordance with Equation 4......... apply in using the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis.6 mm where y is in mm and σ k Base in MPa..... [4] states that the design value of the fatigue strength shall be determined as follows f rd = f rk ........... in accordance with the forgoing. It is below the lowest accepted level in [4] C=45 MPa..............1........2 and 3.. 125 .................6 90 ⋅ = y ⋅ 0..087 ...0292 ..1............................5) 1....8) At chimney base gusset plates the class of detail should have been C = 45 MPa according to Section 3..6 2 ⋅133 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ..1 that the relationship between fictitious top deflection (superimposed oscillations on the first mode) and characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load are the same as for the first mode of natural frequency......................................................6) 133..........2.......(4................................... σ rk mode 2 = y ⋅ 11................ the relationship between top deflection in mm and characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load...............(4....Section 4.................. where σ rd is the largest nominal stress range in the stress spectrum being considered......6 MPa = y ⋅ 0................. A separate evaluation for the influence of second mode oscillations at worst location was made...................1 where ni = Number of stress cycles at a certain range σ i nt i = Number of stress cycles at a constant stress range which corresponds to the stress range σ ri .7) 133..1..........1..................6 For fatigue design calculations [17] states that σ rd = σ rk . was calculated by the manufacturer of the chimney to σ rk Base = y ⋅ 11....1 ⋅ γ n Where γ n depends on the safety class according to [4].... But because of defective manufacturing it was not achieved........ Actual class of details were estimated to C = 30 MPa according to Section 3....... For first mode oscillations............4.....(4... For second mode oscillations it is found from Section 2.............

3 N/m Nm mm m4 m 126 .39 (percent of elapsed time) 500 80 1.23 300 100 1.63 Total 675 10.71 = 0.1 the following estimated distribution of top amplitude deflections versus time for the first nine months in service were made: Table 4.23 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with mal-functioning damper From Section 4.2 4.31 100 300 4. By using the observations in Section 4.5 and Figure 3.2.1 500 1 150 700 (mm) Time t (h) 5 15 25 Relative time 0.5 MPa 2⋅ I 2 ⋅ 0.42 The manufacturer calculated the stiffness/top amplitude deflection relationship to (Equation 4.084 = 2.084 d 2.1 we find that the damper was mal-functioning during the first nine months of service.3 σ 7.08 0. Elapsed time in hours during nine months is 9 ⋅ months ⋅ 30 ⋅ days ⋅ 24 ⋅ hours = 6480 ⋅ hours .3 k give σ= Mb 546750 = = 7.2 a Estimated top deflection distribution for the first nine months in service Amplitude y +/.71 weq Mb y I d = 135 = 546 750 = 87.2 give Distributed load Reaction bending moment at chimney base Top amplitude deflection Area moment of inertia at h=0 m Diameter Equation 3.5 = = 0.6) σ = 0.087 N/mm3 y The calculations in Section 3.085 N/mm3 y 87.3.54 150 150 2.Pär Tranvik.

1 242.1   ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 6   5 3  C nti =  σ  rd σ rd ≥ 18.1 ⋅1. From Section 4.885 ⋅ 30 ⋅   10 8  5  = 12.54 1.8 1150 15 200.1 = 18.087 N/mm3 was used.2 a for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine months of service and γ n = 1.4.2 150 150 26. y The mean value for the natural frequency for the period 1997 through 2000 f=0.1 and 2.885 ⋅ C   ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 6 nti =   σ   rd  The cumulative fatigue damage values have been calculated in Table 4.3 MPa 1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.4 500 80 87.1 MPa 5 6 1  2 ⋅10 6 f rk (n = 1 ⋅10 8 ) = 0.0 ≤ σ rd ≤ 18.3 MPa  0.09 1.2 The manufacturers calculation of ratio of bending stress through top deflection and the corresponding calculation in this report gives similar result.1 .1 700 25 121.02 4.1  2 3 f rk (n = 5 ⋅ 10 ) = 30 ⋅   = 22.0 105.1 127 .0 MPa 1.1 ⋅1.2 63.4 21.8 147.7.1 31.1 MPa   1 f rd(n = 5 ⋅10 6 ) = 22.1 f rd(n = 1 ⋅ 10 8 ) = = 10.09 0.79 0.3 MPa 10.2 b.6 100 300 17.05 11.1 12.288 Hz (Section 2.3 300 100 52.1 nti 5184 1715 15552 3806 25920 16862 82944 46250 103680 213916 155520 1711325 311084 6308707 n/nti 3.2 b Cumulative fatigue damage according to Table 4.48 0. y (mm) t (h) σ rki (MPa) σ rdi (MPa) n 1500 5 261 315. In the following the σ manufacturers result = 0.2) was used. Table 4.Pär Tranvik.

96 1.5 100 300 17.3 1150 15 200.1 corresponding to a probability of damage of approximately 10 −4 .4 14.825 [18].8 300 100 52.4 nti 5184 5411 15552 11999 25920 53198 82944 145888 103680 674469 155520 5743284 311084 42612809 n/nti 0.5 500 80 87.Pär Tranvik.1 MPa f rd(n = 1 ⋅10 8 ) = 1.50 The large number of cracks is in correspondence with the above-calculated cumulative damage fatigues.5.57 0.30 0.0 71. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4. Table 4.2 c.825 .00 3.75 10.03 0.8 100.1 ⋅ 0.49 0.1 ⋅ 0. If the probability of failure is set to 0.2 c Cumulative fatigue damage for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine months of service and γ n = 0.0 = 12.1 165.1 21.5 the resistance factor will be approximately 1.1 150 150 26.2 43. 22.1 ⋅ 0.8 MPa 1.1 = 26.75 f rd(n = 5 ⋅10 6 ) = The cumulative fatigue damage will then be as calculated in Table 4.15 0.2 It means that the cumulative damage fatigue according to the Palmgren-Miner Hypothesis will be about 11 at a resistance factor γ n = 1.75 = 0. n y (mm) t (h) σ rki (MPa) σ rdi (MPa) 1500 5 261 215. 128 . which corresponds to a probability of damage of approximately 0.1 700 25 121.

see Section 3.00099927 0.2 g and Figure 2.01003540 0. Table 4.00057027 0.00625349 0. Cumulative fatigue damage has been calculated for the recording period 1997 through 2000.2 c and 2.01212821 0.00007902 0. In the cumulative damage calculations nothing else than geometric stress concentrations from the weld alone was included.00001215 0.1).0016736 0.00077496 0.00011620 0.00181172 0.00128465 0.00171796 0.00067543 0. Because of the difference between design assumptions and true values for class of detail both C=45 and C=30 are assumed.1 4.a C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1997 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.3.Pär Tranvik. values were truncated if maximum range was less than 100 mm according to Section 3.c C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1999 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.00013927 0.0099898 0.00063884 0.00025356 0.00726709 0. They are truncated because of errors at the strain gauges.3 4.b C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1998 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.00005421 129 . For strain gauge 1 and 3 there are a number of unrealistic values from January until April 2000.2 d) and 30 m level (Figure 2. The recording period is the years 1997 through 2000.8.00052442 0.00102408 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4. For the original design of the gusset plates at foundation level (Figure 2.00612419 0.00006214 0.00578685 0.2.00070521 0.2.00070408 0.00019323 0.00109454 0. Because of the changed design after two years of service (Figure 2.00133086 0.00023725 0.01042424 0. C=45 is the design assumption and C=30 the accurate class of detail.3.01130228 0.00580580 0.3.3.2 i) no additional stress concentrations are added to the class of detail C.00021740 0.2.00056558 0.7. It means that C=30 corresponds to a class of weld below WC.00267103 0.01083196 0.3 4.00115432 0.1 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper First mode of natural frequency Foundation level The strain gauges were primarily aimed to study the influence of first mode of natural frequency to the fatigue strength (Section 3.3.00126551 0.00630474 0. C=45 corresponds to a class of detail similar to a class of weld of WC according to [4].00001095 Table 4.2 e) it is reasonable to add an additional geometric stress concentration.1.00006437 0. To reduce the amount of data to be stored.00013162 0.00005592 Table 4.00061170 0.00235369 0.00080252 0.

00243850 0.02689582 0.008 0.00227207 0.00117389 0. Therefore the statistical material is limited.00056996 0.3 Table 4.00749771 0.d C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.00017906 0.00559000 0.35 4 Years 30 Years For C=45 0.00053598 0. If the measurement period is representative for the complete service life of 30 years the fatigue damage for the service life will be 30 Years = 0.00238477 0.014 0.3 a Fatigue damage per year for recordings at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees) and class of detail C=30.00001880 Table 4.00897362 0.004 0.00479834 ⋅ = 0.00911692 0.00084157 0.00004032 0. 130 .00054623 0.3 a the fatigue damage shows an increasing magnitude during the years.00017150 0.e C 30 45 Damage fatigue for the entire measure period 1997 through 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0. It is not possible to determine if the increase is an actual trend accidental.00033561 0.00430908 0.0048 at C=45. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.00102202 0.04659365 0.04659365 ⋅ Damage fatigue per year at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees).01 0.012 Damage fatigue 0.002 0 1997 1998 Year 1999 2000 Figure 4. C=30 0. There are only four years of recordings.00040299 0.01298475 0.00566482 0.Pär Tranvik. In Figure 4.3.02405545 0.00197968 0.047 at C=30 and 0.00014352 From Table 4.00218143 0.00012609 0.00067287 0.036 4 Years For C=30 0.3.3 e it is found that greatest fatigue damage during the recording period (four years) was at bridge no 4 where utilization was 0.006 0.04046838 0.00479834 0.

Second mode oscillations are below the 131 ...0 1. From diagram 4.3.0 3....0 Bending stress (MPa) 6.. 4........ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency Natural frequency at second mode was 1.....2 Other heights than base level According to Section 2...0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Height (m) Figure 4.......4.. By comparing Equations 2......10 and 2.......3..11) are described as M ( x) = I ( x) = q ⋅ (H 2 − x2 ) 2 π ⋅ D 4 − ( D − 2 ⋅ t ) 4 at each height x 64 [ ] By using Equation 3.4....Pär Tranvik.11 and considering Figure 4...0 7..(4........0 4..... for a given stress concentration effect.........0 2......44 Hz (Section 2......3 4..1..5 bending stress is described as σ b ( x) = M ( x) ..........10 and 2.....0 0...3 the bending moment and the area moment of inertia (Equations 2.....…….0 5...9) 2 ⋅ I(x) d Bending stress as a function of heigt for q=135 N/mm 8.. the base level will govern the design...3 b Bending stress as a function of the height for a distributed load of 135 N/m.3 b it was obvious that first mode oscillations govern the design when the stress concentration effect is similar..1)...3 b it is obvious that..

3 endurance limit. 132 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.Pär Tranvik. Therefore no superposition of first and second mode oscillations has been made.

a simplified crack propagation analysis was made. Several welds at the gusset plates were damaged by cracks.7 is 13. The load spectrum is discussed in chapter 3. Considering the assumed load spectrum it is obvious that the chimney before it was repaired had a high probability for collapse.5. Typical crack length was 10 mm and a crack depth of 3 mm into the shell plate according to Appendix J. 5. For the case with a functioning damper allowable crack length for a non-propagating surface crack was calculated to 0.5.1 . A lock-in factor of two is assumed for this analysis. The studied crack was of type 1 according to Figure 3. The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is malfunctioning after 225 000 + 21 400 = 250 000 cycles. It is based on results from Sections 3. The shell plate thickness was 10 mm. at the point of time when the damper was malfunctioning and before the cracks were repaired. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5 5 5. 133 .6 = 53 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillation.1 a. The pitch is approximately 180 mm between the gusset plates. The corresponding number of load cycles during vortex shedding according to Section 3.3 mm. 106 according to [3]. The complete calculation is shown in Appendix L.2 Results From a simple finite element analysis (FEA) calculation the geometric stress concentration was found to be 2 (Appendix K). or 48 + 4. For the case with a malfunctioning damper the corresponding crack length was calculated to 0. 106 according to the observations and 21 . The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is functioning after 1 200 000 +114 000 = 1 300 000 cycles. The observed cracks at the erection splice at the 30 m level were found to be most critical.Pär Tranvik.1 Crack propagation Method of analysis To get an estimation of the safety against fracture of the VEAB chimney.2 mm.6. Therefore acceptable crack width was expected to be << 180 mm. or 9 + 1 = 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillating.4 and 3. In this simplified estimation study the linear method was used as presented in [18].

Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5 134 .Pär Tranvik.

Thus the friction between friction mass and damper house bottom will be other than assumed in the design calculations and the damper properties could be changed. For mechanical pendulum tuned dampers at steel chimneys we have noted the following risks: .There will be condensation in the damper house.Error in handling or careless handling during erection and service could make the damper inoperable by mistake. . error in selection of friction devices may result in a mistuned damper with limited damping. [19] and Section 3. . The friction mass could corrode and get caught to the damper house bottom and the damper will be locked. Because of the long lifetime there could be worries about dangerous wear eventually in combination with corrosion.The friction mass will freeze to the damper house bottom caused by the condensation water and the damper will be locked. but the amount of condensed water is small. . simplified calculation model which miss some effects or different mass distribution than assumed. There could be a lot of reasons for why calculated natural frequency differ from the real one. If the device is properly designed and functions as expected there are no problems. such as errors in calculating the natural frequency.Pär Tranvik. which is common practice for chimneys in Sweden.4 deals with the problem of mistuned dampers on steel chimneys. error in selection of pendulum masses.The chimneys are aimed to operate for a period of many years. .There may be corrosion in the damper house caused by condensation in the damper house.2. . Therefore the first question to discuss is whether reliability of building structures should be depending on a devise or not. There will be required large accelerations to loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom. For the VEAB chimney the design lifetime was decided to 30 years. A chimney or any other construction equipped with a mechanical damper relies both on the support structure and on the function of the damper. But if the device is mal-functioning in any way it could be hazardous for the reliability of the building.3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6 6. There may require excessive accelerations to loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom. 135 . An estimating calculation shows that there is risk of condensation in the damper house at some weather conditions.1 Discussion The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices The reliability of typical ordinary buildings is only depending on its support structure transferring loads from the entire part of the building to the supports.Design errors as wrongly calculated natural frequencies.

Therefore it is easy to be lulled into security about the reliability after some years of satisfactory operating experience. [19]. The investigation presented in this report cover a measurement period twice or more that of other investigations [1]. [21] and [22]. A chimney with any form of not movable device to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding is only requiring a limited amount of inspection and is therefore as economic as the pendulum device. As for the aircraft and nuclear industry the inspection interval has to be smaller than the time required for a crack to grow critical with a mal-functioning damper. Ice on the chimney during the winter periods add mass and changes the natural frequency resulting in a mistuned damper. Oscillations recorded during the current four-year program on the VEAB chimney never approached those observed in December 1996. According to Section 5. Vortex shedding oscillations are also a little surprising. [2]. To rely on movable devices in buildings is a form of risk management. [15]. Reynold number is changed if the chimney is charged with rainwater as discussed in [20].2 Comparable chimney data Some investigations similar to that presented in this report have been published after this investigation was started.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 . 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillations could create critical crack and collapse. Then the shape factor during vortex shedding oscillations could be increased with hazardous consequences for the chimney. in fact that no appreciate oscillations could appear for decenniums and suddenly a winter period when critical meteorological conditions occur the chimney start to oscillate hazardous for a period as discussed in [1]. If the maintenance is neglected the reliability of the chimney is impaired. For the VEAB chimney it was decided to once a year. Those other investigations involving measurements over time are limited to a much shorter time period than for this investigation. 136 . Which risk is acceptable for a building? Our recommendation is that chimneys as other important buildings should not be depending on movable devices unless a careful risk management analysis have been made. By using two differently tuned mechanical dampers some of the above mentioned disadvantages could be avoided. For the VEAB chimney there were only one yearly inspection planned and acceptable inspection interval therefore were to long. According to our experiences that is not the fact especially if the inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate.The mechanical pendulum tuned damper requires a regular maintenance program. 6. By paying attention to the risks above the economic incitement have to be big for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers.

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

In [1] Table 6.2 a data as Scruton number and calculated and observed top amplitude deflection for a number of steel chimneys are shown. To the table has been added the VEAB chimney, a chimney at Varberg [21] with great oscillations from vortex shedding, a chimney at Magdeburg [15] and with four chimneys presented in [22]. In Table 6.2 a the chimneys from [1] are named number 1 to 9, the chimneys in [22] with long term recordings number 10 to 14, the VEAB chimney number 15, the Varberg chimney [21] number 16 and. The following notifications are made in Table 7.1: h d ? t topp f d Sc vcr Re clat leffcorr K? Kw ymax yobs ymeasured M O * ** *** 15a 15b = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Height Diameter Slenderness ratio h/d Top shell thickness Natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Scruton number Critical wind velocity Reynold number The basic value of the aerodynamic exiting force Effective correlation length Eurocode 1 calculation variable Eurocode 1 calculation variable Calculated top amplitude deflection according to Eurocode 1 Observed top amplitude deflection Measured top amplitude deflection

= Measured = Observed = The difference in Scruton numbers is due to differences in structural damping and mode shape = The bigger diameter concern outer diameter of the damper. = Estimated top mass = The VEAB chimney with a mal-functioning damper. = The VEAB chimney with a functioning damper.

137

Table 6.2 a

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15a

15b

16

Nykøbing 75 2.4 31.3 5 0.37 (EC1) 1.06 (M) 0.53 (M) 0.723 1.72 0.61 0.77 0.03 (EC1) 0.03 (M9 6.1 11.8 9.8 0.2 6 0.13 0.6 80 250 (O) 300 (O) 690 (O) 130 149 0.454 0.6 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.487 120 200 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years 6.7 6 6 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 6 0.13 0.480 110 2.4 27.7 6.3 4.8 4.3 10.5 5.9 7.9 6.5 10.4 4.27 2.6 7.3 2.5 1.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.363 26 0.02 (M) 0.02 (M) 0.012/0.07 0.015 0.015 4.08 4.4 7.08 0.2 6 0.13 0.472 181 >1000 >500 (O) 116 0.474 0.13 6 0.2 5.26 4.4 4.77 0.025) (EC1) 0.125 17.2 7.7 10.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.488 37 0.49 (EC1) 1.88 (calc.) 6 5 5 6 0.68 31.1 20.8 36.8 20.2 30.1 30.6 43.1 30 37.4 1.8 1.25 0.816 3.96 1.62 0.914 0.813 2 10.16 56 26 30 80 48.7 28 35 60 38 90 2.3/2.8** 39.1 6 0.29 (M)

Skjern

Brovst

Thyrborøn

Odense

Herning

Chimney (A) Magdeburg Aachen Köln Pirna

Chimney (B)

Distil column

Rechlinghausen

Växjö, VEAB

Växjö VEAB 90 2.3/2.8** 39.1 6 0.29 (M)

Varberg 35 0.728 48.1 4 0.51 (M)

h (m)

50

45

54

64

d (m)

2.2

1.1

2.2

2.8

?

22.7

40.9

24.5

22.9

ttop (mm)

6

5

8

8

f (hz)

0.92 (M)

0.63 (M)

0.61 (M)

0.58/0.60

Data for a number of chimneys

d

0.014 (M)

0.034 (M)

0.059 (M)

0.014/0.03

0.03 10.7 3.5 2.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.408 25

0.04 8*** 3.3 6.7 0.2 6 0.13 0.393 104 1500 (0) One winter

0.07 14 *** 3.3 6.7 0.2 6 0.13 0.393 60 240 4 years

0.03 14 1.9 0.9 0.7 6 0.13 0.330 39 85 2 months

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

138

Sc

4.27

11.3

15.9

3.03/4.42*

vcr (m/s)

10.1

3.5

6.7

8.1/8.4

Re x 10

5

14.8

2.5

9.8

15.1/15.7

clat

0.2

0.7

0.2

0.2/0.2

leffcorr

6

6

6

6.35/6

K?

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13/0.13

Kw

0.06

0.379

0.569

0.6/0.599

ymax (mm)

201

84

51

361/247

yobs (mm)

-

-

-

>1000

ymeasured (mm)

35

28

26

98

Observati on period

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

As [1] notifies Table 6.2 a show that Eurocode 1 often underestimates the top amplitude deflections during vortex shedding oscillations. BSV 97 [3] has limits for slenderness and top deflection as noted in Section 2.4.2. It is worth noticing that non-professional persons often overestimate visual observations of chimney top deflections. That is a reasonable fact, but that is not the same as saying that visual observations of chimney top deflection always are overestimated. The professional is aware of necessary references needed for the estimation.

6.3
6.3.1

Codes
General

Rules for designing slender structures under wind loading as chimneys are found in various codes. Most countries have their own national codes but organisations such as CEN and Comite International Des Cheminées Industrielles (CICIND) have developed common codes as the Eurocode and the CICIND code. There are great deviations between the national codes as well as the common codes. Most codes deals with static wind loads in a similar way. However action from vortex shedding is treated in different ways. Some codes limit the allowable slenderness ratio (height/diameter), for applicability of the code design model. Limit restrictions for the top deflection at vortex shedding are also used. There is a discussion going on about the requirement of revision the codes. See for instance [1] and [15]. For static design the 50-year maximum wind load (gust included) considering global and local buckling and plasticity are applied combined with dead load and other loads. For dynamic loads fatigue has to be considered. The spectra of fatigue effects will be made up of response from gust wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillations (ovalling). As a complement to the codes, handbooks have to be used for evaluation of buckling modes, welds and details. In most cases also a finite element (FEA) computer program is necessary for calculating natural frequencies with an acceptable accuracy. Selection of the applicable code is in most cases depending on in which country the chimney will be erected. Some codes for designing steel chimneys are found in [3], [4], [5], [9], [17] and [23].

139

2.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of stress cycles.8 m at centre of the correlation length = 24 ⋅ 0. For the VEAB chimney with a locked damper the top deflection will be a multiplication with the relationship between the logarithmic decrements for the unlocked and locked dampers (0.…………………(6.3.2) 5   z ⋅ β ⋅ ln   z0     ….…………….1 Calculations according to BSV 97 [3] are made in Section 2.Eurocode 1 [23] In Section 6. It is important to notice that BSV 97 is used outside of its limitations according to Section 2.Snö och vindlast [3] 6.Li U0 = 1 m ⋅ 33..05 s       U m.3.3 ⋅10 ⋅ T ⋅ f ⋅ ε 0 ⋅   U0  2  v ct  2 where T f ε0 = = = Lifetime in years Natural frequency Bandwidth factor U0 = 1 ⋅ U m.3. In Section 3.24  6.7 the number of stress cycles.24  2 −   3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6.76 5 s 2  3.…………………………………………………(6.4.2.Pär Tranvik.8 = 6.2 EC1 .4.04). The number of stress cycles will be  −    v cr  7   ⋅ e  U0  ………………….2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour of the VEAB chimney BSV 97 .2.282 ⋅ 0.76 6 N = 6.07/0.2 the corresponding top deflection is calculated and in Section 3.2. Therefore the results may be unconcervative.………………..97 ⋅ 10 cycles for one year  6.1) N = 6.3.3 ⋅  2  = 33.Li ………………………………………………………………………………(6. 6.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 0.3)   U m = v ref For the VEAB chimney we achieve 1   90 − 6 ⋅ 2.19 ⋅ ln  0.2.3 ⋅   ⋅ e   = 0.76  140 7 .5.

24  N = 10 ⋅ 0.24   5  2 ⋅ 1 = 1.4) N = 10 ⋅ f ⋅    v0  2  v ct  2 where v0 = Reference wind velocity for vortex shedding number of stress cycles (5 m/s) −  3. 141 .3.23 ⋅ 2300 = 530 mm and for the mal-functioning damper 0.……(6.2.3 DIN 4133 [9] In Section 6. 55 ⋅ 10 6 cycles per year 50 6. 282 ⋅   ⋅e   5  9 2  3.3 a Relative amplitude as a function of Scruton number according to the CICIND model code [1]. For the functioning damper the top deflection is found to be 0.Pär Tranvik.2.……………………….2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of stress cycles.4 CICIND [1] The CICIND model code is based on the spectral model using a large number of full-scale observations to estimate relevant observations [1]. The number of stress cycles for a 50-year period will be  −    v cr  9   ⋅ e  v0  ……………………………….41 ⋅ 2300 = 940 mm . The Eurocode 1 gives results as DIN 4133 except for the number of stress cycles. To the Figure 7. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6.3..15 in [1] the VEAB chimney is implemented. Figure 6.

2 From Section 3.43 the top deflection for the recording period was found to follow y = −35⋅10 log(n t ) + 247 mm 142 .1.…………………………(6.3 m) Mass per length of top third of the chimney ( ≈ 700 kg/m) Height of chimney (90 m) Structural damping ratio A constant = 1..2 kg/m2) Diameter of chimney (2.3.2.5) where C3 ρ air D m h ς str C2 = = = = = = = A constant (2) Density of air (1. special codes (e. g.3. Special treatment is then required either by referral to experts. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6. For the functioning damper ?str ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C2 ≈ 0 mi ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C 2 ≈ -0.4 ς str is found to be 0.2. 6. on steel stacks) or special investigations [24].Pär Tranvik.0111 for the functioning damper and 0.5 ISO 4354:1997(E) – Wind actions on structures [24] ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C 2 the top deflection during vortex shedding is calculated mi Provided that ?str > ρ aer = as y0 =  D2   C 3 ⋅  ρ air ⋅  m     h D2   ⋅ C2 ς str −  ρ air ⋅  D m    ⋅ D ………………………….0044 mi For the mal-functioning damper ?str - The motion will be unstable and large amplitudes up to the value of D may result [24].6 Measurements From Equation 3.0065 for the mal-functioning damper.3.

39 500 1. For the comparison with the codes the load spectrum is extrapolated to one year of mal-functioning damper.8 Comparison between the codes.3 b Spectra for top deflection per year and a functioning damper.3.23 300 1.2 a the top deflection for the first nine months of mal-functioning damper is found.63 Total 10.2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6. functioning damper BSV97 600 500 Top deflection (mm) EC1 400 300 DIN CISIND 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 log (Accumulated load cycles) ISO Measurements from four year period Figure 6.23 700 0.54 150 2. 143 .Pär Tranvik.3.2.7 Observations From Table 4.3 a Assumed top deflection amplitude distribution for the first nine months in service. Table 6. Codes discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted.42 20 889 35 421 111 713 139 868 209 803 420 514 946 000 28 155 63 576 175 289 315 157 524 960 946 000 - 6.08 7 266 7 266 1 150 0. measurements and observations Spectra for top deflection. Top deflection y +/(mm) Relative time (percent) Number of cycles Accumulated number of cycles 1 500 0.31 100 4.

Pär Tranvik. 144 . There is a need for revision of the model to estimate the response caused by vortex shedding of very slender chimney structures ( h/d ¤ 30). CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. Figure 6.3 b shows that only the CICIND code is safe to use calculating top deflection. Codes discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted. mal-functioning damper 1600 1400 Top deflection (mm) BSV97 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 log (Accumulated load cycles ) EC1 DIN CICIND Observed Figure 6. For the functioning damper. Both BSV 97 and ISO 4354 have limitations for their use and do not cover the VEAB chimney properties. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 Spectra for top deflection.3 c Spectra for deflection per year and a mal-functioning damper. Especially the limitations in ISO 4354 points out that the VEAB chimney operates in or in the neighbourhood to an unstable vortex shedding section. The influence on fatigue damage using the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis is more complicated and could give other results. For the mal-functioning damper Figure 6.3 c. no code is safe calculating top deflection. The geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been different from the actual geometric properties if one of the BSV 97.

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

6.4

Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney

The long-term observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It is two times longer than previously reported literature data. Detailed data about observation time and structural data are found in Table 6.2 a. In Figure 6.4 recorded spectra for Aachen, Colonge, Pirna, Recklinghausen [22] and the VEAB chimney are drawn.

Measured amplitude spectrum
1.0

0.8 Relative load
Aachen

0.6

Cologne Pirna Recklinghausen VEAB

0.4

0.2

0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Log (accumulated number of load cycles - 100 )

Figure 6.4 a

Measured amplitude spectra for the chimneys [22] and the VEAB chimney.

In Figure 6.4 b a typified load spectrum calculated with the least square method for the VEAB chimney is drawn.

145

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

Typified load spectra
1.0 0.8 Relative load 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 log n / log nt Fitted typified load spectrum Recorded for VEAB chimney

Figure 6.4 e Typified amplitude spectrum for the VEAB chimney. κ=0.32.

6.5

Second mode

In this report reviews briefly the influence of second mode oscillations on the VEAB chimney. Based on a limited number of observations the first mode is found designing for fatigue strength. From Section 3.6 and 3.7.1 it is shown that the second mode occurs at rare occasions and that the number of load cycles are low.

6.6

The future

Initially the recordings of the VEAB chimney were planned to continue until December 2003 followed by an evaluation of the recorded results as shown in Table 3.2 c.

146

Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6

Table 6.6 c

Actions to be taken for the VEAB chimney Result of evaluation 1. Acceptable probability for collapse 2. Unclear Action a. The VEAB chimney is OK. Finish the recordings. b. Continue the recordings. c. Add additional damping to the chimney. An assumption is that the accumulated fatigue damage is acceptable. c. Add additional damping to the chimney. An assumption is that the accumulated fatigue damage is acceptable. d. Replace the chimney with a new and modified one.

3. Unacceptable probability for collapse

Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001, probably by mistake, when applying corrosion protection on the inside of the chimney. It was expensive to repair the recording system. For economic reasons it was decided that additional damping had to be installed to provide an acceptable safety with respect to fatigue. Two dampers connected the boiler house at roof level (45 m) to the chimney erection splice at 55.2 m level. That is action 3 c in Table 3.2 c.

147

Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 148 .

The damping of second order oscillations is much greater than for first order. that is for chimneys with slender ratio height through diameter above approximately 30. The report contains data on the behaviour of a major chimney with a mass damper.1 In English The long-term observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. A comparison with a number of code regulations has been performed. CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. The evaluation of the measurements showed that the influence of second order oscillations could be neglected. There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender chimneys. The diameter had been selected to a greater size. Actual meterological data were considered in evaluation the action for the VEAB chimney. Geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been selected to other dimensions if one of the BSV 97. A refinement of a theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed. The measured damping was less than expected. and too low pendulum mass. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Typified linear load effect spectra describe the chimney behaviour well. The VEAB chimney was found to oscillate in both first and second mode of natural frequency.Section 7 7 Summary 7. It is two times longer than previously available data in the literature for other chimneys.Pär Tranvik. 149 . A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB chimney is unique in height and slenderness. Second mode oscillations are rare for normal chimneys. probably because the limited space in the damper house not did allow necessary pendulum movements. A full scale damping measurement was performed and evaluated for the VEAB chimney with and without functioning damper.

Svängningar i andra moden är ovanliga för stålskorstenar. CICIND or ISO hade följts konsekvent. 150 . Verkliga meteorologiska data beaktades vid utvärderingen. Skorstenens diameter hade då valts större.2 In Swedish Mätsystemet för långtidsövervakning av VEAB stålskorsten har varit i drift under fyra år. Det är behov av en översyn av beräkningsmodellen för att uppskatta responsen från virvelavlösning för mycket slanka stålskorstenar. Dom geometriska storheterna för VEAB stålskorsten hade valts annorlunda om någon av normerna BSV 97. Det är två gånger längre än tidigare i litteraturen beskrivna mätningar för skorstenar. Den uppmätta dämpningen var mindre än väntat.Section 7 7. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . antagligen på grund av att begränsat utrymme i dämparhuset inte tillät nödvändig pendelrörelse samt att pendelmassan var för låg. Dämpningen är mycket större för andra modens svängningar än för första modens. En förbättrat förslag på beräkningsmodell för pendelförsedda massdämpare är utarbetat. En jämförelse med ett antal andra skorstenar beskrivna i litteraturen visade att VEAB skorstenen är unik i höjd och slankhet.Pär Tranvik. En jämförelse med ett antal normer är gjord. Med mycket slanka stålskorstenar avses ett slankhetstalet (höjd genom diameter) över ungefär 30. En mätning av dämpning genomfördes i full skala för VEAB stålskorsten med både fungerande och låst dämpare. Skorstenens uppförande beskrivs väl av ett lastspektrum. Utvärderingen av mätdata visade att andra modens inflytande kunde försummas. Rapporten innehåller uppgifter om beteende för en skorsten försedd med massdämpare. Aktuella meteorologiska data har beaktats vid alla utvärderingar. VEAB stålskorsten observerades svänga i både första och andra modens egenfrekvens.

F. masts and chimneys Chimneys. Berkeley. Thomas Galemann: Full-scale measurements of wind induced oscillations of chimneys. Hans Ruscheweyh. [1] [2] References Claës Dyrbye. Wiesbaden und Berlin. Heft 11.Schadenfälle. 846-851. BSV 97. Stahlbau 67. Part 3-2: Towers. 2nd Edition. Heft 10. 1997. [15] Constantin Verwiebe & Waldemar Burger: Unerwartet starke wirbelerregte Querschwingungen eines 49 m hohen Stahlschornsteins. M. Calif. Schornsteine aus Stahl. Snö. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. 151 . John Wiley & Sons. Der Stahlbau 11/1982. Boverket 1997 (in Swedish). November 1991. 1982. Probleme – Lösungen . Stahlbau 68 (1999). Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Boverket 1994 (in Swedish) later replaced by BSK 99: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan 1999 (in Swedish) [13] F.Pär Tranvik. Costantin Verwiebe: Überschlägliche Berechnung der Querschwingungsbeanspruchung von Schornsteinen aus Stahl nach Din 4133. Garland: Performance of the Viscously Damped Vibration Absorber Applied to Systems Having Frequency-Squared Excitation. 1998. 336-341. Hans Ruscheweyh: Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Cyrril M. Sauer. 1997. Harris: Shock and Vibration handbook. BSK 94: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner. third edition 1988. DIN 4133. Januar 1997. C. Chr. Petersen: Windinduzierte Schwingungen und ihre Verhütung durch Dämpfer. Mc Graw-Hill Inc. Bauverlag GmbH. [11] Christian Petersen: Baupraxis und Aeroelastik. Svein O Hansen: Wind loads on structures. 109-117.och vindlast (Snow and wind loading). [12] Bengt Sundström: Handbok och formelsamling i Hållfasthetslära. p 876-878. Band 2: Praktische Anwendungen. Schorsteinbau – Symposium 23. Boverket 1999 (in Swedish).. [14] Costantin Verwiebe: Winderregte Schwingungen und Massnahmen zur Dämpfungserhöhung im Stahlschorsteinenbau. ENV 1993-3-2. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 65 (1996) 55-62.Section 8 8. Bad Hersfeld.

Feb. [22] H. 4th Chimney Symposium. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . May 1998 (in Swedish). 2002. Walshe: Investigation into wind induced oscillation on three 76 high self supporting steel chimneys. 127-135. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1981. 1993 (in Swedish). Stahlbau 65 (1996). [26] Göran Alpsten: Svängningsproblem vid en 35 m stålskorsten utan spriralfenor dimensionerad enligt SBN 1975 (Vibration problems for a 35 m steel chimney without helical strakes designed according to SBN 1975). Stålbyggnadskontroll AB.Pär Tranvik. Utgåva 5. Alstom Power Sweden AB. Part 2-4: Wind actions. Boverket 1999 (in Swedish). 1997. Internal report 8464-1. Langer. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 74-76 (1998) 777-783. Dennis E. SSAB Tunnplåt AB. [17] BKR 99: Boverkets konstruktionsregler. Göteborg. 1994. [21] Göran Alpsten: Dynamisk vindlast av virvelavlösning (Dynamic wind loading from vortex shedding). Heft 12. et al: Plåthandboken. ENV 1991-2-4. Stålbyggnadskontroll AB. [23] Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. 1985 (in Swedish). Chalmers Tekniska Högskola. [20] Costantin Verwiebe: Neue Erkenntnisse über die Erregungmechanismen Regen-Windinduzierter Schwingungen.Section 8 16] Dubbel: Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau. International Organisation of Standardisation. C. 14. Internal report S 02 003 . Ruscheweyh. Document 9835a. [19] Max Beaumont. [25] Kamal Handa: Kompendium i Byggnadsaerodynamik. [27] Pär Tranvik: VEAB Steel Chimney – Computer programs for data reduction. [18] Urban Bergström. Verwiebe: Long-term full-scale measurements of wind induced vibrations of steel stacks. W. [24] ISO 4354:1997(24): Wind actions on structures. 1993. 152 . Auflage.