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Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading
of a 90 m Steel Chimney
Pär Tranvik Alstom Power Sweden AB, Växjö
Göran Alpsten Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, Solna
Alstom Power Sweden AB Report S01041
Stålbyggnadskontroll AB Report 96473
March 2002
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 1
Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................ i.4
Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... i.5
Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Scope of investigation.................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading........................................................ 2
1.2.1 General................................................................................................................. 2
1.2.2 Vortex shedding.................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Symbols and units......................................................................................................... 5
Description of the VEAB chimney............................................................................................... 7
2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant................................................................................................. 7
2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB chimney.................................................................... 9
2.2.1 General data......................................................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Structural details ............................................................................................... 11
2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics .......................................................................... 18
2.3 Mechanical damper..................................................................................................... 19
2.3.1 Common damping designs............................................................................... 19
2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney ........................................... 23
2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney .............................................................. 26
2.4.1 Natural frequencies........................................................................................... 26
2.4.2 Vortex shedding................................................................................................ 28
2.4.3 Elastic energy.................................................................................................... 30
2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney.......................................................................... 32
3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney........................................... 33
3.1 Observations of malfunctioning of the chimney ..................................................... 33
3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations.................................................................... 33
3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes ........................................................ 34
3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks........................................................................ 34
3.1.4 Summary of cracks ........................................................................................... 36
3.1.5 Notches not available for examination............................................................ 36
3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds ........................................................................... 36
3.2 Data recording system................................................................................................ 37
3.2.1 General............................................................................................................... 37
3.2.2 Strain gauges ..................................................................................................... 37
3.2.3 Wind data transmitter ....................................................................................... 38
3.2.4 Recording computer ......................................................................................... 41
3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range.................................................................. 45
3.2.6 Verification of the equipment .......................................................................... 45
3.2.7 Procedures......................................................................................................... 46
3.2.8 Operating experience........................................................................................ 46
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 2
3.3 Behaviour of the mechanical damper ........................................................................ 47
3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper .................. 47
3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper.............. 60
3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study .............................. 74
3.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney........................................................... 75
3.5 Observed wind properties........................................................................................... 80
3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams............................. 80
3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range.............. 83
diagrams
3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams.................................................................................... 87
3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station.................................. 89
3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams ............................................... 91
3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams .................................................................... 93
3.5.7 Load spectra...................................................................................................... 95
3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity............................................................................ 100
3.5.9 Iso wind velocity plots.................................................................................... 102
3.6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gage measurements............... 106
3.7 First and second mode oscillations .......................................................................... 112
3.7.1 Screen plots ..................................................................................................... 112
3.7.2 Logged files..................................................................................................... 113
3.7.3 First mode evaluation ..................................................................................... 114
3.7.4 Second mode evaluation................................................................................. 116
3.7.5 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 117
3.8 Temperature and temperature dependent properties............................................... 118
3.8.1 Mean temperatures ......................................................................................... 118
3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity .................................................................... 120
3.8.3 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 121
4. Fatigue action ....................................................................................................................123
4.1 Fatigue model considered......................................................................................... 123
4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with malfunctioning damper .............. 126
4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper ...................................... 129
4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency ..................................................................... 129
4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency............................................ 131
5. Crack propagation............................................................................................................133
5.1 Method of analysis ................................................................................................... 133
5.2 Results ....................................................................................................................... 133
6. Discussion...........................................................................................................................135
6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices.............................. 135
6.2 Comparable chimney data........................................................................................ 136
6.3 Codes ......................................................................................................................... 139
6.3.1 General............................................................................................................. 139
6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour the VEAB chimney ....... 140
6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney.................... 145
6.5 Second mode............................................................................................................. 146
6.6 The future .................................................................................................................. 146
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 3
7. Summary............................................................................................................................149
7.1 In English................................................................................................................... 149
7.2 In Swedish................................................................................................................. 150
8. References ..........................................................................................................................151
Appendices with recorded and calculated data (Not included in this printing but
enclosed in the covered CD):
Appendix A VEAB brochure for the cogeneration block at Växjö..................................... A.1
Appendix B Description of recording system for the VEAB chimney
(in Swedish)........................................................................................................B.1
Appendix C Behaviour of mechanical damper – Observations from the damping test......C.1
Appendix D Screen plots for first and second order oscillations ........................................ D.1
Appendix E Cumulative fatigue damage...............................................................................E.1
Appendix F Wind pressure and deflection range diagrams ................................................. F.1
Appendix G Recorded temperatures ..................................................................................... G.1
Appendix H Computer programs for data reduction............................................................ H.1
Appendix I Recorded dynamic behaviour of the chimney................................................... I.1
Appendix J Detailed examination of cracks .........................................................................J.1
Appendix K Finite element analysis of hot spots in chimney structure.............................. K.1
Appendix L Simplified crack propagation analysis ..............................................................L.1
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 4
Preface
This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high
steel chimney equipped with a mechanical damper at the top. Due to a mistake in installing
the chimney the damper was not active in the first period of service life, causing large
oscillations of the structure and fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service.
Because of this an extensive investigation was started to rectify the action of the damper,
repair the steel structure and to monitor the behaviour of the structure adopting a failsafe
principle. Data from four years of continuous measurements are presented in the report.
VEAB of Växjö, Sweden is owner of the chimney, being part of a delivery of an electrostatic
precipitator of the Sandvik II biomass power plant at Växjö. ABB Fläkt Industri AB of Växjö
was contractor for the electrostatic precipitator including the chimney (activities of the
company later subdivided between Alstom Power Sweden AB and ABB). The chimney was
fabricated and erected by the subcontractor VL Staal A/S of Esbjerg, Denmark.
The authors are indebted to all parties involved for making it possible to present the results in
this form. Special thanks are due to Mr Ulf Johnson of VEAB, Mr Lars Palmqvist of ABB
Automation Systems AB, Mr Stig Magnell of Dryco AB, Messrs Rolf Snygg and Thomas
Väärälä of Alstom Power Sweden AB, and Mr Stig Pedersen of VL Staal A/S.
The investigation presented in this report was initiated by VEAB, for which the second author
acted as a consultant. The compilation of data and preparation of most parts of this report
were made by the first author. The second author has acted mainly as advisor for the
investigation.
Växjö and Solna in March 2002
Pär Tranvik Göran Alpsten
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 5
Abstract
The structural behaviour of the 90 m height VEAB steel chimney in southern Sweden has
been investigated. After only nine months of service a great number of fatigue cracks were
observed. The very slender chimney is equipped with a mechanical friction type damper to
increase damping and reduce displacements from vortex shedding. Initially the friction
damper did not operate properly and the chimney developed oscillations with large top
deflections in the very first period of service.
An extensive program was initiated to study and repair the fatigue cracks, restore the
mechanical damper, monitor the chimney behaviour and verify the chimney behaviour by
theoretical models.
This report summarizes results collected from about four years of continuous measurements
and regular observations of the chimney. The data obtained has some general relevance with
respect to wind data, behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading, and the effect of a
mechanical damper. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies
related to the investigation of the chimney.
A full scale damping test was performed. An improvement of a simplified theoretical
calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed.
The report present a number of diagrams for wind pressure and top deflection range,
accumulated wind pressure, accumulated top deflection range, elastic energy, wind
turbulence, load spectra and frequency of wind velocity.
A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB
chimney is unique in height and slenderness.
The economic incitements have to be great for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers.
This may not always be the case if inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost
estimate.
There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender
chimneys, that is for chimneys with slenderness ratio (height through diameter) above
approximately 30.
Key Words
Full scale measurements
Cross wind oscillations
Vortex shedding
Chimney
Mechanical damper
Dynamic wind loading
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
i. 6
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
1
1. Introduction
1.1 Scope of investigation
This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high
steel chimney erected at Växjö in southern Sweden in 1995. The chimney is equipped with a
mechanical frictiontype damper at the top.
Due to a mistake during erection and installation of the chimney the transport fixings of the
damper were not released properly and the chimney developed extensive oscillations in the
very first period of service. This caused a great number of fatigue cracks to occur within a
few months of service.
After the functioning of the damper had been restored and the fatigue cracks repaired an
extensive program was initiated in 1996 to monitor the structural behaviour of the chimney
under wind loading. This included continuous measurement of stresses in the structure in
order to record the stress history and thus monitor the risk for fatigue of the repaired structure.
Visual inspection and magnetic particle evaluation have been performed at regular intervals,
determined from a failsafe principle.
This report summarises results collected from about four years of continuous measurements
and regular observations of the chimney. The data obtained has some general relevance with
respect to wind data, behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading, and the effect of a
mechanical damper. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies
related to the investigation of the chimney.
In addition to presenting results of general interest and discussions in the main part of the
report, original data and further compilations of detailed results are given in Appendices to the
report, in order to make possible further evaluation of the data for other investigators.
The observations and recordings from the VEAB chimney are unique because of the
following items:
 It is a high and slender steel chimney equipped with a tuned pendulum damper.
 The natural frequencies are low and therefore also the critical resonance wind
velocity for vortexinduced oscillations is low.
 Large top amplitude deflections have been observed with the damper mistakenly
inactive.
 Vortex shedding oscillations were observed at both first and at rare occasions
also at second mode of natural frequency.
 Field recordings have been made continuously during four years of service.
Wind and temperature data and the response of the chimney to wind loading
were recorded.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
2
 A fullscale damping test was performed.
 A detailed examination of cracks was performed.
 Comparisons between theory and observations were made for natural
frequencies, damping, dynamic behaviour, wind data, fatigue, cracks and finally
there are a discussion about the use of tuned dampers.
1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading
1.2.1 General
For slender structures subjected to wind loading there are three main actions to consider, gust
wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillation ovalling.
Gust winds displace the chimney in the same direction as the wind load. For a rigid structure
gust wind is independent of the dynamic properties of the structure but dependent for a
flexible structure.
Vortex shedding occurs when the natural frequency of a structure corresponds with vortices
shed from opposite sides of the structure resulting in cross gas flow oscillations. The vortex
shedding will be discussed more in detail in Section 1.2.2, 2.4.2, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7 and 6.
Ring oscillations (ovalling) are a pulsating oval oscillation of for instance a cylindrical shell
structure.
1.2.2 Vortex shedding
Vortexinduced oscillations occur when vortices are shed alternately from opposite sides of a
structure. It gives rise to a fluctuating load perpendicular to the wind direction as shown
schematically in Figure 1.2 a.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
3
Figure 1.2 a Vortices formed behind a cylinder. v is the wind velocity in the undisturbed
field. Distance between the vortices subject to wind loading L is approximately
4.3 times the diameter d.
When a vortex is formed on one side of the structure, the wind velocity increases on the other
side [1]. This results in a pressure difference on the opposite sides and the structure is
subjected to a lateral force away from the side where the vortex is formed. As the vortices are
shed at the critical wind velocity alternately first from one side then the other, a harmonically
varying lateral load with the same frequency as the frequency of the vortex shedding is
formed.
Oscillations generated by vortex shedding may occur in slender structures such as cables,
chimneys and towers. The risk of vortexinduced oscillations increases for slender structures
and structures in line with a small distance between them.
Usually the first mode is critical for vortex shedding in actual steel structures subjected to
wind loading, but in rare cases also the second mode is of interest.
The Reynold number is a nondimensional parameter describing the influence of internal
friction in fluid mechanics. The Reynold number is expressed as
?
v d
Re
∞
⋅
· .........................................................................................................................(1.1)
where d = Diameter of chimney
∞
v = Undisturbed wind velocity
υ = Kinematic viscosity of the air according to Section 3.8
In general large Reynold numbers means turbulent flow. For chimneys with circular cross
section the flow is either in the supercritical or transcritical range for wind velocities of
practical interest.
Subcritical 300 õ Reõ 10
5
Supercritical 10
5
õ Reõ
6
10 5 . 3 ⋅
Transcritical
6
10 5 . 3 ⋅ õ Re
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
4
Aero elasticity causes a regular vortex shedding also in the supercritical range.
For a nonvibrating chimney the distance L between vortices rotating in the same direction is
proportional to the diameter of the chimney d. In slender structures, large oscillations may
occur if the frequency of vortex shedding coincides with the natural frequency for the
structure vibrating in a mode in the crosswind direction [1]. The proportionality factor for
vortex shedding is named Strouhal number.
The Strouhal number is expressed as
∞
⋅
·
v
f d
St
0
............................................................................................................................(1.2)
where
0
f = Natural frequency
The Strouhal number describes the dependence of the cross section, the surface roughness and
the wind turbulence [1]. It depends on the Reynold number for a stationary smooth cylinder
and for an aeroelastic chimney. The Strouhal number depends on the motion of the structure
(aero elasticity).
Characteristic properties for crosswind are:
 Net gust load caused by lateral wind fluctuations.
 Loads caused by vortex shedding. The load occurs whether or not the structure is
moving, but may be strongly dependent on the size of the motion [1], [6], [25]. The
motion could start to rule the vortex shedding. This part of the load is called net vortex
shedding load [1].
 Motioninduced forces. Most important is the negative aerodynamic damping generated
by vortex shedding.
Vortex shedding structural oscillations are more probable if:
 Smooth laminar air flow which for instance occurs in the stable atmosphere during cold
winter days.
 Increased smallscale turbulence, for instance that occurring in the wake of a slender,
nearby structure of similar size.
Bearing in mind the risk of violent vortexinduced oscillations, aerodynamic damping is of
primary concern.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
5
The Scruton number is a nondimensional parameter defined as
2
e s
2
d
m
Sc
⋅
⋅ ⋅
·
ρ
δ
.....................................................................................................................(1.3)
where ·
s
δ The logarithmic decrement of the structural damping
·
e
m Equivalent mass per unit of length according to the
mode considered
· ρ Density of air
A comparison of the predicted amplitudes for steel chimneys with fullscale measurements is
shown in [2]. Similar diagrams are found in [1].
1.3 Symbols and units
Symbols are explained in the text where they first occur. Unless otherwise noted basic SI
units has been used through out this report.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 1
6
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1
7
2. Description of the VEAB chimney
2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant
The VEAB Sandvik II cogeneration block is situated outside the
town of Växjö in southern Sweden at a height of 164 m above sea
level. Large forested areas and some lakes dominate the
surroundings. The plant can be fired with most kinds of biomass,
everything from wood chips to bark and peat. The boiler has an
output of 104 MW, of which 66 MW is heat. The generator has an
output of 38 MW of electricity.
The boiler is of circulating fluidised bed type, a socalled CFB
boiler. The particle collection equipment consists of an electrostatic
precipitator for the separation of dust from the flue gases, an
induced fan, a flue gas condenser to utilize the energy content in
the flue gas, a dust transportation and storage system and a steel
chimney, see Figure 2.1 a.
This chimney, being the subject of this report, is referred to as the
VEAB chimney. A layout of the VEAB Sandvik II plant is shown
in Figure 2.1 b. A photo of the VEAB chimney from the South
showing neighbouring buildings is shown in Figure 2.1 c. More
data about the VEAB Sandvik II plant may be found in
Appendix A.
The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete
chimney is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB
chimney diameter. The distance is much larger than 15 times the
diameter were interaction between two equal chimneys may
become insignificant [3], [9]. Furthermore, the properties of the old
concrete chimney and the new steel chimney are drastically
different. Thus interaction between the two chimneys should be
insignificant.
Figure 2.1 a The VEAB chimney top half photographed from the
boiler outer roof.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1
8
Figure 2.1 b Layout of the VEAB Sandvik plant.
Figure 2.1 c The VEAB chimney from south showing neighbouring buildings.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
9
Figure 2.2 a Overall
dimensions of the VEAB
chimney.
2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB
chimney
2.2.1 General data
The VEAB chimney has the following overall data:
Height 90 m
Diameter of structural shell 2.3 m
Diameter of inner pipe 2.0 m
Thickness of inner pipe 3 mm
Outer diameter of top portion 2.8 m
with damper
The thickness of the structural shell varies from base to top
as shown in Table 2.2 a.
Table 2.2 a Thickness of structural shell of the VEAB
chimney.
Height Thickness
(m) (mm)
0
18
5
16
12.5
14
20
12
30
10
42.6
8
55.2
6
90
Weights
Structural shell 50 080 kg
Inner pipe 13 592 kg
Insulation 4 954 kg
Damper pendulum 1 246 kg
Miscellaneous 9 628 kg
Total 79 500 kg
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
10
Material
Structural parts Corten, MPa 355
e
· R , MPa 000 210 · E
Inner pipe Steel SS2350
Foundation bolts Steel S355J2G3 according to EN10025, MPa 345
e
· R
Bolts at flanged splices 8.8, MPa 800 ·
m
R
Corrosion protection
Sand blasting to Sa 2.5
2 x 60 µm alkyd primer
2 x 60 µm top coat
For transport and erection purposes flanged splices are arranged at levels 30 m, 55.2 m and
82.2 m.
2 x 40 mm of thermal insulation of mineral wool are arranged between inner pipe and outer
shell.
Just below the top of the chimney a mechanical pendulum damper is arranged to decrease top
deflection caused by vortex shedding. The damper is described more in detail in Section 2.3.
Above the damper, at 88 m level, a platform is arranged.
From height 2.5 m level up to the platform at height 88 m level an outside ladder is arranged.
The distance between ladder and chimney shell (equal to connection gusset plates width) is
200 mm (see also Figure 2.2 m).
Three warning lights for aircrafts are connected to the outside plate shell of the damper unit.
Some buildings as boiler house and electrostatic precipitator are located close to the chimney.
Figure 2.1 b shows a layout of the VEAB plant and Figure 2.2 b a layout of the immediate
surroundings of the VEAB chimney.
Figure 2.2 b The VEAB chimney, neighbouring buildings and the location of the recording
computer.
Computer
N
Chimney
(h= 90 m)
Building
(h=25 m)
Building
(h=40 m)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
11
The slenderness ratio for a chimney may be defined as
d
h
· λ ..................................................................................................................................(2.1)
where h = height of the chimney
d = diameter of the chimney
For the VEAB chimney 39
3 . 2
90
· · λ which is greater than 30, the approximate limit value
according to [3] for applicability of the code model for calculating vortex shedding forces.
2.2.2 Structural details
The base details consist of a bottom ring, 40 gusset plates at outside and 40 at inside. A total
of 80 foundation bolts M56 connect the VEAB chimney to the concrete foundation structure.
See Figures 2.2 c and 2.2 d. Initially the design had no ring placed at the top of the gusset
plates.
Figure 2.2 c Base plate with 2 x 40 foundation gusset plates and 2 x 40 bolt holes.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
12
Figure 2.2 d Original base details with 40 gusset plates symmetrically at inside and outside
of the shell plate. 2x40 bolts M56 S355J2G3 (Details of the later modified
foundation ring are shown in Figure 2.1 g.
Flanged splices at 30 m and 55.2 m levels are shown in Figures 2.2 e and 2.2 f. Initially the
flanged splice design at 30 m level had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
13
Figure 2.2 e Original flanged splice at h=30 m level. 40 gussets symmetrically on outside of
the shell plate were applied (details of the later modified splice are shown in
Figure 2.1 i).
Figure 2.2 f Flanged splice at h=55.2 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
14
Figure 2.2 g shows the modified base details with the reinforcement ring on top of flanges.
Figure 2.2 g Modified base details. Modification made in December 1998. The original base
is shown in Figure 2.1 d.
The modified base details and details of the inspection door are shown in Figure 2.2 h.
Figure 2.2 h The modified base details and details of the inspection door. The cables above
the inspection door are a part of the data collecting system.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
15
Figures 2.2 i and 2.2 j show the modified flanged erection splice at 30 m level with the
reinforcement ring on top respective bottom of flanges.
Figure 2.2 i The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level. Modification made in
December 1998. The original flanged erection splice is shown in Figure 2.1 e.
Figure 2.2 j The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level. Modification
made in December 1998.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
16
Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct are shown in Figure 2.2 k.
Figure 2.2 k Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct. Midpoint of hole
at 13.3 m level. Thickness of the vertical reinforcement plates is 40 mm.
Figure 2.2 l Details of the inspection door at 1 m level (midpoint). See also Figure 2.1 h.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
17
Details on ladder connections and inner pipe supports are shown in Figures 2.2 m and 2.2 n
respectively.
Figure 2.2 m Details of the ladder connection gusset plates.
Figure 2.2 n Details of the support gusset plates for inner pipe at h=11 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
18
2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics
The manufacturing was intended to follow Swedish regulations for load carrying steel
structures [3], [4] and [17]. According to the manufacturers documentation:
Workmanship class GB
Cutting class Sk2
Weld class WC according to [4], that is, modified class C according
to ISO 5817
From inspection of the delivered structure, a number of deviations from the intended quality
were found. Most important, a large number of welds at base and at flanged erection splice at
30 m level not did satisfy weld class WC. Weld class WC is the lowest weld quality
applicable for load carrying steel structures according to [4].
The manufacturing was made at the VL Staal a/s workshop in Esbjerg, Denmark. In the
quality control of the chimney a third party was involved.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
19
2.3 Mechanical damper
2.3.1 Common damping designs
Two principal solutions to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding are described in the
literature, see for instance [1] and [6].
The first method is to apply helical strakes or any similar aerodynamic device for removing or
reducing the magnitude of oscillations induced by regular vortex shedding. The periodic
formation of vortices will be reduced or eliminated by the changed airflow. The design of the
helical strakes is important for an effective reduction of vortexinduced oscillations. A
disadvantage with the use of helical strakes is an increased projected area at chimney top and
increased drag coefficient, thus causing increased gust wind loads.
Another method for reducing or eliminating the risk of oscillations induced by vortex
shedding is to apply tuned mass dampers. There are two types of tuned mass dampers, passive
and active. An active mass damper requires an automatic engineering system to trigger the
mass damper to counteract any occurring oscillation.
The VEAB steel chimney uses a passive tuned mass damper and this type will be discussed
here. Several designs for a tuned mass damper are suggested in [6], [7] and [8]. Figures 2.3 a
through 2.3 g presents schematically some solutions for passive damping devices. The VEAB
chimney uses the principle found in Figure 2.3 f.
Figure 2.3 a The chimney is damped by connecting a damper to a neighbouring building.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
20
Figure 2.3 b The chimney is damped by using prestressed wires with springdamper
elements.
Figure 2.3 c The chimney is damped by using wires with an end mass and a friction device.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
21
Figure 2.3 d The chimney is damped by using a pendulum ring connected to the chimney
shell plate by hydraulic dampers.
Figure 2.3 e The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod in a
damping material.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
22
Figure 2.3 f The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod. A
friction mass is guided by the rod. The damping is achieved by the friction
mass that slips on a bottom plate.
Figure 2.3 g The chimney is damped by using a dynamic liquid damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
23
2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney
Figure 2.3 h The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney (schematic drawn but in
scale). Compare with Figure 2.3 f.
The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney consists of a pendulum mass ring hinged
in three chains, located in 120 degrees direction, connected to the damper house roof. Three
symmetrically distributed guiding rods connect the pendulum mass movement to the
movement of the three friction masses. The damping is achieved by friction between the
friction mass and the damper house floor. The manufacturer calculated the generalised mass
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
24
to M
gen
=12 460 kg. The pendulum mass was selected to 10 percent of the generalised mass to
M=1 246 kg [6].
The generalised mass is defined as
∫
⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ·
H
dx
y
x y
x m M
0
2
top
gen
) (
) ( ….............................…………........................................(2.2)
where
m(x) = Mass per length at height x
y(x) = Deflection at height x
y
top
= Top deflection
dx = Integration segment
H = Chimney height
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Height (m)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Figure 2.3 i Top deflection amplitude as a function of level according to the finite element
calculation in Sections 2.4.1 and 3.3.2.2
By a stepwise integration of Equation 2.2 rewritten as finite differences and using the results
from the finite element calculation in Section 2.4.1 and 3.3.2.2 it is found that
x
y
x y
x m M
gen
∆ ⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ∆ ·
2
top
) (
) ( ….............................…………........................................(2.3)
where
) ( x m ∆ = Mass per length at height x for a finite element
y(x) = Deflection at height x for a finite element
x ∆ = Chimney height integration step
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3
25
The generalised mass may be achieved as kg 810 16
gen
· M which differs from 12 460 kg
according to above.
The pendulum angle is limited by the damper house walls shown in Figure 2.3 j to an angle of
° ≈
⋅
−
≈ 2 . 1 )
3550 2
100 250
arctan( α
Figure 2.3 j Maximum possible pendulum angle α for the VEAB chimney damper (measured
from the layout drawing).
The horizontal force necessary to accelerate the friction masses into motion by an inclination
of the pendulum damper is
g m N H ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
f
µ µ ........................................................................................................(2.4)
where µ = The friction coefficient which is 0.15 to 0.3 depending on the
surface properties of the steel.
m
f
= Friction mass
In Section 3.3.2.7 the influence of the magnitude of the acceleration is studied theoretically.
Both ventilation and drainage holes are arranged in the damper house.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
26
2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney
2.4.1 Natural frequencies
The three lowest modes of natural frequencies of the VEAB chimney were calculated with a
finite element program.
The following assumptions were made:
 The chimney was modelled as a fixed end cantilever.
 The actual variation with height of the mass and the stiffness of the structure
was considered
 An additional mass of 2 500 kg for the damper equipment was added in the
node
at the mass centre of the damper.
 Distributed masses of 310 kg/m were added to all nodes. It includes inner pipe,
insulation, ladder, electrical cables and other nonstructural elements.
The three lowest modes of natural frequencies are shown in Figure 2.4 a.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
27
First mode of natural
frequency
Hz 282 . 0
5518 . 3
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Second mode of natural
frequency
Hz 44 . 1
6932 . 0
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Third mode of natural
frequency
Hz 86 . 3
2590 . 0
1 1
· · ·
T
f
Figure 2.4 a The three lowest modes of natural frequencies calculated for the VEAB
chimney.
These calculated natural frequencies might be compared with observed values for the actual
structure. The natural frequency was determined from observations of oscillations in the first
mode using a theodolite. Average values was:
0.287 Hz 19960503
0.283 Hz 19961029
In Section 3.7.2, the first mode of natural frequencies for the four years of measurements is
presented. Based upon an evaluation of the vast amount of recorded data the average value of
the first mode of natural frequency for the measurement period 1997 through 2000 was 0.288
with a total variation of t 0.005 Hz.
Thus the observed natural frequency, based on two different ways of measurement and
observed over a long period of time, corresponds well with the calculated value of 0.282 Hz.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
28
2.4.2 Vortex shedding
According to [3] the critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated as
St
d f
v
⋅
·
cr
.......................................................... .................. .............................................(2.5)
where f = Natural frequency (0.282 Hz used in this section)
d = Diameter
St = Strouhal number (Equation 1.2), 0.2 at ordinary vortex
shedding and lower if any lockin phenomena occur
In Table 2.4 a the critical wind velocities for the three lowest natural frequencies are found.
Table 2.4 a The critical wind velocity for the three lowest modes for the VEAB chimney.
Strouhal number assumed to 0.2. Calculated values for natural frequencies have
been used.
Critical wind
velocity for first
mode
(Hz)
Critical wind
velocity for
second mode
(Hz)
Critical wind
velocity for
third mode
(Hz)
At chimney shell
d = 2.3 m
3.24 m/s 16.6 m/s 44.4 m/s
At damper unit
d = 2.8 m
3.95 m/s 20.2 m/s 54.0 m/s
In Section 3.2.3.2 the mean wind velocity at 90 m height was calculated to 34.2 m/s. Critical
wind velocity for both first and second mode is of interest for vortex shedding phenomena
because their magnitude is less than the mean wind velocity.
According to [3] the equivalent load during vortex shedding may be calculated as
m
cr tr eq
d
d p w
π
µ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ..........................................................................................................(2.6)
where
tr
µ = Shape factor for cross wind oscillations
cr
p = Wind velocity pressure (Pa)
d = Diameter (m)
m
δ = Logarithmic decrement, assumed to 0.07 for the VEAB
chimney with active dampers
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
29
Further the wind velocity pressure
cr
p is calculated as
2
cr cr
5 . 0 v p ⋅ ⋅ · ρ ...................................................................................................................(2.7)
where ρ is assumed equal to 1.25 kg/m
2
[3].
tr
µ is a function of the Reynold number, which is defined in Equation 1.1
In Table 2.4 b equivalent load during vortex shedding are found for the VEAB chimney.
Table 2.4 b Equivalent loads during vortex shedding.
d (m)
cr
v (m/s) Re
tr
µ
cr
p (Pa)
eq
w
(N/m)
Shell plate 2.3 3.24
5
10 97 . 4 ⋅
0.2 6.56 135
At damper 2.8 3.95
5
10 37 . 7 ⋅
0.2 9.75 245
Some comments about this model and values of the temperature dependent variables will be
discussed later in Section 6.
It is important to note that the VEAB chimney do not satisfy the restrictions in [3] for
applicability of the code model. The restrictions are:
d
h
õ 30 .....................…..........................................................................…………….........(2.8)
max
y õ d ⋅ 06 . 0 for the load
eq
3 . 1 w ⋅ .............….................................................…........…...(2.9)
where
max
y = Top deflection amplitude (m)
The maximum top deflection range during vortex shedding was calculated by the
manufacturer to mm 273 6 . 133 2 · ⋅ . The corresponding bending stress at the chimney base
was calculated to 11.6 MPa. For the VEAB chimney the slenderness h/d = 39 which means
that the restrictions for the applicability of the load model of the code [3] is exceeded.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
30
2.4.3 Elastic energy
To get an estimation of the energy added to the oscillating chimney the beam elastic energy is
calculated.
Figure 2.4 b A distributed load on a fixed cantilever beam.
Modulus of elasticity
MPa 10 21
4
⋅ · E
Height of the VEAB chimney
H=90 m
Bending moment in the beam loaded by a distributed load
( )
2
b
) (
2 2
) ( ) ( x H
q x H
x H q x M − ⋅ ·
−
⋅ − ⋅ · ......................................................................(2.10)
The VEAB chimney outer diameter is
D=2.3 m
Plate thickness varies according to Table 2.2 a.
Moment of inertia varies as
[ ]
4 4
) 2 (
64
) ( t D D x I ⋅ − − ⋅ ·
π
..............................................................................................(2.11)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4
31
The beam elastic energy is described as
∫
⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅
·
H
dx
x I E
x M
W
0
2
b
) ( 2
)) ( (
.................................................................................................….(2.12)
For each part with a constant shell thickness the moment of inertia is constant. The integral is
therefore calculated separately for each part with constant shell thickness. The total beam
elastic energy is then calculated by superposition. The part integration will be
∫ ∫
⋅ −
⋅ ⋅
· ⋅
⋅ ⋅
·
2
1
2
1
4
part
2
2
part
part
) (
8
)) ( (
2
1
h
h
h
h
b
dx x H
I E
q
dx x M
I E
W
2
1
5
part
2
part
) (
5
1
8
h
h
x H
I E
q
W
]
]
]
− ⋅ −
⋅ ⋅
·
[ ]
5
2
5
1
part
2
part
) ( ) (
40
h H h H
I E
q
W − − −
⋅ ⋅
· ............................….....................................(2.13)
The numerical results are shown in Table 2.4 c.
Table 2.4 c Numerical integration of the beam elastic energy. It is assumed that q=w
eq
=135
N/m, the equivalent load during vortex shedding of the VEAB chimney
according to Section 2.4.2.
Part no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total
h
1
(m) 0.0 5.0 12.5 20.0 30.0 42.6 55.2
h
2
(m) 5.0 12.5 20.0 30.0 42.6 55.2 90.0
t (m) 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.010 0.008 0.006
I (m
4
) 0.0840 0.0749 0.0657 0.0564 0.0472 0.0378 0.0284
W (Nm) 37.9 47.5 36.8 34.7 24.7 10.8 4.5 197
This means that a distributed load of 135 N/m corresponds to a bending energy of 197 Nm for
a half oscillating cycle. The period of the oscillations is s 5 . 3
288 . 0
1 1
≈ · ·
f
T .
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.5
32
2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney
The VEAB chimney was erected in late November to early December 1995. It was snowy
weather and the temperature was a couple of degrees below zero Celsius.
During the first winter period after erection several persons made observations of oscillations
with large top deflections of the chimney. The potential for fatigue problems were first
pointed out in a report by the second author. During the spring of 1996 cracks were found.
Therefore an extensive crack examination program was carried out during the late summer
and early autumn of 1996. A large number of cracks were found, examined and repaired.
One important explanation to the unacceptable top deflections was that the damper was mal
functioning. It was repaired but questions still remained if there could be other explanations
for the large oscillations. Therefore an extensive data collecting system was installed intended
to continuously monitor and record the response of the structure to wind loads. The data
collecting system has been in continuous operation since mid December 1996 until 2001.
In December 1998 some additional cracks were found at locations not examined before. A
couple of design changes were made. As part of the action to ensure a safe design the original
foundation ring was modified. On top of the gussets an additional ring was added aimed to
reduce stress concentrations at the horizontal welds between shell and gusset plates. The
same action was taken at the connection ring at the flanged splice on the 30 m level.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
33
3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB
chimney
3.1 Observation of malfunctioning of the chimney
3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations
During the first nine months of the chimney in operation oscillations with large top
deflections were observed. Observations of some witnesses during the first winter period
December 1995 to April 1996 were later documented and are briefly related below.
The first working day after Christmas 1995 the temperature was about 20 °C with a sunny
clear sky. A supervisor discovered that the chimney top oscillated with an amplitude
approximately equal to the diameter and sounded like a chime of bells with a frequency of
about one second period. He estimated the magnitude of the top deflection from
measurements on the chimney shadow. His understanding was that the sound originated from
movements between the outer and inner pipe. At 10.30 to 12.30 h the top chimney shadow
moved about 4 m at the top of the power plant building. The chimney oscillated in west/east
direction. The smoke from the older concrete chimney was almost above the new one or a
little to the west. At 14.00 to 15.00 h the chimney again oscillated in a similarly manner. At
17.00 to18.00 h it oscillated again but not as much as before. The supervisor estimated that
the chimney oscillated from Christmas 1995 or April 1996 one or two days a week with total
top deflection amplitude of 0.5 to1.0 m.
A building worker observed on the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney
oscillated with a top amplitude equal to about the diameter. Later during the winter the same
building worker, working on the power plant roof, observed the chimney to oscillate with
amplitude of about 0.5 m at roof level.
Another building worker also made observations of the oscillations the same day as the
supervisor. The top deflection amplitude was not quantified. After that he saw the chimney
oscillate several times but not as much as on the first day.
Several design engineers and one structural engineer at a nearby engineering office of the
Fläkt Industri AB located about 600 m NW of the chimney observed from their windows
during the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated violently. The
structural engineer estimated the top amplitude to about half the diameter. The conditions for
estimating the magnitude of the oscillations were good because the new steel chimney is
almost in line with an older concrete chimney as viewed from the engineering office
windows.
Two other structural engineers at a separate engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB
located about 1 km NW of the chimney observed from their windows the chimney to oscillate
drastically during several times in January and February 1996. By levelling relative to a wall
they estimated the top amplitude to be about half the diameter.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
34
3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes
According to the manufacturer a documented quality control was made before the shipping of
the chimney and there where no detected cracks when it left the workshop. Personnel from the
manufacturer as well as external testing personnel were involved in the quality inspection and
testing.
Because of the observed behaviour of the VEAB chimney an inspection was made in May
1996 by the second author acting as a consultant for VEAB. At the foundation level cracks
were found at the weld toes to the gusset plates. Both the maximum bending moment from
wind loads and the large stress concentration at fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at
chimney coincided. The appearance of these cracks indicated that the cause was fatigue.
The main explanation for the cracks was that one of the three guiding bars for friction masses
of the damping pendulum at the top of the chimney was to long and therefore resting on the
bottom friction plate. The pendulum movements were partly restrained. Apparently the
damper gave only limited damping action until it was adjusted in September 1996.
3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks
As a result of the initial observations of cracks at the base a detailed examination of cracks
was made using magnetic particle and eddy current testing techniques. A description of the
detailed examination of cracks is found in appendix J. The first author conducted and
participated in all inspections and investigations and performed all evaluations.
Cracks were found at foundation ring gusset plates, at flanged erection splice gusset plates at
30 m level and at top and bottom of connecting gas duct vertical gussets. In Figure 3.1 a
typical cracks for vertical gusset plates at foundation ring and vertical gusset plates at flanged
erection splice at 30 m level are found. (a) denotes the initiation point at the weld toe where
the angle at several welds was too sharp. (b) denotes the initiation point at the weld root. (1)
shows the propagation direction for the weld toe initiated cracks. (2) and (3) shows the
propagation direction for the centre of weldinitiated cracks. The most common type of crack
was (1).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
35
Figure 3.1 a Typical cracks at horizontal fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at
chimney
At 12 of the 40 outside gusset plates and 37 of the 40 inside gusset plates at foundation level
cracks were indicated. At 30 m level almost all of the gusset plates had some kind of a linear
indication, probably from cracks. At both locations the crack lengths varied from 2 to 20 mm
and the depths 1 to 3 mm, except at (2) according to Figure 3.1 a where some of the cracks at
foundation level went through the weld. A picture of a typical weld is found in Figure 3.1 b.
← Crack at the weld toe
← Crack in centre of weld
Figure 3.1 b A weld after 1.5 mm of grinding.
At the weld toe of the horizontal welds at ends of the vertical plate reinforcements five cracks
were found as shown in Figure 3.1 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1
36
Figure 3.1 c Detected cracks at gas duct inlet.
3.1.4 Summary of cracks
All detected cracks had started either from an sharp and unacceptable weld toe or from root
defects as shown in Figure 3.1 a. The weld roots had often remaining slag and cavities. The
weld quality did not satisfy the code requirements for the weld qualities used in the design
calculations. Most of the horizontal welds at top of gusset plates at foundation level and 30 m
level were damaged by cracks observed after only a few months of service of the chimney.
3.1.5 Notches not available for examination
A number of potential points for fatigue crack initiation were not available for examination,
such as welds at support gusset plates for inner pipe and guiding Ubeams for inner pipe
between the inner and outer shell. Therefore knowledge about their condition is unknown.
3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds
All welds with indicated cracks were repaired and once again examined by the magnetic
particle method. This was made immediately after the testing.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
37
3.2 Data recording system
3.2.1 General
Because doubts remained about the reliability of the damper even after the adjustment in September 1996 it was
decided that oscillations of the structure had to be monitored and stored by a data recording system. The data
recording system consists of three main parts, the strain gauges, the wind data transmitters and the computer.
The data recording system was created primarily for studying the influence of first mode oscillations with
respect to fatigue strength. Daltek Probator, Sweden, was responsible for developing and installing the data
recording system.
3.2.2 Strain gauges
On the shell plate inside the stack at 4 m height above the concrete foundation strain gauges
were applied at 16 points symmetrically in circumferential direction. The section at 4 m level
was chosen in order to avoid influence of local stress concentrations from gusset plates at the
chimney base and from the inlet to the gas duct. The inside chimney location was selected for
weather protection reasons. The opposite strain gauges were coupled in pairs, bridges. For
access and serviceability of the strain gauges a platform was built inside the chimney at 3 m
height. Initially the recording system was aimed at monitoring the chimney behaviour for a
few months. The results obtained from such a short period were not convincing. Therefore the
monitoring period was extended. The first installation of the strain gauge system was aimed
for a short period. Thus, the selected glue for the strain gauges was not aimed for longterm
use.
The accuracy of the recorded values from the strain gauges were estimated to 1 percent.
Figure 3.2 a Designation and orientation of strain gauges and locations relative to gas
duct, inspection door and ladder of the VEAB chimney.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
38
3.2.3 Wind data transmitter
3.2.3.1 General
Figure 3.2 b The VEAB Sandvik plant. To the right Sandvik II unit and the 90 m steel
chimney. A balloon shows location of the wind data transmitter on top of the
power plant building of the Sandvik II unit.
The wind data transmitter, wind monitor 05103 Young, was installed on the top of the power
plant building on a 5 m height pole. The height of the power plant building roof is 40 m above
ground level. The horizontal distance between the wind data transmitters and the VEAB
chimney is 43 m. Therefore all recorded wind data refer to a 45 m height above ground level
and a point 43 m approximately north of the VEAB chimney. This is to be compared with the
height of the chimney, 90 m above ground level.
The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney, to the left in Figure
3.2 b is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter. It is much larger
than 15 times the diameter, below which interaction between two equal chimneys may
become significant [3], [9]. Furthermore the distance between the old concrete chimney and
the VEAB chimney (new steel chimney) are drastically different. Thus as stated in Section
2.1, interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
39
Figure 3.2 c The wind data transmitters on the Sandvik II unit roof.
Because of the small distance between the power plant outer roof and the wind data
transmitter some form of turbulent boundary layer disturbances in the recorded wind data may
be expected.
The wind data transmitter signals were also used by VEAB for their plant planning and for
monitoring environmental conditions.
3.2.3.2 Correction for wind at 90 m height
The wind mean velocity varies with height according to [3]
) ( ) (
exp ref mk
z C v z v ⋅ · ........................................................................................................(3.1)
where the exposure factor is
2
0
exp
ln ) (
]
]
]
,
`
.

⋅ ·
z
z
z C β for
min
z z > .................................................................................(3.2)
For the VEAB chimney, topographical category II that is similar to the code definition [3] of
an open terrain with small obstacles.
Reference wind velocity and terrain related parameters for topographical category II is [3]
m/s 24
ref
· v , 19 . 0 · β , 05 . 0
0
· z and m 4
min
· z
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
40
The height correction factor n
corr
for wind at height h
2
but measured at height h
1
above ground
level will be
) (
) (
1 mk
2 mk
corr
h v
h v
n · ....................................................................................................................(3.3)
Table 3.2 a Exposure factor, wind mean velocity and height correction factor to 90 m height
for some heights.
Height (m) C
exp
v
mk
(m/s) n
corr
10 1.01 24.2 1.41
45 1.67 31.0 1.10
90 2.03 34.2 1.00
Wind data presented in this report have been corrected with the correction factor n
corr
in Table
3.2 a.
3.2.3.3 Influence of distance between chimney and wind data transmitter
Because of the distance of 43 m between the chimney and the wind data transmitter wind data
were not measured at the same time as oscillations of the chimney. The wind mean values for
both wind velocity and direction were calculated at three arithmetic mean values 10s, 1 min
and 10 min. As found from Figure 3.2 d below error influence will be limited because the
time to create mean values will have greater influence on the results than the elapsed time for
wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitters or reverse.
Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to
wind transmitters or reverse. Distance 43 m.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Wind speed (m/s)
T
i
m
e
(
s
)
Elapsed time
10 s
Figure 3.2 d Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitter.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
41
Distance between chimney and transmitter is 43 m. Therefore, in this report no correction was
made to account for the distance between chimney and wind data transmitter.
3.2.4 Recording computer
The measurement equipment was based on a Pentium 100 MHz personal computer equipped
with a data collecting card with 16 analogue input ports and a separate card for signal
conditioning. At the time of installation it was a modern personal computer. Collection of
data, control and control of alarm functions were made by a computer program, a virtual
instrument especially developed for this project. Daltek Probator AB, Sweden developed the
LabVIEW application and was responsible for both program installation and hardware.
Both the strain gauges and the wind velocity and direction transmitter equipment were
connected to the computer. The computer was located in a partly heated and completely
weatherprotected building intended for exhaust gas environmental control instruments. A
locked cabinet prevented the computer from unauthorized curiosity.
Figure 3.2 e The recording computer in its cabinet.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
42
Figure 3.2 f The recording computer.
The measurement program collected data continuously and supervised eight signals from the
eight strain gauge bridges and two signals from the wind data transmitter (velocity and
direction). On the computer screen a virtual instrument presented some output data. An
example is shown in Figure 3.2 g.
Figure 3.2 g The virtual instrument for recording and supervising the chimney.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
43
The terminology in Swedish of the virtual instrument screen as exemplified in Figure 3.2 g is
as follows:
Larmgräns vidd för
registrering
If the chimney top deflection range in any direction exceeds this
limit value the actual data was stored on the computer hard disk. The
virtual lamp Larm was lit only when the top deflection range exceeds
the limit value
Display Actual chimney maximum top deflection range in any direction. The
virtual lamp LED was lit once the limit value was exceeded. It has to
be switched off by pushing the button Återst.
Max. registerad vidd Maximum recorded top deflection range was shown. The value has
to be set to zero by pushing the button Återst. Max registrerad vidd.
Loggas till fil Shows name of file to which all recordings were stored.
Antal reg. svängningar Shows number of recorded registrations since last restart of the
program.
Vindriktn. 10s,
Vindriktn. 1min,
Vindriktn 10 min
Shows wind direction values in 360 degrees according to Figure 3.2
a. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s, 1 min and 10
min.
Vindhast. 10s,
Vindhast. 1 min,
Vindhast. 10 min
Shows wind velocity values in m/s. Mean values were calculated
over a period of 10s, 1 min and 10 min.
Stopp A button for stopping the program when copying recorded results.
Utböjningsamplitud
(mm) i resp.
kompassriktning
This diagram shows the actual amplitude in real time for all eight
strain gauge bridges. Results for the last 10 s were shown as default
value. For some screen plots other values have been used.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
44
The following data was stored in the recording file, see example in Figure 3.2 b.
1
.
T
h
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
t
h
e
r
e
c
o
r
d
i
n
g
s
i
n
c
e
l
a
s
t
s
t
o
p
o
f
t
h
e
c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
p
r
o
g
r
a
m
.
2
.
Y
e
a
r
3
.
M
o
n
t
h
4
.
D
a
y
5
.
H
o
u
r
6
.
M
i
n
u
t
e
7
.
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
s
a
n
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
8
.
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
f
o
r
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
1
a
s
a
n
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
(
m
m
)
9
.
2
1
0
.
3
1
1
.
4
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
6
1
4
.
7
1
5
.
8
1
6
.
M
e
a
n
w
i
n
d
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
1
0
s
1
7
.
1
m
i
n
1
8
.
1
0
m
i
n
1
9
.
M
e
a
n
w
i
n
d
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
1
0
s
2
0
.
1
m
i
n
2
1
.
1
0
m
i
n
Table 3.2 b An example from the recorded measurement files.
4449 1997 6 27 16 9 38 81 118 141 155 145 120 78 61 5.2 5 5 270 247 228
4450 1997 6 27 16 9 41 94 144 176 182 165 125 73 48 5.6 4.9 4.9 273 247 229
4451 1997 6 27 16 9 44 99 153 182 186 171 132 79 53 5.6 4.8 4.9 259 247 229
4452 1997 6 27 16 9 48 99 153 186 188 174 133 74 48 6.6 4.7 4.9 254 247 229
4453 1997 6 27 16 9 51 104 164 190 192 164 123 70 47 5.8 4.5 4.9 239 245 229
4454 1997 6 27 16 9 54 114 158 174 168 147 110 58 56 5.7 4.5 4.9 235 242 229
4455 1997 6 27 16 9 58 121 183 210 213 181 129 66 61 5.7 4.4 4.9 222 239 229
4456 1997 6 27 16 10 1 83 146 186 197 185 146 85 52 6.9 4.6 4.9 219 235 229
4457 1997 6 27 16 10 4 94 148 171 168 145 109 61 45 6.5 4.7 4.9 220 236 229
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
45
3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range
Signals from all strain gauge bridges and wind data transmitters were read with a sampling
frequency of 1000 values per second. With an interval of 67 ms five samples were collected
and mean values were calculated. With actual parameters for the strain gauges, strains were
calculated every 67 ms.
From the strains, chimney top deflection range was calculated with the following
relationships and Equation 4.6.
ε σ ⋅ · E
087 . 0 087 . 0
ε σ ⋅
· ·
E
y ...............................................................................................................(3.4)
(σ and E in MPa and y in mm)
From the bending moment the bending stress is calculated as:
b
M
W
b
· σ
2
d
I
W ·
d
I
M
⋅
·
2
b
σ .............................................................................................................................(3.5)
where σ = Bending stress at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
E = Modulus of elasticity
ε = Strain at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
M
b
= Bending moment at level of strain gauges (4 m level)
W
b
= Section modulus (4 m level)
I = Moment of inertia (4 m level)
d = Diameter
3.2.6 Verification of the equipment
During the installation of the data recording system calibrations were made. A/D and D/A
transducers were calibrated in the LABVIEW system. Signals from wind data transmitters
were checked. Strains for calculating top deflections were checked using a model chimney
with an equal strain gauge as on the chimney. An additional theodolite check of the
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2
46
deflections to those obtained from the strain gauges was made during the damping tests in
August 1997 (see Section 3.3.1). Both deflection range and frequency were checked and
compared with computer results.
3.2.7 Procedures
A limit value for recording the results was set to 100 mm equivalent top deflection range to
ensure a reasonable amount of recorded data. This means that all results where the maximum
range was less than 100 mm were truncated except during the damping tests.
During the first months the computer was checked twice a week. Later the interval was
increased to once a week, twice a month and finally once a month. All data results were then
transferred to another computer where the evaluations were made. Maximum values were
checked and the evaluation computer programs were run (Appendix H). The results were
sorted and fatigue damage was calculated.
3.2.8 Operating experiences
The strain gauge equipment started to operate in December 1996 and operated without any
problem until January 2000. Two of the strain gauges, no 1 and 3, then started to present
unrealistic values and almost immediately became shortcircuited. A decision was
immediately taken that all strain gauges should be replaced with new ones and that a long
term glue should be used. Fortunately the strain gauge no 4, which was unharmed, had given
the largest ranges for the first three years of measurements. Therefore the data recording
system could operate satisfactory and deliver trustworthy recordings with only a short break
for the installation of the new strain gauges.
During the recording period there were also some small interruptions in recording of data
caused by short interruption of the plant electricity. Other interruptions were some minutes
each time when the recorded data was transferred from the recording computer to data
diskettes. The recording program was always shut off on such occasions.
The recording system has been in operation 99.8 percent of the time during the measurement
years.
During the month of July in 1998 the “Larmgräns vidd för registrering” (see section 3.2.4) by
a mistake was set to 200 mm instead of the intended value 100 mm. Therefore ranges below
200 mm were truncated that month. There was no correction made for this.
Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001 (see Section 6.6).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
47
3.3 Behaviour of the mechanical damper
3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper
3.3.1.1 Introduction
Tests were performed to determine the damping properties of the VEAB chimney, that is, the
logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper. The chimney was initially
forced to deflect and the resulting free sway of the chimney was recorded. Comparison tests
were also made for the chimney with the mechanical damper in a locked position.
The damping test was repeated a number of times in order to get a good mean value of the
logarithmic decrement, and to get some understanding of the variability in the measurements.
The damping tests were made in August 1997 in fairly calm weather. The wind was below 6 m/s
(10minute mean) during all tests performed. The test instances were selected in order to avoid
influence of aerodynamic damping from gust wind during the damping tests.
3.3.1.2 Setup for Damping tests
A 20 mm nylon rope was attached to the top of the chimney and connected to a wheel loader
located approximately 150 m away from the chimney in southward direction. The wheel loader
pulled the rope until a desired deflection was obtained. Using a mechanical device the rope was
abruptly disconnected close to the wheel loader and the chimney started to oscillate freely. A
catch rope was connected to the pulling rope in order to prevent the rope from swaying
uncontrolled. The setup for damping measurements is shown in Figure 3.3 a and 3.3 b.
Figure 3.3 a Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney – view
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
48
Figure 3.3 b Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney  plan
The top of the chimney was forced to deflect a maximum distance of 200 mm for a free
mechanical damper and 100 mm for the chimney the comparison test with locked damper. This
limit was used in order to secure that the damping device would not be harmed in any way. The
normal recording program to determine oscillations from wind and other actions was in effect
during the damping tests.
Deflections at the top of the chimney were calculated from recordings of the strain gauges
attached to the chimney (see Section 3.2), which had been calibrated to the top deflections.
Deflections of the chimney were checked also using a theodolite. These visual observations
showed good agreement with the recordings obtained from the strain gauges.
Similar measurements of damping of other slender structures have been reported in the literature,
see for instance [2].
During the course of the damping measurements the wind velocity and direction were recorded
using the wind indicator located on the top of the adjacent power plant building at 45 m height
above ground and at a distance of approximately 43 m from the chimney (see Section 3.2.3.1).
The wind velocity during the damping tests was very low, and in no instances exceeded 6 m/s
(10minute mean) or 8 m/s (10 s mean). The wind direction was approximately the same as the
pulling direction in the damping tests.
3.3.1.3 Recordings
A total number of 20 tests were performed to verify the damping of the chimney. Tests # 1
through 16 refer to the chimney with the mechanical damper acting in normal operation. Tests #
17 through 20 refer to the chimney with a locked damper.
Pulling
direction
Building
Building
N
Building
Chimney
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
49
The data was collected using strain gauge readings and the recording computer described
previously (se Section 3.2).
It should be observed that recordings refer to variations in actions, in this case deflection range
rather than the deflection itself. This is because the recording system was designed to verify
performance of the chimney with respect to fatigue, where variation of stress, that is, stress
range, is of utmost importance. Where required, deflection itself has been evaluated from the
deflectionrange data, as discussed below.
Some examples of screen plots showing the parts of the oscillation behaviour during the damping
tests are shown in Figures 3.3 c, 3.3 d and 3.3 e.
The recorded natural frequency (first mode) of the chimney with the mechanical damper in
normal operation was 0.253 Hz. For the chimney with locked damper the recorded natural
frequency was 0.258 Hz.
The natural frequency obtained from the damping tests differ by 10 percent from the natural
frequency calculated theoretically for the chimney considering the actual distribution of stiffness
and mass along the chimney, see Section 2.4.1 and from that measured 0.288 Hz, see Section
3.7.2.
One explanation could be that the first cycles of time history for the two mass damped systems
have an irregular behaviour. This explanation is supported by the irregular curve for the first
cycles as shown in the screen plots in Figures 3.3 c, 3.3 d, 3.3 e and in Appendix C.
Another explanation could be that the damper may have been tuned by the manufacturer of the
chimney during the days of damping tests. A definite explanation for this discrepancy has not
been found. Thus natural frequency was about the same with and without an acting damper.
All recordings from the damping tests have been collected in Appendix C. A data file with
results from the recording program is shown in tables. Some explanations and support lines have
been included there to facilitate the interpretation of the data.
In Appendix C is also plotted the Deflection Range (that is, twice the deflection) as a function of
the order of the oscillation cycle.
Furthermore, in Appendix C is shown a screen plot of the virtual recording instrument for all
damping tests. In evaluating the results it should be observed that the recording limit of 100 mm
means that a few cycles at the end of the course of sway action may not be registered.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
50
Figure 3.3 c Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 1 of
chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.
Figure 3.3 d Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 4 of
chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
51
Figure 3.3 e Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope, test no 17 of
chimney with locked mechanical damper.
3.3.1.4 Error when calculating logarithmic decrement from recorded deflection range
All measurements and the calculations of logarithmic decrement were based on the deflection
range that is, not the deflection itself. This will cause an error in the calculated value of the
logarithmic decrement. The magnitude of this error is calculated in the following.
Symbols in this section, such as ω , differ from those used in others sections.
For a free single degree of freedom system with viscous damping less than critical the deflection
y is found from [10]
( ) θ ω
ω ζ
+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅ −
t e C y
t
d
sin
n
............................ ......................................................................(3.6)
where C = An arbitrary constant
ζ = Relative damping
n
ω = The undamped natural frequency
d
ω = The damped natural frequency
t = Time
θ = The phase angle
2
1
2
ζ
ζ π
δ
−
⋅ ⋅
·
f ⋅ ⋅ · π ω 2
n
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
52
2
1 ζ ω ω − ⋅ ·
n d
where
f = Natural frequency
δ = Logarithmic decrement
For the VEAB chimney the typical values are
Hz 288 . 0 · f , the observed natural frequency according to Section 3.7.2
07 . 0 · δ for functioning damper and 0.04 for malfunctioning damper, the observed
logarithmic decrement according to Section 3.3.1.6
Inserting these typical values into the parameter expressions will yield (the number of digits
required is large to obtain the required accuracy)
0111 . 0 · ζ (0.0065 for malfunctioning damper)
rad/s 809557 . 1
n
· ω
rad/s 809446 . 1
d
· ω
With the selected phase angle 90 degrees the deflection may be written
,
`
.

+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ −
2
809446 . 1 sin
02009 . 0
π
t e C y
t
.....................................................................................(3.7)
Figure 3.3 f Deflection as a function of time.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
53
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
54
3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Logarithmic Decrement
The logarithmic decrement δ was calculated from Equations 3.8.
k y y
k n n
/ ) / ln(
+
· δ .........................................................................................................................(3.8)
where
y
n
= Deflection for the first oscillation considered
y
n+k
= Deflection for the final oscillation considered
k = Number of oscillations considered
The first, and in some instances also the second, oscillation after loosening the pulling rope were
disregarded in evaluating the logarithmic decrement. This is because the start of the deflection
history may be nonlinear, and causing the computer evaluation program to make an incorrect
calculation of the deflection range for the first and second oscillation.
Mean values of the logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ were obtained for each 20 damping tests from
this starting value until the deflection falls below the value of 100 mm, that is, a deflection range
of 200 mm. This would lead to 6 to 12 oscillations being considered for the chimney with the
damper in normal operation, and 3 to 9 oscillations for the chimney with locked damper. By
averaging over a number of oscillations the influence of damping due to action of any gust winds
or irregularities in the action of the damper during the tests should be minimized.
Alternate calculations of the logarithmic decrement were made applying a set of three
consecutive oscillations (that is, with n running from first to final value considered and k = 3) to
study the variation in the logarithmic damping as obtained in the test. Figure 3.3 g shows an
example of such an alternate calculations. From studying such variations it was concluded that
the variation was not significant and should be caused by various irregularities due to the fact
that the tests were made under field conditions. Data for such alternative calculations are
included in Appendix C.
The results of the 20 damping tests performed are summarized in Table 3.3 a. ”Initial deflection
range” in the table equals the sum of the initial deflection at the moment of loosening the pulling
rope and the following minimum value of the deflection, see Figure 3.3 h. “Number of
oscillations k” refers to the number considered in determining the logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ
given in the final column of Table 3.3 a.
Examples of deflection range as a function of time for two of the 20 tests performed are shown in
Figure 3.3 h and 3.3 i. The first diagram is for tests with the mechanical damper in normal
operation and the third for a test with a locked damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
55
Figure 3.3 g Example of variation in recorded logarithmic decrement δ determined for three
consecutive oscillations. Test no 8.
Test no 8, floating logarithmic decrement
y = 1E04x + 0.0953
R
2
= 0.1787
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
200 250 300 350 400 450
Deflection range (mm)
L
o
g
d
e
c
r
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
56
Table 3.3 a Conditions and results from 20 tests of damping of VEAB chimney
Test Time Initial Wind velocity Wind direction Number Logarithmic
# of deflection (m/s) (degrees, 0 / 360) of oscill. decrement
test range (mm) 10 s 1 min 10 min 10 s 1 min 10 min k
k ave
δ
Chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation, date 970805
1 * 11.22 376 8.0 6.5 5.3 194 161 159 6 0.072
2 ** 12.55 304 5.0 4.7 2.9 168 172 118 7 0.064
3 13.04 425 4.5 6.4 4.8 179 170 173 10 0.057
4 13.30 419 7.2 6.7 5.7 160 172 163 8 0.070
5 13.34 422 5.2 5.7 5.6 173 169 164 9 0.062
6 13.38 394 4.9 6.2 5.6 136 152 162 6 0.098
7 *** 13.41 382 6.3 4.8 5.6 156 154 164 6 0.081
8 16.45 507 4.3 3.6 3.1 181 187 169 12 0.065
9 16.55 415 3.3 3.7 3.3 219 191 184 10 0.068
10 16.59 411 4.3 3.5 3.4 170 193 186 7 0.070
11 17.01 421 3.7 3.8 3.5 168 172 185 7 0.078
12 ** 17.04 445 2.3 3.1 3.5 171 172 182 9 0.068
13 20.31 445 3.6 2.9 2.5 170 169 172 10 0.063
14 ** 20.36 426 1.9 2.7 2.7 185 173 172 6 0.068
15 20.40 397 3.4 2.7 2.8 157 165 170 8 0.068
16 ** 20.44 382 2.7 3.3 3.1 168 155 164 7 0.071
Mean 4.0 168 0.070
Standard deviation 0.009
Chimney with locked mechanical damper, date 970806
17 10.55 184 2.9 3.6 3.6 195 182 172 4 0.038
18 10.58 202 2.4 2.5 3.8 210 191 175 9 0.031
19 11.04 191 4.8 5.8 3.9 184 182 175 5 0.056
20 11.09 185 3.7 3.3 3.9 137 131 170 3 0.048
Mean 3.8 173 0.043
Standard deviation 0.011
Notes to table:
* A technician was standing on the platform at the top of the chimney during the test.
** During the course of oscillations one or two irregularities were obtained. These oscillations
were disregarded in determining the mean logarithmic decrement
k ave
δ given in the table.
*** The pulling rope fractured near the top of the chimney instead of at the wheel loader.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
57
Figure 3.3 h Deflection range as a number of time (cycle number). Test no 1 with mechanical
damper in normal operation. One cycle corresponds to approximately 3.5 s.
Figure 3.3 i Deflection range as a number of time. Test no 17 with locked damper. One cycle
corresponds to approximately 3.5 s.
Test no 1, active damper
0
100
200
300
400
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Cycle no
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
Test no 17, locked damper
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Cycle no
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
w
i
d
t
h
(
m
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
58
Further examples are found in Appendix C.
The recorded damping expressed as logarithmic decrement δ consists of three parts:
d m a
δ δ δ δ + + · ............................................................................................................................ (3.9)
where
·
a
δ aerodynamic damping
·
m
δ mechanical damping of the chimney, without damper
·
d
δ mechanical damping of the damper
The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with the mechanical damper in
normal operation is 0.070. The logarithmic decrement in the 16 tests performed varies from
0.057 to 0.098.
The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with a locked damper is 0.043. The
logarithmic decrement variation in the four tests performed varies from 0.031 to 0.056.
Thus, the recorded logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal
operation was 63 percent higher than for the chimney with a locked damper. This beneficial
effect was smaller than could be expected, considering the fact that a theoretical study performed
by the supplier of the chimney claimed a tenfold increase in the logarithmic decrement when
adding the mechanical damper to the chimney. The probable cause for this is discussed in
Section 3.3.2.5.
3.3.1.6 Discussion of results
The recorded logarithmic decrement δ =0.043 is somewhat higher than the range 0.02 to 0.03, to
be used for design of normal steel chimneys with installations, such as internal ducts, ladder etc.
as given in [3], [5]. This increase in damping may at least partly be caused by some beneficial
action from the mechanical damper, although it was locked to minimise such action and from
effective damping of nonstructural elements.
The mechanical damper will increase the mean value of the logarithmic decrement of the
chimney δ =0.07 over the normal upper design value of 0.03 [3], [5] by a factor of 2.3.
The relatively large variation in the logarithmic decrement obtained in the repeated tests,
expressed as a standard deviation of about 0.01, could be due to at least three reasons, listed here
in the order of estimated importance:
1) Accidental variations in the action of the mechanical damper
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
59
2) Disturbances from variations in environmental conditions, mainly aerodynamic damping
due to variations in wind velocity and wind direction, due to the fact that these tests were
made under field conditions
3) Inaccuracies in the recording system.
The recorded logarithmic decrement of the VEAB chimney, with the mechanical damper in
normal operation, agrees well with the damping assumed in the design calculations prepared by
the chimney supplier, but was considerably smaller than could be expected from a theoretical
study.
In [11] a full scale damping test for a 45 m chimney with a tuned damper was made. As in our
damping tests the damper was both locked and unlocked. The logarithmic decrement was found
to be 0.019 with locked damper and 0.5 to 0.6 with unlocked damper. Compared to the VEAB
chimney the damping arrangement as reported in [11] appears much more efficient.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
60
3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper
3.3.2.1 Model
Ruscheweyh has presented a simplified calculation model for a chimney provided with a tuned
pendulum mass damper [6]. In the model, damping from the mass damper k
1
was neglected. This
model has been extended in this section to account for the effect of the mass damper k
1
.
Figure 3.3 j Model of a two mass spring and damper system
) sin( ) ( ) (
2 1
2
1
1 2 1 2 1 1
2
1
2
gen
t F
dt
dy
dt
dy
k
dt
dy
k y y c y c
dt
y d
M ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ + ⋅ + − ⋅ + ⋅ + ω .....................(3.10)
0 ) ( ) (
1 2
2 1 2 2
2
2
2
· − ⋅ + − ⋅ + ⋅
dt
dy
dt
dy
k y y c
dt
y d
m .....................................................................(3.11)
where
gen
M = Generalised mass of the chimney
m = Damper pendulum mass
F = Amplitude for vortex shedding force
y
1
= Deflection of chimney
y
2
= Deflection of pendulum mass
c
1
= Chimney stiffness
c
2
= Damper stiffness
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
61
k
1
= Chimney damping
k
2
= Damper damping
v
1
= Velocity for
gen
M
v
2
= Velocity for m
a
1
= Acceleration for
gen
M
a
2
= Acceleration for m
ω = Angular frequency of vortex shedding
The differential equations were rewritten as finite difference equations and solved for a large
number of small time steps with a computer program. Accuracy and convergence was checked
by changing the time steps.
Start values are
10
v ,
20
v ,
10
y and
20
y where the second index means time zero.
The finite differences may be written
gen
20
2
10
2
10
1 20 2 10 2 1
1
1
) sin( ) (
) (
M
t F
t
y
k
t
y
k
t
y
k y c y c c
t
t
y
⋅
]
]
]
⋅ ⋅ +
∆
∆
⋅ +
∆
∆
⋅ −
∆
∆
⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ + − ·
∆
∆
∆
∆
ω ..........
(3.12)
m t
y
k
t
y
k y c y c
t
t
y
1
) (
20
2
10
2 20 2 10 2
2
⋅
]
]
]
∆
∆
⋅ −
∆
∆
⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ·
∆
∆
∆
∆
......................…...............................(3.13)
t
t
y
a
∆
∆
∆
∆
·
) (
1
1
...........................................................................................................................(3.14)
t
t
y
a
∆
∆
∆
∆
·
) (
2
2
............................................................................................................................(3.15)
t a v ∆ ⋅ · ∆
1 1
............................................................................................................................(3.16)
t a v ∆ ⋅ · ∆
2 2
...........................................................................................................................(3.17)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
62
1 10 1
v v v ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.18)
2 20 2
v v v ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.19)
t v y ∆ ⋅ · ∆
1 1
............................................................................................................................(3.20)
t v y ∆ ⋅ · ∆
2 2
...........................................................................................................................(3.21)
1 10 1
y y y ∆ + · .........................................................................................................................(3.22)
2 20 2
y y y ∆ + · ........................................................................................................................(3.23)
Critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated according to Equation 2.5 and wind
velocity pressure according to Equation 2.7.
A computer program, see Appendix H, has been developed which takes into consideration all
variables above. It also deals with the wind turbulence by allowing a randomised relative level of
the amplitude for vortex shedding force and the frequency of the vortex shedding. The program
is capable of creating a dynamic response for a frequency spectrum and a time history.
3.3.2.2 Input data
The following data was used as input data for this theoretical study of the damped system.
Generalised mass,
gen
M 12 460 kg *)
Damper pendulum mass, m kg 246 1 460 12 1 . 0 · ⋅ *)
Observed natural frequency, f
e1
see Section 3.7.2
0.288 Hz
Optimum damper frequency tuning according
to [6]
Hz 262 . 0
1 . 0 1
1
1 2
· ⋅
+
·
e e
f f ...................(3.24)
For determining the stiffness of the VEAB chimney an equivalent load, calculated according to
Section 2.4.2, was applied on the complete height of the chimney in the same FE calculation as
in Section 2.4.1. The results are shown in Figure 3.3 k.
*) Data given by the manufacturer of the chimney. See also chapter 2.3.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
63
For a cantilever beam loaded by a distributed load the deflection is
I E
L q
⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
8
4
q
δ ............................................................................................................................(3.25)
For a cantilever beam loaded by a point load at distance L the deflection is
I E
L F
⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
3
3
F
δ ...........................................................................................................................(3.26)
The distributed load, when the complete chimney height is assumed to be loaded by vortex
shedding loads according to Table 2.4 b is
N/m 0 . 3 3 . 2 56 . 6 2 . 0
cr tr
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · d p q µ ..........................………….………………..........(3.27)
The point load replacing the distributed load will be
q F
δ δ · ⇒
N 102 90 0 . 3
8
3
8
3
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · L q F ...........…......................................…............(3.28)
Point load for calculating stiffness when q=135 N/m according to Table 2.4 b is used
N 4556 90 135
8
3
8
3
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · L q F ........................................................................................(3.29)
Model Reactions Deflections
Figure 3.3 k Deflections of the chimney loaded by vortex shedding.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
64
Chimney stiffness
N/m 000 52
0877 . 0
556 4
1
· · c ......................................................................................................(3.30)
Damper stiffness
N/m 372 3 ) 262 . 0 2 ( 246 1 ) 2 (
2 2
2 2
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · π π
e
f m c .....................................................(3.31)
Logarithmic decrement according to [12]
2
1
1
1
10
1
1
2
ln
ς
ς π
δ
−
⋅ ⋅
·
,
`
.

·
y
y
.........................................................................................................(3.32)
m c
k
⋅
· ⋅
1
1
1
2 ς ........................................................................................................................(3.33)
2
2
2
2
20
2
1
2
ln
ς
ς π
δ
−
⋅ ⋅
·
,
`
.

·
y
y
........................................................................................................(3.34)
gen
M c
k
⋅
· ⋅
2
2
2
2 ς ..................................................................................................................(3.35)
where ζ = The fraction of critical damping or relative damping
From Equations 3.33 through 3.35 the logarithmic decrement of the chimney 0.04 corresponds to
a damping of k
1
=324 kg/s. Similarly the logarithmic decrement of the pendulum damper 0.03
corresponds to a damping of k
2
=19 kg/s.
From a comparison study the time step found to be acceptable considering convergence and
precision is
∆t s · 0 001 .
Start values for dynamic response calculations during vortex shedding at time 0:
y
10
= 0
y
20
= 0
v
10
= 0
v
20
= 0
The density of air was assumed to 1.25 kg/m
3
.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
65
The actual wind is neither constant in frequency nor magnitude. The model applied in the
computer program was therefore created to consider a randomised turbulence vortex shedding
frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force. Both with and without the 50 percent
randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force were
applied in the computer program. According to Section 3.4, 50 percent is a reasonable value for
both frequency and magnitude. In the following calculations Figures 3.3 p and 3.3 q show two
examples.
When calculating the dynamic response the frequency step used in the finite difference
calculation has been 0.01 Hz.
Start values for the damping test calculations at time 0:
y
10
= 200 mm
y
20
= 0
v
10
= 0
v
20
= 0
The corresponding amplitude for vortex shedding force was then F=0.
3.3.2.3 Dynamic response during vortex shedding
Figure 3.3 l Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a locked
(malfunctioning) damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and vortex shedding
force were randomised by 50 percent. The vortex shedding force varies with the
oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude was calculated to 0.248 m (the
maximum point in the diagram) deflection at vortex shedding frequency 0.317 Hz.
Dynamic response, locked damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
66
Figure 3.3 m Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a tuned
functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity
during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. The vortex shedding force
varies with the oscillating frequency. Maximum top amplitude deflection was
calculated to 0.220 m at vortex shedding frequency 0.357 Hz.
Figure 3.3 n Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency
f=0.357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. Neither vortex shedding frequency
nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised.
Time history for top deflection, tuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Dynamic response, tuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
67
Figure 3.3 o Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency
f=0.357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency and
critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent
according to figure 3.3 p and 3.3 q.
Figure 3.3 p The 50 percentrandomised vortex shedding force used for Figure 3.3 o.
Randomised vortex shedding force by 50 percent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
V
o
r
t
e
x
s
h
e
d
d
i
n
g
f
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
Time history for top deflection, tuned functioning
damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
68
Figure 3.3 q The 50 percentrandomised vortex shedding frequency used for Figure 3.3 o.
3.3.2.4 Dynamic response during vortex shedding and a mistuned damper
To study the influence of an error in the tuning of the damper it is assumed that the first mode of
natural frequency is 0.34 Hz instead of the correct value 0.288 Hz (Section 3.7.2).
The frequency tuning is calculated to
Hz 31 . 0 34 . 0
1 . 1
1
1 . 0 1
1
e1 e2
· ⋅ · ⋅
+
· f f ..................................................................................(3.36)
This means that the damper stiffness will be
N/m 4727 ) 31 . 0 2 ( 1246 ) 2 (
2 2
e2 2
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · π π f m c ..........................................................(3.37)
Similar calculations as in Section 3.3.2.3 are performed with the new damper stiffness.
Randomised vortex shedding frequency by 50 percent
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Time (s)
V
o
r
t
e
x
s
h
e
d
d
i
n
g
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
69
Figure 3.3 r Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding force
and a mistuned functioning damper (frequency f
2
=0.31 Hz). Both vortex shedding
frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by
50 percent. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency. The
tuned damper to be compared with this one was found in Figure 3.3 m. Maximum
top amplitude was 0.191 m at vortex shedding frequency 0.380 Hz.
Figure 3.3 s Time history of top amplitude deflection at the oscillating frequency f=0.380
Hz, a variable vortex shedding force and tuned functioning damper (frequency
f
2
=0.31 Hz). Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during
vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. This was the case of a
functioning damper. The tuned damper to be compared with this one is found in
Figure 3.3 n and 3.3 o.
Dynamic response, misstuned functioning damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Vortex shedding frequency (Hz)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Time history for top deflection, misstuned functioning
damper
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
70
3.3.2.5 Influence of the geometrical limitations of the damper house
As shown in Section 2.3.2, Figure 2.3 h and 2.3 j the space in damper house is limited and the
pendulum mass angle movement is therefore limited to approximately 1.2 degrees. The
maximum possible relative amplitude movement in horizontal direction is 75 mm. By plotting
the deflection for the pendulum mass it is obvious that the damper unit is not able to act in the
way as intended. That was also an explanation to the surprisingly low damping value delivered
by the damper unit. A reasonable assumption was that the damper units damping was achieved
by a combination of the limited pendulum movement, the stroke of the damper friction and/or
pendulum mass against the vertical damper unit walls and the energy losses in the chain
movements. Therefore the abovepresented model still could be valid for principle calculations.
Figure 3.3 t Time history of required free functioning damper amplitude space at the vortex
shedding frequency f=0.357 Hz, a variable vortex shedding force and tuned
frequency f
2
=0.262 Hz. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity
during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. The horizontal line show
available damper space, 75 mm. Figure 3.3 o shows the time history diagram for
the chimney mass.
3.3.2.6 Influence of lockin effects
Because of lockin phenomena the amplitude could increase considerably because the vortex
shedding starts at lower wind velocities, and the chimney continues to oscillate with the same
frequency as the vortices were separated from the chimney. It is well known that the Strouhal
number could be reduced to half its normal value because of lockin effects. The wind velocity
will be doubled and the wind pressure increases by a factor of four. Slender structures are more
sensitive for lockin phenomena, see for instance [26]. The probability for conditions causing
this type of lockin are low, but a chimney does have a lot chances during its long lifetime.
Therefore lockin phenomena could be dangerous for slender chimneys. This is one of the
reasons for the limitation of the applicability of the equivalent load in [3] and [24].
Time history for required damper amplitude space
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
d
a
m
p
e
r
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
s
p
a
c
e
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
71
3.3.2.7 Accelerations
From the solutions of the finite difference equations, accelerations of the chimney mass and the
accelerations of the damper mass were calculated. The magnitude of the damper mass
accelerations is of great importance. The damper mass acceleration must be greater than the
friction force between damper friction mass and the damper house bottom.
Figure 3.3 u Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding
frequency f=0.357 Hz, tuned frequency f
2
=0.262 Hz and a functioning damper.
Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex
shedding was randomised. Figure 3.3 n shows the corresponding time history
diagram for the top amplitude deflection.
Time history of damper mass acceleration
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time (s)
D
a
m
p
e
r
m
a
s
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
2
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
72
Figure 3.3 v Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding
frequency f=0.357 Hz, a variable vortex shedding force, tuned frequency f
2
=0.262
Hz and a functioning damper. Both vortex shedding frequency or critical wind
velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. Figure 3.3 o
shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection.
By comparing figure 3.3 u and 3.3 v it is found that the mean damper mass acceleration is about
1 m/s
2
. The resulting horizontal force will be about 1200 N (pendulum mass 1246 kg). If the
friction masses weight is about 40 kg the maximum required friction force according to Equation
2.4 will be approximately 120 N. Therefore it is obvious that there will be enough acceleration
for activating the friction masses.
Time history of damper mass accelerations
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600
Time(s)
D
a
m
p
e
r
m
a
s
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
2
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
73
3.3.2.8 Calculation the damping measurement conditions
Figure 3.3 w Time history of damping test with a functioning damper. The figure could be
compared with Figure 3.3 h representing the corresponding damping test.
Figure 3.3 x Time history of damping test with a malfunctioning damper. The damper
stiffness was assumed to zero and the chimney damper mass were added to the
generalised mass. Thus the damper mass will be neglected. The figure could be
compared with Figure 3.3 i, representing the corresponding damping test.
Time history for damping measurement with a
malfunctioning damper
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Time (s)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Time history for damping measurement with a
functioning damper
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Time (s)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3
74
3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study
The solutions for the dynamic response, Equation 3.10 and 3.11, show a similar behaviour in the
solutions as in [6], [13] and [14].
It is important to note that the model does not include any advanced fluid mechanical behaviour.
According to the theory a sudden and quick increase of the top amplitude deflection will occur.
From the recorded data given in Section 3.4 a similar behaviour is observed. A very quick
increase of the top amplitude deflection and often an almost equal decrease was observed. The
quick decrease was explained by the turbulent behaviour of the wind. The recorded data also
show that the wind quickly and often change both velocity and direction. Thus the model only is
limited sensitive to relatively large randomised changes in frequency or vortex shedding force,
large amplitude deflection during vortex shedding will only occur for short periods at a time.
This corresponds also well to the recordings according to Section 3.4.
There were some deviations between theory and damping measurements that mainly may be
explained by the fact that theory comes to the conclusion that there is not enough horizontal
space in the damper house. Thus the damper produces less damping than expected.
Figure 3.3 l for the malfunctioning damper show a top deflection range of 496 mm. No lockin
effects are included. If we assume a lockin on the wind velocity of two times the top deflection
range will increase with a factor four to about 2000 mm. The calculations will then roughly
confirm the observations noted in Section 3.1 and studied further in an estimated load spectrum
in Section 4.2 and reverse.
Figures 3.3 m, 3.3 n and 3.3 o for the functioning damper show a top deflection range of
approximately 400 mm. With the same discussion as for the malfunctioning damper it seems
reasonable to expect a top deflection range of approximately 1600 mm for the functioning
damper and the same weather conditions.
It is worth noting that the mistuned damper in Figure 3.3 r and 3.3 s gives a little less top
deflection amplitude as compared to the tuned damper, but the vortex shedding frequency is
larger.
The accelerations are found to be large enough to overcome the friction forces between the
damper friction masses and the damper house bottom friction plate.
For the simulation of the damping tests, Figure 3.3 w and 3.3 x corresponding to the damping
tests, Figure 3.3 h and 3.3 i are found except for one behaviour. Figure 3.3 w shows two
superimposed oscillations, which could not be found in Figure 3.3 h. The superimposed
oscillations show the sum of oscillations of the both masses. This difference was an additional
argument to that only a minority of the damping is achieved from the friction masses. The major
part is probably achieved from friction losses in the chains etc.
The theoretical study supports the statement made in Section 3.3.1.6 that the VEAB chimney
damper is a not an optimum damper device.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
75
3.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney
From the recorded results, about two million loggings, all periods where the top deflection
range exceeds 267 mm have been identified. According to Section 4.1 maximum deflection
ranges during vortex shedding was calculated as 267 6 . 133 2 · ⋅ mm, the vortex shedding
top deflection range calculated by the manufacturer. Typical for vortex shedding is that
several large oscillations follow after each other in time. Typical for gust wind is that only
one or a few large oscillations follow after each other in time. By plotting all identified
results on the computer screen and truncating all periods where only a few cycles follow in
time the results according to Table 3.4 a and 3.4 b remains.
Table 3.4 a Number of occasions per month where top deflection range exceeds 267 mm for
more than a few cycles. Year numbers are vertical to the left and month number
horizontal at top.
Year/
Month no
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1997 0 8 9 5 5 4 4 0 9 0 0 0
1998 1 6 2 2 3 7 20 11 0 4 0 1
1999 12 4 0 4 3 2 11 2 1 3 5 10
2000 4 0 7 0 6 9 4 3 0 3 1 0
Table 3.4 b Relative time for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm. Year
number are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.
The differences between the two tables were due to that all cycles when top range deflection
exceeds 267 mm was included in Table 3.4 b. In Table 3.4 a the top range deflections less
than a few cycles were truncated.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Total
1997 0,000000 0,000870 0,000639 0,000259 0,000110 0,000295 0,000311 0,000005 0,000542 0,000009 0,000017 0,000005 0,000255
1998 0,000063 0,000185 0,000014 0,000075 0,000468 0,000331 0,001692 0,000758 0,000009 0,000183 0,000000 0,000065 0,000320
1999 0,000350 0,000418 0,000000 0,000215 0,000165 0,000578 0,000855 0,000067 0,000041 0,000079 0,000206 0,001174 0,000346
2000 0,000444 0,000019 0,000342 0,000004 0,000245 0,000446 0,000120 0,000226 0,000025 0,000262 0,000060 0,000027 0,000185
Total 0,000214 0,000370 0,000249 0,000138 0,000247 0,000413 0,000745 0,000264 0,000155 0,000133 0,000071 0,000318 0,000277
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
76
Figure 3.4 a Relative time of the measure period for the chimney when top deflection
range exceeds 267 mm.
It is well known, as described in for instance [1], that it is more probable for huge laminar
vortex shedding induced oscillations to occur during cold winter days with cold laminar
airflow. From Figure 3.4 a show large top range deflections during the winter time but in the
middle of the summer the largest amount of oscillations occurred. This was not expected.
Obviously large vortexshedding oscillations could to be expected also during summer
periods.
Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations
exceeding 267 mm
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1 3 5 7 9
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
7
1
9
2
1
2
3
Time at the day (hr)
E
l
a
p
s
e
d
t
i
m
e
(
s
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.4 b Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding
267 mm.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
0
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.001
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
t
i
m
e
Month number
Year
Relative time for top range displacement exceeding 267 mm
0.00160.0018
0.00140.0016
0.00120.0014
0.0010.0012
0.00080.001
0.00060.0008
0.00040.0006
0.00020.0004
00.0002
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
77
Figure 3.4 c A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a rather long period of large
deflection ranges. Range, wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a
function of time. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean
values over 10 seconds, 1 minute and 10 minutes.
Range at strain gauge no 4
20000613 at 14.45 h
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
R
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
Wind direction average values
20000613 at 14.45 h
0
90
180
270
360
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
W
i
n
d
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
3
6
0
d
e
g
)
r10s
r1min
r10min
Wind velocity average values at 90 m height
20000613 at 14.45 h
0
5
10
15
20
0 300 600 900
Time (s)
W
i
n
d
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
v10s
v1min
v10min
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
78
Figure 3.4 d A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a short period of large deflection
ranges. Range, wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function
of time. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values
over 10 seconds, 1 minute and 10 minutes.
Range at strain gauge no 5
20001011 at 16.04 h
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
R
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
Wind velocity average values at 90 m height
20001011 at 16.04 h
0
5
10
15
20
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
W
i
n
d
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
v10s
v1min
v10min
Wind direction average values
20001011 at 16.04 h
0
90
180
270
360
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Time (s)
W
i
n
d
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
3
6
0
d
e
g
)
r10s
r1min
r10min
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.4
79
In Appendix I all identified periods with the criteria top deflection range exceeding 267 mm
for the year 2000 were plotted (see also Table 3.4 a and 3.4 b).
A typical time history response during vortex shedding was an immediate increase from small
deflection ranges to large deflection ranges. The large deflection ranges continues for
typically about 100 seconds and decrease immediate again.
It was also obvious that large deflection ranges occur even if the turbulence intensity of the
wind velocity is relatively large. About 50 percent turbulence intensity is typical if defined as
10 seconds mean value divided by 10 min mean value. The magnitude of 10 min mean values
seems to be most important for vortex shedding. The time required to obtain stationary top
deflection range during vortex shedding is > 10 minutes according to Section 3.3.2.
From Table 3.4 b it is found that the VEAB chimney oscillates with a top deflection range
exceeding 267 mm (mainly vortex shedding) for 0.028 percent of the time or about ten hours
during the fouryear observation period discussed in this report. This corresponds to about
80 000 cycles ( 77760 0.288Hz
minute
second
60
hour
minutes
60
years 4
hours
10
years recording 4
service of year 30
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ )
above the design value for the top deflection range of 267 mm during a 30year service life.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
80
3.5 Observed wind properties
3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams
For the measurement period wind pressure and top deflection range anthill diagrams are plotted
for the VEAB chimney. Dynamic wind pressure is assumed to follow
2
min 10
5 . 0 v p
Air dyn
⋅ ⋅ · ρ
where
min 10
v is mean wind speed calculated over 10 minutes and
Air
ρ = air density based on
daily mean values for temperature according to Section 3.8. All recorded data for the four years
1997 through 2000 are read, sorted monthly, calculated and finally plotted in anthill diagrams
by a couple of computer programs (Appendix H). The plotting was made in the Auto Cad dxf
drawing format. In this section a typical selection of periods are presented. If maximum top
deflection range was less than 100 mm the recording was truncated and dots were plotted for
wind pressure nor deflection range.
Additional plots are found in Appendix F.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
81
Figure 3.5 a Wind pressure anthill diagram for June 1997.
Figure 3.5 b Top deflection range anthill diagram for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
82
Figure 3.5 c Wind pressure anthill diagram for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 d Top deflection range anthill diagram for December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
83
3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range
diagrams
Similarly as in Section 3.5.1 and for the same months the sum of wind pressure (10 minutes
mean values) times number of cycles and the sum of top deflection range times number of
cycles are plotted. Wind pressure times number of cycles is a measure of the applied wind
energy. Top deflection range times number of cycles is a measure of the accumulated
deflection energy. Finally some summary plots are given.
In Appendix F additional diagrams are found.
The mean angle between wind pressure times number of cycles and deflection range times
number of cycles is about 67 to 90 degrees. The chimney oscillates with an angle almost
perpendicular to the wind direction. The year 1999 above is typical and all other recorded years
show the same behaviour. It is obvious that the dominating oscillations for the VEAB chimney
are in NNW direction and that the dominating wind causing those oscillations blows from SW
direction.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
84
Figure 3.5 e Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for June 1997.
Figure 3.5 f Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
85
Figure 3.5 g Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 h Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
86
Figure 3.5 i Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles year 1999.
Figure 3.5 j Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for year 1999.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
87
3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams
Similar as in Section 3.5.2 and for the same months the elastic energy diagrams, calculated
according to Section 2.4.3 are plotted for the VEAB chimney.
Figure 3.5 k Elastic energy diagram for June 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
88
Figure 3.5 l Elastic energy diagram for December 2000.
Figure 3.5 m Elastic energy diagram for the year of 1999.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
89
3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, administrates a net of observation
stations for meteorological and hydrological observations all over Sweden. The closest station
to the VEAB plant is Växjö A, located at latitude 56° 51´ and longitude 14° 50´, about four km
south of the plant. Height above sea level at the observation station is about 199 m. A slope in
northern direction and a sea separate the Växjö A station and the VEAB plant.
All wind data in this section origin from SMHI and Växjö A. The wind velocity is measured at
10 m height above the ground. A 360degree compass has been used. 0 or 360 degrees means
that the wind blows from the north, 90 degrees means that the wind blows from east and so on.
In Appendix F diagrams for some additional periods are found.
Figure 3.5 n Wind pressure anthill diagram for February 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A
observation station.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
90
Figure 3.5 o Wind pressure anthill diagram for July 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A
observation station.
Figure 3.5 p Wind pressure anthill diagram for 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation
station.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
91
3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams
To study the combination of deflection and wind speeds, anthill diagrams for maximum top
deflection as a function of wind velocity at 10 min mean values are plotted for the VEAB
chimney. Below two typical anthill diagrams are shown in Figures 3.5 q and 3.5 r.
In Appendix F more diagrams are found.
Figure 3.5 q Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min
mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100
times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds
to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load
model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is January 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
92
Figure 3.5 r Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min
mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100
times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds
to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load
model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is December 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
93
3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams
Wind 1min/10 min mean values for June 1997
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d
1
m
i
n
m
e
a
n
v
a
l
u
e
s
(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 s Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June
1997.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for June 1997
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d
1
0
s
m
e
a
n
v
a
l
u
e
s
(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 t Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June
1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
94
Wind 1 min/10 min mean values for December 2000
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d
1
m
i
n
m
e
a
n
v
a
l
u
e
s
(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 u Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for
December 2000.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for December 2000
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
W
i
n
d
1
0
s
m
e
a
n
v
a
l
u
e
s
(
m
/
s
)
Figure 3.5 v Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December
2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
95
3.5.7 Load spectra
Figure 3.5 w Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10
minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period.
Figure 3.5 x Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10
minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.
Load efficiency per month
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
800000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
R
a
n
g
e
x
n
o
o
f
l
o
a
d
c
y
c
l
e
s
(
m
m
)
jan
feb
mar
apr
maj
jun
jul
aug
sep
oct
nov
dec
Load efficiency per year
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
R
a
n
g
e
x
n
o
f
o
c
y
c
l
e
s
(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
96
Figure 3.5 y Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per month for the recording period.
Figure 3.5 z Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per year for the recording period.
From Figure 3.5 α “mass centre” of the wind load was found to v
10min
=6.32 m/s at 1.75 10
6
cycles. It means 0.44 10
6
cycles per year or 13.1 10
6
cycles per 30 year. Shape factor in this
reverse calculation was 0.2.
No of cycles per month
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0 5 10 15 20
v10min (m/s)
N
o
o
f
l
o
a
d
c
y
c
l
e
s
jan
feb
mar
apr
maj
jun
jul
aug
sep
oct
nov
dec
No of load cycles per year
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
v10min (m/s)
N
o
o
f
l
o
a
d
c
y
c
l
e
s 1997
1998
1999
2000
Total
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
97
Figure 3.5 α Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean
value per year for the recording period.
Critical wind velocity for vortex shedding has been calculated in Table 2.1 b to 3.24 m/s at
the diameter 2.3 m (the chimney shell except at damper house) and 3.95 m/s at the diameter
2.8 m (at the damper house with a height of 3.35 m). The damper house height was only a
little more than the diameter. Therefore its influence will be limited.
From [3] the number of load cycles during vortex shedding may be calculated from
) ( 10 2 . 1
0
7
v
v P f t n ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ………………………………………………………………(3.38)
where The factor 1.2 includes influence of different wind velocity directions
and that an amount of time is required for building up vortex shedding oscillations
f
0
= Natural frequency
P(v) = Probability for that mean wind velocity during one year
occurs in the interval between v
cr
and ε v
cr
where v
cr
is the critical
wind velocity for resonance vortex shedding oscillations.
P(v) is assumed to be a Rayleigh distribution.
]
]
]
]
,
`
.
 ⋅
−
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
− ·
) ( ) (
) (
z v
v
z v
v
cr cr
e e v P
ε
………………………………………………….…………..(3.39)
) ( ) (
exp 0
z C v z v ⋅ · ……………………………………..………………..……………..(3.40)
Average of number of load cycles per v10min 19972000
y = 0.1331x
6
 7.3138x
5
+ 153.73x
4
 1512.3x
3
+ 6648.8x
2
 9330x + 2962.1
R
2
= 0.9615
0.0
2000.0
4000.0
6000.0
8000.0
10000.0
12000.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
v10min(m/s)
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
l
o
a
d
c
y
c
l
e
s
Mean
Poly. (Mean)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
98
where v(z) = Yearly mean wind velocity at the height z
v
0
= The modal value of the distribution, 5.5 m/s
ε = 1.25 but the difference between ε and ε v
cr
should be at least 2
m/s
v
cr
is defined in Section 2.4.2. C
exp
is defined and found from Table 3.2 a to 2.03.
Numerical values for the VEAB chimney gives
v(z) = 7.83 m/s
P(v) = 0.204
n
v
=
6
10 7 . 0 ⋅ oscillations per year or
6
10 21⋅ oscillations for a 30 year period
The wind velocity found is twice the value achieved if the code [3] is extrapolated outside its
limits but the number of cycles is less. In Figure 6.3 b the spectra for top deflection
(functioning damper) is shown for both the recordings and some codes.
The wind vortex shedding load on the VEAB chimney is 4 . 2
24 . 3 10 21
32 . 6 10 1 . 13
2 6
2 6
·
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
times larger
than what will be assumed from calculations according to [3] when limit restrictions are
neglected (gust wind is not considered).
In Figure 3.5 β cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4 is shown.
The data for 4 years of service 1997 through 2000, a graphically fitted lognormal distribution
for cumulative frequency of top deflection range and limits from KolmogorovSmirnov test
(α=0.05) are plotted.
Because of the truncation of the data, top deflection range100 mm, the fitted curve differs
greatly from measure data at the lower end. A lognormal representation has been chosen for
simplicity.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
99
Figure 3.5 β Cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
100
3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity
The frequency distribution of wind velocity for the recording period 1997 through 2000 is
plotted for 10 s, 1 min and 10 min mean values in Figure 3.5 γ , 3.5 δ and 3.5 ε . The
frequency distributions have a maximum at approximately 5 m/s. A Weibull distribution is
fitted to each frequency distribution. Because top deflection ranges below 100 mm were
truncated (Section 3.2.7) the fitted distribution consider the truncation effect.
The Weibull frequency distribution is described as
( )
α
β α
β
α
β α
,
`
.

−
−
⋅ ⋅ ·
v
b
e v v f
1
, , ……………………………………..………………….(3.41)
where v = Wind velocity in m/s
α = A Weibull distribution parameter
β = A Weibull distribution parameter
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v10s
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 γ Probability density function for wind velocity, 10second wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.7) is included.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
101
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v1min
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 δ Probability density function for wind velocity, 1minute wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.5) is included
Frequency of wind velocity
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0 5 10 15 20
Wind velocity (m/s)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Data for v1min
Fitted Weibull
distribution
Figure 3.5 ε Probability density function for wind velocity, 10minute wind velocity mean
value. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.1 and β=3.3) is included
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
102
3.5.9 Isowind velocity plots
Isowind velocity plots for the recording period 1997 through 2000 are found in Figure 3.5 ξ ,
3.5 η and 3.5 θ .
Figure 3.5 ξ Isowind velocity plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
103
Figure 3.5 η Isowind velocity plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s
Figure 3.5 θ Isowind velocity plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
104
Isowind velocity plots similar to those in Figure 3.5 ξ , 3.5 η and 3.5 θ , but where wind in
opposite directions are added, are found in Figure 3.5 ι , 3.5 κ and 3.5 λ .
Figure 3.5 ι Isowind plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
Figure 3.5 κ Isowind plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
105
Figure 3.5 λ Isowind plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees
opposite directions have been added. Unit m/s.
It was expected that Figure 3.5 ι , Figure 3.5 κ and Figure 3.5 λ have shown isowind plots
as half circles. This is not the fact because wind from south west is dominating for the
recorded and truncated wind recordings (Section 3.2.7). The orientation of the Sandvik II
plant buildings cover the bottom half height of the chimney. Therefore the wind direction
could be partly influenced from the surrounding buildings.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
106
3.6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gauge
measurements
From the recorded data, calculations were made, the data sorted and load spectra plotted. In
Appendix E fatigue damage and cumulative fatigue damage are plotted for each month, per
year and for the measure period 1997 through 2000. In this section a typical selection of load
spectra (frequency distribution in the diagrams) and accumulated load spectra (spectrum in
the diagrams) diagrams are shown.
For definition of directions see Figure 3.2 a.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 a Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the
month of September years 1997 through 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
107
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Accumulated number of load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 b Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of
September years 1997 through 2000.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
No 1  103 deg
No 2  125 deg
No 3  148 deg
No 4  170 deg
No 5  193 deg
No 6  35 deg
No 7  58 deg
No 8  80 deg
Figure 3.6 c Frequency distribution of top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the
different directions.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
108
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
No 1  103 deg
No 2  125 deg
No 3  148 deg
No 4  170 deg
No 5  193 deg
No 6  35 deg
No 7  58 deg
No 8  80 deg
Figure 3.6 d Spectrum for top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different
directions.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 e Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for years
1997 through 2000.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
109
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Load cycles
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
m
m
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.6 f Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through
2000.
y = 69.147x + 493.1
R2 = 0.9956
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
10 log (accumulated number of load cycles)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
2
y
(
m
m
)
Mean average
Fitted straight
line
Figure 3.6 g Spectrum for top deflection range as mean per year in direction 170 degrees
years 1997 through 2000. The thick line is a straight line fitted (least square
method) to the results.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
110
The straight line fitted to the data in Figure 3.6 g may be written
( ) 247 log 35
t
10
+ ⋅ − · n y ......................................................................................................(3.43)
where n
t
=Accumulated number of load cycles
y =Top deflection amplitude in mm
By using Equation 4.6 the bending stress
b
σ in MPa per year at the chimney base is obtained as
( ) 5 . 21 log 01 . 3 087 . 0
10
+ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·
t b
n y σ ..............................................................................(3.44)
Bending moment at the chimney base per year in Nm is found from Equation 3.5
( ) [ ]
6 10 6
10 57 . 1 log 220 . 0 73000
2
10 ⋅ + ⋅ − · ⋅ ·
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ·
t b b b
n
d
I
M σ σ ....................................(3.45)
Equation 2.10 gives the distributed load q N/m per year in Pa to
( ) 387 log 2 . 54
90
2 2
10
2 2
+ ⋅ − ·
⋅
·
⋅
·
t
b b
n
M
H
M
q .....................................................................(3.46)
If we assume that the distributed load will correspond to a wind pressure p in Pa per year of
loads uniformly distributed over the chimney
( ) 168 log 6 . 23
10
+ ⋅ − · ·
t
n
d
q
p ...........................................................................................(3.47)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.6
111
Wind pressure as a function of number of load cycles
per year
0
50
100
150
200
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10 Log (Accumuoated number of load cycles )
W
i
n
d
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
P
a
)
Figure 3.6 h Wind pressure, mainly caused by vortex shedding, as a function of number of
load cycles per year.
In Section 6.3 and 6.4 comparisons between recorded spectrum and code spectra are made.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
112
3.7 First and second mode oscillations
3.7.1 Screen plots
During the first halfyear of measurements a lot of screen plots of the virtual instrument were
made mainly to document the second mode oscillating behaviour. Below three typical plots are
shown. More plots are found in Appendix D.
Figure 3.7 a Chimney oscillating in first mode and starting in second mode of natural
frequency.
Figure 3.7 b Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
113
Figure 3.7 c Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency.
By graphical determination in Figure 3.7 a to 3.7 c the natural frequency of the second mode
is calculated to 1.45 Hz (approximately 5 times the first mode). This value may be compared
to the calculated natural frequency of the second mode, 1.44 Hz.
From Figure 3.7 c maximum width for the second mode is found to be approximately 90 mm.
This is representative of the complete data recorded.
The second mode was only observed at rare occasions as when the wind velocity calculated as
a 10 min mean value exceeded approximately 10 m/s. The second mode frequency causes
approximately 5 times more load cycles per time unit but the total amount of time is low.
3.7.2 Logged files
From logged recorded data, about two million loggings, natural frequency for the first mode
has been calculated. In the log files there was no information about the second mode as
described in Section 3.2.1.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
114
VEAB chimney first mode observed natural frequency
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
1997 1998 1999 2000
Year
N
a
t
u
r
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
Figure 3.7 d Natural frequency as monthly mean values for the first mode during the
observation period of 1997 through 2000.
Mean value for the observation period 1997 through 2000 is 0.288 Hz. See also Section 2.4.1.
3.7.3 First mode evaluation
From Section 3.4 and Appendix I it is found that first mode vortex shedding oscillations occur
in the wind velocity interval of approximately m/s 4
1 45m 10min
· v to m/s 13
2 45m 10min
· v as
observed from the wind transmitter at 45 m height. The larger values may be a combination
between first and second order natural frequencies.
Wind velocities at the top of the chimney (90 m level) may to be corrected as (Section 3.2.3.2)
m/s 4 . 4 4 10 . 1
1 10min45m corr 1 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v to
m/s 3 . 14 13 10 . 1
2 10min45m corr 2 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v
It means that first mode natural frequency occurs at 4.4 to 14.3 m/s for 90 m level. According
to Section 2.4.1 theory give first and second mode natural frequencies at 0.282 Hz
respectively 1.44 Hz. Sections 3.7.1 and 3.7.2 gives 0.288 and 1.45 Hz respectively, which
will be used in the following.
Temperatures at the time when the plots were created are:
Figure 3.7 a: 19970211 T=3.5 °C
Figure 3.7 b: 19970303 T=6.1 °C
Figure 3.7 c: 19970220 T=3.5 °C
For the following calculations at a temperature of T=5 °C is assumed. The kinematic viscosity
of the air is /s m 10 7 . 13
2 6 −
⋅ at T=5 °C according to Section 3.8. The Reynold number is
defined in Equation 1.1 and the Strouhal number in Equation 1.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
115
The chimney diameter is 2.3 m, except for the damper house at the top where the diameter is
2.8 m. Reynold and Strouhal numbers corresponding to the wind velocity interval of 4.4 to 14.3
m/s will be
For d=2.3 m
6
6
e1
10 739 . 0
10 7 . 13
4 . 4 3 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
R 151 . 0
4 . 4
288 . 0 3 . 2
1
·
⋅
· St to
6
6
e2
10 401 . 2
10 7 . 13
3 . 14 3 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
R 046 . 0
3 . 14
288 . 0 3 . 2
2
·
⋅
· St
For d=2.8 m
6
6
e1
10 899 . 0
10 7 . 13
4 . 4 8 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
R 183 . 0
4 . 4
288 . 0 8 . 2
1
·
⋅
· St to
6
6
e2
10 923 . 2
10 7 . 13
3 . 14 8 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
R 056 . 0
3 . 14
288 . 0 8 . 2
2
·
⋅
· St
The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in
Figure 3.7 e into a diagram with literature data.
Figure 3.7 e Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex
shedding in the first mode have been added.
Fatigue caused by oscillation in the first mode of natural frequency is studied in Section 4.2 and
4.3.1.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
116
3.7.4 Second mode evaluation
From the recordings, exemplified by Figure 3.7 a through 3.7 c, wind velocity mean value for
10 minutes is v
10min
=10.5 m/s as measured at the wind transmitter at 45 m level. At 90 m
height the corresponding wind velocity is (correction factor according to Section 3.2.3.2)
m/s 5 . 11 5 . 10 10 . 1
10min45m corr 10min90m
· ⋅ · ⋅ · v n v
It means that second mode mean wind velocity occurs at 11.5 m/s. According to Section 2.4.1
second mode critical wind velocity is 16.6 m/s.
At d=2.3 m
6
6
10 76 . 1
10 15
5 . 11 3 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
e
R 29 . 0
5 . 11
45 . 1 3 . 2
·
⋅
·
t
S
At d=2.8 m
6
6
10 15 . 2
10 15
5 . 11 8 . 2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
·
−
e
R 35 . 0
5 . 11
45 . 1 8 . 2
·
⋅
·
t
S
The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure
3.7 f.
Figure 3.7.f Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex
shedding in the second mode have been added.
Fatigue caused by oscillations in the second mode is studied in Section 4.3.2.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.7
117
3.7.5 Discussion
Strouhal number could be as big as 0.3, but forces exited are small. Therefore it is
recommended that a Strouhal number of 0.2 should be used for engineering design calculations
[1], [3], [5], [9]. For the first mode recorded results sometimes gives as small Strouhal number
as 0.06. The effect explaining this is lockin, where the vortex shedding starts at a lower wind
velocities and continue to oscillate during increasing wind velocity. This is possible if the
design has big slenderness ratio. Some codes, i. e. the Swedish BSV 97 manual [3] have limited
the use of the code model to a maximum slenderness (height through diameter) of
approximately 30. The results of this investigation support such a limit unless design loads are
increased for slender structures, such as noted in some papers [1], [15]. The main problem with
creating a code calculation model valid also for slender structures (slenderness much greater
than 30) is the limited amount of recorded measure data. Sections 3.5.7 and 3.6 contain
suggested load spectra and that this is more complex. Furthermore, chimneys with oscillations
occurring in the second mode are more rare.
Second mode oscillations are seldom observed in structural steel chimneys [26]. For most steel
chimneys only the first mode of oscillation is of practical importance for vortex shedding
induced oscillations. The large slenderness of the VEAB chimney explains the relatively
common and large second mode oscillations.
Because of the slender VEAB steel chimney (height through diameter = 39) correspondence
between Strouhal number and Reynold number do not follow the predictions of Figure 3.7 e
and 3.7 f [6]. For slender chimneys several codes give unconservative design loads for vortex
shedding.
A damper applied at the top of the chimney is less efficient for second order than first order
mode.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
118
3.8 Temperatures and temperature dependent properties
3.8.1 Mean temperatures
VEAB Sandvik II plant records and stores in a database a lot of data about the plants
behaviour and its environment. From the database the daily mean temperatures are collected
and presented below. Appendix G contains a more complete description of the temperatures
during the observation period. Those temperatures are used in Section 3.5 for calculating
wind pressure. Some examples and a total summary are presented below.
Daily mean temperatures 1997
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Date
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Maj
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Figure 3.8 a Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the year of 1997.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
119
Daily mean temperatures for January
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Date
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e 1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.8 b Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the month of January.
Monthly mean temperatures for 19972000
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
1997
1998
1999
2000
Figure 3.8 c Monthly mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant 1997 through 2000.
The VEAB Sandvik II plant was erected during the years 1995 and 1996. Therefore no
recorded temperatures before 1996 are available. But for vortex shedding oscillations, which
occurred during the interesting days between Christmas and New Year 1995 the temperature,
was very low, about 20 °C.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
120
3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity
Both density and viscosity of air vary with temperature. Unless otherwise is mentioned, all
calculations in this report follow the temperature data in this section. Thus both density and
viscosity follow the actual conditions. Influence of meterological pressure and humidity are
neglected because that no such information were recorded. Their influences are also limited
compared to the temperature.
According to [16] air densities follow the temperature as
T
T
0
0
⋅ · ρ ρ …………………………………………………………………………...(3.48)
where
3
0
kg/m 29 . 1 · ρ at 0 °C and meterological air pressure 1 013 mbar
K 273
0
· T
Air density as a function of temperature
1,150
1,200
1,250
1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450
20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Temperature (C)
A
i
r
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
k
g
/
m
3
)
Figure 3.8 d Air density as a function of temperature at sea level when influence of
meterological air pressure and air humidity is neglected.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
121
Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Temperature (C)
C
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
(
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
m
2
/
s
)
Figure 3.8 e Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature.
3.8.3 Discussion
Several codes and handbooks as for instance [3] suggest that the air density should be
selected to
3
m kg 25 . 1 and that cinematic viscosity should be selected to s m 10 15
2 6 −
⋅
when calculating vortex shedding oscillating forces.
The air density 1.25 kg/m
3
corresponds to an air temperature of 10 °C. At for instance a day
with a temperature of 20 °C the density is instead 1.40 kg/m
3
. Calculated dynamic wind
pressure will then be 12 percent greater than that determined for the nominal air density 1.25
kg/m
3
.
The viscosity s m 10 15
2 6 −
⋅ corresponds to an air temperature of 19 °C. At for instance a
day with a temperature of –20 °C the cinematic viscosity is s m 10 5 . 11
2 6 −
⋅ . Calculated
Reynold number Re will be 30 % greater on the –20 °C day than on the 19 °C day.
Extremely low turbulence levels due to stable stratification of the atmosphere (laminar air
flow) during cold winter days characterise the airflow.
From Section 2.1 it is noted that the VEAB chimney is situated at a height of 164 m above
sea level. The influence of air density depending of the height above sea level is being
limited to some percent [3].
In evaluating the recorded data, the actual daily mean temperatures were considered when
calculating the dynamic pressures and Reynold numbers. But the influence of level above
sea level has been neglected.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8
122
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 4.1
123
4. Fatigue action
4.1 Fatigue model considered
For fatigue evaluation of the chimney the Swedish Manual for Steel Structures BSK 99 [4] is
followed.
The term stress range
rd
σ refers to the difference between maximum and minimum stress at
a defined point, stresses being calculated according to elastic theory as normal stresses
without consideration of local stress variations due to for instance the detailed geometry of
the weld.
For normal stress, the design criterion with respect to fatigue is
rd rd
f ≤ σ [4] ……………………………………………………………………………..(4.1)
where ) 1 . 1 /(
n rk rd
γ ⋅ · f f is the design value of the fatigue strength.
The characteristic fatigue strength,
rk
f is to be calculated with due regard to the stress
concentration effects characterised by the class of detail C in accordance with [4], the
number of stress cycles
t
n during the service life of the structure, and the shape of the stress
spectrum in accordance with [4].
The class of detail C is a measure of the characteristic fatigue strength for
6
10 2⋅ stress
cycles at a constant stress range.
Classes of detail for parent material and welded connections are given in [4]. The values
given assume Workmanship GA or GB in accordance with [4].
For a spectrum with a constant stress range the characteristic value of the fatigue strength is
3 / 1
t
6
rk
10 2
]
]
]
⋅
⋅ ·
n
C f ,
6
t
10 5⋅ ≤ n [4] ………………………………………..(4.2)
5 / 1
t
6
rk
10 2
885 . 0
]
]
]
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ·
n
C f ,
8
t
6
10 10 5 ≤ ≤ ⋅ n [4] ………………………………….(4.3)
For structures not appreciably affected by corrosion, for instance where the corrosion
protection is well maintained, it is assumed that the fatigue limit for a spectrum with
constant stress range is assumed to be reached at
8
10 stress cycles.
The relationship between the characteristic value of the fatigue strength and the number of
stress cycles is set out in [4].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 4.1
124
Figure 4.1 a Characteristic fatigue strength f
rk
[4]. The full lines are applied for a stress
spectrum with a constant stress range ( 1 · κ ). For a variable stress range,
reference is to be made to [4].
For a stress spectrum with a variable stress range, the PalmgrenMiner cumulative damage
hypothesis is to be applied [4] on the basis of the characteristic fatigue strength. The design
value for each stress range is to be determined by multiplying the calculated nominal stress
range for the design load effect by a factor
n
1 . 1 γ ⋅ , where
n
γ depends on the safety.
In assembling the stress spectra, the 100 stress cycles that have the largest design values of
the stress range, and stress cycles for which the design values of the stress range are smaller
than values corresponding to the fatigue limit
8
t
10 · n , may be ignored.
The design criterion in conjunction with a variable stress range is as follows
0 . 1
ti
i
≤
,
`
.

Σ
n
n
......................................................................................................................(4.4)
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 4.1
125
where
·
i
n Number of stress cycles at a certain range
i
σ
i t
n = Number of stress cycles at a constant stress range which corresponds to the stress range
ri
σ .
Design is to be carried out in accordance with Equation 4.1, where
rd
σ is the largest nominal
stress range in the stress spectrum being considered. Assembly of the stress spectrum may
be carried out in accordance with the same principles, in accordance with the forgoing, apply
in using the PalmgrenMiner hypothesis.
[4] states that the design value of the fatigue strength shall be determined as follows
n
rk
rd
1 . 1 γ ⋅
·
f
f .....................................................................................................................(4.5)
Where
n
γ depends on the safety class according to [4].
For first mode oscillations, the relationship between top deflection in mm and characteristic
chimney base bending stress for a distributed load, was calculated by the manufacturer of
the chimney to
087 . 0
mm 6 . 133
MPa 6 . 11
Base rk
⋅ · ⋅ · y y σ .....................................................................................(4.6)
where y is in mm and
Base k
σ in MPa.
For second mode oscillations it is found from Section 2.4.2 and 3.7.1 that the relationship
between fictitious top deflection (superimposed oscillations on the first mode) and
characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load are the same as for the
first mode of natural frequency. But plate thickness decreases from base to top of the
chimney according to Section 2.1.2. A separate evaluation for the influence of second
mode oscillations at worst location was made.
0292 . 0
6 . 133 2
90
6 . 133
6 . 11
2 mode rk
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅ ⋅ · y y σ ........................................................................(4.7)
For fatigue design calculations [17] states that
rk rd
σ σ · ............................................................................................................................(4.8)
At chimney base gusset plates the class of detail should have been C = 45 MPa according to
Section 3.1. But because of defective manufacturing it was not achieved. Actual class of
details were estimated to C = 30 MPa according to Section 3.1. It is below the lowest
accepted level in [4] C=45 MPa.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
126
4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with
malfunctioning damper
From Section 4.1 we find that the damper was malfunctioning during the first nine months
of service.
Elapsed time in hours during nine months is hours 6480 hours 24 days 30 months 9 ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ .
By using the observations in Section 4.1 the following estimated distribution of top
amplitude deflections versus time for the first nine months in service were made:
Table 4.2 a Estimated top deflection distribution for the first nine months in service
Amplitude y +/
(mm)
1 500 1 150 700 500 300 150 100 Total
Time t (h) 5 15 25 80 100 150 300 675
Relative time
(percent of
elapsed time)
0.08 0.23 0.39 1.23 1.54 2.31 4.63 10.42
The manufacturer calculated the stiffness/top amplitude deflection relationship to (Equation
4.6)
3
N/mm 087 . 0 ·
y
σ
The calculations in Section 3.3.2.2 give
Distributed load w
eq
= 135 N/m
Reaction bending moment at chimney base M
b
= 546 750 Nm
Top amplitude deflection y = 87.71 mm
Area moment of inertia at h=0 m I = 0.084 m
4
Diameter d = 2.3 m
Equation 3.5 and Figure 3.3 k give
MPa 5 . 7
3 . 2
084 . 0 2
546750
2
b
·
⋅
·
⋅
·
d
I
M
σ
3
N/mm 085 . 0
71 . 87
5 . 7
· ·
y
σ
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
127
The manufacturers calculation of ratio of bending stress through top deflection and the
corresponding calculation in this report gives similar result. In the following the
manufacturers result
3
N/mm 087 . 0 ·
y
σ
was used.
The mean value for the natural frequency for the period 1997 through 2000 f=0.288 Hz
(Section 2.4.1 and 2.7.2) was used.
From Section 4.1
MPa 1 . 22
5
2
30 ) 10 5 (
3
1
6
rk
·
,
`
.

⋅ · ⋅ · n f
MPa 1 . 12
10
10 2
30 885 . 0 ) 10 1 (
5
1
8
6
8
rk
·
,
`
.
 ⋅
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · n f
MPa 3 . 18
1 . 1 1 . 1
1 . 22
) 10 5 (
6
rd
·
⋅
· ⋅ · n f
MPa 0 . 10
1 . 1 1 . 1
1 . 12
) 10 1 (
8
rd
·
⋅
· ⋅ · n f
6
3
rd
ti
10 2⋅ ⋅
,
`
.

·
σ
C
n MPa 3 . 18
rd
≥ σ
6
5
rd
ti
10 2
885 . 0
⋅ ⋅
,
`
.
 ⋅
·
σ
C
n MPa 3 . 18 0 . 10
rd
≤ ≤σ
The cumulative fatigue damage values have been calculated in Table 4.2 b.
Table 4.2 b Cumulative fatigue damage according to Table 4.2 a for an estimated load
spectrum for the first nine months of service and 1 . 1
n
· γ .
y (mm) t (h)
rki
σ (MPa)
rdi
σ (MPa) n n
ti
n/n
ti
1500 5 261 315.8 5184 1715 3.02
1150 15 200.1 242.1 15552 3806 4.09
700 25 121.8 147.4 25920 16862 1.54
500 80 87.0 105.3 82944 46250 1.79
300 100 52.2 63.2 103680 213916 0.48
150 150 26.1 31.6 155520 1711325 0.09
100 300 17.4 21.1 311084 6308707 0.05
11.1
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.2
128
It means that the cumulative damage fatigue according to the PalmgrenMiner Hypothesis
will be about 11 at a resistance factor 1 . 1
n
· γ corresponding to a probability of damage of
approximately
4
10
−
.
If the probability of failure is set to 0.5 the resistance factor will be approximately
825 . 0 75 . 0 1 . 1 · ⋅ [18].
MPa 8 . 26
75 . 0 1 . 1
1 . 22
) 10 5 (
6
rd
·
⋅
· ⋅ · n f
MPa 1 . 12
75 . 0 1 . 1
0 . 10
) 10 1 (
8
rd
·
⋅
· ⋅ · n f
The cumulative fatigue damage will then be as calculated in Table 4.2 c.
Table 4.2 c Cumulative fatigue damage for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine
months of service and 825 . 0
n
· γ , which corresponds to a probability of
damage of approximately 0.5.
y (mm) t (h)
rki
σ (MPa)
rdi
σ (MPa) n n
ti
n/n
ti
1500 5 261 215.3 5184 5411 0.96
1150 15 200.1 165.1 15552 11999 1.30
700 25 121.8 100.5 25920 53198 0.49
500 80 87.0 71.8 82944 145888 0.57
300 100 52.2 43.1 103680 674469 0.15
150 150 26.1 21.5 155520 5743284 0.03
100 300 17.4 14.4 311084 42612809 0.00
3.50
The large number of cracks is in correspondence with the abovecalculated cumulative
damage fatigues.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
129
4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper
4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency
4.3.1.1 Foundation level
The strain gauges were primarily aimed to study the influence of first mode of natural
frequency to the fatigue strength (Section 3.2.1).
The recording period is the years 1997 through 2000. To reduce the amount of data to be
stored, values were truncated if maximum range was less than 100 mm according to Section
3.2.7.
For strain gauge 1 and 3 there are a number of unrealistic values from January until April
2000. They are truncated because of errors at the strain gauges, see Section 3.2.8.
Cumulative fatigue damage has been calculated for the recording period 1997 through 2000.
Because of the difference between design assumptions and true values for class of detail both
C=45 and C=30 are assumed. C=45 is the design assumption and C=30 the accurate class of
detail. C=45 corresponds to a class of detail similar to a class of weld of WC according to [4].
It means that C=30 corresponds to a class of weld below WC. In the cumulative damage
calculations nothing else than geometric stress concentrations from the weld alone was
included. For the original design of the gusset plates at foundation level (Figure 2.2 c and 2.2
d) and 30 m level (Figure 2.2 e) it is reasonable to add an additional geometric stress
concentration. Because of the changed design after two years of service (Figure 2.2 g and
Figure 2.2 i) no additional stress concentrations are added to the class of detail C.
Table 4.3.a Damage fatigue for 1997 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.0016736 0.00625349 0.0099898 0.01003540 0.00578685 0.00235369 0.00080252 0.00067543
45 0.00013162 0.00057027 0.00102408 0.00099927 0.00052442 0.00019323 0.00006214 0.00005592
Table 4.3.b Damage fatigue for 1998 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00109454 0.00580580 0.01042424 0.01130228 0.00630474 0.00181172 0.00025356 0.00021740
45 0.00007902 0.00061170 0.00126551 0.00133086 0.00063884 0.00011620 0.00001215 0.00001095
Table 4.3.c Damage fatigue for 1999 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00171796 0.00612419 0.01083196 0.01212821 0.00726709 0.00267103 0.00077496 0.00070521
45 0.00013927 0.00056558 0.00115432 0.00128465 0.00070408 0.00023725 0.00006437 0.00005421
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
130
Table 4.3.d Damage fatigue for 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00102202 0.00559000 0.00897362 0.01298475 0.00749771 0.00227207 0.00054623 0.00033561
45 0.00017150 0.00040299 0.00084157 0.00117389 0.00056996 0.00012609 0.00004032 0.00001880
Table 4.3.e Damage fatigue for the entire measure period 1997 through 2000 at class of detail C=30
respective C=45
C Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8
30 0.00566482 0.02405545 0.04046838 0.04659365 0.02689582 0.00911692 0.00238477 0.00197968
45 0.00053598 0.00218143 0.00430908 0.00479834 0.00243850 0.00067287 0.00017906 0.00014352
From Table 4.3 e it is found that greatest fatigue damage during the recording period (four
years) was at bridge no 4 where utilization was 0.047 at C=30 and 0.0048 at C=45. If the
measurement period is representative for the complete service life of 30 years the fatigue
damage for the service life will be
For C=30 35 . 0
Years 4
Years 30
04659365 . 0 · ⋅
For C=45 036 . 0
Years 4
Years 30
00479834 . 0 · ⋅
Figure 4.3 a Fatigue damage per year for recordings at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees) and
class of detail C=30.
In Figure 4.3 a the fatigue damage shows an increasing magnitude during the years. There
are only four years of recordings. Therefore the statistical material is limited. It is not
possible to determine if the increase is an actual trend accidental.
Damage fatigue per year at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees), C=30
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
1997 1998 1999 2000
Year
D
a
m
a
g
e
f
a
t
i
g
u
e
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
131
4.3.1.2 Other heights than base level
According to Section 2.4.3 the bending moment and the area moment of inertia (Equations
2.10 and 2.11) are described as
) (
2
) (
2 2
x H
q
x M − ⋅ ·
[ ]
4 4
) 2 (
64
) ( t D D x I ⋅ − − ⋅ ·
π
at each height x
By using Equation 3.5 bending stress is described as
d
I(x)
x M
x
b
⋅
·
2
) (
) ( σ ..........................……...............................................................................(4.9)
Bending stress as a function of heigt for q=135 N/mm
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
7,0
8,0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Height (m)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
Figure 4.3 b Bending stress as a function of the height for a distributed load of 135 N/m.
From diagram 4.3 b it is obvious that, for a given stress concentration effect, the base level
will govern the design.
4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency
Natural frequency at second mode was 1.44 Hz (Section 2.4.1). By comparing Equations 2.10
and 2.11 and considering Figure 4.3 b it was obvious that first mode oscillations govern the
design when the stress concentration effect is similar. Second mode oscillations are below the
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3
132
endurance limit. Therefore no superposition of first and second mode oscillations has been
made.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5
133
5 Crack propagation
5.1 Method of analysis
To get an estimation of the safety against fracture of the VEAB chimney, at the point of time
when the damper was malfunctioning and before the cracks were repaired, a simplified crack
propagation analysis was made. The complete calculation is shown in Appendix L.
In this simplified estimation study the linear method was used as presented in [18].
The observed cracks at the erection splice at the 30 m level were found to be most critical.
The studied crack was of type 1 according to Figure 3.1 a. The shell plate thickness was 10
mm. Typical crack length was 10 mm and a crack depth of 3 mm into the shell plate
according to Appendix J.
The pitch is approximately 180 mm between the gusset plates. Several welds at the gusset
plates were damaged by cracks. Therefore acceptable crack width was expected to be <<
180 mm.
A lockin factor of two is assumed for this analysis. It is based on results from Sections 3.4
and 3.5.
5.2 Results
From a simple finite element analysis (FEA) calculation the geometric stress concentration was
found to be 2 (Appendix K).
For the case with a functioning damper allowable crack length for a nonpropagating surface crack
was calculated to 0.3 mm. For the case with a malfunctioning damper the corresponding crack length
was calculated to 0.2 mm.
The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is functioning after
1 200 000 +114 000 = 1 300 000 cycles, or 48 + 4.6 = 53 days of continuous vortex shedding
oscillation.
The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is malfunctioning after
225 000 + 21 400 = 250 000 cycles, or 9 + 1 = 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillating.
The corresponding number of load cycles during vortex shedding according to Section 3.5.7 is 13.1
.
10
6
according to the observations and 21
.
10
6
according to [3]. The load spectrum is discussed in
chapter 3.6.
Considering the assumed load spectrum it is obvious that the chimney before it was repaired had a
high probability for collapse.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5
134
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
135
6 Discussion
6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable
devices
The reliability of typical ordinary buildings is only depending on its support structure
transferring loads from the entire part of the building to the supports. A chimney or any other
construction equipped with a mechanical damper relies both on the support structure and on
the function of the damper.
Therefore the first question to discuss is whether reliability of building structures should be
depending on a devise or not. If the device is properly designed and functions as expected
there are no problems. But if the device is malfunctioning in any way it could be hazardous
for the reliability of the building.
For mechanical pendulum tuned dampers at steel chimneys we have noted the following risks:
 There will be condensation in the damper house. An estimating calculation shows that
there is risk of condensation in the damper house at some weather conditions, but the
amount of condensed water is small. Thus the friction between friction mass and damper
house bottom will be other than assumed in the design calculations and the damper
properties could be changed.
 There may be corrosion in the damper house caused by condensation in the damper
house. The friction mass could corrode and get caught to the damper house bottom and
the damper will be locked. There may require excessive accelerations to loosen the
friction mass from the damper house bottom.
 The friction mass will freeze to the damper house bottom caused by the condensation
water and the damper will be locked. There will be required large accelerations to
loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom.
 The chimneys are aimed to operate for a period of many years. For the VEAB chimney
the design lifetime was decided to 30 years, which is common practice for chimneys in
Sweden. Because of the long lifetime there could be worries about dangerous wear
eventually in combination with corrosion.
 Error in handling or careless handling during erection and service could make the
damper inoperable by mistake.
 Design errors as wrongly calculated natural frequencies, error in selection of pendulum
masses, error in selection of friction devices may result in a mistuned damper with
limited damping. [19] and Section 3.3.2.4 deals with the problem of mistuned dampers
on steel chimneys. There could be a lot of reasons for why calculated natural frequency
differ from the real one, such as errors in calculating the natural frequency, simplified
calculation model which miss some effects or different mass distribution than assumed.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
136
 The mechanical pendulum tuned damper requires a regular maintenance program. For
the VEAB chimney it was decided to once a year. If the maintenance is neglected the
reliability of the chimney is impaired. As for the aircraft and nuclear industry the
inspection interval has to be smaller than the time required for a crack to grow critical
with a malfunctioning damper. According to Section 5, 10 days of continuous vortex
shedding oscillations could create critical crack and collapse. For the VEAB chimney
there were only one yearly inspection planned and acceptable inspection interval
therefore were to long.
 Ice on the chimney during the winter periods add mass and changes the natural
frequency resulting in a mistuned damper.
 Reynold number is changed if the chimney is charged with rainwater as discussed in
[20]. Then the shape factor during vortex shedding oscillations could be increased with
hazardous consequences for the chimney.
By paying attention to the risks above the economic incitement have to be big for using
mechanical pendulum tuned dampers. According to our experiences that is not the fact
especially if the inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate. A
chimney with any form of not movable device to reduce oscillations caused by vortex
shedding is only requiring a limited amount of inspection and is therefore as economic as the
pendulum device.
To rely on movable devices in buildings is a form of risk management. Which risk is
acceptable for a building? Our recommendation is that chimneys as other important buildings
should not be depending on movable devices unless a careful risk management analysis have
been made.
By using two differently tuned mechanical dampers some of the above mentioned
disadvantages could be avoided.
Vortex shedding oscillations are also a little surprising, in fact that no appreciate oscillations
could appear for decenniums and suddenly a winter period when critical meteorological
conditions occur the chimney start to oscillate hazardous for a period as discussed in [1].
Therefore it is easy to be lulled into security about the reliability after some years of
satisfactory operating experience. Oscillations recorded during the current fouryear program
on the VEAB chimney never approached those observed in December 1996.
6.2 Comparable chimney data
Some investigations similar to that presented in this report have been published after this
investigation was started. Those other investigations involving measurements over time are
limited to a much shorter time period than for this investigation. The investigation presented
in this report cover a measurement period twice or more that of other investigations [1], [2],
[15], [19], [21] and [22].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
137
In [1] Table 6.2 a data as Scruton number and calculated and observed top amplitude
deflection for a number of steel chimneys are shown. To the table has been added the VEAB
chimney, a chimney at Varberg [21] with great oscillations from vortex shedding, a chimney
at Magdeburg [15] and with four chimneys presented in [22].
In Table 6.2 a the chimneys from [1] are named number 1 to 9, the chimneys in [22] with long
term recordings number 10 to 14, the VEAB chimney number 15, the Varberg chimney [21]
number 16 and.
The following notifications are made in Table 7.1:
h = Height
d = Diameter
? = Slenderness ratio h/d
t
topp
= Top shell thickness
f = Natural frequency
d = Logarithmic decrement
Sc = Scruton number
v
cr
= Critical wind velocity
Re = Reynold number
c
lat
= The basic value of the aerodynamic exiting force
l
effcorr
= Effective correlation length
K
?
= Eurocode 1 calculation variable
K
w
= Eurocode 1 calculation variable
y
max
= Calculated top amplitude deflection according to Eurocode 1
y
obs
= Observed top amplitude deflection
y
measured
= Measured top amplitude deflection
M = Measured
O = Observed
* = The difference in Scruton numbers is due to differences in structural
damping and mode shape
** = The bigger diameter concern outer diameter of the damper.
*** = Estimated top mass
15a = The VEAB chimney with a malfunctioning damper.
15b = The VEAB chimney with a functioning damper.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
138
Table 6.2 a Data for a number of chimneys
1
6
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a
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b
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3
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e
d
(
m
m
)
O
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
p
e
r
i
o
d
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
139
As [1] notifies Table 6.2 a show that Eurocode 1 often underestimates the top amplitude
deflections during vortex shedding oscillations. BSV 97 [3] has limits for slenderness and top
deflection as noted in Section 2.4.2.
It is worth noticing that nonprofessional persons often overestimate visual observations of
chimney top deflections. That is a reasonable fact, but that is not the same as saying that
visual observations of chimney top deflection always are overestimated. The professional is
aware of necessary references needed for the estimation.
6.3 Codes
6.3.1 General
Rules for designing slender structures under wind loading as chimneys are found in various
codes. Most countries have their own national codes but organisations such as CEN and
Comite International Des Cheminées Industrielles (CICIND) have developed common codes
as the Eurocode and the CICIND code.
There are great deviations between the national codes as well as the common codes. Most
codes deals with static wind loads in a similar way. However action from vortex shedding is
treated in different ways. Some codes limit the allowable slenderness ratio (height/diameter),
for applicability of the code design model. Limit restrictions for the top deflection at vortex
shedding are also used.
There is a discussion going on about the requirement of revision the codes. See for instance
[1] and [15].
For static design the 50year maximum wind load (gust included) considering global and local
buckling and plasticity are applied combined with dead load and other loads.
For dynamic loads fatigue has to be considered. The spectra of fatigue effects will be made up
of response from gust wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillations (ovalling).
As a complement to the codes, handbooks have to be used for evaluation of buckling modes,
welds and details. In most cases also a finite element (FEA) computer program is necessary
for calculating natural frequencies with an acceptable accuracy.
Selection of the applicable code is in most cases depending on in which country the chimney
will be erected. Some codes for designing steel chimneys are found in [3], [4], [5], [9], [17]
and [23].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
140
6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour of the VEAB
chimney
6.3.2.1 BSV 97  Snö och vindlast [3]
Calculations according to BSV 97 [3] are made in Section 2.4.2. In Section 3.3.2.2 the
corresponding top deflection is calculated and in Section 3.5.7 the number of stress cycles. It
is important to notice that BSV 97 is used outside of its limitations according to Section 2.4.2.
Therefore the results may be unconcervative. For the VEAB chimney with a locked damper
the top deflection will be a multiplication with the relationship between the logarithmic
decrements for the unlocked and locked dampers (0.07/0.04).
6.3.2.2 EC1  Eurocode 1 [23]
In Section 6.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of
stress cycles. The number of stress cycles will be
2
0
2
0
0
7
10 3 . 6
,
`
.

−
⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
U
v
cr
ct
e
U
v
f T N ε …………………..…………….…………………(6.1)
where T = Lifetime in years
f = Natural frequency
0
ε = Bandwidth factor
Li m, 0
5
1
U U ⋅ · ………………………………………………………………………………(6.2)
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ·
0
ln
z
z
v U
ref m
β …..……………….…………………………………………………(6.3)
For the VEAB chimney we achieve
s
m
8 . 33
05 . 0
2
1
3 . 2 6 90
ln 19 . 0 24
Li m,
·
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ · U at centre of the correlation length
s
m
76 . 6 8 . 33
5
1
0
· ⋅ · U
cycles 10 97 . 0
76 . 6
24 . 3
3 . 0 282 . 0 1 10 3 . 6
6 76 . 6
24 . 3 2
7
2
⋅ · ⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
,
`
.

−
e N for one year
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
141
6.3.2.3 DIN 4133 [9]
In Section 6.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of
stress cycles. The Eurocode 1 gives results as DIN 4133 except for the number of stress
cycles. The number of stress cycles for a 50year period will be
2
0
2
0
9
10
,
`
.

−
⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ·
v
v
cr
ct
e
v
v
f N ……………………………….………………………..……(6.4)
where
0
v = Reference wind velocity for vortex shedding number of stress
cycles (5 m/s)
6 5
24 . 3 2
9
10 55 . 1
50
1
5
24 . 3
282 . 0 10
2
⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ·
,
`
.

−
e N cycles per year
6.3.2.4 CICIND [1]
The CICIND model code is based on the spectral model using a large number of fullscale
observations to estimate relevant observations [1]. To the Figure 7.15 in [1] the VEAB
chimney is implemented.
Figure 6.3 a Relative amplitude as a function of Scruton number according to the CICIND
model code [1].
For the functioning damper the top deflection is found to be mm 530 2300 23 . 0 · ⋅ and for the
malfunctioning damper mm 940 2300 41 . 0 · ⋅ .
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
142
6.3.2.5 ISO 4354:1997(E) – Wind actions on structures [24]
Provided that
str
? >
2
i
2
air
C
m
D
aer
⋅
⋅
·
ρ
ρ the top deflection during vortex shedding is calculated
as
D
C
m
D
D
h
m
D
C
y ⋅
⋅
,
`
.

⋅ −
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅
·
2
2
air str
2
air 3
0
ρ ς
ρ
…………………………..…………………………(6.5)
where C
3
= A constant (2)
air
ρ = Density of air (1.2 kg/m
2
)
D = Diameter of chimney (2.3 m)
m = Mass per length of top third of the chimney ( ≈700 kg/m)
h = Height of chimney (90 m)
str
ς = Structural damping ratio
C
2
= A constant = 1.2
From Section 3.3.1.4
str
ς is found to be 0.0111 for the functioning damper and 0.0065 for the
malfunctioning damper.
For the functioning damper
str
? 
2
i
2
air
C
m
D
⋅
⋅ ρ
≈0
For the malfunctioning damper
str
? 
2
i
2
air
C
m
D
⋅
⋅ ρ
≈0.0044
The motion will be unstable and large amplitudes up to the value of D may result [24].
Special treatment is then required either by referral to experts, special codes (e. g. on steel
stacks) or special investigations [24].
6.3.2.6 Measurements
From Equation 3.43 the top deflection for the recording period was found to follow
( ) 247 log 35
t
10
+ ⋅ − · n y mm
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
143
6.3.2.7 Observations
From Table 4.2 a the top deflection for the first nine months of malfunctioning damper is
found. For the comparison with the codes the load spectrum is extrapolated to one year of
malfunctioning damper.
Table 6.3 a Assumed top deflection amplitude distribution for the first nine months in
service.
Top deflection y +/
(mm)
1 500 1 150 700 500 300 150 100 Total
Relative time
(percent)
0.08 0.23 0.39 1.23 1.54 2.31 4.63 10.42
Number of cycles 7 266 20 889 35 421 111 713 139 868 209 803 420 514 946 000
Accumulated number
of cycles
7 266 28 155 63 576 175 289 315 157 524 960 946 000 
6.3.2.8 Comparison between the codes, measurements and observations
Spectra for top deflection, functioning damper
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 log (Accumulated load cycles)
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)
BSV97
EC1
DIN
CISIND
ISO
Measurements
from four year
period
Figure 6.3 b Spectra for top deflection per year and a functioning damper. Codes discussed
in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
144
Spectra for top deflection, malfunctioning damper
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 log (Accumulated load cycles )
T
o
p
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)
BSV97
EC1
DIN
CICIND
Observed
Figure 6.3 c Spectra for deflection per year and a malfunctioning damper. Codes
discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are
plotted.
For the functioning damper, Figure 6.3 b shows that only the CICIND code is safe to use
calculating top deflection. For the malfunctioning damper Figure 6.3 c, no code is safe
calculating top deflection. The influence on fatigue damage using the PalmgrenMiner
hypothesis is more complicated and could give other results.
Both BSV 97 and ISO 4354 have limitations for their use and do not cover the VEAB
chimney properties. Especially the limitations in ISO 4354 points out that the VEAB chimney
operates in or in the neighbourhood to an unstable vortex shedding section. The geometric
properties of the VEAB chimney had been different from the actual geometric properties if
one of the BSV 97, CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly.
There is a need for revision of the model to estimate the response caused by vortex shedding
of very slender chimney structures ( h/d ¤ 30).
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
145
6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the
VEAB chimney
The longterm observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It
is two times longer than previously reported literature data. Detailed data about observation
time and structural data are found in Table 6.2 a.
In Figure 6.4 recorded spectra for Aachen, Colonge, Pirna, Recklinghausen [22] and the
VEAB chimney are drawn.
Measured amplitude spectrum
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Log (accumulated number of load cycles  100 )
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
l
o
a
d
Aachen
Cologne
Pirna
Recklinghausen
VEAB
Figure 6.4 a Measured amplitude spectra for the chimneys [22] and the
VEAB chimney.
In Figure 6.4 b a typified load spectrum calculated with the least square method for the VEAB
chimney is drawn.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
146
Typified load spectra
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
log n / log nt
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
l
o
a
d
Recorded for
VEAB chimney
Fitted typified
load spectrum
Figure 6.4 e Typified amplitude spectrum for the VEAB chimney. κ=0.32.
6.5 Second mode
In this report reviews briefly the influence of second mode oscillations on the VEAB
chimney. Based on a limited number of observations the first mode is found designing for
fatigue strength. From Section 3.6 and 3.7.1 it is shown that the second mode occurs at rare
occasions and that the number of load cycles are low.
6.6 The future
Initially the recordings of the VEAB chimney were planned to continue until December 2003
followed by an evaluation of the recorded results as shown in Table 3.2 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
147
Table 6.6 c Actions to be taken for the VEAB chimney
Result of evaluation Action
1. Acceptable probability for collapse a. The VEAB chimney is OK.
Finish the recordings.
2. Unclear b. Continue the recordings.
c. Add additional damping to the
chimney. An assumption is that the
accumulated fatigue damage is
acceptable.
3. Unacceptable probability for
collapse
c. Add additional damping to the
chimney. An assumption is that
the accumulated fatigue damage is
acceptable.
d. Replace the chimney with a new
and modified one.
Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001, probably by mistake,
when applying corrosion protection on the inside of the chimney. It was expensive to repair
the recording system. For economic reasons it was decided that additional damping had to be
installed to provide an acceptable safety with respect to fatigue. Two dampers connected the
boiler house at roof level (45 m) to the chimney erection splice at 55.2 m level. That is action
3 c in Table 3.2 c.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
148
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 7
149
7 Summary
7.1 In English
The longterm observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It
is two times longer than previously available data in the literature for other chimneys.
The report contains data on the behaviour of a major chimney with a mass damper. The
measured damping was less than expected, probably because the limited space in the damper
house not did allow necessary pendulum movements, and too low pendulum mass.
The VEAB chimney was found to oscillate in both first and second mode of natural
frequency. Second mode oscillations are rare for normal chimneys. The damping of second
order oscillations is much greater than for first order. The evaluation of the measurements
showed that the influence of second order oscillations could be neglected.
A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB
chimney is unique in height and slenderness.
Typified linear load effect spectra describe the chimney behaviour well.
A full scale damping measurement was performed and evaluated for the VEAB chimney with
and without functioning damper.
A comparison with a number of code regulations has been performed.
A refinement of a theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was
performed.
Actual meterological data were considered in evaluation the action for the VEAB chimney.
Geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been selected to other dimensions if one of
the BSV 97, CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. The diameter had been
selected to a greater size.
There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender
chimneys, that is for chimneys with slender ratio height through diameter above
approximately 30.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 7
150
7.2 In Swedish
Mätsystemet för långtidsövervakning av VEAB stålskorsten har varit i drift under fyra år.
Det är två gånger längre än tidigare i litteraturen beskrivna mätningar för skorstenar.
Rapporten innehåller uppgifter om beteende för en skorsten försedd med massdämpare. Den
uppmätta dämpningen var mindre än väntat, antagligen på grund av att begränsat utrymme i
dämparhuset inte tillät nödvändig pendelrörelse samt att pendelmassan var för låg.
VEAB stålskorsten observerades svänga i både första och andra modens egenfrekvens.
Svängningar i andra moden är ovanliga för stålskorstenar. Dämpningen är mycket större för
andra modens svängningar än för första modens. Utvärderingen av mätdata visade att andra
modens inflytande kunde försummas.
En jämförelse med ett antal andra skorstenar beskrivna i litteraturen visade att VEAB
skorstenen är unik i höjd och slankhet.
Skorstenens uppförande beskrivs väl av ett lastspektrum.
En mätning av dämpning genomfördes i full skala för VEAB stålskorsten med både
fungerande och låst dämpare.
En jämförelse med ett antal normer är gjord.
Verkliga meteorologiska data beaktades vid utvärderingen.
En förbättrat förslag på beräkningsmodell för pendelförsedda massdämpare är utarbetat.
Aktuella meteorologiska data har beaktats vid alla utvärderingar.
Dom geometriska storheterna för VEAB stålskorsten hade valts annorlunda om någon av
normerna BSV 97, CICIND or ISO hade följts konsekvent. Skorstenens diameter hade då
valts större.
Det är behov av en översyn av beräkningsmodellen för att uppskatta responsen från
virvelavlösning för mycket slanka stålskorstenar. Med mycket slanka stålskorstenar avses ett
slankhetstalet (höjd genom diameter) över ungefär 30.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 8
151
8. References
[1] Claës Dyrbye, Svein O Hansen: Wind loads on structures, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[2] Hans Ruscheweyh, Thomas Galemann: Fullscale measurements of wind induced
oscillations of chimneys, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 65
(1996) 5562.
[3] BSV 97, Snö och vindlast (Snow and wind loading), 2nd Edition, Boverket 1997 (in
Swedish).
[4] BSK 94: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner, Boverket 1994 (in Swedish) later
replaced by BSK 99: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner, Boverket 1999 (in
Swedish).
[5] Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 32: Towers, masts and chimneys 
Chimneys, ENV 199332, 1997.
[6] Hans Ruscheweyh: Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken. Band 2: Praktische
Anwendungen, Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1982.
[7] Chr. Petersen: Windinduzierte Schwingungen und ihre Verhütung durch Dämpfer, Der
Stahlbau 11/1982, 336341.
[8] Costantin Verwiebe: Überschlägliche Berechnung der Querschwingungsbeanspruchung
von Schornsteinen aus Stahl nach Din 4133, Stahlbau 68 (1999), Heft 10, 846851.
[9] DIN 4133, Schornsteine aus Stahl, November 1991.
[10] Cyrril M. Harris: Shock and Vibration handbook, third edition 1988, Mc GrawHill Inc.
[11] Christian Petersen: Baupraxis und Aeroelastik, Probleme – Lösungen  Schadenfälle.
[12] Bengt Sundström: Handbok och formelsamling i Hållfasthetslära, Kungliga Tekniska
Högskolan 1999 (in Swedish)
[13] F. M. Sauer, C. F. Garland: Performance of the Viscously Damped Vibration Absorber
Applied to Systems Having FrequencySquared Excitation, Berkeley, Calif., 109117.
[14] Costantin Verwiebe: Winderregte Schwingungen und Massnahmen zur
Dämpfungserhöhung im Stahlschorsteinenbau, Schorsteinbau – Symposium 23. Januar
1997, Bad Hersfeld.
[15] Constantin Verwiebe & Waldemar Burger: Unerwartet starke wirbelerregte
Querschwingungen eines 49 m hohen Stahlschornsteins, Stahlbau 67, Heft 11, 1998, p
876878.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten
Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 8
152
16] Dubbel: Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau, 14. Auflage, Springer Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg New York 1981.
[17] BKR 99: Boverkets konstruktionsregler, Boverket 1999 (in Swedish).
[18] Urban Bergström, et al: Plåthandboken, SSAB Tunnplåt AB, 1993, Utgåva 5.
[19] Max Beaumont, Dennis E. Walshe: Investigation into wind induced oscillation on three
76 high self supporting steel chimneys, 4
th
Chimney Symposium, 127135.
[20] Costantin Verwiebe: Neue Erkenntnisse über die Erregungmechanismen RegenWind
induzierter Schwingungen, Stahlbau 65 (1996), Heft 12.
[21] Göran Alpsten: Dynamisk vindlast av virvelavlösning (Dynamic wind loading from
vortex shedding), Document 9835a, Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, May 1998 (in Swedish).
[22] H. Ruscheweyh, W. Langer, C. Verwiebe: Longterm fullscale measurements of wind
induced vibrations of steel stacks, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial
Aerodynamics 7476 (1998) 777783.
[23] Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures, Part 24: Wind actions, ENV
199124, 1994.
[24] ISO 4354:1997(24): Wind actions on structures, International Organisation of
Standardisation, 1997.
[25] Kamal Handa: Kompendium i Byggnadsaerodynamik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola,
Göteborg, 1993 (in Swedish).
[26] Göran Alpsten: Svängningsproblem vid en 35 m stålskorsten utan spriralfenor
dimensionerad enligt SBN 1975 (Vibration problems for a 35 m steel chimney without
helical strakes designed according to SBN 1975), Internal report 84641,
Stålbyggnadskontroll AB, Feb. 1985 (in Swedish).
[27] Pär Tranvik: VEAB Steel Chimney – Computer programs for data reduction, Internal
report S 02 003 , Alstom Power Sweden AB, 2002.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................ i.4 Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... i.5 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope of investigation .................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Action of slender structures under wind loading........................................................ 2 1.2.1 General................................................................................................................. 2 1.2.2 Vortex shedding.................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Symbols and units......................................................................................................... 5 Description of the VEAB chimney............................................................................................... 7 2.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant................................................................................................. 7 2.2 Data for structure of the VEAB chimney .................................................................... 9 2.2.1 General data......................................................................................................... 9 2.2.2 Structural details ............................................................................................... 11 2.2.3 Manufacturing characteristics .......................................................................... 18 2.3 Mechanical damper..................................................................................................... 19 2.3.1 Common damping designs............................................................................... 19 2.3.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney ........................................... 23 2.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney .............................................................. 26 2.4.1 Natural frequencies........................................................................................... 26 2.4.2 Vortex shedding................................................................................................ 28 2.4.3 Elastic energy .................................................................................................... 30 2.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney.......................................................................... 32 3. Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney........................................... 33 3.1 Observations of malfunctioning of the chimney ..................................................... 33 3.1.1 Observations of large oscillations.................................................................... 33 3.1.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes ........................................................ 34 3.1.3 Detailed examination of cracks........................................................................ 34 3.1.4 Summary of cracks ........................................................................................... 36 3.1.5 Notches not available for examination............................................................ 36 3.1.6 Repair of the damaged welds ........................................................................... 36 3.2 Data recording system ................................................................................................ 37 3.2.1 General............................................................................................................... 37 3.2.2 Strain gauges ..................................................................................................... 37 3.2.3 Wind data transmitter ....................................................................................... 38 3.2.4 Recording computer ......................................................................................... 41 3.2.5 Calculation of top deflection range.................................................................. 45 3.2.6 Verification of the equipment.......................................................................... 45 3.2.7 Procedures......................................................................................................... 46 3.2.8 Operating experience........................................................................................ 46
i.1
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney
3.3
3.4 3.5
3.6 3.7
3.8
Behaviour of the mechanical damper ........................................................................ 47 3.3.1 Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper .................. 47 3.3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper.............. 60 3.3.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study .............................. 74 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney........................................................... 75 Observed wind properties........................................................................................... 80 3.5.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range, anthill diagrams............................. 80 3.5.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range.............. 83 diagrams 3.5.3 Elastic energy diagrams.................................................................................... 87 3.5.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station.................................. 89 3.5.5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams ............................................... 91 3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams .................................................................... 93 3.5.7 Load spectra ...................................................................................................... 95 3.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity............................................................................ 100 3.5.9 Iso wind velocity plots.................................................................................... 102 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gage measurements............... 106 First and second mode oscillations .......................................................................... 112 3.7.1 Screen plots ..................................................................................................... 112 3.7.2 Logged files..................................................................................................... 113 3.7.3 First mode evaluation ..................................................................................... 114 3.7.4 Second mode evaluation................................................................................. 116 3.7.5 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 117 Temperature and temperature dependent properties............................................... 118 3.8.1 Mean temperatures ......................................................................................... 118 3.8.2 Density and kinematic viscosity .................................................................... 120 3.8.3 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 121
4.
Fatigue action ....................................................................................................................123 4.1 Fatigue model considered......................................................................................... 123 4.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with malfunctioning damper .............. 126 4.3 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper ...................................... 129 4.3.1 First mode of natural frequency ..................................................................... 129 4.3.2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency............................................ 131 Crack propagation............................................................................................................133 5.1 Method of analysis ................................................................................................... 133 5.2 Results ....................................................................................................................... 133 Discussion...........................................................................................................................135 6.1 The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices.............................. 135 6.2 Comparable chimney data........................................................................................ 136 6.3 Codes ......................................................................................................................... 139 6.3.1 General............................................................................................................. 139 6.3.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour the VEAB chimney ....... 140 6.4 Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney.................... 145 6.5 Second mode............................................................................................................. 146 6.6 The future .................................................................................................................. 146
5.
6.
i.2
....................................................J....................................................................................1 Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K Appendix L i......1 In English................................................... H..................................1 Description of recording system for the VEAB chimney (in Swedish).......... I................................ K............... A.........1 Behaviour of mechanical damper – Observations from the damping test................ G..........1 Recorded dynamic behaviour of the chimney..................1 Computer programs for data reduction......................B..........................................1 Cumulative fatigue damage............................................................. D......................................... 149 7.C............1 Recorded temperatures .....................1 Wind pressure and deflection range diagrams ................................. Summary .........................................149 7..........................................................Pär Tranvik.............................................................................................................................3 ............................1 Screen plots for first and second order oscillations ...........151 8.............................2 In Swedish .......................................................E................... 150 References ....1 Simplified crack propagation analysis .......... Appendices with recorded and calculated data (Not included in this printing but enclosed in the covered CD): Appendix A Appendix B VEAB brochure for the cogeneration block at Växjö............................................................................................. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney 7............... F.1 Detailed examination of cracks ..............................................................L.........1 Finite element analysis of hot spots in chimney structure.......................................
4 . The second author has acted mainly as advisor for the investigation. ABB Fläkt Industri AB of Växjö was contractor for the electrostatic precipitator including the chimney (activities of the company later subdivided between Alstom Power Sweden AB and ABB). Because of this an extensive investigation was started to rectify the action of the damper.Pär Tranvik. Messrs Rolf Snygg and Thomas Väärälä of Alstom Power Sweden AB. Data from four years of continuous measurements are presented in the report. causing large oscillations of the structure and fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney Preface This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high steel chimney equipped with a mechanical damper at the top. Special thanks are due to Mr Ulf Johnson of VEAB. Växjö and Solna in March 2002 Pär Tranvik Göran Alpsten i. The investigation presented in this report was initiated by VEAB. The authors are indebted to all parties involved for making it possible to present the results in this form. Denmark. Due to a mistake in installing the chimney the damper was not active in the first period of service life. VEAB of Växjö. for which the second author acted as a consultant. Mr Stig Magnell of Dryco AB. and Mr Stig Pedersen of VL Staal A/S. The compilation of data and preparation of most parts of this report were made by the first author. Mr Lars Palmqvist of ABB Automation Systems AB. The chimney was fabricated and erected by the subcontractor VL Staal A/S of Esbjerg. repair the steel structure and to monitor the behaviour of the structure adopting a failsafe principle. being part of a delivery of an electrostatic precipitator of the Sandvik II biomass power plant at Växjö. Sweden is owner of the chimney.
An extensive program was initiated to study and repair the fatigue cracks. The report present a number of diagrams for wind pressure and top deflection range. Key Words Full scale measurements Cross wind oscillations Vortex shedding Chimney Mechanical damper Dynamic wind loading i. load spectra and frequency of wind velocity. elastic energy. that is for chimneys with slenderness ratio (height through diameter) above approximately 30. An improvement of a simplified theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed. After only nine months of service a great number of fatigue cracks were observed. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney Abstract The structural behaviour of the 90 m height VEAB steel chimney in southern Sweden has been investigated. accumulated top deflection range. monitor the chimney behaviour and verify the chimney behaviour by theoretical models.Pär Tranvik. A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB chimney is unique in height and slenderness. The economic incitements have to be great for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers. There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender chimneys. behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies related to the investigation of the chimney. This may not always be the case if inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate. wind turbulence. The very slender chimney is equipped with a mechanical friction type damper to increase damping and reduce displacements from vortex shedding. accumulated wind pressure. restore the mechanical damper.5 . Initially the friction damper did not operate properly and the chimney developed oscillations with large top deflections in the very first period of service. and the effect of a mechanical damper. This report summarizes results collected from about four years of continuous measurements and regular observations of the chimney. A full scale damping test was performed. The data obtained has some general relevance with respect to wind data.
Pär Tranvik.6 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney i.
After the functioning of the damper had been restored and the fatigue cracks repaired an extensive program was initiated in 1996 to monitor the structural behaviour of the chimney under wind loading.Pär Tranvik. behaviour of a slender structure under wind loading. Large top amplitude deflections have been observed with the damper mistakenly inactive. This report summarises results collected from about four years of continuous measurements and regular observations of the chimney. determined from a failsafe principle.1 Introduction Scope of investigation This report presents results from an investigation of the structural behaviour of a 90 m high steel chimney erected at Växjö in southern Sweden in 1995. In addition to presenting results of general interest and discussions in the main part of the report. This included continuous measurement of stresses in the structure in order to record the stress history and thus monitor the risk for fatigue of the repaired structure.    1 . The natural frequencies are low and therefore also the critical resonance wind velocity for vortexinduced oscillations is low. Visual inspection and magnetic particle evaluation have been performed at regular intervals. in order to make possible further evaluation of the data for other investigators. Field recordings have been made continuously during four years of service. This caused a great number of fatigue cracks to occur within a few months of service.Section 1 1. Wind and temperature data and the response of the chimney to wind loading were recorded. The observations and recordings from the VEAB chimney are unique because of the following items: It is a high and slender steel chimney equipped with a tuned pendulum damper. and the effect of a mechanical damper. The data obtained has some general relevance with respect to wind data. Also included in the report are results from some theoretical studies related to the investigation of the chimney. 1. original data and further compilations of detailed results are given in Appendices to the report. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Vortex shedding oscillations were observed at both first and at rare occasions also at second mode of natural frequency. The chimney is equipped with a mechanical frictiontype damper at the top. Due to a mistake during erection and installation of the chimney the transport fixings of the damper were not released properly and the chimney developed extensive oscillations in the very first period of service.
1. 3. Ring oscillations (ovalling) are a pulsating oval oscillation of for instance a cylindrical shell structure.2. Vortex shedding occurs when the natural frequency of a structure corresponds with vortices shed from opposite sides of the structure resulting in cross gas flow oscillations. fatigue. dynamic behaviour.Pär Tranvik. A detailed examination of cracks was performed. Gust winds displace the chimney in the same direction as the wind load.Section 1  A fullscale damping test was performed.5.7 and 6. Comparisons between theory and observations were made for natural frequencies.2. 3.2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 3.2 a.1 Action of slender structures under wind loading General For slender structures subjected to wind loading there are three main actions to consider.2 Vortex shedding Vortexinduced oscillations occur when vortices are shed alternately from opposite sides of a structure. The vortex shedding will be discussed more in detail in Section 1. 1. gust wind. cracks and finally there are a discussion about the use of tuned dampers. wind data.2.2.4. damping. 2 . It gives rise to a fluctuating load perpendicular to the wind direction as shown schematically in Figure 1. For a rigid structure gust wind is independent of the dynamic properties of the structure but dependent for a flexible structure. vortex shedding and ring oscillation ovalling. 2.2 1.4.
Oscillations generated by vortex shedding may occur in slender structures such as cables. the wind velocity increases on the other side [1].8 In general large Reynold numbers means turbulent flow............. 5 ⋅ 10 6 õ Re õ 105 õ Re õ 3..... As the vortices are shed at the critical wind velocity alternately first from one side then the other..... For chimneys with circular cross section the flow is either in the supercritical or transcritical range for wind velocities of practical interest. The Reynold number is a nondimensional parameter describing the influence of internal friction in fluid mechanics. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ...... v is the wind velocity in the undisturbed field........ Distance between the vortices subject to wind loading L is approximately 4.2 a Vortices formed behind a cylinder.......Pär Tranvik.. When a vortex is formed on one side of the structure........................(1..... but in rare cases also the second mode is of interest......... Subcritical Supercritical Transcritical 300 105 3.............. The Reynold number is expressed as Re = d ⋅ v∞ .....3 times the diameter d.... a harmonically varying lateral load with the same frequency as the frequency of the vortex shedding is formed.. 5 ⋅ 10 6 õ Re 3 .......1) ? d v∞ υ where = Diameter of chimney = Undisturbed wind velocity = Kinematic viscosity of the air according to Section 3.Section 1 Figure 1.. Usually the first mode is critical for vortex shedding in actual steel structures subjected to wind loading.. The risk of vortexinduced oscillations increases for slender structures and structures in line with a small distance between them.... This results in a pressure difference on the opposite sides and the structure is subjected to a lateral force away from the side where the vortex is formed... chimneys and towers.............
.. ... 4 .... In slender structures......2) v∞ where f0 = Natural frequency The Strouhal number describes the dependence of the cross section....... Most important is the negative aerodynamic damping generated by vortex shedding................. large oscillations may occur if the frequency of vortex shedding coincides with the natural frequency for the structure vibrating in a mode in the crosswind direction [1]........Net gust load caused by lateral wind fluctuations.........Smooth laminar air flow which for instance occurs in the stable atmosphere during cold winter days. aerodynamic damping is of primary concern........Pär Tranvik...Loads caused by vortex shedding.. The Strouhal number depends on the motion of the structure (aero elasticity).Increased smallscale turbulence...... for instance that occurring in the wake of a slender.. The load occurs whether or not the structure is moving. but may be strongly dependent on the size of the motion [1]... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ... Vortex shedding structural oscillations are more probable if: ....... Characteristic properties for crosswind are: .......Motioninduced forces. This part of the load is called net vortex shedding load [1]... .. It depends on the Reynold number for a stationary smooth cylinder and for an aeroelastic chimney... Bearing in mind the risk of violent vortexinduced oscillations.................Section 1 Aero elasticity causes a regular vortex shedding also in the supercritical range. nearby structure of similar size.. The motion could start to rule the vortex shedding.. ... [25].... The proportionality factor for vortex shedding is named Strouhal number....(1.. The Strouhal number is expressed as St = d ⋅ f0 . For a nonvibrating chimney the distance L between vortices rotating in the same direction is proportional to the diameter of the chimney d....... [6]..... the surface roughness and the wind turbulence [1].
.......Section 1 The Scruton number is a nondimensional parameter defined as Sc = 2 ⋅ δ s ⋅ me ...................... 1..............(1.................... Similar diagrams are found in [1]... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ........................Pär Tranvik...............3) ρ ⋅d2 where δ s = The logarithmic decrement of the structural damping me = Equivalent mass per unit of length according to the mode considered ρ = Density of air A comparison of the predicted amplitudes for steel chimneys with fullscale measurements is shown in [2]. Unless otherwise noted basic SI units has been used through out this report...... 5 .3 Symbols and units Symbols are explained in the text where they first occur.............
Pär Tranvik.Section 1 6 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .
being the subject of this report. see Figure 2.1 c. More data about the VEAB Sandvik II plant may be found in Appendix A. The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter. The boiler is of circulating fluidised bed type. of which 66 MW is heat. a flue gas condenser to utilize the energy content in the flue gas.1 2. Figure 2.1 a The VEAB chimney top half photographed from the boiler outer roof. a socalled CFBboiler. an induced fan. The particle collection equipment consists of an electrostatic precipitator for the separation of dust from the flue gases.1 a.1 VEAB Sandvik II plant The VEAB Sandvik II cogeneration block is situated outside the town of Växjö in southern Sweden at a height of 164 m above sea level. The boiler has an output of 104 MW. A photo of the VEAB chimney from the South showing neighbouring buildings is shown in Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. Thus interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant. A layout of the VEAB Sandvik II plant is shown in Figure 2.1 b. everything from wood chips to bark and peat. The generator has an output of 38 MW of electricity. is referred to as the VEAB chimney. a dust transportation and storage system and a steel chimney. Large forested areas and some lakes dominate the surroundings. This chimney. Furthermore. The plant can be fired with most kinds of biomass. The distance is much larger than 15 times the diameter were interaction between two equal chimneys may become insignificant [3]. Description of the VEAB chimney 2. 7 .Pär Tranvik. [9]. the properties of the old concrete chimney and the new steel chimney are drastically different.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.1
Figure 2.1 b Layout of the VEAB Sandvik plant.
Figure 2.1 c The VEAB chimney from south showing neighbouring buildings.
8
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
2.2
2.2.1
Data for structure of the VEAB chimney
General data
The VEAB chimney has the following overall data: Height Diameter of structural shell Diameter of inner pipe Thickness of inner pipe 90 2.3 2.0 3 m m m mm m
Outer diameter of top portion 2.8 with damper
The thickness of the structural shell varies from base to top as shown in Table 2.2 a.
Table 2.2 a Thickness of structural shell of the VEAB chimney. Height (m) 0 18 5 16 12.5 14 20 12 30 10 42.6 8 55.2 6 90 Thickness (mm)
Weights Structural shell Inner pipe Insulation Damper pendulum Miscellaneous Total 50 080 kg 13 592 kg 4 954 kg 1 246 kg 9 628 kg 79 500 kg
Figure 2.2 a Overall dimensions of the VEAB chimney.
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Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2
Material Structural parts Inner pipe Foundation bolts Bolts at flanged splices Corrosion protection Sand blasting to Sa 2.5 2 x 60 µm alkyd primer 2 x 60 µm top coat For transport and erection purposes flanged splices are arranged at levels 30 m, 55.2 m and 82.2 m. 2 x 40 mm of thermal insulation of mineral wool are arranged between inner pipe and outer shell. Just below the top of the chimney a mechanical pendulum damper is arranged to decrease top deflection caused by vortex shedding. The damper is described more in detail in Section 2.3. Above the damper, at 88 m level, a platform is arranged. From height 2.5 m level up to the platform at height 88 m level an outside ladder is arranged. The distance between ladder and chimney shell (equal to connection gusset plates width) is 200 mm (see also Figure 2.2 m). Three warning lights for aircrafts are connected to the outside plate shell of the damper unit. Some buildings as boiler house and electrostatic precipitator are located close to the chimney. Figure 2.1 b shows a layout of the VEAB plant and Figure 2.2 b a layout of the immediate surroundings of the VEAB chimney.
Building (h=25 m) N
Computer
Corten, Re = 355 MPa , E = 210 000 MPa Steel SS2350 Steel S355J2G3 according to EN10025, Re = 345 MPa 8.8, Rm = 800 MPa
Chimney (h= 90 m)
Building (h=40 m)
Figure 2.2 b The VEAB chimney, neighbouring buildings and the location of the recording computer.
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...... See Figures 2....1) d h = height of the chimney d = diameter of the chimney where 90 = 39 which is greater than 30....2 c and 2.... 11 ....(2.. Figure 2..............2 d........................ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. 40 gusset plates at outside and 40 at inside.. the approximate limit value 2...........2....2 Structural details The base details consist of a bottom ring........................................... Initially the design had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates.. For the VEAB chimney λ = 2... A total of 80 foundation bolts M56 connect the VEAB chimney to the concrete foundation structure.......Pär Tranvik...2 c Base plate with 2 x 40 foundation gusset plates and 2 x 40 bolt holes..3 according to [3] for applicability of the code model for calculating vortex shedding forces.....2 The slenderness ratio for a chimney may be defined as λ= h ...
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. 12 .2 f.Pär Tranvik. Initially the flanged splice design at 30 m level had no ring placed at the top of the gusset plates. Flanged splices at 30 m and 55. 2x40 bolts M56 S355J2G3 (Details of the later modified foundation ring are shown in Figure 2.2 m levels are shown in Figures 2.2 Figure 2.1 g.2 e and 2.2 d Original base details with 40 gusset plates symmetrically at inside and outside of the shell plate.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2 Figure 2.2 e Original flanged splice at h=30 m level.2 f Flanged splice at h=55.1 i).2 m level.Pär Tranvik. 13 . Figure 2. 40 gussets symmetrically on outside of the shell plate were applied (details of the later modified splice are shown in Figure 2.
2 h The modified base details and details of the inspection door.2 g Modified base details. The modified base details and details of the inspection door are shown in Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2 g shows the modified base details with the reinforcement ring on top of flanges.2 h. 14 . The cables above the inspection door are a part of the data collecting system. Figure 2.Pär Tranvik. The original base is shown in Figure 2.1 d.2 Figure 2. Figure 2. Modification made in December 1998.
Modification made in December 1998.Pär Tranvik. The original flanged erection splice is shown in Figure 2.1 e.2 i and 2.2 j The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level.2 i The modified flanged erection splice at h=30 m level. Figure 2. Modification made in December 1998.2 j show the modified flanged erection splice at 30 m level with the reinforcement ring on top respective bottom of flanges. Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. 15 .2 Figures 2.
Pär Tranvik. See also Figure 2.2 k Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.2 k. Figure 2.2 Details of the reinforcements at the connection for inlet duct are shown in Figure 2. Midpoint of hole at 13.2 l Details of the inspection door at 1 m level (midpoint). Thickness of the vertical reinforcement plates is 40 mm.1 h. 16 . Figure 2.3 m level.
Pär Tranvik.2 m and 2.2 n Details of the support gusset plates for inner pipe at h=11 m level.2 Details on ladder connections and inner pipe supports are shown in Figures 2.2 n respectively.2 m Details of the ladder connection gusset plates. Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. Figure 2. 17 .
a number of deviations from the intended quality were found. a large number of welds at base and at flanged erection splice at 30 m level not did satisfy weld class WC.2 2. Weld class WC is the lowest weld quality applicable for load carrying steel structures according to [4].Pär Tranvik. 18 .3 Manufacturing characteristics The manufacturing was intended to follow Swedish regulations for load carrying steel structures [3]. In the quality control of the chimney a third party was involved. The manufacturing was made at the VL Staal a/s workshop in Esbjerg. [4] and [17]. Most important.2. modified class C according to ISO 5817 From inspection of the delivered structure. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. that is. Denmark. According to the manufacturers documentation: Workmanship class Cutting class Weld class GB Sk2 WC according to [4].
The first method is to apply helical strakes or any similar aerodynamic device for removing or reducing the magnitude of oscillations induced by regular vortex shedding. 19 .3 a through 2. [7] and [8].Pär Tranvik. The VEAB chimney uses the principle found in Figure 2. Another method for reducing or eliminating the risk of oscillations induced by vortex shedding is to apply tuned mass dampers.3 2. The VEAB steel chimney uses a passive tuned mass damper and this type will be discussed here.1 Mechanical damper Common damping designs Two principal solutions to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding are described in the literature.3 a The chimney is damped by connecting a damper to a neighbouring building.3. Several designs for a tuned mass damper are suggested in [6]. The design of the helical strakes is important for an effective reduction of vortexinduced oscillations.3 2. An active mass damper requires an automatic engineering system to trigger the mass damper to counteract any occurring oscillation. There are two types of tuned mass dampers. A disadvantage with the use of helical strakes is an increased projected area at chimney top and increased drag coefficient. Figures 2. passive and active. The periodic formation of vortices will be reduced or eliminated by the changed airflow.3 f.3 g presents schematically some solutions for passive damping devices. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. thus causing increased gust wind loads. see for instance [1] and [6]. Figure 2.
Pär Tranvik. 20 .3 c The chimney is damped by using wires with an end mass and a friction device. Figure 2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 b The chimney is damped by using prestressed wires with springdamper elements.3 Figure 2.
Figure 2. 21 .3 d The chimney is damped by using a pendulum ring connected to the chimney shell plate by hydraulic dampers.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 Figure 2.3 e The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod in a damping material.
Figure 2. 22 . A friction mass is guided by the rod.Pär Tranvik.3 g The chimney is damped by using a dynamic liquid damper.3 f The chimney is damped by using a pendulum mass with a bottom rod. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.3 Figure 2. The damping is achieved by the friction mass that slips on a bottom plate.
The damping is achieved by friction between the friction mass and the damper house floor.3 2.Pär Tranvik.2 Tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney Figure 2. Three symmetrically distributed guiding rods connect the pendulum mass movement to the movement of the three friction masses.3 h The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney (schematic drawn but in scale).3 f. The manufacturer calculated the generalised mass 23 .3. The tuned pendulum damper of the VEAB chimney consists of a pendulum mass ring hinged in three chains. Compare with Figure 2. connected to the damper house roof. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. located in 120 degrees direction.
2 it is found that M gen y ( x) ⋅ ∆x ….1 and 3.....3............02 0.......1 0....03 0..........4.01 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Height (m) Figure 2.... The generalised mass is defined as M gen y( x) ⋅ dx …...4.......…………..Pär Tranvik...(2.........2) = ∫ m( x) ⋅ y 0 top H 2 where m(x) y(x) ytop dx H = = = = = Mass per length at height x Deflection at height x Top deflection Integration segment Chimney height Displacement (mm) 0... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.....1 and 3.......06 0.05 0...(2..3 to Mgen=12 460 kg....2 By a stepwise integration of Equation 2..2.....2 rewritten as finite differences and using the results from the finite element calculation in Section 2.....................3) = ∆m( x ) ⋅ y top ∆m( x) = Mass per length at height x for a finite element y(x) = Deflection at height x for a finite element ∆x = Chimney height integration step 2 where 24 ..... The pendulum mass was selected to 10 percent of the generalised mass to M=1 246 kg [6]..................…………..3...............2.07 0.3 i Top deflection amplitude as a function of level according to the finite element calculation in Sections 2.09 0.08 0.04 0.
...3.15 to 0.Pär Tranvik... The pendulum angle is limited by the damper house walls shown in Figure 2.................................. Both ventilation and drainage holes are arranged in the damper house.... 25 .................3 j to an angle of α ≈ arctan( 250 − 100 ) ≈ 1.................3 The generalised mass may be achieved as M gen = 16 810 kg which differs from 12 460 kg according to above..(2.4) where µ mf = The friction coefficient which is 0.....3 depending on the surface properties of the steel.3 j Maximum possible pendulum angle α for the VEAB chimney damper (measured from the layout drawing).2...7 the influence of the magnitude of the acceleration is studied theoretically....2 ° 2 ⋅ 3550 Figure 2............ = Friction mass In Section 3........ The horizontal force necessary to accelerate the friction masses into motion by an inclination of the pendulum damper is H = µ ⋅ N = µ ⋅ mf ⋅ g . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2...
electrical cables and other nonstructural elements. .4 a.Distributed masses of 310 kg/m were added to all nodes. ladder.1 Natural frequencies The three lowest modes of natural frequencies of the VEAB chimney were calculated with a finite element program.The chimney was modelled as a fixed end cantilever. The three lowest modes of natural frequencies are shown in Figure 2. It includes inner pipe. insulation.4 Dynamic properties of the VEAB chimney 2.An additional mass of 2 500 kg for the damper equipment was added in the node at the mass centre of the damper. . The following assumptions were made: .Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.4. 26 .The actual variation with height of the mass and the stiffness of the structure was considered .4 2.
27 . Average values was: 0.4 First mode of natural frequency Second mode of natural frequency Third mode of natural frequency f = 1 1 = = 0. corresponds well with the calculated value of 0. Based upon an evaluation of the vast amount of recorded data the average value of the first mode of natural frequency for the measurement period 1997 through 2000 was 0. These calculated natural frequencies might be compared with observed values for the actual structure.005 Hz. Thus the observed natural frequency.5518 f = 1 1 = = 1.282 Hz T 3.44 Hz T 0.2.4 a The three lowest modes of natural frequencies calculated for the VEAB chimney.2590 Figure 2. the first mode of natural frequencies for the four years of measurements is presented.86 Hz T 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.282 Hz.283 Hz 19960503 19961029 In Section 3.Pär Tranvik. The natural frequency was determined from observations of oscillations in the first mode using a theodolite.7.288 with a total variation of ± 0.6932 f = 1 1 = = 3. based on two different ways of measurement and observed over a long period of time.287 Hz 0.
..3.............4 2..2.......07 for the VEAB chimney with active dampers 28 ...4 a the critical wind velocities for the three lowest natural frequencies are found......6) dm µ tr = Shape factor for cross wind oscillations p cr = Wind velocity pressure (Pa) d = Diameter (m) δ m = Logarithmic decrement......2 Vortex shedding According to [3] the critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated as v cr = where f ⋅d .....24 m/s 3..282 Hz used in this section) d = Diameter St = Strouhal number (Equation 1... Strouhal number assumed to 0.2 m/s Critical wind velocity for third mode (Hz) 44...6 m/s 20......(2.2 m/s.. Critical wind velocity for first mode (Hz) 3....Pär Tranvik....2 the mean wind velocity at 90 m height was calculated to 34............2)...........4 m/s 54....3 m At damper unit d = 2... Calculated values for natural frequencies have been used.............2 at ordinary vortex shedding and lower if any lockin phenomena occur In Table 2........... Table 2......0 m/s At chimney shell d = 2.8 m In Section 3.......4........... ........ Critical wind velocity for both first and second mode is of interest for vortex shedding phenomena because their magnitude is less than the mean wind velocity.4 a The critical wind velocity for the three lowest modes for the VEAB chimney........ According to [3] the equivalent load during vortex shedding may be calculated as weq = µ tr ⋅ pcr ⋅ d ⋅ where π ... 0.. ..5) St f = Natural frequency (0.......................95 m/s Critical wind velocity for second mode (Hz) 16......(2...2..................................... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2... assumed to 0................
........(2...…………….................8 vcr (m/s) Re 3....3 At damper 2.... For the VEAB chimney the slenderness h/d = 39 which means that the restrictions for the applicability of the load model of the code [3] is exceeded............Pär Tranvik...........8) d y max õ 0..... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2..........2 0...06 ⋅ d for the load 1..... The restrictions are: h õ 30 .. µ tr is a function of the Reynold number......9) where y max = Top deflection amplitude (m) The maximum top deflection range during vortex shedding was calculated by the manufacturer to 2 ⋅ 133 ...... 97 ⋅ 10 5 7.....................4 Further the wind velocity pressure p cr is calculated as 2 pcr = 0........ It is important to note that the VEAB chimney do not satisfy the restrictions in [3] for applicability of the code model..95 4..….....2 p cr (Pa) 6....... which is defined in Equation 1. The corresponding bending stress at the chimney base was calculated to 11......4 b Equivalent loads during vortex shedding.......37 ⋅ 10 5 µ tr 0.........3 ⋅ weq .......6 = 273 mm .....1 In Table 2.....................................5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ v cr .....4 b equivalent load during vortex shedding are found for the VEAB chimney.25 kg/m2 [3].(2....75 weq (N/m) 135 245 Some comments about this model and values of the temperature dependent variables will be discussed later in Section 6.24 3.........…....6 MPa....................... 29 ....... Table 2.......(2..…...................................56 9...7) where ρ is assumed equal to 1. d (m) Shell plate 2.….........
....3 Elastic energy To get an estimation of the energy added to the oscillating chimney the beam elastic energy is calculated.... Modulus of elasticity E = 21 ⋅ 10 4 MPa Height of the VEAB chimney H=90 m Bending moment in the beam loaded by a distributed load M b ( x ) = q ⋅ (H − x) ⋅ (H − x ) = q ⋅ ( H − x) 2 2 2 .. Figure 2.......11) 64 [ ] 30 ..2 a................4.............(2.....(2............ Moment of inertia varies as I ( x) = π ⋅ D 4 − ( D − 2 ⋅ t )4 .....4 2..........4 b A distributed load on a fixed cantilever beam.................10) The VEAB chimney outer diameter is D=2.....................................................3 m Plate thickness varies according to Table 2................Pär Tranvik..... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2......
0 0.4 The beam elastic energy is described as H (M b ( x )) 2 W = ∫ 2 ⋅ E ⋅ I ( x ) ⋅ dx ..4....014 0.......…..... Part no h1 (m) h2 (m) t (m) I (m4) W (Nm) 1 0.......0 0.......0 42..(2...0564 34..(2... The part integration will be W part 1 = 2 ⋅ E ⋅ I part q2 = 8 ⋅ E ⋅ I part h2 q2 ∫ (M b ( x)) ⋅ dx = 8 ⋅ E ⋅ I part h1 2 h h2 h1 ∫ ( H − x) 4 ⋅ dx W part 2 1 − ⋅ (H − x ) 5 5 h1 W part = q2 (H − h1 ) 5 − ( H − h2 ) 5 .0284 4..4 c Numerical integration of the beam elastic energy.4 c.7 6 42.....8 4 20.. The total beam elastic energy is then calculated by superposition.0657 36.7 5 30...12) 0 For each part with a constant shell thickness the moment of inertia is constant..9 2 5......8 7 Total 55..... Table 2........288 31 ..2...010 0......13) 40 ⋅ E ⋅ I part [ ] The numerical results are shown in Table 2. It is assumed that q=weq=135 N/m..........5 20..5 197 This means that a distributed load of 135 N/m corresponds to a bending energy of 197 Nm for 1 1 a half oscillating cycle...0 12....0 0.. f 0........0749 47...2 90.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2.....0840 37.......0378 10....0 0.....008 0..016 0.012 0......2 0.5 3 12.... the equivalent load during vortex shedding of the VEAB chimney according to Section 2.5 0...018 0..…....0 5......... The period of the oscillations is T = = ≈ 3... The integral is therefore calculated separately for each part with constant shell thickness....0472 24..6 0.......006 0....0 30....6 55........5 s .....
examined and repaired. 32 .5 2. Therefore an extensive data collecting system was installed intended to continuously monitor and record the response of the structure to wind loads. Therefore an extensive crack examination program was carried out during the late summer and early autumn of 1996.5 Time history of the VEAB chimney The VEAB chimney was erected in late November to early December 1995. On top of the gussets an additional ring was added aimed to reduce stress concentrations at the horizontal welds between shell and gusset plates. In December 1998 some additional cracks were found at locations not examined before. The potential for fatigue problems were first pointed out in a report by the second author. As part of the action to ensure a safe design the original foundation ring was modified. A couple of design changes were made. It was repaired but questions still remained if there could be other explanations for the large oscillations. The data collecting system has been in continuous operation since mid December 1996 until 2001. One important explanation to the unacceptable top deflections was that the damper was malfunctioning. A large number of cracks were found.Pär Tranvik. It was snowy weather and the temperature was a couple of degrees below zero Celsius. The same action was taken at the connection ring at the flanged splice on the 30 m level. During the first winter period after erection several persons made observations of oscillations with large top deflections of the chimney. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 2. During the spring of 1996 cracks were found.
The supervisor estimated that the chimney oscillated from Christmas 1995 or April 1996 one or two days a week with total top deflection amplitude of 0. His understanding was that the sound originated from movements between the outer and inner pipe. At 10. After that he saw the chimney oscillate several times but not as much as on the first day. At 17. working on the power plant roof. Several design engineers and one structural engineer at a nearby engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB located about 600 m NW of the chimney observed from their windows during the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated violently. The smoke from the older concrete chimney was almost above the new one or a little to the west.00 h the chimney again oscillated in a similarly manner. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The structural engineer estimated the top amplitude to about half the diameter. At 14.00 h it oscillated again but not as much as before.5 to1. 33 .1 3.0 m. The top deflection amplitude was not quantified.1. Later during the winter the same building worker.Pär Tranvik.00 to 15.5 m at roof level. 3. Observations of some witnesses during the first winter period December 1995 to April 1996 were later documented and are briefly related below. By levelling relative to a wall they estimated the top amplitude to be about half the diameter. A supervisor discovered that the chimney top oscillated with an amplitude approximately equal to the diameter and sounded like a chime of bells with a frequency of about one second period.30 to 12.00 to18. He estimated the magnitude of the top deflection from measurements on the chimney shadow. The conditions for estimating the magnitude of the oscillations were good because the new steel chimney is almost in line with an older concrete chimney as viewed from the engineering office windows.1 3.1 Observed and recorded behaviour of the VEAB chimney Observation of malfunctioning of the chimney Observations of large oscillations During the first nine months of the chimney in operation oscillations with large top deflections were observed. Another building worker also made observations of the oscillations the same day as the supervisor. The chimney oscillated in west/east direction. observed the chimney to oscillate with amplitude of about 0.30 h the top chimney shadow moved about 4 m at the top of the power plant building. A building worker observed on the first working day after Christmas 1995 that the chimney oscillated with a top amplitude equal to about the diameter. Two other structural engineers at a separate engineering office of the Fläkt Industri AB located about 1 km NW of the chimney observed from their windows the chimney to oscillate drastically during several times in January and February 1996. The first working day after Christmas 1995 the temperature was about 20 °C with a sunny clear sky.
Cracks were found at foundation ring gusset plates.1 a typical cracks for vertical gusset plates at foundation ring and vertical gusset plates at flanged erection splice at 30 m level are found.2 Initial observations of cracks and causes According to the manufacturer a documented quality control was made before the shipping of the chimney and there where no detected cracks when it left the workshop. The most common type of crack was (1). A description of the detailed examination of cracks is found in appendix J. The pendulum movements were partly restrained. Personnel from the manufacturer as well as external testing personnel were involved in the quality inspection and testing.1. (a) denotes the initiation point at the weld toe where the angle at several welds was too sharp. Both the maximum bending moment from wind loads and the large stress concentration at fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at chimney coincided. At the foundation level cracks were found at the weld toes to the gusset plates.1. Because of the observed behaviour of the VEAB chimney an inspection was made in May 1996 by the second author acting as a consultant for VEAB. The appearance of these cracks indicated that the cause was fatigue.Pär Tranvik. 34 . The main explanation for the cracks was that one of the three guiding bars for friction masses of the damping pendulum at the top of the chimney was to long and therefore resting on the bottom friction plate.3 Detailed examination of cracks As a result of the initial observations of cracks at the base a detailed examination of cracks was made using magnetic particle and eddy current testing techniques. The first author conducted and participated in all inspections and investigations and performed all evaluations. (b) denotes the initiation point at the weld root. (2) and (3) shows the propagation direction for the centre of weldinitiated cracks. Apparently the damper gave only limited damping action until it was adjusted in September 1996.1 3. In Figure 3. 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. (1) shows the propagation direction for the weld toe initiated cracks. at flanged erection splice gusset plates at 30 m level and at top and bottom of connecting gas duct vertical gussets.
probably from cracks. At both locations the crack lengths varied from 2 to 20 mm and the depths 1 to 3 mm.1 b. At 30 m level almost all of the gusset plates had some kind of a linear indication.1 Figure 3.5 mm of grinding. except at (2) according to Figure 3. ← Crack at the weld toe ← Crack in centre of weld Figure 3. A picture of a typical weld is found in Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.1 a Typical cracks at horizontal fillet welds at top of gusset plates to shell at chimney At 12 of the 40 outside gusset plates and 37 of the 40 inside gusset plates at foundation level cracks were indicated. 35 .1 b A weld after 1.1 a where some of the cracks at foundation level went through the weld. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. At the weld toe of the horizontal welds at ends of the vertical plate reinforcements five cracks were found as shown in Figure 3.1 c.
Most of the horizontal welds at top of gusset plates at foundation level and 30 m level were damaged by cracks observed after only a few months of service of the chimney. 3.1 Figure 3. This was made immediately after the testing.6 Repair of the damaged welds All welds with indicated cracks were repaired and once again examined by the magnetic particle method. 3. 3.5 Notches not available for examination A number of potential points for fatigue crack initiation were not available for examination.1 c Detected cracks at gas duct inlet.1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.1. 36 .1. Therefore knowledge about their condition is unknown. The weld roots had often remaining slag and cavities.4 Summary of cracks All detected cracks had started either from an sharp and unacceptable weld toe or from root defects as shown in Figure 3. such as welds at support gusset plates for inner pipe and guiding Ubeams for inner pipe between the inner and outer shell.Pär Tranvik.1 a. The weld quality did not satisfy the code requirements for the weld qualities used in the design calculations.
Daltek Probator.2. the strain gauges. 37 . bridges. was responsible for developing and installing the data recording system.2 3.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The opposite strain gauges were coupled in pairs. The results obtained from such a short period were not convincing. Thus. Figure 3.2 a Designation and orientation of strain gauges and locations relative to gas duct. The first installation of the strain gauge system was aimed for a short period. the selected glue for the strain gauges was not aimed for longterm use. The data recording system consists of three main parts. Initially the recording system was aimed at monitoring the chimney behaviour for a few months. the wind data transmitters and the computer.2 Strain gauges On the shell plate inside the stack at 4 m height above the concrete foundation strain gauges were applied at 16 points symmetrically in circumferential direction. The accuracy of the recorded values from the strain gauges were estimated to 1 percent.2 3. The data recording system was created primarily for studying the influence of first mode oscillations with respect to fatigue strength. 3.1 Data recording system General Because doubts remained about the reliability of the damper even after the adjustment in September 1996 it was decided that oscillations of the structure had to be monitored and stored by a data recording system. inspection door and ladder of the VEAB chimney.2. The section at 4 m level was chosen in order to avoid influence of local stress concentrations from gusset plates at the chimney base and from the inlet to the gas duct. Therefore the monitoring period was extended. For access and serviceability of the strain gauges a platform was built inside the chimney at 3 m height. Sweden. The inside chimney location was selected for weather protection reasons.
To the right Sandvik II unit and the 90 m steel chimney.2 b The VEAB Sandvik plant.2 b is about 110 m or approximate 50 times the VEAB chimney diameter. was installed on the top of the power plant building on a 5 m height pole. interaction between the two chimneys should be insignificant. [9]. 90 m above ground level. This is to be compared with the height of the chimney.2. Furthermore the distance between the old concrete chimney and the VEAB chimney (new steel chimney) are drastically different.Pär Tranvik. Therefore all recorded wind data refer to a 45 m height above ground level and a point 43 m approximately north of the VEAB chimney. to the left in Figure 3.2. The height of the power plant building roof is 40 m above ground level. wind monitor 05103 Young. The horizontal distance between the wind data transmitters and the VEAB chimney is 43 m.1 General Figure 3. below which interaction between two equal chimneys may become significant [3].2 3. 38 .1.3 Wind data transmitter 3. The wind data transmitter. It is much larger than 15 times the diameter. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The distance between the VEAB chimney and the old concrete chimney. Thus as stated in Section 2. A balloon shows location of the wind data transmitter on top of the power plant building of the Sandvik II unit.3.
............ topographical category II that is similar to the code definition [3] of an open terrain with small obstacles...(3. Reference wind velocity and terrain related parameters for topographical category II is [3] v ref = 24 m/s .... The wind data transmitter signals were also used by VEAB for their plant planning and for monitoring environmental conditions.2 Figure 3........... β = 0.......................... 3...(3....1) where the exposure factor is z C exp ( z) = β ⋅ ln z 0 2 for z > z min .....Pär Tranvik....05 and z min = 4 m 39 ............................................2) For the VEAB chimney............. z 0 = 0...... Because of the small distance between the power plant outer roof and the wind data transmitter some form of turbulent boundary layer disturbances in the recorded wind data may be expected....2........2 c The wind data transmitters on the Sandvik II unit roof.....19 ........................ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3......2 Correction for wind at 90 m height The wind mean velocity varies with height according to [3] v mk ( z ) = v ref ⋅ C exp ( z ) .........3..........
......2 a..3.. Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind transmitters or reverse.0 34..........2 a Exposure factor.00 Wind data presented in this report have been corrected with the correction factor ncorr in Table 3.... 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (s) Elapsed time 10 s Wind speed (m/s) Figure 3........3 Influence of distance between chimney and wind data transmitter Because of the distance of 43 m between the chimney and the wind data transmitter wind data were not measured at the same time as oscillations of the chimney. As found from Figure 3...2 d below error influence will be limited because the time to create mean values will have greater influence on the results than the elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitters or reverse....2 The height correction factor ncorr for wind at height h2 but measured at height h1 above ground level will be ncorr = v mk (h2 ) ..... 1 min and 10 min....Pär Tranvik..........2 ncorr 1...67 2....10 1............ wind mean velocity and height correction factor to 90 m height for some heights.....03 vmk (m/s) 24..... The wind mean values for both wind velocity and direction were calculated at three arithmetic mean values 10s........2.... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. 40 ........41 1...3) v mk (h1 ) Table 3......2 d Elapsed time for wind transferring from chimney to wind data transmitter... Height (m) 10 45 90 Cexp 1.(3..01 1........... 3. Distance 43 m.......2 31.
Pär Tranvik. 41 .2.4 Recording computer The measurement equipment was based on a Pentium 100 MHz personal computer equipped with a data collecting card with 16 analogue input ports and a separate card for signal conditioning. control and control of alarm functions were made by a computer program. Daltek Probator AB. Collection of data.2 e The recording computer in its cabinet. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. Therefore. Figure 3. Sweden developed the LabVIEW application and was responsible for both program installation and hardware. Both the strain gauges and the wind velocity and direction transmitter equipment were connected to the computer. At the time of installation it was a modern personal computer. 3. A locked cabinet prevented the computer from unauthorized curiosity. a virtual instrument especially developed for this project.2 Distance between chimney and transmitter is 43 m. The computer was located in a partly heated and completely weatherprotected building intended for exhaust gas environmental control instruments. in this report no correction was made to account for the distance between chimney and wind data transmitter.
Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The measurement program collected data continuously and supervised eight signals from the eight strain gauge bridges and two signals from the wind data transmitter (velocity and direction).2 g.2 g The virtual instrument for recording and supervising the chimney.2 Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. An example is shown in Figure 3. 42 . On the computer screen a virtual instrument presented some output data.2 f The recording computer.
10 min Stopp Utböjningsamplitud (mm) i resp. Vindriktn 10 min Shows wind direction values in 360 degrees according to Figure 3. 10s. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s. A button for stopping the program when copying recorded results. The virtual lamp LED was lit once the limit value was exceeded. Max registrerad vidd. kompassriktning Shows wind velocity values in m/s. svängningar Shows number of recorded registrations since last restart of the program. Mean values were calculated over a period of 10s. Shows name of file to which all recordings were stored.2 The terminology in Swedish of the virtual instrument screen as exemplified in Figure 3. Vindhast. 1 min and 10 min. 1 min. 43 . Vindriktn. Vindriktn.2 a. registerad vidd Loggas till fil Antal reg. This diagram shows the actual amplitude in real time for all eight strain gauge bridges. Display Max. 1min.2 g is as follows: Larmgräns vidd för registrering If the chimney top deflection range in any direction exceeds this limit value the actual data was stored on the computer hard disk.Pär Tranvik. Vindhast. The value has to be set to zero by pushing the button Återst. 10s. The virtual lamp Larm was lit only when the top deflection range exceeds the limit value Actual chimney maximum top deflection range in any direction. Vindhast. 1 min and 10 min. It has to be switched off by pushing the button Återst. For some screen plots other values have been used. Maximum recorded top deflection range was shown. Results for the last 10 s were shown as default value. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.
Hour 2.5 4.5 5 4. 11.9 4. Month 5.8 4.4 4. 10 min 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 min . see example in Figure 3. Mean wind direction 10 s 16.7 4. Top deflection range for direction 1 as an integer (mm) 1 min 20. Mean wind velocity 10 s 7. 228 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 229 10 min 19.9 4. 8.2 The following data was stored in the recording file.2 b 4449 4450 4451 4452 4453 4454 4455 4456 4457 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 An example from the recorded measurement files.7 5. 9.5 4.Pär Tranvik.9 270 273 259 254 239 235 222 219 220 247 247 247 247 245 242 239 235 236 44 21. 15.7 5 4. 13.9 4. Table 3.9 4. 12.9 4. 10. Minute 3. Day 18.6 6.9 6. 1.2 b.6 5.9 4. 17. 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 9 16 10 16 10 38 41 44 48 51 54 58 1 4 81 94 99 99 104 114 121 83 94 118 144 153 153 164 158 183 146 148 141 176 182 186 190 174 210 186 171 155 182 186 188 192 168 213 197 168 145 165 171 174 164 147 181 185 145 120 125 132 133 123 110 129 146 109 78 73 79 74 70 58 66 85 61 61 48 53 48 47 56 61 52 45 5. The number of the recording since last stop of the computer program.6 4.9 4.6 5. Second as an integer 6.7 6.2 5. Year 4.8 5. 14.9 4. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.
.......... With an interval of 67 ms five samples were collected and mean values were calculated..........087 0.........Pär Tranvik....................(3.......... Strains for calculating top deflections were checked using a model chimney with an equal strain gauge as on the chimney.............. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...........2 3.................6 Verification of the equipment During the installation of the data recording system calibrations were made....... From the strains...... Signals from wind data transmitters were checked........5 Calculation of top deflection range Signals from all strain gauge bridges and wind data transmitters were read with a sampling frequency of 1000 values per second.................... An additional theodolite check of the 45 .087 (σ and E in MPa and y in mm) From the bending moment the bending stress is calculated as: σ= Mb Wb W = I d 2 Mb ................. σ = E ⋅ε y= σ E ⋅ε = ......2....2.. With actual parameters for the strain gauges....5) 2⋅ I d σ = where σ E ε Mb Wb I d = = = = = = = Bending stress at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Modulus of elasticity Strain at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Bending moment at level of strain gauges (4 m level) Section modulus (4 m level) Moment of inertia (4 m level) Diameter 3........... strains were calculated every 67 ms..... A/D and D/A transducers were calibrated in the LABVIEW system...... chimney top deflection range was calculated with the following relationships and Equation 4.......6..............(3...........4) 0............................
Other interruptions were some minutes each time when the recorded data was transferred from the recording computer to data diskettes.1). Therefore ranges below 200 mm were truncated that month. which was unharmed. 3.2 deflections to those obtained from the strain gauges was made during the damping tests in August 1997 (see Section 3. The results were sorted and fatigue damage was calculated. During the recording period there were also some small interruptions in recording of data caused by short interruption of the plant electricity. The recording program was always shut off on such occasions.4) by a mistake was set to 200 mm instead of the intended value 100 mm. twice a month and finally once a month. The recording system has been in operation 99. All data results were then transferred to another computer where the evaluations were made. Two of the strain gauges. Therefore the data recording system could operate satisfactory and deliver trustworthy recordings with only a short break for the installation of the new strain gauges.2. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. no 1 and 3. Later the interval was increased to once a week.2. Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001 (see Section 6.6).Pär Tranvik. A decision was immediately taken that all strain gauges should be replaced with new ones and that a longterm glue should be used. 3.7 Procedures A limit value for recording the results was set to 100 mm equivalent top deflection range to ensure a reasonable amount of recorded data.8 Operating experiences The strain gauge equipment started to operate in December 1996 and operated without any problem until January 2000.3. Maximum values were checked and the evaluation computer programs were run (Appendix H). then started to present unrealistic values and almost immediately became shortcircuited.2. 46 . During the first months the computer was checked twice a week. had given the largest ranges for the first three years of measurements. This means that all results where the maximum range was less than 100 mm were truncated except during the damping tests. During the month of July in 1998 the “Larmgräns vidd för registrering” (see section 3.8 percent of the time during the measurement years. There was no correction made for this. Both deflection range and frequency were checked and compared with computer results. Fortunately the strain gauge no 4.
Comparison tests were also made for the chimney with the mechanical damper in a locked position.3. The damping test was repeated a number of times in order to get a good mean value of the logarithmic decrement. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The wind was below 6 m/s (10minute mean) during all tests performed.3 a Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney – view 47 .3 b. The chimney was initially forced to deflect and the resulting free sway of the chimney was recorded.3 a and 3.3 3. The test instances were selected in order to avoid influence of aerodynamic damping from gust wind during the damping tests. The setup for damping measurements is shown in Figure 3. that is.1 Behaviour of the mechanical damper Observation of behaviour of chimney with and without damper Introduction Tests were performed to determine the damping properties of the VEAB chimney. the logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper.1 3.3 3.3.3. Figure 3. Using a mechanical device the rope was abruptly disconnected close to the wheel loader and the chimney started to oscillate freely. The wheel loader pulled the rope until a desired deflection was obtained. A catch rope was connected to the pulling rope in order to prevent the rope from swaying uncontrolled. 3.Pär Tranvik.1. and to get some understanding of the variability in the measurements.1. The damping tests were made in August 1997 in fairly calm weather.2 Setup for Damping tests A 20 mm nylon rope was attached to the top of the chimney and connected to a wheel loader located approximately 150 m away from the chimney in southward direction.
3.3 Building N Building Pulling direction Chimney Building Figure 3.1). These visual observations showed good agreement with the recordings obtained from the strain gauges.plan The top of the chimney was forced to deflect a maximum distance of 200 mm for a free mechanical damper and 100 mm for the chimney the comparison test with locked damper.2). Tests # 1 through 16 refer to the chimney with the mechanical damper acting in normal operation. Deflections at the top of the chimney were calculated from recordings of the strain gauges attached to the chimney (see Section 3. The wind direction was approximately the same as the pulling direction in the damping tests. Tests # 17 through 20 refer to the chimney with a locked damper.3 b Setup of damping measurements for VEAB chimney . During the course of the damping measurements the wind velocity and direction were recorded using the wind indicator located on the top of the adjacent power plant building at 45 m height above ground and at a distance of approximately 43 m from the chimney (see Section 3.3 Recordings A total number of 20 tests were performed to verify the damping of the chimney. and in no instances exceeded 6 m/s (10minute mean) or 8 m/s (10 s mean). see for instance [2].3. This limit was used in order to secure that the damping device would not be harmed in any way. The normal recording program to determine oscillations from wind and other actions was in effect during the damping tests. Deflections of the chimney were checked also using a theodolite.3. The wind velocity during the damping tests was very low. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. 48 .1. Similar measurements of damping of other slender structures have been reported in the literature.2.Pär Tranvik. which had been calibrated to the top deflections.
A data file with results from the recording program is shown in tables. in this case deflection range rather than the deflection itself.2.Pär Tranvik. All recordings from the damping tests have been collected in Appendix C. The recorded natural frequency (first mode) of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation was 0. In Appendix C is also plotted the Deflection Range (that is. Thus natural frequency was about the same with and without an acting damper. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. One explanation could be that the first cycles of time history for the two mass damped systems have an irregular behaviour. For the chimney with locked damper the recorded natural frequency was 0. that is. Some explanations and support lines have been included there to facilitate the interpretation of the data.7. Another explanation could be that the damper may have been tuned by the manufacturer of the chimney during the days of damping tests. It should be observed that recordings refer to variations in actions. stress range.3 c.253 Hz. see Section 3. A definite explanation for this discrepancy has not been found. 49 . see Section 2.3 c. This explanation is supported by the irregular curve for the first cycles as shown in the screen plots in Figures 3.2).3 d and 3. in Appendix C is shown a screen plot of the virtual recording instrument for all damping tests.3 d. Where required.3 e and in Appendix C. Some examples of screen plots showing the parts of the oscillation behaviour during the damping tests are shown in Figures 3. In evaluating the results it should be observed that the recording limit of 100 mm means that a few cycles at the end of the course of sway action may not be registered.3 e. twice the deflection) as a function of the order of the oscillation cycle. The natural frequency obtained from the damping tests differ by 10 percent from the natural frequency calculated theoretically for the chimney considering the actual distribution of stiffness and mass along the chimney. Furthermore. 3. This is because the recording system was designed to verify performance of the chimney with respect to fatigue.4. 3.288 Hz.258 Hz. where variation of stress.1 and from that measured 0. 3.3 The data was collected using strain gauge readings and the recording computer described previously (se Section 3. deflection itself has been evaluated from the deflectionrange data. is of utmost importance. as discussed below.
3 d Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope. test no 4 of chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation. Figure 3. 50 . test no 1 of chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 Figure 3.3 c Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope.
.......... This will cause an error in the calculated value of the logarithmic decrement.....3.... differ from those used in others sections....... 3......4 Error when calculating logarithmic decrement from recorded deflection range All measurements and the calculations of logarithmic decrement were based on the deflection range that is.... For a free single degree of freedom system with viscous damping less than critical the deflection y is found from [10] y = C ⋅ e −ζ ⋅ω n ⋅t ⋅ sin (ω d ⋅ t + θ ) ..(3......1....... The magnitude of this error is calculated in the following.... such as ω ....3 Figure 3....6) where C ζ ωn ωd t θ = = = = = = An arbitrary constant Relative damping The undamped natural frequency The damped natural frequency Time The phase angle δ = 2 ⋅π ⋅ζ 1− ζ 2 ωn = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f 51 ..... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.. Symbols in this section.. test no 17 of chimney with locked mechanical damper......... ....3 e Screen plot of first oscillations after loosening the pulling rope...... not the deflection itself....................Pär Tranvik....
.04 for malfunctioning damper.........809557 rad/s ωd = 1.. the observed logarithmic decrement according to Section 3......(3.3 ωd = ω n ⋅ 1 − ζ 2 where f δ = Natural frequency = Logarithmic decrement For the VEAB chimney the typical values are f = 0... the observed natural frequency according to Section 3... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.....809446 rad/s With the selected phase angle 90 degrees the deflection may be written π y = C ⋅ e − 0.. 52 .2 δ = 0.....3...0065 for malfunctioning damper) ω n = 1.....Pär Tranvik......7) 2 Figure 3..7........07 for functioning damper and 0.......0111 (0.............1..809446 ⋅ t + .02009 ⋅t ⋅ sin 1....288 Hz .............3 f Deflection as a function of time....6 Inserting these typical values into the parameter expressions will yield (the number of digits required is large to obtain the required accuracy) ζ = 0.
Pär Tranvik.3 53 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.
a deflection range of 200 mm...... By averaging over a number of oscillations the influence of damping due to action of any gust winds or irregularities in the action of the damper during the tests should be minimized.. see Figure 3........3 3...3 i... From studying such variations it was concluded that the variation was not significant and should be caused by various irregularities due to the fact that the tests were made under field conditions..... Mean values of the logarithmic decrement δ ave k were obtained for each 20 damping tests from this starting value until the deflection falls below the value of 100 mm. and 3 to 9 oscillations for the chimney with locked damper....8.................. that is........ oscillation after loosening the pulling rope were disregarded in evaluating the logarithmic decrement..... δ = ln( yn / y n+ k ) / k ... This is because the start of the deflection history may be nonlinear...... with n running from first to final value considered and k = 3) to study the variation in the logarithmic damping as obtained in the test.........(3.... and in some instances also the second....3 h... The first diagram is for tests with the mechanical damper in normal operation and the third for a test with a locked damper..5 Evaluation of Logarithmic Decrement The logarithmic decrement δ was calculated from Equations 3..8) where yn = Deflection for the first oscillation considered yn+k = Deflection for the final oscillation considered k = Number of oscillations considered The first... 54 .. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.. Figure 3. Data for such alternative calculations are included in Appendix C.....3 h and 3............1..Pär Tranvik.... ”Initial deflection range” in the table equals the sum of the initial deflection at the moment of loosening the pulling rope and the following minimum value of the deflection.... “Number of oscillations k” refers to the number considered in determining the logarithmic decrement δ ave k given in the final column of Table 3.....3 a..3 g shows an example of such an alternate calculations..3 a.3. This would lead to 6 to 12 oscillations being considered for the chimney with the damper in normal operation. and causing the computer evaluation program to make an incorrect calculation of the deflection range for the first and second oscillation. The results of the 20 damping tests performed are summarized in Table 3.......... Alternate calculations of the logarithmic decrement were made applying a set of three consecutive oscillations (that is... Examples of deflection range as a function of time for two of the 20 tests performed are shown in Figure 3.
3 g Example of variation in recorded logarithmic decrement δ determined for three consecutive oscillations.1787 0.040 0.120 y = 1E04x + 0.000 200 450 400 350 300 250 Deflection range (mm) Figure 3. 55 .0953 R2 = 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.060 0. Test no 8.080 0.020 0.3 Test no 8.100 Log decr 0.Pär Tranvik. floating logarithmic decrement 0.
7 3.5 2.009 7 *** 13. 0 / 360) range (mm) 10 s 1 min 10 min 10 s 1 min 10 min Number Logarithmic of oscill.048 0.068 0.2 4.55 304 5.2 5.34 13.5 5.9 3.7 5.3 Table 3.7 3.2 4.7 6.3 4.04 191 4.7 3.1 3.056 0.0 5.7 6.5 2.038 0.41 8 16.04 20.Pär Tranvik.09 185 Mean Standard deviation 3.070 0.3 3.098 0.9 2.068 0.5 3.45 9 16.9 6.6 5.070 0.40 16 ** 20.59 17.011 Notes to table: * A technician was standing on the platform at the top of the chimney during the test.068 0.064 0. These oscillations were disregarded in determining the mean logarithmic decrement δ ave k given in the table.063 0.072 0.0 4.3 3.7 5.8 5. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8 3.6 195 18 10.8 179 170 173 4 5 6 13.44 382 Mean Standard deviation Chimney with locked mechanical damper.30 13.3 3.8 3.22 376 8.01 17.55 184 2.7 2.9 168 172 118 3 13.043 0. ** *** During the course of oscillations one or two irregularities were obtained.5 3.7 2.3 4.31 20.8 3.6 1.078 0.3 194 161 159 2 ** 12.4 4.065 0.081 0.3 4.062 0.6 3.9 137 182 191 182 131 173 172 175 175 170 4 9 5 3 0.3 3.5 6.1 160 173 136 156 181 219 170 168 171 170 185 157 168 172 169 152 154 187 191 193 172 172 169 173 165 155 168 163 164 162 164 169 184 186 185 182 172 172 170 164 6 7 10 8 9 6 6 12 10 7 7 9 10 6 8 7 0.55 10 11 12 ** 13 14 ** 15 16. date 970805 1 * 11.6 3.031 0.9 184 20 11.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 a Test # Time of test Conditions and results from 20 tests of damping of VEAB chimney Initial Wind velocity Wind direction deflection (m/s) (degrees.9 3. 56 .7 2.1 2. The pulling rope fractured near the top of the chimney instead of at the wheel loader.8 210 19 11.070 0.04 425 4. decrement δ ave k k Chimney with mechanical damper in normal operation. date 970806 17 10.6 5.0 6.38 419 422 394 382 507 415 411 421 445 445 426 397 7.4 2.36 20.5 3.8 3.071 0.7 2.057 0.3 3.4 2.068 0.58 202 2.
3 i Deflection range as a number of time. Test no 17. Test no 17 with locked damper.5 s. 57 . One cycle corresponds to approximately 3. Test no 1 with mechanical damper in normal operation.3 Test no 1. One cycle corresponds to approximately 3. locked damper 500 Deflection width (mm) 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Cycle no 20 25 30 Figure 3. active damper 400 Deflection range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Cycle no 20 25 30 Figure 3.3 h Deflection range as a number of time (cycle number).Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.5 s.
... [5] by a factor of 2..... [5].057 to 0....... This increase in damping may at least partly be caused by some beneficial action from the mechanical damper....098....03.043 is somewhat higher than the range 0..... (3....3. 3......03 [3].. such as internal ducts.... The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with a locked damper is 0..... ladder etc.07 over the normal upper design value of 0....043..... the recorded logarithmic decrement of the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation was 63 percent higher than for the chimney with a locked damper..3. Thus..1....3.. considering the fact that a theoretical study performed by the supplier of the chimney claimed a tenfold increase in the logarithmic decrement when adding the mechanical damper to the chimney...9) where δ a = aerodynamic damping δ m = mechanical damping of the chimney...5. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.. The probable cause for this is discussed in Section 3....Pär Tranvik.....070. although it was locked to minimise such action and from effective damping of nonstructural elements.2. expressed as a standard deviation of about 0......... The logarithmic decrement in the 16 tests performed varies from 0......3 Further examples are found in Appendix C...... The logarithmic decrement variation in the four tests performed varies from 0..........6 Discussion of results The recorded logarithmic decrement δ =0...02 to 0.01... The recorded damping expressed as logarithmic decrement δ consists of three parts: δ = δ a + δ m + δ d .. as given in [3]..... to be used for design of normal steel chimneys with installations....056..... without damper δ d = mechanical damping of the damper The mean recorded logarithmic decrement for the chimney with the mechanical damper in normal operation is 0. This beneficial effect was smaller than could be expected..... The mechanical damper will increase the mean value of the logarithmic decrement of the chimney δ =0.031 to 0......... listed here in the order of estimated importance: 1) Accidental variations in the action of the mechanical damper 58 .. could be due to at least three reasons... The relatively large variation in the logarithmic decrement obtained in the repeated tests..
agrees well with the damping assumed in the design calculations prepared by the chimney supplier.5 to 0.3 2) Disturbances from variations in environmental conditions. with the mechanical damper in normal operation. Compared to the VEAB chimney the damping arrangement as reported in [11] appears much more efficient. due to the fact that these tests were made under field conditions Inaccuracies in the recording system. mainly aerodynamic damping due to variations in wind velocity and wind direction. 3) The recorded logarithmic decrement of the VEAB chimney. but was considerably smaller than could be expected from a theoretical study. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. The logarithmic decrement was found to be 0.019 with locked damper and 0.Pär Tranvik. In [11] a full scale damping test for a 45 m chimney with a tuned damper was made. 59 .6 with unlocked damper. As in our damping tests the damper was both locked and unlocked.
.(3..Pär Tranvik...... In the model............3 j Model of a two mass spring and damper system d 2 y1 dy dy dy + c1 ⋅ y1 + c 2 ⋅ ( y1 − y 2 ) + k1 ⋅ 1 + k 2 ⋅ ( 1 − 2 ) = F ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) .1 Model Ruscheweyh has presented a simplified calculation model for a chimney provided with a tuned pendulum mass damper [6]..............................3..(3.......10) dt 2 dt dt dt 2 d y2 dy dy + c 2 ⋅ ( y 2 − y1 ) + k 2 ⋅ ( 2 − 1 ) = 0 .... Figure 3.2 Theoretical study of chimney behaviour with and without damper 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...... This model has been extended in this section to account for the effect of the mass damper k1..3........3 3.. damping from the mass damper k1 was neglected...............2.11) m⋅ 2 dt dt dt M gen where M gen = Generalised mass of the chimney m = Damper pendulum mass F y1 y2 c1 c2 = Amplitude for vortex shedding force = Deflection of chimney = Deflection of pendulum mass = Chimney stiffness = Damper stiffness 60 ....
...........................................................(3........................16) ∆v 2 = a 2 ⋅ ∆t ...............................(3.........................................................................14) a1 = ∆t ∆y ∆( 2 ) ∆t ................(3...... The finite differences may be written ∆( ∆y1 ) ∆t = − (c + c ) ⋅ y + c ⋅ y − k ⋅ ∆y10 − k ⋅ ∆y10 + k ⋅ ∆y 20 + F ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) ⋅ 1 .....................................15) a2 = ∆t ∆( ∆v1 = a1 ⋅ ∆t ............ y10 and y 20 where the second index means time zero...........................................................Pär Tranvik...........17) 61 ........................ Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.......................................(3..... Accuracy and convergence was checked by changing the time steps....................... v 20 ........................................................(3..................................…..12) ∆( ∆y 2 ) ∆t = c ⋅ y − c ⋅ y + k ⋅ ∆y10 − k ⋅ ∆y 20 ⋅ 1 ............... 1 2 10 2 20 1 2 2 M ∆t ∆t ∆t ∆t gen (3........................ Start values are v10 ...3 k1 k2 v1 v2 a1 a2 = Chimney damping = Damper damping = Velocity for M gen = Velocity for m = Acceleration for M gen = Acceleration for m = Angular frequency of vortex shedding ω The differential equations were rewritten as finite difference equations and solved for a large number of small time steps with a computer program........13) 2 20 2 2 2 10 ∆t m ∆t ∆t ∆y1 ) ∆t ..........
............. 62 ............7................Pär Tranvik.......(3........... fe1 see Section 3.........3..................4.......4.........(3..............2 Optimum damper frequency tuning according to [6] 12 460 kg *) 0..(3. m Observed natural frequency............. *) Data given by the manufacturer of the chimney......18) v2 = v20 + ∆v2 ....2...... see Appendix H..................(3.......1..................19) ∆y1 = v1 ⋅ ∆t .......262 Hz ......................... M gen Damper pendulum mass..... The results are shown in Figure 3........................................................3..1 For determining the stiffness of the VEAB chimney an equivalent load.23) Critical wind velocity at vortex shedding is calculated according to Equation 2...................................1 ⋅ 12 460 = 1 246 kg *) 0....(3.....3 k...(3. calculated according to Section 2......................2 Input data The following data was used as input data for this theoretical study of the damped system............... was applied on the complete height of the chimney in the same FE calculation as in Section 2..2........................................7...................3 v1 = v10 + ∆v1 .....24) 1 + 0..............5 and wind velocity pressure according to Equation 2.............................................................................................. 3........... has been developed which takes into consideration all variables above.... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3............. Generalised mass.... It also deals with the wind turbulence by allowing a randomised relative level of the amplitude for vortex shedding force and the frequency of the vortex shedding.........20) ∆y 2 = v 2 ⋅ ∆t ........................21) y1 = y10 + ∆y1 ........................(3........... A computer program.......................................288 Hz f e2 = 1 ⋅ f e1 = 0..................................................22) y2 = y 20 + ∆y 2 ..............2............... See also chapter 2................. The program is capable of creating a dynamic response for a frequency spectrum and a time history............
..........................Pär Tranvik.....………………..........................(3............................…...........0 N/m ........... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3........................................25) 8⋅ E ⋅ I For a cantilever beam loaded by a point load at distance L the deflection is F ⋅ L3 δF = .......3 k Reactions Deflections Deflections of the chimney loaded by vortex shedding.............0 ⋅ 90 = 102 N ..........4 b is used 3 3 F = ⋅ q ⋅ L = ⋅ 135 ⋅ 90 = 4556 N ........…..........(3..............4 b is q = µ tr ⋅ pcr ⋅ d = 0............(3.........…………..........(3..... 63 .........................................................................3 = 3.3 For a cantilever beam loaded by a distributed load the deflection is δq = q ⋅ L4 ....................56 ⋅ 2...27) The point load replacing the distributed load will be δ F = δq ⇒ F= 3 3 ⋅ q ⋅ L = ⋅ 3.............. when the complete chimney height is assumed to be loaded by vortex shedding loads according to Table 2...................26) 3⋅ E ⋅ I The distributed load..........(3........................................2 ⋅ 6...28) 8 8 Point load for calculating stiffness when q=135 N/m according to Table 2.....29) 8 8 Model Figure 3..................
...............................................................................262) 2 = 3 372 N/m ......................................001 s Start values for dynamic response calculations during vortex shedding at time 0: y10 y20 v10 v20 = = = = 0 0 0 0 The density of air was assumed to 1...................0877 Damper stiffness c 2 = m ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f e2 ) 2 = 1 246 ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0.........35) where = The fraction of critical damping or relative damping From Equations 3.................................30) 0.......................32) 2 1− ς1 2 ⋅ς1 = k1 c1 ⋅ m .........(3.... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3................................33 through 3..............31) Logarithmic decrement according to [12] y δ 1 = ln 10 y 1 2 ⋅π ⋅ ς1 = .04 corresponds to a damping of k1=324 kg/s..(3.......35 the logarithmic decrement of the chimney 0................................(3..............33) y δ 2 = ln 20 y 2 2 ⋅π ⋅ ς 2 = ........03 corresponds to a damping of k2=19 kg/s........(3........................................34) 2 1− ς2 2 ⋅ς 2 = k2 c 2 ⋅ M gen ζ . Similarly the logarithmic decrement of the pendulum damper 0................................................. 64 ............(3.... From a comparison study the time step found to be acceptable considering convergence and precision is ∆t = 0..........3 Chimney stiffness c1 = 4 556 = 52 000 N/m ..........................................................Pär Tranvik.............................................................................................(3..................25 kg/m3.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. When calculating the dynamic response the frequency step used in the finite difference calculation has been 0.3 p and 3.3 q show two examples. Both with and without the 50 percent randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force were applied in the computer program.3 0. locked damper Top deflection (m) 0. Maximum top amplitude was calculated to 0.3 l Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a locked (malfunctioning) damper.4. 65 .3 Dynamic response during vortex shedding Dynamic response.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3. Start values for the damping test calculations at time 0: y10 y20 v10 v20 = = = = 200 mm 0 0 0 The corresponding amplitude for vortex shedding force was then F=0. 50 percent is a reasonable value for both frequency and magnitude.Pär Tranvik.317 Hz.3.25 0.2 0.248 m (the maximum point in the diagram) deflection at vortex shedding frequency 0.2 0.3 The actual wind is neither constant in frequency nor magnitude.1 0 0. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency.2. 3.3 0.35 0. The model applied in the computer program was therefore created to consider a randomised turbulence vortex shedding frequency and amplitude for vortex shedding force. According to Section 3.01 Hz. Both vortex shedding frequency and vortex shedding force were randomised by 50 percent. In the following calculations Figures 3.
25 0.3 n Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency f=0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.2 0. Time history for top deflection.1 0 0.Pär Tranvik.220 m at vortex shedding frequency 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. 66 .357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper. tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0. Maximum top amplitude deflection was calculated to 0. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent. tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 m Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding and a tuned functioning damper. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3.357 Hz.3 0.3 0.3 Dynamic response.35 0. Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised.
tuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 q.357 Hz and a tuned functioning damper.3 p and 3.3 0. Randomised vortex shedding force by 50 percent Vortex shedding force (N) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent according to figure 3.3 p The 50 percentrandomised vortex shedding force used for Figure 3.3 o Time history of top amplitude deflection at the vortex shedding frequency f=0. 67 .3 Time history for top deflection.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.2 0.Pär Tranvik.3 o.
.......3..3 are performed with the new damper stiffness.........1 This means that the damper stiffness will be c2 = m ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f e2 )2 = 1246 ⋅ (2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0...2..................288 Hz (Section 3..7......31)2 = 4727 N/m . The frequency tuning is calculated to f e2 = 1 1 ⋅ f e1 = ⋅ 0....4 Dynamic response during vortex shedding and a mistuned damper To study the influence of an error in the tuning of the damper it is assumed that the first mode of natural frequency is 0............3 Randomised vortex shedding frequency by 50 percent 0.....6 0.1 0 0 1000 2000 Time (s) 3000 4000 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3..31 Hz ....4 0... 68 ..........37) Similar calculations as in Section 3.....34 = 0...(3.36) 1 + 0.3 o....... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3...2 0................34 Hz instead of the correct value 0....Pär Tranvik..2)..(3..........3...3 0......2.......1 1.....3 q The 50 percentrandomised vortex shedding frequency used for Figure 3.5 0... 3...
Maximum top amplitude was 0.3 m.3 0.1 0 0. a variable vortex shedding force and tuned functioning damper (frequency f2=0.Pär Tranvik. This was the case of a functioning damper.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. The tuned damper to be compared with this one is found in Figure 3. 69 . Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. misstuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.2 0.3 Dynamic response.3 0. The tuned damper to be compared with this one was found in Figure 3. misstuned functioning damper Top deflection (m) 0.3 o. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent.380 Hz.25 0.3 n and 3.4 Vortex shedding frequency (Hz) Figure 3. Time history for top deflection.31 Hz).3 0.35 0.191 m at vortex shedding frequency 0.2 0.31 Hz).380 Hz. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 s Time history of top amplitude deflection at the oscillating frequency f=0. The vortex shedding force varies with the oscillating frequency.2 0.3 r Dynamic response of top amplitude deflection during vortex shedding force and a mistuned functioning damper (frequency f2=0.
3 0.2. A reasonable assumption was that the damper units damping was achieved by a combination of the limited pendulum movement.3 3.3 h and 2.6 Influence of lockin effects Because of lockin phenomena the amplitude could increase considerably because the vortex shedding starts at lower wind velocities. By plotting the deflection for the pendulum mass it is obvious that the damper unit is not able to act in the way as intended. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. That was also an explanation to the surprisingly low damping value delivered by the damper unit.2. 75 mm. It is well known that the Strouhal number could be reduced to half its normal value because of lockin effects.3 o shows the time history diagram for the chimney mass. 70 . The horizontal line show available damper space. The probability for conditions causing this type of lockin are low. 3. Slender structures are more sensitive for lockin phenomena. Therefore lockin phenomena could be dangerous for slender chimneys.262 Hz.3.5 Influence of the geometrical limitations of the damper house As shown in Section 2.2. The maximum possible relative amplitude movement in horizontal direction is 75 mm.3 j the space in damper house is limited and the pendulum mass angle movement is therefore limited to approximately 1. Figure 3. This is one of the reasons for the limitation of the applicability of the equivalent load in [3] and [24].Pär Tranvik. Time history for required damper amplitude space Required damper amplitude space (m) 0. Figure 2. Therefore the abovepresented model still could be valid for principle calculations.3.2 degrees.2 0. The wind velocity will be doubled and the wind pressure increases by a factor of four. see for instance [26]. and the chimney continues to oscillate with the same frequency as the vortices were separated from the chimney. Both vortex shedding frequency and critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised by 50 percent. but a chimney does have a lot chances during its long lifetime. the stroke of the damper friction and/or pendulum mass against the vertical damper unit walls and the energy losses in the chain movements.3.357 Hz.1 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. a variable vortex shedding force and tuned frequency f2=0.3 t Time history of required free functioning damper amplitude space at the vortex shedding frequency f=0.
tuned frequency f2=0.3 u Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding frequency f=0. Time history of damper mass acceleration Damper mass acceleration (m/s2) 2 1. Neither vortex shedding frequency nor critical wind velocity during vortex shedding was randomised.3. Figure 3.3 3.357 Hz. 71 .7 Accelerations From the solutions of the finite difference equations. The damper mass acceleration must be greater than the friction force between damper friction mass and the damper house bottom.262 Hz and a functioning damper.3 n shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection.2. The magnitude of the damper mass accelerations is of great importance.Pär Tranvik. accelerations of the chimney mass and the accelerations of the damper mass were calculated.5 1 0.5 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time (s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.
4 will be approximately 120 N.3 u and 3. Therefore it is obvious that there will be enough acceleration for activating the friction masses.5 1 0.5 0 0 600 1200 1800 Time(s) 2400 3000 3600 Figure 3.3 v it is found that the mean damper mass acceleration is about 1 m/s2. By comparing figure 3.Pär Tranvik. a variable vortex shedding force. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 v Time history of damper mass acceleration at the vortex shedding frequency f=0. tuned frequency f2=0. Figure 3. If the friction masses weight is about 40 kg the maximum required friction force according to Equation 2.262 Hz and a functioning damper. The resulting horizontal force will be about 1200 N (pendulum mass 1246 kg).3 Time history of damper mass accelerations Damper mass acceleration (m/s2) 2 1. 72 .3 o shows the corresponding time history diagram for the top amplitude deflection.357 Hz. Both vortex shedding frequency or critical wind velocity during vortex shedding were randomised to 50 percent.
05 0.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 x Time history of damping test with a malfunctioning damper. The figure could be compared with Figure 3.1 Top deflection (m) 0.05 0 0.3 h representing the corresponding damping test.8 Calculation the damping measurement conditions Time history for damping measurement with a functioning damper 0.3 w Time history of damping test with a functioning damper. representing the corresponding damping test.1 0.1 0.2 0.05 0. The damper stiffness was assumed to zero and the chimney damper mass were added to the generalised mass.3 i. 73 .05 0 0.2. Thus the damper mass will be neglected.3.2 0 15 30 45 Time (s) 60 75 90 Top deflection (m) Figure 3.15 0. Time history for damping measurement with a malfunctioning damper 0.1 0 15 30 45 Time (s) 60 75 90 Figure 3.3 3. The figure could be compared with Figure 3.15 0.
4. There were some deviations between theory and damping measurements that mainly may be explained by the fact that theory comes to the conclusion that there is not enough horizontal space in the damper house.1 and studied further in an estimated load spectrum in Section 4.3 Comparison between observations and theoretical study The solutions for the dynamic response. No lockin effects are included.3 h and 3.3 3. The superimposed oscillations show the sum of oscillations of the both masses.3 h. Figure 3.11.1. [13] and [14]. large amplitude deflection during vortex shedding will only occur for short periods at a time. For the simulation of the damping tests.4 a similar behaviour is observed. A very quick increase of the top amplitude deflection and often an almost equal decrease was observed. This difference was an additional argument to that only a minority of the damping is achieved from the friction masses.3 o for the functioning damper show a top deflection range of approximately 400 mm. 74 . It is important to note that the model does not include any advanced fluid mechanical behaviour. Figure 3. show a similar behaviour in the solutions as in [6]. According to the theory a sudden and quick increase of the top amplitude deflection will occur. Thus the model only is limited sensitive to relatively large randomised changes in frequency or vortex shedding force. If we assume a lockin on the wind velocity of two times the top deflection range will increase with a factor four to about 2000 mm.3 i are found except for one behaviour. It is worth noting that the mistuned damper in Figure 3. Thus the damper produces less damping than expected. This corresponds also well to the recordings according to Section 3.3 w and 3.3. The recorded data also show that the wind quickly and often change both velocity and direction. With the same discussion as for the malfunctioning damper it seems reasonable to expect a top deflection range of approximately 1600 mm for the functioning damper and the same weather conditions.3 w shows two superimposed oscillations.3 x corresponding to the damping tests. which could not be found in Figure 3. From the recorded data given in Section 3. The major part is probably achieved from friction losses in the chains etc.2 and reverse. Equation 3.3 l for the malfunctioning damper show a top deflection range of 496 mm.Pär Tranvik.3 s gives a little less top deflection amplitude as compared to the tuned damper. Figure 3.3 r and 3. The theoretical study supports the statement made in Section 3.6 that the VEAB chimney damper is a not an optimum damper device.3. Figure 3.3 n and 3. The calculations will then roughly confirm the observations noted in Section 3. The accelerations are found to be large enough to overcome the friction forces between the damper friction masses and the damper house bottom friction plate.10 and 3. The quick decrease was explained by the turbulent behaviour of the wind. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.3 m. 3. but the vortex shedding frequency is larger. Figures 3.
000014 0.4 3.000017 0. Year numbers are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.000185 0.000041 0.000138 5 0.4 a the top range deflections less than a few cycles were truncated.4 Recorded dynamic properties of the chimney From the recorded results. In Table 3.001692 0.000346 0.000009 0.000185 0.4 b Relative time for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm.000071 12 Total 0.Pär Tranvik.000005 0.000215 0.000004 0. 2 0.000639 0.000542 0.000120 0.000370 3 0.000870 0.000745 8 0.000067 0.000226 0.000277 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total 1 0.000264 9 0.4 a Number of occasions per month where top deflection range exceeds 267 mm for more than a few cycles.000155 10 0.000578 0.000110 0.000295 0.000249 4 0.000320 0.000133 11 0.000311 0.1 maximum deflection ranges during vortex shedding was calculated as 2 ⋅ 133 .000000 0.000027 0. 1 0 1 12 4 2 8 6 4 0 3 9 2 0 7 4 5 2 4 0 5 5 3 3 6 6 4 7 2 9 7 4 20 11 4 8 0 11 2 3 9 9 0 1 0 10 0 4 3 3 11 0 0 5 1 12 0 1 10 0 Year/ Month no 1997 1998 1999 2000 Table 3.000079 0. Typical for vortex shedding is that several large oscillations follow after each other in time.000165 0.000063 0.000446 0.000060 0. the vortex shedding top deflection range calculated by the manufacturer.000758 0.000259 0. Year number are vertical to the left and month number horizontal at top.4 b.000444 0. about two million loggings.000009 0.000214 The differences between the two tables were due to that all cycles when top range deflection exceeds 267 mm was included in Table 3.000855 0. According to Section 4.000025 0.000418 0.000019 0.000005 0.000206 0.4 a and 3.6 = 267 mm.000468 0.000318 0. Typical for gust wind is that only one or a few large oscillations follow after each other in time. 75 .000075 0.000262 0.001174 0.000331 0.000413 7 0.4 b remains. Table 3.000065 0.000183 0.000350 0.000247 6 0.000000 0.000255 0.000245 0. By plotting all identified results on the computer screen and truncating all periods where only a few cycles follow in time the results according to Table 3.000000 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. all periods where the top deflection range exceeds 267 mm have been identified.000342 0.
00080.0008 0.Pär Tranvik.001 0. This was not expected.00020.4 a show large top range deflections during the winter time but in the middle of the summer the largest amount of oscillations occurred. as described in for instance [1].0002 0 1 2 5 6 Month number 3 4 7 Year 1997 1998 0.0018 0.00160.4 b Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding 267 mm. that it is more probable for huge laminar vortex shedding induced oscillations to occur during cold winter days with cold laminar airflow.0018 0.00120.0012 0.0010.0006 0. Time at the day for elapsed time with top deflection range oscillations exceeding 267 mm 3000 2500 Elapsed time (s) 1999 9 2000 8 2000 1500 1000 500 0 11 13 15 17 19 21 1997 1998 1999 2000 Time at the day (hr) Figure 3.0002 10 11 12 Figure 3.0014 0. It is well known.4 Relative time for top range displacement exceeding 267 mm 0. 76 23 1 3 5 7 9 .0008 0.0004 0.00060. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.00140.0012 0.0004 00.00040.001 0. From Figure 3.0016 0.0016 0.4 a Relative time of the measure period for the chimney when top deflection range exceeds 267 mm.0014 Relative time 0.0006 0. Obviously large vortexshedding oscillations could to be expected also during summer periods.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.45 h 20 Wind velocity (m/s) 15 v10s 10 v1min v10min 5 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 360 Wind direction average values 20000613 at 14.4 c A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a rather long period of large deflection ranges. wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function of time. 77 .4 Range at strain gauge no 4 20000613 at 14.45 h Wind direction (360 deg) 270 r10s 180 r1min r10min 90 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values over 10 seconds. Range.45 h 500 400 Range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 300 Time (s) 600 900 Wind velocity average values at 90 m height 20000613 at 14. 1 minute and 10 minutes.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.Pär Tranvik.04 h 360 Wind direction (360 deg) 270 r10s 180 r1min r10min 90 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 Figure 3. Wind velocity and wind direction were calculated as mean values over 10 seconds. wind velocity and wind direction were plotted as a function of time.04 h Wind velocity (m/s) 15 v10s 10 v1min v10min 5 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 Wind direction average values 20001011 at 16. 1 minute and 10 minutes.4 d A typical vortex shedding behaviour with a short period of large deflection ranges.04 h 500 400 Range (mm) 300 200 100 0 0 300 600 Time (s) 900 1200 1500 20 Wind velocity average values at 90 m height 20001011 at 16. Range.4 Range at strain gauge no 5 20001011 at 16. 78 .
79 .2.028 percent of the time or about ten hours during the fouryear observation period discussed in this report.4 a and 3. The time required to obtain stationary top deflection range during vortex shedding is > 10 minutes according to Section 3. It was also obvious that large deflection ranges occur even if the turbulence intensity of the wind velocity is relatively large. From Table 3.Pär Tranvik.4 b). The magnitude of 10 min mean values seems to be most important for vortex shedding. A typical time history response during vortex shedding was an immediate increase from small deflection ranges to large deflection ranges. This corresponds to about 30 year of service hours minutes second 80 000 cycles ( ⋅10 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 0. The large deflection ranges continues for typically about 100 seconds and decrease immediate again.4 In Appendix I all identified periods with the criteria top deflection range exceeding 267 mm for the year 2000 were plotted (see also Table 3.3.4 b it is found that the VEAB chimney oscillates with a top deflection range exceeding 267 mm (mainly vortex shedding) for 0. About 50 percent turbulence intensity is typical if defined as 10 seconds mean value divided by 10 min mean value.288Hz = 77760 ) 4 recording years 4 years hour minute above the design value for the top deflection range of 267 mm during a 30year service life. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.
Additional plots are found in Appendix F. All recorded data for the four years 1997 through 2000 are read.5 3.Section 3.5 ⋅ ρ Air ⋅ v10 min where v10 min is mean wind speed calculated over 10 minutes and ρ Air = air density based on daily mean values for temperature according to Section 3. 80 . sorted monthly.1 Wind pressure and top deflection range. Dynamic wind pressure is assumed to follow p dyn = 0.5. calculated and finally plotted in anthill diagrams by a couple of computer programs (Appendix H).8. If maximum top deflection range was less than 100 mm the recording was truncated and dots were plotted for wind pressure nor deflection range.Pär Tranvik.5 Observed wind properties 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . The plotting was made in the Auto Cad dxf drawing format. In this section a typical selection of periods are presented. anthill diagrams For the measurement period wind pressure and top deflection range anthill diagrams are plotted 2 for the VEAB chimney.
81 .5 Figure 3.Section 3. Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.5 b Top deflection range anthill diagram for June 1997. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 a Wind pressure anthill diagram for June 1997.
82 .5 Figure 3.Pär Tranvik.5 d Top deflection range anthill diagram for December 2000. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3. Figure 3.5 c Wind pressure anthill diagram for December 2000.
Wind pressure times number of cycles is a measure of the applied wind energy.Pär Tranvik. It is obvious that the dominating oscillations for the VEAB chimney are in NNW direction and that the dominating wind causing those oscillations blows from SW direction. Finally some summary plots are given. 83 . Top deflection range times number of cycles is a measure of the accumulated deflection energy.5. The chimney oscillates with an angle almost perpendicular to the wind direction. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . In Appendix F additional diagrams are found.5 3.2 Accumulated wind pressure and accumulated top deflection range diagrams Similarly as in Section 3.Section 3. The mean angle between wind pressure times number of cycles and deflection range times number of cycles is about 67 to 90 degrees.5.1 and for the same months the sum of wind pressure (10 minutes mean values) times number of cycles and the sum of top deflection range times number of cycles are plotted. The year 1999 above is typical and all other recorded years show the same behaviour.
84 .5 e Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for June 1997.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 f Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for June 1997.5 Figure 3.Section 3. Figure 3.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Pär Tranvik.Section 3.5 h Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for December 2000. Figure 3. 85 .5 Figure 3.5 g Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles for December 2000.
5 i Sum of wind pressure times number of cycles year 1999.5 Figure 3. Figure 3.Section 3.Pär Tranvik.5 j Sum of top deflection range times number of cycles for year 1999. 86 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .
3 are plotted for the VEAB chimney. 87 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .3 Elastic energy diagrams Similar as in Section 3.5 3.Pär Tranvik.2 and for the same months the elastic energy diagrams. Figure 3.5 k Elastic energy diagram for June 1997.5. calculated according to Section 2.4.5.Section 3.
Figure 3.5 m Elastic energy diagram for the year of 1999.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 l Elastic energy diagram for December 2000.Section 3.5 Figure 3. 88 .
All wind data in this section origin from SMHI and Växjö A. In Appendix F diagrams for some additional periods are found. The wind velocity is measured at 10 m height above the ground. located at latitude 56° 51´ and longitude 14° 50´. 90 degrees means that the wind blows from east and so on. Height above sea level at the observation station is about 199 m. The closest station to the VEAB plant is Växjö A. A 360degree compass has been used. administrates a net of observation stations for meteorological and hydrological observations all over Sweden.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 89 . Figure 3.5 3. 0 or 360 degrees means that the wind blows from the north.Section 3. SMHI. A slope in northern direction and a sea separate the Växjö A station and the VEAB plant.4 Anthill diagrams for wind pressure at Växjö A station Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.5.5 n Wind pressure anthill diagram for February 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station. about four km south of the plant.
5 Figure 3.5 p Wind pressure anthill diagram for 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 90 .Pär Tranvik. Figure 3.Section 3.5 o Wind pressure anthill diagram for July 1997 to 2000 at SMHI Växjö A observation station.
5 Deflection and wind velocity anthill diagrams To study the combination of deflection and wind speeds. The horizontal line corresponds to y/d = 0. which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load model for vortex shedding in [3].5 q and 3. Figure 3. 91 .5 r.Section 3.5. In Appendix F more diagrams are found.3.Pär Tranvik.06/1. Below two typical anthill diagrams are shown in Figures 3. Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100 times top range deflection divided by diameter. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . anthill diagrams for maximum top deflection as a function of wind velocity at 10 min mean values are plotted for the VEAB chimney.5 q Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min mean values). The actual period is January 1997.5 3.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
Figure 3.5 r Maximum top range deflection as a function of wind velocity (10 min mean values). Horizontal axis is wind velocity in m/s and vertical axis is 100 times top range deflection divided by diameter. The horizontal line corresponds to y/d = 0.06/1.3, which is the limit load for applicability of the equivalent load model for vortex shedding in [3]. The actual period is December 2000.
92
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
3.5.6 Wind turbulence anthill diagrams
Wind 1min/10 min mean values for June 1997
25 Wind 1 min mean values (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
Figure 3.5 s Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June 1997.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for June 1997
25 Wind 10 s mean values (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
Figure 3.5 t
Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for June 1997.
93
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney  Section 3.5
Wind 1 min/10 min mean values for December 2000
25 Wind 1 min mean values (m/s)
20
15
10
5
0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
Figure 3.5 u Wind 1 min mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December 2000.
Wind 10 s/10 min mean values for December 2000
25 Wind 10 s mean values (m/s)
20
15
10
5
0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wind 10 min mean values (m/s)
Figure 3.5 v Wind 10 s mean values as a function of wind 10 min mean values for December 2000.
94
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Load efficiency per year 6000000 Range x no fo cycles (mm) 5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Figure 3.Section 3.5.5 3.5 w Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period.5 x Top range deflection times number of load cycles as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.7 Load spectra Load efficiency per month 800000 jan Range x no of load cycles (mm) 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 feb mar apr maj jun jul aug sep oct nov dec Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. 95 .
No of load cycles per year 45000 40000 35000 No of load cycles 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 v10min (m/s) 12 14 16 18 20 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .5 z Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.44 106 cycles per year or 13.32 m/s at 1.5 y Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per month for the recording period. 96 . From Figure 3.2.5 No of cycles per month 7000 jan 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 v10min (m/s) 15 20 feb mar No of load cycles apr maj jun jul aug sep oct nov dec Figure 3.Section 3.5 α “mass centre” of the wind load was found to v10min =6.Pär Tranvik. Shape factor in this reverse calculation was 0.75 106 cycles.1 106 cycles per 30 year. It means 0.
.40) 97 .3138x 5 + 153.2 includes influence of different wind velocity directions and that an amount of time is required for building up vortex shedding oscillations f0 P(v) = Natural frequency = Probability for that mean wind velocity during one year occurs in the interval between vcr and ε vcr where vcr is the critical wind velocity for resonance vortex shedding oscillations.3x 3 + 6648.………….2 ⋅10 7 ⋅ t ⋅ f 0 ⋅ P(v) ………………………………………………………………(3.8 m (at the damper house with a height of 3..5 α Number of cycles per month as a function of 10 minutes wind velocity mean value per year for the recording period.(3.(3.. (Mean) 4000.…………….73x 4 .……………….0 2000.0 6000. Critical wind velocity for vortex shedding has been calculated in Table 2.1331x 6 .0 0.0 Number of load cycles 8000. The damper house height was only a little more than the diameter.0 y = 0.9615 10000.35 m). P(v ) = e vcr − v( z) −e ε ⋅v cr − v( z) ………………………………………………….0 Mean Poly. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .95 m/s at the diameter 2.5 Average of number of load cycles per v10min 19972000 12000.Pär Tranvik.8x 2 .1 R2 = 0.24 m/s at the diameter 2..Section 3.39) v ( z ) = v 0 ⋅ C exp ( z ) …………………………………….3 m (the chimney shell except at damper house) and 3.1512.7. P(v) is assumed to be a Rayleigh distribution. Therefore its influence will be limited.38) where The factor 1. From [3] the number of load cycles during vortex shedding may be calculated from nv = 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 v10min(m/s) 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3.1 b to 3.9330x + 2962.
The data for 4 years of service 1997 through 2000.24 2 than what will be assumed from calculations according to [3] when limit restrictions are neglected (gust wind is not considered).32 2 = 2.204 nv = 0. 98 . Because of the truncation of the data.7 ⋅ 106 oscillations per year or 21⋅ 106 oscillations for a 30 year period The wind velocity found is twice the value achieved if the code [3] is extrapolated outside its limits but the number of cycles is less. the fitted curve differs greatly from measure data at the lower end. a graphically fitted lognormal distribution for cumulative frequency of top deflection range and limits from KolmogorovSmirnov test (α=0. In Figure 6.1 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ 6.Pär Tranvik.Section 3.5 β cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4 is shown.4. top deflection range100 mm. Numerical values for the VEAB chimney gives v(z) = 7.4 times larger 21 ⋅10 6 ⋅ 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . 5. The wind vortex shedding load on the VEAB chimney is In Figure 3.05) are plotted.3 b the spectra for top deflection (functioning damper) is shown for both the recordings and some codes.2. Cexp is defined and found from Table 3.25 but the difference between ε and ε vcr should be at least 2 m/s vcr is defined in Section 2.2 a to 2.03.83 m/s P(v) = 0.5 where v(z) v0 ε = Yearly mean wind velocity at the height z = The modal value of the distribution.5 m/s = 1. 13. A lognormal representation has been chosen for simplicity.
5 Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3. 99 .5 β Cumulative frequency of top deflection range for strain gauge no 4.Pär Tranvik.
(3. 3.5 γ . A Weibull distribution is fitted to each frequency distribution. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . The frequency distributions have a maximum at approximately 5 m/s.05 0. 10second wind velocity mean value. 100 .2.Section 3.5 δ and 3.15 Probability Data for v10s 0.5 3.10 0.α .5 ε .00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3. β ) = where α α −1 ⋅v ⋅ e βb v α β v − β …………………………………….…………………. Because top deflection ranges below 100 mm were truncated (Section 3.7) is included. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1. 1 min and 10 min mean values in Figure 3.20 0.Pär Tranvik.5.8 Frequency of wind velocity The frequency distribution of wind velocity for the recording period 1997 through 2000 is plotted for 10 s.7) the fitted distribution consider the truncation effect.1 and β=3. The Weibull frequency distribution is described as α f (v.41) = Wind velocity in m/s = A Weibull distribution parameter = A Weibull distribution parameter Frequency of wind velocity 0..5 γ Probability density function for wind velocity.
10minute wind velocity mean value.10 0.20 0.5 Frequency of wind velocity 0.Pär Tranvik.15 Probability Data for v1min 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3.5) is included Frequency of wind velocity 0.1 and β=3.05 0.20 0.1 and β=3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.3) is included 101 .5 δ Probability density function for wind velocity.05 0.10 0. A fitted Weibull frequency distribution (α =1.00 0 5 10 15 20 Wind velocity (m/s) Fitted Weibull distribution Figure 3. 1minute wind velocity mean value.15 Probability Data for v1min 0.5 ε Probability density function for wind velocity.
Figure 3. 3.5 θ .5 η and 3.9 Isowind velocity plots Isowind velocity plots for the recording period 1997 through 2000 are found in Figure 3. Unit m/s.5 ξ .5 ξ Isowind velocity plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values.Section 3.5. 102 .5 3.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .
103 .Pär Tranvik.5 η Isowind velocity plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values.5 θ Isowind velocity plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values. Unit m/s Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3.5 Figure 3. Unit m/s.
5 λ . Figure 3. but where wind in opposite directions are added. 3.5 ι Isowind plot of 10 s wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added.5 θ .Section 3.5 ι .5 ξ .5 η and 3.5 κ Isowind plot of 1 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added.5 Isowind velocity plots similar to those in Figure 3. Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . are found in Figure 3.Pär Tranvik. Unit m/s. 104 . 3.5 κ and 3. Unit m/s.
Unit m/s.5 κ and Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3.5 λ Isowind plot of 10 min wind velocity mean values where values in 180 degrees opposite directions have been added. It was expected that Figure 3.5 Figure 3.5 λ have shown isowind plots as half circles. The orientation of the Sandvik II plant buildings cover the bottom half height of the chimney. Figure 3. 105 .2. Therefore the wind direction could be partly influenced from the surrounding buildings.5 ι . This is not the fact because wind from south west is dominating for the recorded and truncated wind recordings (Section 3.7).Pär Tranvik.
6 Recordings of top deflection from deducted strain gauge measurements From the recorded data. 106 .6 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Pär Tranvik. In this section a typical selection of load spectra (frequency distribution in the diagrams) and accumulated load spectra (spectrum in the diagrams) diagrams are shown. In Appendix E fatigue damage and cumulative fatigue damage are plotted for each month. 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 1997 1998 1999 200 2000 300 100 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Number of load cycles Figure 3. For definition of directions see Figure 3.Section 3. the data sorted and load spectra plotted.2 a.6 a Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of September years 1997 through 2000. calculations were made. per year and for the measure period 1997 through 2000.
6 c Frequency distribution of top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different directions.193 deg No 6 . 107 .Section 3.35 deg No 7 .Pär Tranvik. 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 No 1 .58 deg No 8 .125 deg No 3 .148 deg No 4 .80 deg 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 200 100 0 Number of load cycles Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .103 deg No 2 .6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 1997 1998 1999 200 2000 300 100 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Accumulated number of load cycles Figure 3.170 deg No 5 .6 b Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for the month of September years 1997 through 2000.
Section 3. 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 1997 1998 1999 2000 200 100 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 Figure 3.148 deg 200 No 4 .6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 No 1 .125 deg No 3 .80 deg 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 Figure 3.193 deg No 6 .58 deg No 8 .103 deg 300 No 2 .170 deg No 5 .6 d Spectrum for top deflection range for the year of 1997 in the different directions.35 deg 100 No 7 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .6 e Frequency distribution of top deflection range in direction 170 degrees for years 1997 through 2000.Pär Tranvik. 108 .
6 g Spectrum for top deflection range as mean per year in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through 2000. The thick line is a straight line fitted (least square method) to the results.Pär Tranvik.6 f Spectrum for top deflection range in direction 170 degrees years 1997 through 2000. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .1 R2 = 0.147x + 493. 109 .6 500 Top deflection range (mm) 400 300 200 100 0 1 10 100 1000 Load cycles 10000 100000 1000000 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3.Section 3.9956 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 log (accumulated number of load cycles) Figure 3. 500 Mean average 400 Top deflection range 2y (mm) Fitted straight line 300 y = 69.
5 M b = σ b ⋅10 6 ⋅ 2⋅ I = σ b ⋅ 73000 = − 0...............................................46) 2 2 H 90 If we assume that the distributed load will correspond to a wind pressure p in Pa per year of loads uniformly distributed over the chimney p= q = −23.....................43) where nt y = Accumulated number of load cycles = Top deflection amplitude in mm By using Equation 4.........(3...57 ⋅10 6 ..............................47) d 110 ...............................44) Bending moment at the chimney base per year in Nm is found from Equation 3......................(3.6 The straight line fitted to the data in Figure 3....01⋅10 log(nt ) + 21.........45) d [ ] Equation 2..............................2⋅10 log (nt ) + 387 .....6 g may be written y = −35⋅10 log(nt ) + 247 ........................Pär Tranvik................... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ....087 = −3..........(3.Section 3.....6⋅10 log(nt ) + 168 ........................................(3..........10 gives the distributed load q N/m per year in Pa to q= 2⋅M b 2⋅ Mb = = −54.........................6 the bending stress σ b in MPa per year at the chimney base is obtained as σ b = y ⋅ 0..(3.....220⋅10 log(nt ) + 1....5 ...................................
In Section 6.6 Wind pressure as a function of number of load cycles per year 200 Wind pressure (Pa) 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Log (Accumuoated number of load cycles ) Figure 3. mainly caused by vortex shedding. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3.Pär Tranvik.3 and 6. as a function of number of load cycles per year.6 h Wind pressure. 111 .4 comparisons between recorded spectrum and code spectra are made.
7 a Chimney oscillating in first mode and starting in second mode of natural frequency.7 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Below three typical plots are shown.Pär Tranvik.7 3.Section 3.7.7 b Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency. More plots are found in Appendix D. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .1 First and second mode oscillations Screen plots During the first halfyear of measurements a lot of screen plots of the virtual instrument were made mainly to document the second mode oscillating behaviour. 112 .
2 Logged files From logged recorded data. By graphical determination in Figure 3. The second mode was only observed at rare occasions as when the wind velocity calculated as a 10 min mean value exceeded approximately 10 m/s.44 Hz.7 c Chimney oscillating in first and second modes of natural frequency. The second mode frequency causes approximately 5 times more load cycles per time unit but the total amount of time is low. From Figure 3.7. This is representative of the complete data recorded. 113 .7 Figure 3.7 c the natural frequency of the second mode is calculated to 1.1.Pär Tranvik. In the log files there was no information about the second mode as described in Section 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .45 Hz (approximately 5 times the first mode).7 c maximum width for the second mode is found to be approximately 90 mm. 1. natural frequency for the first mode has been calculated. about two million loggings.2. 3.7 a to 3. This value may be compared to the calculated natural frequency of the second mode.Section 3.
3 Natural frequency (Hz) 0.3 m/s It means that first mode natural frequency occurs at 4.1 theory give first and second mode natural frequencies at 0.10 ⋅13 = 14.1 and the Strouhal number in Equation 1.7 b: Figure 3.05 0 1997 1998 1999 Year 2000 Figure 3.2) v10min90m 1 = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m 1 = 1.7.5 °C For the following calculations at a temperature of T=5 °C is assumed.2 gives 0.288 and 1.4 and Appendix I it is found that first mode vortex shedding oscillations occur in the wind velocity interval of approximately v10min 45m 1 = 4 m/s to v10min 45m 2 = 13 m/s as observed from the wind transmitter at 45 m height.1 0.1 °C 19970220 T=3.2.1 and 3.8.2. According to Section 2. Temperatures at the time when the plots were created are: Figure 3. The kinematic viscosity of the air is 13.7 d Natural frequency as monthly mean values for the first mode during the observation period of 1997 through 2000. See also Section 2.45 Hz respectively.7 a: Figure 3. 114 .288 Hz.Pär Tranvik.282 Hz respectively 1.4.7 VEAB chimney first mode observed natural frequency 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .7. Mean value for the observation period 1997 through 2000 is 0.25 0.4 m/s to v10min90m 2 = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m 2 = 1.15 0.7 ⋅10 −6 m 2 /s at T=5 °C according to Section 3. Wind velocities at the top of the chimney (90 m level) may to be corrected as (Section 3.2 0.Section 3. Sections 3. 3.5 °C 19970303 T=6. which will be used in the following.3. The Reynold number is defined in Equation 1.7.7 c: 19970211 T=3.4.3 First mode evaluation From Section 3.4 to 14.10 ⋅ 4 = 4.1.44 Hz. The larger values may be a combination between first and second order natural frequencies.3 m/s for 90 m level.
7 e into a diagram with literature data.3 Re2 = = 2.4 = 0.7 The chimney diameter is 2.899 ⋅ 10 6 −6 13.3 St1 = For d=2.7 ⋅10 Re1 = 2.288 = 0.7 ⋅10 2.8 m.3 m 2.183 to 4.288 = 0.3 m.4 2.3.4 2.3 m/s will be For d=2.7 ⋅10 Re1 = 2.3 ⋅ 0. Fatigue caused by oscillation in the first mode of natural frequency is studied in Section 4. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .151 to 4.2 and 4.4 to 14.3 = 2.4 = 0.3 ⋅14.923 ⋅ 10 6 Re2 = −6 13.3 St1 = 2.056 St 2 = 14.8 m The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure 3. except for the damper house at the top where the diameter is 2. Figure 3.288 = 0.7 ⋅10 2.Pär Tranvik.8 ⋅ 0. 115 .7 e Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex shedding in the first mode have been added. Reynold and Strouhal numbers corresponding to the wind velocity interval of 4.401 ⋅10 6 −6 13.288 St 2 = = 0.8 ⋅ 0.739 ⋅ 10 6 −6 13.8 ⋅ 14.046 14.8 ⋅ 4.3 ⋅ 4.Section 3.1.3 ⋅ 0.
7 3.45 = 0.7. At d=2.2) v10min90m = ncorr ⋅ v10min45m = 1.4 Second mode evaluation From the recordings.6 m/s.4.3 ⋅11.7 a through 3.35 11.76 ⋅ 10 6 15 ⋅ 10 − 6 2. Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .Section 3.5 = 1.5 m/s as measured at the wind transmitter at 45 m level.3 m At d=2.5 m/s.f Diagram taken from [6] where values for VEAB steel chimney during vortex shedding in the second mode have been added.5 m/s It means that second mode mean wind velocity occurs at 11.Pär Tranvik. exemplified by Figure 3. According to Section 2. wind velocity mean value for 10 minutes is v10min=10. At 90 m height the corresponding wind velocity is (correction factor according to Section 3.3.5 = 11.3 ⋅1.1 second mode critical wind velocity is 16.8 ⋅ 11.7 f.10 ⋅ 10.45 St = = 0.7.3.15 ⋅10 6 −6 15 ⋅ 10 Re = 2.2.5 2. 116 . Fatigue caused by oscillations in the second mode is studied in Section 4.2.8 m 2.29 11.8 ⋅1.5 St = The above values for Strouhal numbers as a function of Reynold numbers are plotted in Figure 3.7 c.5 Re = = 2.
A damper applied at the top of the chimney is less efficient for second order than first order mode.7 3.Section 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . For the first mode recorded results sometimes gives as small Strouhal number as 0. e.6 contain suggested load spectra and that this is more complex.7 e and 3.06. The main problem with creating a code calculation model valid also for slender structures (slenderness much greater than 30) is the limited amount of recorded measure data. such as noted in some papers [1].3. Some codes. Furthermore. i.5 Discussion Strouhal number could be as big as 0. but forces exited are small. chimneys with oscillations occurring in the second mode are more rare. This is possible if the design has big slenderness ratio. Sections 3.7 f [6]. the Swedish BSV 97 manual [3] have limited the use of the code model to a maximum slenderness (height through diameter) of approximately 30. For most steel chimneys only the first mode of oscillation is of practical importance for vortex shedding induced oscillations. The results of this investigation support such a limit unless design loads are increased for slender structures. [5]. Second mode oscillations are seldom observed in structural steel chimneys [26]. 117 .7.2 should be used for engineering design calculations [1].7 and 3. [15]. [3]. For slender chimneys several codes give unconservative design loads for vortex shedding. The effect explaining this is lockin.5. where the vortex shedding starts at a lower wind velocities and continue to oscillate during increasing wind velocity.Pär Tranvik. The large slenderness of the VEAB chimney explains the relatively common and large second mode oscillations. Therefore it is recommended that a Strouhal number of 0. Because of the slender VEAB steel chimney (height through diameter = 39) correspondence between Strouhal number and Reynold number do not follow the predictions of Figure 3. [9].
Pär Tranvik.5 for calculating wind pressure. Appendix G contains a more complete description of the temperatures during the observation period. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8 3. Those temperatures are used in Section 3. Some examples and a total summary are presented below.8 3.8 a Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the year of 1997.1 Temperatures and temperature dependent properties Mean temperatures VEAB Sandvik II plant records and stores in a database a lot of data about the plants behaviour and its environment. From the database the daily mean temperatures are collected and presented below.8. 118 . Daily mean temperatures 1997 30 25 20 Temperature (C) 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 Date 20 25 30 Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Figure 3.
8 b Daily mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant for the month of January. But for vortex shedding oscillations. The VEAB Sandvik II plant was erected during the years 1995 and 1996.Pär Tranvik. 119 . which occurred during the interesting days between Christmas and New Year 1995 the temperature.8 c Monthly mean temperatures at VEAB Sandvik II plant 1997 through 2000. Monthly mean temperatures for 19972000 30 25 20 Temperature (C) 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3.8 Daily mean temperatures for January 30 25 20 15 Temperature 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 Date 20 25 30 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. about 20 °C. was very low. Therefore no recorded temperatures before 1996 are available.
2 Density and kinematic viscosity Both density and viscosity of air vary with temperature. According to [16] air densities follow the temperature as ρ = ρ0 ⋅ where T0 ………………………………………………………………………….450 1.8 d Air density as a function of temperature at sea level when influence of meterological air pressure and air humidity is neglected.200 1.8 3. 120 .8.48) T ρ 0 = 1.300 1.Pär Tranvik. Unless otherwise is mentioned.29 kg/m 3 at 0 °C and meterological air pressure 1 013 mbar T0 = 273 K Air density as a function of temperature 1. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3..350 1. Influence of meterological pressure and humidity are neglected because that no such information were recorded.(3.250 1. Their influences are also limited compared to the temperature..150 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (C) Figure 3. Thus both density and viscosity follow the actual conditions.400 Air density (kg/m3) 1. all calculations in this report follow the temperature data in this section.
8 Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature Cinematic viscosity (1000000 x m2/s) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temperature (C) Figure 3. Calculated Reynold number Re will be 30 % greater on the –20 °C day than on the 19 °C day. But the influence of level above sea level has been neglected. The influence of air density depending of the height above sea level is being limited to some percent [3].25 kg/m3.Pär Tranvik. At for instance a day with a temperature of –20 °C the cinematic viscosity is 11.40 kg/m3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3. In evaluating the recorded data. From Section 2. the actual daily mean temperatures were considered when calculating the dynamic pressures and Reynold numbers. The air density 1. 121 .1 it is noted that the VEAB chimney is situated at a height of 164 m above sea level. Calculated dynamic wind pressure will then be 12 percent greater than that determined for the nominal air density 1.8. Extremely low turbulence levels due to stable stratification of the atmosphere (laminar air flow) during cold winter days characterise the airflow.25 kg m 3 and that cinematic viscosity should be selected to 15 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s when calculating vortex shedding oscillating forces. 3.8 e Air kinematic viscosity as a function of temperature.25 kg/m3 corresponds to an air temperature of 10 °C.3 Discussion Several codes and handbooks as for instance [3] suggest that the air density should be selected to 1. The viscosity 15 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s corresponds to an air temperature of 19 °C.5 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s . At for instance a day with a temperature of 20 °C the density is instead 1.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 3.8 122 .Pär Tranvik.
nt ≤ 5 ⋅10 6 [4] ……………………………………….(4. For normal stress. and the shape of the stress spectrum in accordance with [4].Pär Tranvik. 123 . The characteristic fatigue strength. f rk is to be calculated with due regard to the stress concentration effects characterised by the class of detail C in accordance with [4].(4.3) For structures not appreciably affected by corrosion. The class of detail C is a measure of the characteristic fatigue strength for 2 ⋅ 10 6 stress cycles at a constant stress range.. For a spectrum with a constant stress range the characteristic value of the fatigue strength is 2 ⋅ 10 6 = C ⋅ nt 1/ 3 f rk . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Fatigue action 4.2) 1/ 5 f rk 2 ⋅ 10 6 = 0. The values given assume Workmanship GA or GB in accordance with [4].1 Fatigue model considered For fatigue evaluation of the chimney the Swedish Manual for Steel Structures BSK 99 [4] is followed.885 ⋅ C ⋅ nt .Section 4. it is assumed that the fatigue limit for a spectrum with constant stress range is assumed to be reached at 10 8 stress cycles.1 4.1) where f rd = f rk /(1. The term stress range σ rd refers to the difference between maximum and minimum stress at a defined point. the number of stress cycles nt during the service life of the structure.(4. stresses being calculated according to elastic theory as normal stresses without consideration of local stress variations due to for instance the detailed geometry of the weld. for instance where the corrosion protection is well maintained. the design criterion with respect to fatigue is σ rd ≤ f rd [4] ……………………………………………………………………………. 5 ⋅10 6 ≤ nt ≤ 10 8 [4] …………………………………. The relationship between the characteristic value of the fatigue strength and the number of stress cycles is set out in [4].. Classes of detail for parent material and welded connections are given in [4].1 ⋅ γ n ) is the design value of the fatigue strength.
..(4.... The design value for each stress range is to be determined by multiplying the calculated nominal stress range for the design load effect by a factor 1. and stress cycles for which the design values of the stress range are smaller than values corresponding to the fatigue limit nt = 10 8 ......Pär Tranvik............ the PalmgrenMiner cumulative damage hypothesis is to be applied [4] on the basis of the characteristic fatigue strength..........0 ..Section 4..................... reference is to be made to [4].......... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney ........... may be ignored.. the 100 stress cycles that have the largest design values of the stress range. In assembling the stress spectra.......4) 124 .. The design criterion in conjunction with a variable stress range is as follows n Σ i n ti ≤ 1. For a stress spectrum with a variable stress range... where γ n depends on the safety........... For a variable stress range...1 ⋅ γ n ..............1 Figure 4..1 a Characteristic fatigue strength frk [4]...... The full lines are applied for a stress spectrum with a constant stress range ( κ = 1 ).......
.. For second mode oscillations it is found from Section 2.............................. apply in using the PalmgrenMiner hypothesis..............(4..1... For first mode oscillations.....5) 1....1..........1 ⋅ γ n Where γ n depends on the safety class according to [4]. was calculated by the manufacturer of the chimney to σ rk Base = y ⋅ 11...............0292 .... Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney .......Pär Tranvik..087 .........6 MPa = y ⋅ 0...........1 where ni = Number of stress cycles at a certain range σ i nt i = Number of stress cycles at a constant stress range which corresponds to the stress range σ ri ...... A separate evaluation for the influence of second mode oscillations at worst location was made..................... in accordance with the forgoing......................6 For fatigue design calculations [17] states that σ rd = σ rk ........6 mm where y is in mm and σ k Base in MPa...2 and 3...... Design is to be carried out in accordance with Equation 4...............6 90 ⋅ = y ⋅ 0............ Assembly of the stress spectrum may be carried out in accordance with the same principles...........8) At chimney base gusset plates the class of detail should have been C = 45 MPa according to Section 3.... It is below the lowest accepted level in [4] C=45 MPa......... But because of defective manufacturing it was not achieved........... where σ rd is the largest nominal stress range in the stress spectrum being considered........1........2..................... But plate thickness decreases from base to top of the chimney according to Section 2.Section 4....... σ rk mode 2 = y ⋅ 11..... [4] states that the design value of the fatigue strength shall be determined as follows f rd = f rk .....................6 2 ⋅133 ......(4...1....................6) 133............. 125 ....................4.(4..1 that the relationship between fictitious top deflection (superimposed oscillations on the first mode) and characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load are the same as for the first mode of natural frequency...7...................... Actual class of details were estimated to C = 30 MPa according to Section 3...............(4.7) 133... the relationship between top deflection in mm and characteristic chimney base bending stress for a distributed load.............
23 300 100 1.31 100 300 4.3 σ 7.3 k give σ= Mb 546750 = = 7.6) σ = 0.085 N/mm3 y 87.5 MPa 2⋅ I 2 ⋅ 0.2 a Estimated top deflection distribution for the first nine months in service Amplitude y +/.3.2.084 = 2.71 = 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.39 (percent of elapsed time) 500 80 1.084 d 2.54 150 150 2.3 N/m Nm mm m4 m 126 .08 0.1 500 1 150 700 (mm) Time t (h) 5 15 25 Relative time 0.Pär Tranvik.5 and Figure 3.087 N/mm3 y The calculations in Section 3.1 we find that the damper was malfunctioning during the first nine months of service.5 = = 0.23 0. Elapsed time in hours during nine months is 9 ⋅ months ⋅ 30 ⋅ days ⋅ 24 ⋅ hours = 6480 ⋅ hours . By using the observations in Section 4.42 The manufacturer calculated the stiffness/top amplitude deflection relationship to (Equation 4.71 weq Mb y I d = 135 = 546 750 = 87.2 Estimated cumulative damage for period with malfunctioning damper From Section 4.2 4.2 give Distributed load Reaction bending moment at chimney base Top amplitude deflection Area moment of inertia at h=0 m Diameter Equation 3.1 the following estimated distribution of top amplitude deflections versus time for the first nine months in service were made: Table 4.63 Total 675 10.
2 The manufacturers calculation of ratio of bending stress through top deflection and the corresponding calculation in this report gives similar result.1 127 .1 nti 5184 1715 15552 3806 25920 16862 82944 46250 103680 213916 155520 1711325 311084 6308707 n/nti 3. In the following the σ manufacturers result = 0.1 ⋅1.0 MPa 1.2) was used.1 f rd(n = 1 ⋅ 10 8 ) = = 10. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.0 105.1 MPa 5 6 1 2 ⋅10 6 f rk (n = 1 ⋅10 8 ) = 0.1 ⋅1.1 700 25 121.54 1.4 500 80 87.087 N/mm3 was used.1 12.1 and 2.02 4.2 150 150 26. From Section 4.885 ⋅ C ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 6 nti = σ rd The cumulative fatigue damage values have been calculated in Table 4.79 0. y (mm) t (h) σ rki (MPa) σ rdi (MPa) n 1500 5 261 315.2 b Cumulative fatigue damage according to Table 4.3 MPa 1.4.05 11.4 21.09 1.1 242.288 Hz (Section 2.8 1150 15 200.3 MPa 10.8 147.2 b.1 MPa 1 f rd(n = 5 ⋅10 6 ) = 22. Table 4.3 MPa 0.Pär Tranvik.1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 6 5 3 C nti = σ rd σ rd ≥ 18.1 .0 ≤ σ rd ≤ 18.885 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 10 8 5 = 12.48 0.3 300 100 52. y The mean value for the natural frequency for the period 1997 through 2000 f=0.1 2 3 f rk (n = 5 ⋅ 10 ) = 30 ⋅ = 22.6 100 300 17.2 a for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine months of service and γ n = 1.2 63.7.1 = 18.09 0.1 31.
8 100.1 150 150 26.2 It means that the cumulative damage fatigue according to the PalmgrenMiner Hypothesis will be about 11 at a resistance factor γ n = 1.4 14.75 f rd(n = 5 ⋅10 6 ) = The cumulative fatigue damage will then be as calculated in Table 4.50 The large number of cracks is in correspondence with the abovecalculated cumulative damage fatigues.1 ⋅ 0.4 nti 5184 5411 15552 11999 25920 53198 82944 145888 103680 674469 155520 5743284 311084 42612809 n/nti 0.2 c Cumulative fatigue damage for an estimated load spectrum for the first nine months of service and γ n = 0.0 71.1 = 26.1 ⋅ 0.03 0.1 corresponding to a probability of damage of approximately 10 −4 . Table 4.1 21.3 1150 15 200.825 [18]. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.8 MPa 1.75 10.2 c. If the probability of failure is set to 0.8 300 100 52.15 0. 128 .00 3. 22.5 the resistance factor will be approximately 1.30 0.5 100 300 17.75 = 0.825 .Pär Tranvik.1 700 25 121.57 0.1 MPa f rd(n = 1 ⋅10 8 ) = 1.1 ⋅ 0.5.1 165.49 0.0 = 12. n y (mm) t (h) σ rki (MPa) σ rdi (MPa) 1500 5 261 215.96 1.2 43. which corresponds to a probability of damage of approximately 0.5 500 80 87.
00580580 0. In the cumulative damage calculations nothing else than geometric stress concentrations from the weld alone was included.01212821 0. values were truncated if maximum range was less than 100 mm according to Section 3.00115432 0.b C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1998 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.2.3 4.00021740 0.1.00726709 0.00070521 0.1 4.00578685 0. They are truncated because of errors at the strain gauges.0099898 0.2 e) it is reasonable to add an additional geometric stress concentration.00005421 129 .2.00001215 0.00013162 0.7.00099927 0.00061170 0. To reduce the amount of data to be stored.2.1).3. C=45 corresponds to a class of detail similar to a class of weld of WC according to [4].01130228 0.1 Cumulative damage for period with functioning damper First mode of natural frequency Foundation level The strain gauges were primarily aimed to study the influence of first mode of natural frequency to the fatigue strength (Section 3.c C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1999 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.00001095 Table 4.00067543 0. Because of the changed design after two years of service (Figure 2.2 i) no additional stress concentrations are added to the class of detail C.00235369 0.00267103 0.2 d) and 30 m level (Figure 2.00006214 0.00063884 0.00109454 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.3.00011620 0. It means that C=30 corresponds to a class of weld below WC.00126551 0.00007902 0.00080252 0.01042424 0.00057027 0.3. Table 4.Pär Tranvik. Cumulative fatigue damage has been calculated for the recording period 1997 through 2000.01083196 0. see Section 3.8.00077496 0.0016736 0.3.00013927 0.00171796 0.00612419 0.a C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 1997 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.3.01003540 0.00023725 0. For strain gauge 1 and 3 there are a number of unrealistic values from January until April 2000.3 4.2 c and 2.00181172 0.00019323 0.00005592 Table 4. Because of the difference between design assumptions and true values for class of detail both C=45 and C=30 are assumed.00133086 0.00070408 0.00052442 0. C=45 is the design assumption and C=30 the accurate class of detail.00006437 0. For the original design of the gusset plates at foundation level (Figure 2.00630474 0.00625349 0.00025356 0.00128465 0.00102408 0. The recording period is the years 1997 through 2000.00056558 0.2 g and Figure 2.
00430908 0.00227207 0.00238477 0.04046838 0.00017150 0.00004032 0.00243850 0.00102202 0. 130 .00012609 0.01298475 0.02689582 0.3.047 at C=30 and 0.006 0.00084157 0.02405545 0.3.00479834 ⋅ = 0.3 Table 4.3 e it is found that greatest fatigue damage during the recording period (four years) was at bridge no 4 where utilization was 0.012 Damage fatigue 0.e C 30 45 Damage fatigue for the entire measure period 1997 through 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0. If the measurement period is representative for the complete service life of 30 years the fatigue damage for the service life will be 30 Years = 0.3 a the fatigue damage shows an increasing magnitude during the years.00067287 0.00054623 0.00117389 0.01 0.04659365 ⋅ Damage fatigue per year at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees).036 4 Years For C=30 0.002 0 1997 1998 Year 1999 2000 Figure 4. C=30 0.00053598 0.00911692 0.00749771 0.0048 at C=45. It is not possible to determine if the increase is an actual trend accidental.3 a Fatigue damage per year for recordings at strain gauge no 4 (170 degrees) and class of detail C=30. Therefore the statistical material is limited.004 0.00897362 0.00197968 0.00056996 0.008 0.04659365 0. In Figure 4. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4.00001880 Table 4.Pär Tranvik.00559000 0.00218143 0.00017906 0.35 4 Years 30 Years For C=45 0.014 0.00033561 0. There are only four years of recordings.00479834 0.00040299 0.d C 30 45 Damage fatigue for 2000 at class of detail C=30 respective C=45 Gauge no 1 Gauge no 2 Gauge no 3 Gauge no 4 Gauge no 5 Gauge no 6 Gauge no 7 Gauge no 8 0.00566482 0.00014352 From Table 4.
.......0 0.. By comparing Equations 2.......0 1..3. 4....1)......10 and 2.........Pär Tranvik........11) are described as M ( x) = I ( x) = q ⋅ (H 2 − x2 ) 2 π ⋅ D 4 − ( D − 2 ⋅ t ) 4 at each height x 64 [ ] By using Equation 3.0 2..10 and 2..3.0 3.5 bending stress is described as σ b ( x) = M ( x) .2 Other heights than base level According to Section 2..1.3 b it was obvious that first mode oscillations govern the design when the stress concentration effect is similar.....3 the bending moment and the area moment of inertia (Equations 2.……..4...0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Height (m) Figure 4...0 Bending stress (MPa) 6..3 4.(4..44 Hz (Section 2......2 Influence of second mode of natural frequency Natural frequency at second mode was 1......... Second mode oscillations are below the 131 ..3 b Bending stress as a function of the height for a distributed load of 135 N/m.. From diagram 4.0 7...0 4.9) 2 ⋅ I(x) d Bending stress as a function of heigt for q=135 N/mm 8.....3 b it is obvious that..11 and considering Figure 4.0 5...4............. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4............. for a given stress concentration effect... the base level will govern the design..
3 endurance limit. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 4. Therefore no superposition of first and second mode oscillations has been made.Pär Tranvik. 132 .
1 Crack propagation Method of analysis To get an estimation of the safety against fracture of the VEAB chimney.7 is 13.2 Results From a simple finite element analysis (FEA) calculation the geometric stress concentration was found to be 2 (Appendix K). 5. For the case with a malfunctioning damper the corresponding crack length was calculated to 0.1 a. or 48 + 4. In this simplified estimation study the linear method was used as presented in [18].4 and 3. The shell plate thickness was 10 mm. The studied crack was of type 1 according to Figure 3. The corresponding number of load cycles during vortex shedding according to Section 3. Typical crack length was 10 mm and a crack depth of 3 mm into the shell plate according to Appendix J. For the case with a functioning damper allowable crack length for a nonpropagating surface crack was calculated to 0. The load spectrum is discussed in chapter 3. The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is functioning after 1 200 000 +114 000 = 1 300 000 cycles. 106 according to the observations and 21 . a simplified crack propagation analysis was made. It is based on results from Sections 3. at the point of time when the damper was malfunctioning and before the cracks were repaired.3 mm. or 9 + 1 = 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillating. Several welds at the gusset plates were damaged by cracks.5.6. 133 . The observed cracks at the erection splice at the 30 m level were found to be most critical. 106 according to [3]. The pitch is approximately 180 mm between the gusset plates. A lockin factor of two is assumed for this analysis.1 .2 mm. Therefore acceptable crack width was expected to be << 180 mm.Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5 5 5. The cracks were found to propagate critical if the damper is malfunctioning after 225 000 + 21 400 = 250 000 cycles.5. The complete calculation is shown in Appendix L. Considering the assumed load spectrum it is obvious that the chimney before it was repaired had a high probability for collapse.6 = 53 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillation.
Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 5 134 .Pär Tranvik.
The chimneys are aimed to operate for a period of many years. which is common practice for chimneys in Sweden. . A chimney or any other construction equipped with a mechanical damper relies both on the support structure and on the function of the damper. There will be required large accelerations to loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom.1 Discussion The reliability of buildings with mechanical movable devices The reliability of typical ordinary buildings is only depending on its support structure transferring loads from the entire part of the building to the supports. 135 . . . There may require excessive accelerations to loosen the friction mass from the damper house bottom. Therefore the first question to discuss is whether reliability of building structures should be depending on a devise or not. Thus the friction between friction mass and damper house bottom will be other than assumed in the design calculations and the damper properties could be changed. simplified calculation model which miss some effects or different mass distribution than assumed. There could be a lot of reasons for why calculated natural frequency differ from the real one.4 deals with the problem of mistuned dampers on steel chimneys. For the VEAB chimney the design lifetime was decided to 30 years.There may be corrosion in the damper house caused by condensation in the damper house. An estimating calculation shows that there is risk of condensation in the damper house at some weather conditions.2. . Because of the long lifetime there could be worries about dangerous wear eventually in combination with corrosion. but the amount of condensed water is small. If the device is properly designed and functions as expected there are no problems. such as errors in calculating the natural frequency. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6 6. The friction mass could corrode and get caught to the damper house bottom and the damper will be locked. [19] and Section 3. . error in selection of pendulum masses.Pär Tranvik.Error in handling or careless handling during erection and service could make the damper inoperable by mistake.Design errors as wrongly calculated natural frequencies.3. For mechanical pendulum tuned dampers at steel chimneys we have noted the following risks: . But if the device is malfunctioning in any way it could be hazardous for the reliability of the building.There will be condensation in the damper house.The friction mass will freeze to the damper house bottom caused by the condensation water and the damper will be locked. error in selection of friction devices may result in a mistuned damper with limited damping.
For the VEAB chimney it was decided to once a year. As for the aircraft and nuclear industry the inspection interval has to be smaller than the time required for a crack to grow critical with a malfunctioning damper. Those other investigations involving measurements over time are limited to a much shorter time period than for this investigation.The mechanical pendulum tuned damper requires a regular maintenance program. A chimney with any form of not movable device to reduce oscillations caused by vortex shedding is only requiring a limited amount of inspection and is therefore as economic as the pendulum device. [19]. in fact that no appreciate oscillations could appear for decenniums and suddenly a winter period when critical meteorological conditions occur the chimney start to oscillate hazardous for a period as discussed in [1]. [21] and [22]. Which risk is acceptable for a building? Our recommendation is that chimneys as other important buildings should not be depending on movable devices unless a careful risk management analysis have been made. 6. Therefore it is easy to be lulled into security about the reliability after some years of satisfactory operating experience. If the maintenance is neglected the reliability of the chimney is impaired. 136 . Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 . Reynold number is changed if the chimney is charged with rainwater as discussed in [20]. Vortex shedding oscillations are also a little surprising. By paying attention to the risks above the economic incitement have to be big for using mechanical pendulum tuned dampers. The investigation presented in this report cover a measurement period twice or more that of other investigations [1]. For the VEAB chimney there were only one yearly inspection planned and acceptable inspection interval therefore were to long. To rely on movable devices in buildings is a form of risk management.2 Comparable chimney data Some investigations similar to that presented in this report have been published after this investigation was started. 10 days of continuous vortex shedding oscillations could create critical crack and collapse. According to our experiences that is not the fact especially if the inspection and maintenance costs are included in the cost estimate. Oscillations recorded during the current fouryear program on the VEAB chimney never approached those observed in December 1996. Then the shape factor during vortex shedding oscillations could be increased with hazardous consequences for the chimney. According to Section 5. By using two differently tuned mechanical dampers some of the above mentioned disadvantages could be avoided. [15].Pär Tranvik. Ice on the chimney during the winter periods add mass and changes the natural frequency resulting in a mistuned damper. [2].
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
In [1] Table 6.2 a data as Scruton number and calculated and observed top amplitude deflection for a number of steel chimneys are shown. To the table has been added the VEAB chimney, a chimney at Varberg [21] with great oscillations from vortex shedding, a chimney at Magdeburg [15] and with four chimneys presented in [22]. In Table 6.2 a the chimneys from [1] are named number 1 to 9, the chimneys in [22] with long term recordings number 10 to 14, the VEAB chimney number 15, the Varberg chimney [21] number 16 and. The following notifications are made in Table 7.1: h d ? t topp f d Sc vcr Re clat leffcorr K? Kw ymax yobs ymeasured M O * ** *** 15a 15b = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Height Diameter Slenderness ratio h/d Top shell thickness Natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Scruton number Critical wind velocity Reynold number The basic value of the aerodynamic exiting force Effective correlation length Eurocode 1 calculation variable Eurocode 1 calculation variable Calculated top amplitude deflection according to Eurocode 1 Observed top amplitude deflection Measured top amplitude deflection
= Measured = Observed = The difference in Scruton numbers is due to differences in structural damping and mode shape = The bigger diameter concern outer diameter of the damper. = Estimated top mass = The VEAB chimney with a malfunctioning damper. = The VEAB chimney with a functioning damper.
137
Table 6.2 a
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15a
15b
16
Nykøbing 75 2.4 31.3 5 0.37 (EC1) 1.06 (M) 0.53 (M) 0.723 1.72 0.61 0.77 0.03 (EC1) 0.03 (M9 6.1 11.8 9.8 0.2 6 0.13 0.6 80 250 (O) 300 (O) 690 (O) 130 149 0.454 0.6 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.487 120 200 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years 6.7 6 6 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 6 0.13 0.480 110 2.4 27.7 6.3 4.8 4.3 10.5 5.9 7.9 6.5 10.4 4.27 2.6 7.3 2.5 1.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.363 26 0.02 (M) 0.02 (M) 0.012/0.07 0.015 0.015 4.08 4.4 7.08 0.2 6 0.13 0.472 181 >1000 >500 (O) 116 0.474 0.13 6 0.2 5.26 4.4 4.77 0.025) (EC1) 0.125 17.2 7.7 10.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.488 37 0.49 (EC1) 1.88 (calc.) 6 5 5 6 0.68 31.1 20.8 36.8 20.2 30.1 30.6 43.1 30 37.4 1.8 1.25 0.816 3.96 1.62 0.914 0.813 2 10.16 56 26 30 80 48.7 28 35 60 38 90 2.3/2.8** 39.1 6 0.29 (M)
Skjern
Brovst
Thyrborøn
Odense
Herning
Chimney (A) Magdeburg Aachen Köln Pirna
Chimney (B)
Distil column
Rechlinghausen
Växjö, VEAB
Växjö VEAB 90 2.3/2.8** 39.1 6 0.29 (M)
Varberg 35 0.728 48.1 4 0.51 (M)
h (m)
50
45
54
64
d (m)
2.2
1.1
2.2
2.8
?
22.7
40.9
24.5
22.9
ttop (mm)
6
5
8
8
f (hz)
0.92 (M)
0.63 (M)
0.61 (M)
0.58/0.60
Data for a number of chimneys
d
0.014 (M)
0.034 (M)
0.059 (M)
0.014/0.03
0.03 10.7 3.5 2.3 0.2 6 0.13 0.408 25
0.04 8*** 3.3 6.7 0.2 6 0.13 0.393 104 1500 (0) One winter
0.07 14 *** 3.3 6.7 0.2 6 0.13 0.393 60 240 4 years
0.03 14 1.9 0.9 0.7 6 0.13 0.330 39 85 2 months
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
138
Sc
4.27
11.3
15.9
3.03/4.42*
vcr (m/s)
10.1
3.5
6.7
8.1/8.4
Re x 10
5
14.8
2.5
9.8
15.1/15.7
clat
0.2
0.7
0.2
0.2/0.2
leffcorr
6
6
6
6.35/6
K?
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13/0.13
Kw
0.06
0.379
0.569
0.6/0.599
ymax (mm)
201
84
51
361/247
yobs (mm)



>1000
ymeasured (mm)
35
28
26
98
Observati on period
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
As [1] notifies Table 6.2 a show that Eurocode 1 often underestimates the top amplitude deflections during vortex shedding oscillations. BSV 97 [3] has limits for slenderness and top deflection as noted in Section 2.4.2. It is worth noticing that nonprofessional persons often overestimate visual observations of chimney top deflections. That is a reasonable fact, but that is not the same as saying that visual observations of chimney top deflection always are overestimated. The professional is aware of necessary references needed for the estimation.
6.3
6.3.1
Codes
General
Rules for designing slender structures under wind loading as chimneys are found in various codes. Most countries have their own national codes but organisations such as CEN and Comite International Des Cheminées Industrielles (CICIND) have developed common codes as the Eurocode and the CICIND code. There are great deviations between the national codes as well as the common codes. Most codes deals with static wind loads in a similar way. However action from vortex shedding is treated in different ways. Some codes limit the allowable slenderness ratio (height/diameter), for applicability of the code design model. Limit restrictions for the top deflection at vortex shedding are also used. There is a discussion going on about the requirement of revision the codes. See for instance [1] and [15]. For static design the 50year maximum wind load (gust included) considering global and local buckling and plasticity are applied combined with dead load and other loads. For dynamic loads fatigue has to be considered. The spectra of fatigue effects will be made up of response from gust wind, vortex shedding and ring oscillations (ovalling). As a complement to the codes, handbooks have to be used for evaluation of buckling modes, welds and details. In most cases also a finite element (FEA) computer program is necessary for calculating natural frequencies with an acceptable accuracy. Selection of the applicable code is in most cases depending on in which country the chimney will be erected. Some codes for designing steel chimneys are found in [3], [4], [5], [9], [17] and [23].
139
282 ⋅ 0.24 2 − 3.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of stress cycles.Eurocode 1 [23] In Section 6.76 5 s 2 3.Snö och vindlast [3] 6.8 m at centre of the correlation length = 24 ⋅ 0.07/0.3..7 the number of stress cycles.4. Therefore the results may be unconcervative.2. 6.2 EC1 .4.3.…………………………………………………(6.Pär Tranvik.3 ⋅10 ⋅ T ⋅ f ⋅ ε 0 ⋅ U0 2 v ct 2 where T f ε0 = = = Lifetime in years Natural frequency Bandwidth factor U0 = 1 ⋅ U m.Li U0 = 1 m ⋅ 33.2 Comparison between some codes and behaviour of the VEAB chimney BSV 97 .2.3 ⋅ ⋅ e = 0.19 ⋅ ln 0. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6.8 = 6. The number of stress cycles will be − v cr 7 ⋅ e U0 ………………….…………….2) 5 z ⋅ β ⋅ ln z0 ….…………………(6.2.1 Calculations according to BSV 97 [3] are made in Section 2.3.Li ………………………………………………………………………………(6.1) N = 6.76 140 7 .97 ⋅ 10 cycles for one year 6.05 s U m. For the VEAB chimney with a locked damper the top deflection will be a multiplication with the relationship between the logarithmic decrements for the unlocked and locked dampers (0.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 0.2.3.. In Section 3.76 6 N = 6.2 the corresponding top deflection is calculated and in Section 3.04).24 6. It is important to notice that BSV 97 is used outside of its limitations according to Section 2.5.3 ⋅ 2 = 33.2.3) U m = v ref For the VEAB chimney we achieve 1 90 − 6 ⋅ 2.……………….
282 ⋅ ⋅e 5 9 2 3. To the Figure 7.3.15 in [1] the VEAB chimney is implemented. The number of stress cycles for a 50year period will be − v cr 9 ⋅ e v0 ……………………………….Pär Tranvik.24 5 2 ⋅ 1 = 1.4) N = 10 ⋅ f ⋅ v0 2 v ct 2 where v0 = Reference wind velocity for vortex shedding number of stress cycles (5 m/s) − 3.24 N = 10 ⋅ 0.……(6. 55 ⋅ 10 6 cycles per year 50 6. The Eurocode 1 gives results as DIN 4133 except for the number of stress cycles.4 CICIND [1] The CICIND model code is based on the spectral model using a large number of fullscale observations to estimate relevant observations [1].……………………….41 ⋅ 2300 = 940 mm .3 DIN 4133 [9] In Section 6.2. For the functioning damper the top deflection is found to be 0.2. 141 .23 ⋅ 2300 = 530 mm and for the malfunctioning damper 0.3.. Figure 6.3 a Relative amplitude as a function of Scruton number according to the CICIND model code [1]. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6.2 calculations according to Eurocode 1 are performed except for the number of stress cycles.
2.0065 for the malfunctioning damper. g.2 From Section 3.0111 for the functioning damper and 0.6 Measurements From Equation 3.. special codes (e. Special treatment is then required either by referral to experts.5) where C3 ρ air D m h ς str C2 = = = = = = = A constant (2) Density of air (1.3.Pär Tranvik.1.43 the top deflection for the recording period was found to follow y = −35⋅10 log(n t ) + 247 mm 142 .3.3 m) Mass per length of top third of the chimney ( ≈ 700 kg/m) Height of chimney (90 m) Structural damping ratio A constant = 1.5 ISO 4354:1997(E) – Wind actions on structures [24] ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C 2 the top deflection during vortex shedding is calculated mi Provided that ?str > ρ aer = as y0 = D2 C 3 ⋅ ρ air ⋅ m h D2 ⋅ C2 ς str − ρ air ⋅ D m ⋅ D ………………………….2. 6. For the functioning damper ?str ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C2 ≈ 0 mi ρ air ⋅ D 2 ⋅ C 2 ≈ 0.4 ς str is found to be 0.3.…………………………(6.0044 mi For the malfunctioning damper ?str  The motion will be unstable and large amplitudes up to the value of D may result [24]. on steel stacks) or special investigations [24]. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6.2 kg/m2) Diameter of chimney (2.
3.63 Total 10.39 500 1.23 700 0.42 20 889 35 421 111 713 139 868 209 803 420 514 946 000 28 155 63 576 175 289 315 157 524 960 946 000  6.3. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 6. Table 6.08 7 266 7 266 1 150 0. measurements and observations Spectra for top deflection.Pär Tranvik. For the comparison with the codes the load spectrum is extrapolated to one year of malfunctioning damper.31 100 4.23 300 1.2 a the top deflection for the first nine months of malfunctioning damper is found.2. functioning damper BSV97 600 500 Top deflection (mm) EC1 400 300 DIN CISIND 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 log (Accumulated load cycles) ISO Measurements from four year period Figure 6. 143 .3 b Spectra for top deflection per year and a functioning damper.54 150 2.8 Comparison between the codes.3 a Assumed top deflection amplitude distribution for the first nine months in service.2.7 Observations From Table 4. Top deflection y +/(mm) Relative time (percent) Number of cycles Accumulated number of cycles 1 500 0. Codes discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted.
no code is safe calculating top deflection. Figure 6. 144 .3 c Spectra for deflection per year and a malfunctioning damper. Both BSV 97 and ISO 4354 have limitations for their use and do not cover the VEAB chimney properties.3 c. CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. For the functioning damper. The geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been different from the actual geometric properties if one of the BSV 97.3 b shows that only the CICIND code is safe to use calculating top deflection. The influence on fatigue damage using the PalmgrenMiner hypothesis is more complicated and could give other results. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 Spectra for top deflection.Pär Tranvik. For the malfunctioning damper Figure 6. Especially the limitations in ISO 4354 points out that the VEAB chimney operates in or in the neighbourhood to an unstable vortex shedding section. malfunctioning damper 1600 1400 Top deflection (mm) BSV97 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 log (Accumulated load cycles ) EC1 DIN CICIND Observed Figure 6. There is a need for revision of the model to estimate the response caused by vortex shedding of very slender chimney structures ( h/d ¤ 30). Codes discussed in previous sections as well as results from the recording period are plotted.
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
6.4
Comparison of spectra from literature data and the VEAB chimney
The longterm observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. It is two times longer than previously reported literature data. Detailed data about observation time and structural data are found in Table 6.2 a. In Figure 6.4 recorded spectra for Aachen, Colonge, Pirna, Recklinghausen [22] and the VEAB chimney are drawn.
Measured amplitude spectrum
1.0
0.8 Relative load
Aachen
0.6
Cologne Pirna Recklinghausen VEAB
0.4
0.2
0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Log (accumulated number of load cycles  100 )
Figure 6.4 a
Measured amplitude spectra for the chimneys [22] and the VEAB chimney.
In Figure 6.4 b a typified load spectrum calculated with the least square method for the VEAB chimney is drawn.
145
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
Typified load spectra
1.0 0.8 Relative load 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 log n / log nt Fitted typified load spectrum Recorded for VEAB chimney
Figure 6.4 e Typified amplitude spectrum for the VEAB chimney. κ=0.32.
6.5
Second mode
In this report reviews briefly the influence of second mode oscillations on the VEAB chimney. Based on a limited number of observations the first mode is found designing for fatigue strength. From Section 3.6 and 3.7.1 it is shown that the second mode occurs at rare occasions and that the number of load cycles are low.
6.6
The future
Initially the recordings of the VEAB chimney were planned to continue until December 2003 followed by an evaluation of the recorded results as shown in Table 3.2 c.
146
Pär Tranvik, Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6
Table 6.6 c
Actions to be taken for the VEAB chimney Result of evaluation 1. Acceptable probability for collapse 2. Unclear Action a. The VEAB chimney is OK. Finish the recordings. b. Continue the recordings. c. Add additional damping to the chimney. An assumption is that the accumulated fatigue damage is acceptable. c. Add additional damping to the chimney. An assumption is that the accumulated fatigue damage is acceptable. d. Replace the chimney with a new and modified one.
3. Unacceptable probability for collapse
Unfortunately the strain gauges were damaged in the spring of 2001, probably by mistake, when applying corrosion protection on the inside of the chimney. It was expensive to repair the recording system. For economic reasons it was decided that additional damping had to be installed to provide an acceptable safety with respect to fatigue. Two dampers connected the boiler house at roof level (45 m) to the chimney erection splice at 55.2 m level. That is action 3 c in Table 3.2 c.
147
Pär Tranvik. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney – Section 6 148 .
Pär Tranvik. Second mode oscillations are rare for normal chimneys. It is two times longer than previously available data in the literature for other chimneys. The measured damping was less than expected. The evaluation of the measurements showed that the influence of second order oscillations could be neglected. There is a need for revising the calculation model for vortex shedding of very slender chimneys. A comparison with a number of code regulations has been performed. 149 . A comparison with some other chimneys reported in the literature shows that the VEAB chimney is unique in height and slenderness.Section 7 7 Summary 7. The diameter had been selected to a greater size.1 In English The longterm observations at the VEAB chimney have been in operation during four years. The report contains data on the behaviour of a major chimney with a mass damper. A refinement of a theoretical calculation model for the behaviour of tuned mass dampers was performed. A full scale damping measurement was performed and evaluated for the VEAB chimney with and without functioning damper. probably because the limited space in the damper house not did allow necessary pendulum movements. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Geometric properties of the VEAB chimney had been selected to other dimensions if one of the BSV 97. Actual meterological data were considered in evaluation the action for the VEAB chimney. CICIND or ISO codes had been followed strictly. and too low pendulum mass. The damping of second order oscillations is much greater than for first order. Typified linear load effect spectra describe the chimney behaviour well. The VEAB chimney was found to oscillate in both first and second mode of natural frequency. that is for chimneys with slender ratio height through diameter above approximately 30.
Med mycket slanka stålskorstenar avses ett slankhetstalet (höjd genom diameter) över ungefär 30. Det är behov av en översyn av beräkningsmodellen för att uppskatta responsen från virvelavlösning för mycket slanka stålskorstenar. Skorstenens diameter hade då valts större. Verkliga meteorologiska data beaktades vid utvärderingen. Rapporten innehåller uppgifter om beteende för en skorsten försedd med massdämpare. En förbättrat förslag på beräkningsmodell för pendelförsedda massdämpare är utarbetat. Svängningar i andra moden är ovanliga för stålskorstenar. Det är två gånger längre än tidigare i litteraturen beskrivna mätningar för skorstenar. Aktuella meteorologiska data har beaktats vid alla utvärderingar. Den uppmätta dämpningen var mindre än väntat.2 In Swedish Mätsystemet för långtidsövervakning av VEAB stålskorsten har varit i drift under fyra år.Pär Tranvik. Dom geometriska storheterna för VEAB stålskorsten hade valts annorlunda om någon av normerna BSV 97. Utvärderingen av mätdata visade att andra modens inflytande kunde försummas. En mätning av dämpning genomfördes i full skala för VEAB stålskorsten med både fungerande och låst dämpare.Section 7 7. En jämförelse med ett antal normer är gjord. antagligen på grund av att begränsat utrymme i dämparhuset inte tillät nödvändig pendelrörelse samt att pendelmassan var för låg. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . VEAB stålskorsten observerades svänga i både första och andra modens egenfrekvens. En jämförelse med ett antal andra skorstenar beskrivna i litteraturen visade att VEAB skorstenen är unik i höjd och slankhet. CICIND or ISO hade följts konsekvent. 150 . Skorstenens uppförande beskrivs väl av ett lastspektrum. Dämpningen är mycket större för andra modens svängningar än för första modens.
Heft 10. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan 1999 (in Swedish) [13] F. Bad Hersfeld. Part 32: Towers. [15] Constantin Verwiebe & Waldemar Burger: Unerwartet starke wirbelerregte Querschwingungen eines 49 m hohen Stahlschornsteins. Boverket 1994 (in Swedish) later replaced by BSK 99: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner. Boverket 1999 (in Swedish). masts and chimneys Chimneys. M. Schorsteinbau – Symposium 23. 1997.Pär Tranvik. Harris: Shock and Vibration handbook. 336341. 2nd Edition. Petersen: Windinduzierte Schwingungen und ihre Verhütung durch Dämpfer.och vindlast (Snow and wind loading). Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . Stahlbau 68 (1999). DIN 4133. third edition 1988. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 65 (1996) 5562. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. John Wiley & Sons. BSK 94: Boverkets handbok om stålkonstruktioner. Garland: Performance of the Viscously Damped Vibration Absorber Applied to Systems Having FrequencySquared Excitation. 846851. Boverket 1997 (in Swedish). Probleme – Lösungen . p 876878. November 1991. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Cyrril M. Sauer. F. Stahlbau 67. 109117. Berkeley. [14] Costantin Verwiebe: Winderregte Schwingungen und Massnahmen zur Dämpfungserhöhung im Stahlschorsteinenbau. 1982. C. ENV 199332. [1] [2] References Claës Dyrbye. Der Stahlbau 11/1982. Schornsteine aus Stahl. Svein O Hansen: Wind loads on structures. Band 2: Praktische Anwendungen. [11] Christian Petersen: Baupraxis und Aeroelastik. BSV 97. Snö. 1998..Schadenfälle. Bauverlag GmbH. [12] Bengt Sundström: Handbok och formelsamling i Hållfasthetslära. Januar 1997. Mc GrawHill Inc. Heft 11.Section 8 8. Hans Ruscheweyh. 1997. Chr. Thomas Galemann: Fullscale measurements of wind induced oscillations of chimneys. Costantin Verwiebe: Überschlägliche Berechnung der Querschwingungsbeanspruchung von Schornsteinen aus Stahl nach Din 4133. Hans Ruscheweyh: Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken. 151 . Wiesbaden und Berlin. Calif.
[17] BKR 99: Boverkets konstruktionsregler. 1993 (in Swedish). Chalmers Tekniska Högskola. 1993. [22] H. [18] Urban Bergström. 14. Boverket 1999 (in Swedish).Section 8 16] Dubbel: Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 7476 (1998) 777783. ENV 199124. Internal report S 02 003 .Pär Tranvik. 1994. Part 24: Wind actions. Utgåva 5. Stålbyggnadskontroll AB. 1985 (in Swedish). May 1998 (in Swedish). Stahlbau 65 (1996). Document 9835a. Verwiebe: Longterm fullscale measurements of wind induced vibrations of steel stacks. C. International Organisation of Standardisation. 2002. Stålbyggnadskontroll AB. Internal report 84641. Dennis E. 127135. [21] Göran Alpsten: Dynamisk vindlast av virvelavlösning (Dynamic wind loading from vortex shedding). [19] Max Beaumont. Ruscheweyh. [23] Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. SSAB Tunnplåt AB. Feb. Langer. W. Walshe: Investigation into wind induced oscillation on three 76 high self supporting steel chimneys. [20] Costantin Verwiebe: Neue Erkenntnisse über die Erregungmechanismen RegenWindinduzierter Schwingungen. Alstom Power Sweden AB. Göran Alpsten Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney . [25] Kamal Handa: Kompendium i Byggnadsaerodynamik. [26] Göran Alpsten: Svängningsproblem vid en 35 m stålskorsten utan spriralfenor dimensionerad enligt SBN 1975 (Vibration problems for a 35 m steel chimney without helical strakes designed according to SBN 1975). [24] ISO 4354:1997(24): Wind actions on structures. Auflage. [27] Pär Tranvik: VEAB Steel Chimney – Computer programs for data reduction. 152 . et al: Plåthandboken. 4th Chimney Symposium. 1997. Heft 12. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1981. Göteborg.
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