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Refereed Paper

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario,

Canada M5B 2K3

ABSTRACT a key control in the device operation for successful

Photovoltaic (PV) offers an environmentally friendly PV applications. The MPPT control is, in general,

source of electricity, which is however still relatively challenging, because the sunshine condition that

costly today. The maximum power point tracking determines the amount of sun energy into the PV

(MPPT) of the PV output for all sunshine conditions array may change all the time, and the current-

is a key to keep the output power per unit cost low voltage characteristic of PV arrays is highly non-

for successful PV applications. This paper proposes a linear.

new method for the MPPT control of PV systems, A PV system for the grid-connected applications is

which uses one estimate process for every two typically composed of five main components: 1) a

perturb processes in search for the maximum PV PV array that converts solar energy to electric

output. In this estimate-perturb-perturb (EPP) energy, 2) a dc-dc converter that converts low dc

method, the perturb process conducts the search over voltages produced by the PV arrays to a high dc

the highly nonlinear PV characteristic, and the voltage, 3) an inverter that converts the high dc

estimate process compensates the perturb process for voltage to a single- or three-phase ac voltage, 4) a

irradiance-changing conditions. The EPP method digital controller that controls the converter operation

significantly improves the tracking accuracy and with MPPT capability, and 5) a ac filter that absorbs

speed of the MPPT control compared to available voltage/current harmonics generated by the inverter.

methods. This paper details the analysis of the EPP

method. The main technical requirements in developing a

practical PV system include a) an optimal control

INTRODUCTION that can extract the maximum output power from the

PV arrays under all operating and weather

Photovoltaic (PV) offers an environmentally friendly conditions, and b) a high performance-to-cost ratio to

source of electricity, of which the fuel is sunshine, a facilitate commercialization of developed PV

renewable energy. To date, this way of electricity technologies. Since the PV array has a highly

generation, however, has been relatively costly. Very nonlinear characteristic, and its performance changes

often, the success of a PV application depends on with operating conditions such as insolation or

whether the power electronics device can extract ambient temperature, it is technically challenging to

sufficiently high power from the PV arrays to keep develop a PV system that can meet these technical

overall output power per unit cost low. The requirements.

maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV

Array Converter Inverter

MPPT Inverter

Control Control

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Refereed Paper

This paper proposes a new method for the MPPT cannot always produce the maximum power

control of PV systems. This method uses one available from PV arrays due to the use of the

estimate process for every two perturb processes in predefined PV curves that often cannot effectively

search of the maximum PV output. In this estimate- reflect the real-time situation due to PV nonlinear

perturb-perturb (EPP) method, the perturb process characteristics and weather conditions. Also, the

conducts the search over a highly nonlinear PV online measurement of open-circuit voltage or short-

characteristic, and the estimate process compensates circuit current causes a reduction in output.

the perturb process for irradiance-changing

conditions. This paper illustrates that EPP method Incremental Conductance Algorithm

can significantly improve the tracking accuracy and The main task of the incremental conductance

speed of the MPPT control. algorithm is to find the derivative of PV output

power with respect to its output voltage, that is

EXISTING MPPT METHODS dP/dV (C. Hua et al.,1998). The maximum PV output

To date, a number of MPPT algorithms have been power can be achieved when its dP/dV approaches

proposed in the literature, including perturb-and- zero. The controller calculates dP/dV based on

observe method (K. Chomsuwan et al., 1995; W. measured PV incremental output power and voltage.

Xiao et al., 2004), open- and short-circuit method (T. If dP/dV is not close zero, the controller will adjust

Noguchi et al., 2002), incremental conductance the PV voltage step by step until dP/dV approaches

algorithm (C. Hua,1998), and fussy logic (N. zero, at which the PV array reaches its maximum

Patcharaprakiti et al.,2006) and artificial neural output. The main advantage of this algorithm over

network (A. Torres et al.,1998). the P&O method is its fast power tracking process.

However, it has the disadvantage of possible output

Perturb-and-observe (P&O) Method instability due to the use of derivative algorithm.

Also the differentiation process under low levels of

The perturb-and-observe method, also known as

insolation becomes difficult and results are

perturbation method, is the most commonly used

unsatisfactory.

MPPT algorithm in commercial PV products (K.

Chomsuwan et al., 1995; W. Xiao et al., 2004). This Fuzzy Logic and Other Algorithms

is essentially a “trial and error” method. The PV

controller increases the reference for the inverter Since the PV array exhibits a non-linear current-

output power by a small amount, and then detects the voltage or power-voltage characteristic, its maximum

actual output power. If the output power is indeed power point varies with the insolation and

increased, it will increase again until the output temperature. Some algorithms such as fuzzy logic or

power starts to decrease, at which the controller artificial neural network control with non-linear and

decreases the reference to avoid collapse of the PV adaptive in nature fit the PV control. By knowledge-

output due to the highly non-linear PV characteristic. based fuzzy rules, fuzzy control can track maximum

power point (N. Patcharaprakiti et al.,2006). A neural

Although the P&O algorithm is easy to implement, it network control operates like a black box model,

has a number of problems, including 1) the PV requiring no detailed information about the PV

system cannot always operate at the maximum power system. After learning relation between maximum

point due to the slow trial and error process, and thus power point voltage and open circuit voltage or

the solar energy from the PV arrays are not fully insolation and temperature, the neural network

utilized; 2) the PV system may always operate in an control can track the maximum power point online.

oscillating mode even with a steady-state sunshine The disadvantage of these controls is the high cost of

condition, leading to fluctuating inverter output; and implementation owing to complex algorithms that

3) the operation of the PV system may fail to track usually need a DSP as their computing platform.

the maximum power point due to the sudden changes

in sunshine. THE PRINCIPLE OF P&O, MP&O, EPP

Open- and Short-circuit Method METHODS

The open- and short-circuit current method for P&O method

MPPT control is based on measured terminal voltage

Perturb-and-observe (P&O) method is dominantly

and current of PV arrays (T. Noguchi et al., 2002).

used in practical PV systems for the MPPT control

By measuring the open-circuit voltage or short-

due to its simple implementation, high reliability, and

circuit current in real-time, the maximum power

tracking efficiency.

point of the PV array can be estimated with the

predefined PV current-voltage curves. This method Fig. 2 shows the flow chart of the P&O method. The

features a relatively fast response, and do not cause present power P(k) is calculated with the present

oscillations in steady state. However, this method values of PV voltage V(k) and current I(k), and is

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Measure V(k),I(k)

Refereed Paper

Measure V(k),I(k)

Calculate Power

P(k)=V(k)I(k)

Calculate Power

P(k)=V(k)I(k)

0 1

Count =?

mode 1 mode 2

No Yes Vref(k) =Vref(k-1) dP=P(k)-P(k-1)

V(k)>V(k-1)? V(k)>V(k-1)?

No Yes P(k-1)>P(k-2)-dP?

No Yes Yes

No

No Yes No Yes

=Vref(k-1)+C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)+C

Vref(k-1)+C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)+C

Return

Fig. 3. MP&O method flow chart

power increases, keep the next voltage change in the

same direction as the previous change. Otherwise, estimate process in every perturb process to measure

change the voltage in the opposite direction as the the amount of power change caused by the change of

previous one. atmospheric condition, and then compensates it in the

following perturb process.

MP&O method

Fig. 3 shows the flow chart of the MP&O method.

It is known that the P&O method exhibits erratic There are two operation modes named: Mode 1 for

behavior under rapidly changing irradiance level that estimate process; and Mode 2 for perturb process.

causes incorrect or slow maximum power tracking. Mode 1 measures the power variation due to the

Because the P&O method is a type of hill-climbing previous voltage change and atmosphere change, and

methods for higher PV power output, the changing keeps the PV voltage constant for the next control

irradiance alters the shape of hill that often leads the period. Mode 2 measures the power variation and

climbing to wrong directions. determines the new PV voltage based on the present

The Modified P&O (MP&O) method was proposed and the previous power variations.

to solve this problem by decoupling the PV power Because the estimate process of Mode 1 stops

fluctuations caused by hill-climbing process from tracking maximum power point by keeping the PV

those caused by irradiance changing (D. P. Hohm et voltage constant, the tracking speed of MP&O

al., 2003). This method adds an irradiance-changing method is only half of the conventional P&O

Measure V(k),I(k)

Calculate Power

P(k)=V(k)I(k)

0 2

Count =?

mode 1 1

mode 2 mode 3

Count = 1

Count = 2 Count = 0

Vref(k) =Vref(k-1)

dP=P(k)-P(k-1)

P(k)>P(k-1)-dP?

P(k-1)>P(k-2)-dP? No

No Yes Yes

No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes

Vref(k-1)+C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)+C Vref(k-1)+C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)-C Vref(k-1)+C

Return

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Refereed Paper

P&O P&O P&O P&O

method.

time

t1 t2 t3 t4

Proposed EPP method

(a) P&O method

This paper proposes a new method to improve the

tracking speed of the MP&O. This method is named

the EPP that uses one estimate mode between every P&O Estimate P&O Estimate

two perturb modes. Fig. 4 shows the flow chart for

the proposed EPP method. The operations of the t1 t2 t3

time

t4

estimate mode and the perturb mode in the EPP

(b) MP&O method

method are the same as those of the MP&O method

explained above.

P&O Estimate P&O P&O Estimate P&O

When compared with the P&O method, the EPP

method proposed in this paper, with an addition of

the estimate mode, considers the changing irradiance time

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6

in the control that significantly improves the MPPT (c) Proposed EPP method

performance. When compared with the MP&O

method, the EPP method that uses one estimate mode Fig. 5. The time sequence of three P&O methods

for every two perturb modes increases significantly

the tracking speed of the MPPT control, without provide electrical isolation between the input from

reduction of the tracking accuracy. the PV array and the output to the inverter. The

inverter is a single-phase H-bridge inverter that

Fig. 5 shows the time sequences for the P&O converts 200V dc voltage to 120 V ac line voltage.

method, the MP&O method, and the EPP method.

Comparing with the MP&O method, the EPP method Among many dc/dc converter topologies, the current-

has a tracking speed of 1.5 times faster but has the fed push-pull topology is selected because its low

same delay time between the estimate process and the input current ripples, which is important for MPPT

perturb process. Therefore the EPP method has control of PV panel, The dc/dc converter is

obvious advantages over the MP&O method. controlled by the MPPT control shown in Fig.6. The

PV voltage vpv and current ipv are measured and used

SIMULATION to compute the reference voltage vpv* according

MPPT flow charts given in Fig. 2, 3 or 4. The dc/dc

Grid connected photovoltaic System converter is controlled in the current mode based on

the computed voltage reference.

Fig. 6 shows the grid-connected PV system used in

the simulation. The PV system includes a PV array, a The inverter is controlled to keep its input voltage Vdc

converter, and an inverter. The converter is a current- at around 200V and its output at unity power factor

fed push-pull dc/dc converter that is used to boost the on utility side. The inverter operates in the current

PV voltage of around 100V dc to 200V dc and to mode that keep its output current sinusoidal.

DC/DC converter Inverter

S1 S3

C2 L2 i Grid

PV panel g

L1 + +

vdc vg

ipv C1 iL - -

S 2 S4

+

vpv Q1 Q2

- T

ipv vpv iL vdc

PWM _

MPPT vdc* + ig* +

+

PI _

vpv* iL * _

D

_ PI PI

+

MPPT Control Inverter Control

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Refereed Paper

The PV array used in the simulation is 20 Solarex Rapidly changing irradiance conditions

MSX60 60W panels connected in 5×4 matrix. The

Simulations are carried on when the irradiance on PV

open-circuit voltage of the PV array is 105V, and the

array varies from 333 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 in 0.5Hz

short-circuit current is 14.8A. The maximum power

waveform. Fig. 7 shows the PV output power,

point of the PV array is at 85.5V, 14A, and 1198 W

voltage and current using the P&O control. Fig. 7(a)

under 1000W/m2 insolation at 25ºC. The utility is

shows the maximum PV internal power Ppvmax, the

simulated as a 120V, 60 Hz voltage source.

actual PV output power Ppv and tracking error Ppvmax–

The parameters of the circuit used in simulation are Pp. This figure shows that the initial tracking error is

given in Table. I. reduced to zero in 0.15s by the P&O control.

Table. I When the irradiance decreases, the P&O method

Main circuit parameters tracks the maximum power point well and the

Input capacitor C1: 100 uF tracking error is nearly zero. However, when the

Boost inductor L1: 2 mH irradiance increases, the P&O control does not track

Transformer T: 3:2 the maximum power point well, and the maximum

Dc link capacitor C2: 4700 uF tracking error is nearly 100W that is around 8% of

Grid inductor L2: 2mH the full power. Fig. 7(b) shows that when the

irradiance increases, the PV voltage and current

cannot track the maximum power point.

Three MPPT methods are simulated in the PV system

shown in Fig.6 for different atmospheric conditions. Fig. 8 shows the PV output power, voltage and

The MPPT control period is 2.5 ms, and the current for the MP&O control. This control tracks the

reference voltage vpv* changes in 0.25 V steps. The maximum power point very well with the steady

carrier frequency of DC/DC converter is 10 kHz, and tracking error of less than 1W.

switching frequency of inverter is around 20 kHz.

1.5

1.5

Ppvmax

Ppvmax

1

1

Power (kW)

Power (kW)

Ppv

0.5

Ppv 0.5

Ppvmax-Ppv

Ppvmax-Ppv

0

0 1 2 3 4 0

0 1 2 3 4

time (s)

time (s)

(a) Power (a) Power

100 100

Vpv Vpv

Voltage (V); Current (A)

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

ipv

ipv

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

time (s) time (s)

Fig. 7. The PV output of P&O method Fig. 8. The PV output of MP&O method

under sinusoidal changing irradiance under sinusoidal changing irradiance

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Refereed Paper

1.5

Ppvmax 100

Vpv

80

1

Power (kW)

60

Ppv

40

0.5

20

Ppvmax-Ppv

ipv

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

time (s) time (s)

Fig. 9. The PV output of proposed EPP method under sinusoidal changing irradiance

current for the EPP control proposed in this paper.

This figure shows the waveforms that are similar to

vpv*

those of Fig. 8. Therefore the proposed EPP control 84.8

Voltage (V)

has the similar maximum power tracking

performance as the P&O control, both with a steady

state tracking error of less than 1W. vpv

84.4

Initial tracking error

The response time of the maximum PV power

tracking due to a step irradiance input reflects the 84

0 1 2 3 4

tracking speed of the MPPT method. Fig. 10 shows time (ms)

that PV power tracking waveforms for three MPPT

methods. Curve (i) is the maximum PV internal (a) PV Voltage and reference

power. Curves (ii), (iii), and (iv) are actual PV power 15

under the P&O control, the MP&O control, and the ipv

EPP control proposed in this paper, respectively.

Among these three methods, the P&O control is the 14.5

Current (A)

The MP&O control is the slowest one that needs

doubled tracking time of 0.3s. The proposed EPP

control needs 0.2s tracking time, quicker than the 14

13.5

0 1 2 3 4

Fig. 11 shows the closed-loop control performance of time (ms)

(b) Converter current, reference and PV

Power (kW)

1.6 current

(i) ideal MPPT (ii) P&O method 1204.4

(iii)MP&O method (iV) Proposed EPPmethod Ppvmax

(i)

1.2

(ii) 1204.2

Power (W)

(iii)

0.8

(iV) Ppv

1204.0

0.4

0 time (s)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 1203.8

0 1 2 3 4

Fig. 10. The PV power of three MPPT methods time (s)

under step changing irradiance (c) Power

Fig. 11. The voltage, current and power of

DC/DC converter under proposed EPP method

Canadian Solar Buildings Conference

Montreal, August 20-24, 2004

Refereed Paper

the dc/dc converter. Fig. 11(a) shows the PV method is significantly improved compared to the

reference voltage vpv* and the PV output voltage vpv, modified P&O method. A grid-connected PV system

The step response time of the PV output voltage is using three MPPT controls is simulated and

less than 1ms. Fig. 11(b) shows the inductor current compared. Simulation results have verified the

in converter iL, its reference iL* and PV current ipv. tracking accuracy and speed of proposed MPPT

The step reponse time of iL is less than 0.2ms. This control.

figure shows that although there is a 1A ripple in

converter inductor current, the ripple of PV current is REFERENCES

pretty small because of filtered by the capacitor C1. A. Torres, F. Antunes, F. Reis, “An artificial neural

Fig. 11(c) shows the maximum PV internal power network-based real time maximum power

and the actual PV output power. This figure shows tracking controller for connecting a PV system

that PV power is close to the maximum internal to the grid,” in 1998 Proceeding, IEEE Annual

power, the tracking error of less than 1W, and the Conf. Industrial Electronics Society

power ripple caused by the ripple voltage of (IECON’98), vol.1, pp. 554-558, Aug.-Sept.

converter is also small. 1998

tracking techniques for solar storage systems,” in

Fig. 12 shows the inverter input voltage and output 1998 Proc. IEEE Applied Power Electronics

current and the line voltage. This figure shows that Conf. and Expo., (APEC’98), pp. 697-685,

the input voltage is controlled at around 200V, and 1998.

the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output

current is only 4.7%, and it is in phase with the line D. P. Hohm and M. E. Ropp, "Comparative Study of

voltage. Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms",

progress in photovoltaics: research and

CONCLUSION applications, 2003, v11, pp:47¨c62, 2003

This paper has proposed a new method for the MPPT K. Chomsuwan, P. Prisuwanna, et al., “Photovoltaic

control of PV systems. This method uses one grid-connected inverter using two-switch buck-

estimate process for every two perturb processes in boost converter,” in Conf. Rec. 2002 IEEE

Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., pp. 1527-1530,

Vdc

Voltage (100v/div); Current(10A/div)

May 2002.

N. Patcharaprakiti, S. Premrudeepreechacharn,

“Maximum power point tracking using adaptive

ig

fuzzy logic control for grid-connected

0 photovoltaic system,” presented at the IEEE

Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting,

Vg vol.1, pp. 372-377, Jan. 2002.

T. Noguchi, S. Togashi, et al., “Short-current pulse-

based maximum-power-point tracking method

0 4 8 12 16 for multiple photovoltaic- and-converter module

time (ms) system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, pp.

Fig. 12. The voltage and current of inverter under 217-223, Feb. 2002.

proposed EPP method

W. Xiao, W.G. Dunford, “A modified adaptive hill

search of the maximum PV output for all sunshine climbing MPPT method for photovoltaic power

conditions. This paper has illustrated that this method systems,” in Conf. Rec. 2004 IEEE Annu. Power

can provide accurate and reliable maximum power Electronics Specialists Conf.(PESC’04), vol.3,

tracking performance even under a rapidly changing pp. 1957-1963, Jun. 2004.

irradiance condition. Also this paper has

demonstrated that the tracking speed of the proposed

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