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DIANA

Finite Element Analysis

User’s Manual

Concrete and Masonry


Analysis

Release 9.4.3

TNO DIANA BV
ii

DIANA – Finite Element Analysis


User’s Manual release 9.4.3
Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Edited by: Jonna Manie
Published by:
TNO DIANA bv
Delftechpark 19a, 2628 XJ Delft, The Netherlands.
Phone: +31 88 34262 00
Fax: +31 88 34262 99
E-mail: info@tnodiana.com
Web page: tnodiana.com

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First edition, November 8, 2010.


Copyright © 2010 by TNO DIANA bv, all rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any form by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
The information in this document is subjected to change without notice and should
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The Diana system is the sole property of TNO DIANA bv. Software materials made
available are solely for use at a single site; they are not to be distributed to others
without prior written permission of TNO DIANA bv.

This document was prepared with the LATEX Document Preparation System.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Contents at a Glance

Preface xv

Glossary of Symbols xvii

I General Introduction 1
1 Basic Principles 3

II Structural Design 5
2 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge 7

3 Fire under Concrete Slab 43

III Cracking and Failure 63


4 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam 65

5 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam 79

6 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam 95

7 Shear Wall Panel 109

8 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame 129

9 Reinforced Concrete Slab 145

10 Fire near Concrete Safety Tank 159

11 Gas Explosion in Tunnel 209

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IV Creep and Shrinkage 241


12 Post-tensioned Concrete Beam 243

13 Long Term Behavior of RC Beam 269

14 Concrete Viaduct 287

15 Stress Ribbon Bridge 313

V Young Hardening Concrete 331


16 Hydration of Concrete Column 333

17 Thermal and Flow–Stress Analysis of a Box Girder 347

18 Wall with Cooling Pipes 371

19 Cooling Pipes in a Tunnel 389

20 Early Age Behavior of a Purification Wall 415

21 Adiabatic Hydration of Concrete 441

VI Masonry Modeling 447


22 Interfaces in Masonry Wall 449

23 Discrete Modeling of Masonry 463

24 Composite Modeling of Masonry 489

Bibliography 507

Index 509

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Contents

Preface xv

Glossary of Symbols xvii

I General Introduction 1
1 Basic Principles 3

II Structural Design 5
2 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge 7
2.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1.3 Axes Consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.5 Boundary Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.6 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2.2 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.3 Local Element Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2.4 Distributed Bending Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2.5 Distributed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2.6 Reinforcement Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.7 Reinforcement Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2.8 Combined Moments and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2.9 Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3 Prestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.1 Applying Prestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.3.2 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.3.3 Normal Forces and Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

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2.3.4 Reinforcement Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


2.3.5 Reinforcement Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4 Asymmetric Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.4.1 Applying Load According to Eurocode . . . . . . . . . 33
2.4.2 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.4.3 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4.4 Combined Moments and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4.5 Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3 Fire under Concrete Slab 43


3.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.1.3 Boundary Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.1.4 Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.1.5 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1.6 Mechanical Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.1.7 Boundary Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.1.8 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.1 Transient Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.2 Temperature Distribution and Development . . . . . . 55
3.2.3 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.2.4 Stresses in the Concrete Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.2.5 Stresses in the Reinforcement Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

III Cracking and Failure 63


4 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam 65
4.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.1.3 Mirror to Full Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.1.5 Supports and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.2.1 Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.3 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.3.1 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.3.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.3.3 Crack Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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CONTENTS vii

5 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam 79


5.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.1.3 Expansion to Full Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.1.5 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.1.6 Moving Parts Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.2.1 Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.2.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.2.3 Interface Normal Tractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.3 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.3.1 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3.2 Interface Normal Tractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.3.3 Von Mises Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

6 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam 95


6.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.1.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.1.3 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.1.5 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.2.1 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.2.2 Reinforcement Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.2.3 Crack Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.3 Force-Controlled Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.3.1 Creating a Force Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.3.2 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.3.3 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.3.4 Ultimate Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7 Shear Wall Panel 109


7.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.1.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.1.3 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.1.5 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
7.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
7.2.1 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.2.2 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.3 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

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7.4 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


7.4.1 Principal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.4.2 Plastic Strains in Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.4.3 Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.5 Cyclic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

8 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame 129


8.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
8.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.1.3 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
8.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.1.5 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8.2 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8.2.1 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.2.2 Crack Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.2.3 Principal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
8.2.4 Concrete Crushing via Plastic Strain . . . . . . . . . . 139
8.2.5 Yielding in Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

9 Reinforced Concrete Slab 145


9.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.1.1 Slab Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.1.2 Concrete Properties and Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.1.3 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.1.4 Reinforcement Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.1.5 Steel Amount and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.1.6 Boundary Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
9.2 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
9.2.1 Results for Step 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.2.2 Results for Step 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9.2.3 Results for Step 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
9.2.4 Results for Step 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
9.2.5 Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.2.6 Load–Displacement Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.3 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

10 Fire near Concrete Safety Tank 159


10.1 Model for Linear Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
10.1.1 Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10.1.2 Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
10.1.3 Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.1.4 Dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.1.5 Foundation Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
10.1.6 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

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CONTENTS ix

10.1.7 Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171


10.1.8 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.1.9 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
10.2 Linear Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
10.2.1 Deformation for Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
10.2.2 Combining Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
10.2.3 Empty Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
10.2.4 Fully Filled Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
10.2.5 Calamity Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
10.3 Model for Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
10.3.1 Model for Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.3.2 Model for Nonlinear Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . 194
10.4 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
10.4.1 Transient Nonlinear Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . 199
10.4.2 Transient Nonlinear Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . 202

11 Gas Explosion in Tunnel 209


11.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
11.1.1 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
11.1.2 Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
11.1.3 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
11.1.4 Finite Element Idealization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
11.2 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
11.2.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
11.2.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
11.2.3 Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
11.2.4 Boundary Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
11.2.5 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
11.2.6 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
11.3 Linear Static Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
11.3.1 Dead Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
11.3.2 Sand and Water Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
11.3.3 Initial Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
11.4 Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
11.4.1 Eigenfrequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
11.4.2 Eigenmodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
11.5 Initial Static Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
11.5.1 Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
11.5.2 Crack Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
11.5.3 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
11.5.4 Plasticity in Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
11.6 Transient Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
11.6.1 Consideration of Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
11.6.2 Performing Time Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
11.6.3 Results after Start of Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

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11.6.4 Results at End of Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237


11.6.5 Results at End of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
11.6.6 History Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

IV Creep and Shrinkage 241


12 Post-tensioned Concrete Beam 243
12.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
12.1.1 Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
12.1.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
12.1.3 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
12.1.4 Checking the Mesh and the Reinforcement . . . . . . . 249
12.1.5 Boundary Conditions and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
12.1.6 Specifying the Reinforcement Shape . . . . . . . . . . . 250
12.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
12.2.1 Reinforcement Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
12.2.2 Bending Moments in the Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
12.2.3 Forces in the Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
12.3 Serviceability Limit State Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
12.3.1 Adapting the Element Integration Scheme . . . . . . . 256
12.3.2 Running the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
12.3.3 Prestress Relaxation in the Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . 258
12.3.4 Stress Relaxation in the Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
12.4 Ultimate Limit State Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
12.4.1 Plastic Yield in the Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
12.4.2 Stress in the Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
12.4.3 Crack Development in the Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

13 Long Term Behavior of RC Beam 269


13.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
13.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
13.2.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
13.2.2 Shear Force and Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
13.3 Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
13.4 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
13.4.1 Experiment C11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
13.4.2 Experiment C15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

14 Concrete Viaduct 287


14.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
14.1.1 Element Mesh and Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
14.1.2 Material Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
14.1.3 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
14.2 Phased Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
14.2.1 Phase One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
CONTENTS xi

14.2.2 Phase Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299


14.2.3 Analysis and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
14.3 Appendix: Aging Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
14.3.1 Loading Age One Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
14.3.2 Loading Age 89 Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

15 Stress Ribbon Bridge 313


15.1 Phase 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
15.1.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
15.1.2 Initialization and Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 316
15.2 Phase 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
15.2.1 Material Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
15.2.2 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
15.2.3 Thermal Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
15.2.4 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

V Young Hardening Concrete 331


16 Hydration of Concrete Column 333
16.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
16.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
16.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
16.1.3 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
16.1.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
16.2 Nonlinear Transient Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
16.2.1 Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
16.2.2 Degree of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
16.3 Nonlinear Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
16.3.1 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

17 Thermal and Flow–Stress Analysis of a Box Girder 347


17.1 Model for Thermal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
17.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
17.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
17.1.3 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
17.1.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
17.2 Transient Nonlinear Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
17.2.1 Temperature Within the Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
17.2.2 Degree of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
17.3 Model for Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
17.3.1 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
17.3.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
17.3.3 Flow Boundary and Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . 364
17.3.4 Mechanical Loading and Boundary Constraints . . . . . 365
17.4 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis November 8, 2010 – First ed.
xii CONTENTS

17.4.1 Thermal Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368


17.4.2 Principal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
17.4.3 Longitudinal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

18 Wall with Cooling Pipes 371


18.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
18.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
18.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
18.1.3 Materials and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
18.1.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
18.2 Transient Nonlinear Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
18.2.1 Temperature within the Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
18.2.2 Degree of Reaction and Equivalent Age . . . . . . . . . 386
18.2.3 Temperature of Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

19 Cooling Pipes in a Tunnel 389


19.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
19.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
19.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
19.1.3 Boundary Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
19.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
19.1.5 Boundary and Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
19.2 Transient Nonlinear Heat Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
19.2.1 Temperature within Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
19.2.2 Degree of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
19.2.3 Internal Temperature of Cooling Pipe . . . . . . . . . . 412

20 Early Age Behavior of a Purification Wall 415


20.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
20.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
20.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
20.1.3 Modeling the Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
20.1.4 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
20.1.5 Boundary Conditions and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
20.1.6 Boundary Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
20.1.7 Initial Temperature Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
20.2 First Stage – Casting the Base Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
20.2.1 Heat Flow Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
20.2.2 Structural Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
20.3 Second Stage – Casting the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
20.3.1 Heat Flow Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
20.3.2 Structural Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
CONTENTS xiii

21 Adiabatic Hydration of Concrete 441


21.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
21.2 Nonlinear Transient Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
21.2.1 Temperature and Degree of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . 445
21.2.2 Time Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

VI Masonry Modeling 447


22 Interfaces in Masonry Wall 449
22.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
22.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
22.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
22.1.3 Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
22.1.4 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
22.1.5 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
22.1.6 Gluing the Surfaces Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
22.1.7 Temperature in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
22.2 Transient Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
22.2.1 Deformation and Horizontal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

23 Discrete Modeling of Masonry 463


23.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
23.1.1 Modeling Half a Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
23.1.2 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
23.1.3 Creating the Two-brick Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
23.1.4 Expansion to the Complete Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
23.1.5 Cutting the Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
23.1.6 Boundary Constraints and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . 472
23.1.7 Generating the Final Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
23.2 Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
23.2.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
23.2.2 Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
23.3 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
23.3.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
23.3.2 Stresses in the Bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
23.3.3 Crack Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
23.4 Additional Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
23.4.1 Nonlinear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
23.4.2 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
23.4.3 Stresses in the Bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
23.4.4 Crack Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis November 8, 2010 – First ed.
xiv CONTENTS

24 Composite Modeling of Masonry 489


24.1 Finite Element Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
24.1.1 Geometry Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
24.1.2 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
24.1.3 Material and Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
24.1.4 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
24.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
24.2.1 Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
24.3 Nonlinear Static Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
24.3.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
24.3.2 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
24.3.3 Plastic Strain as Crack Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
24.4 Including Creep Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
24.4.1 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
24.4.2 Transient Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
24.5 Nonlinear Transient Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
24.5.1 Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
24.5.2 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
24.5.3 Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505

Bibliography 507

Index 509

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Preface

This volume of the Diana User’s Manual describes how to apply the various
Diana modules for concrete and masonry analysis.

Cautionary note

Throughout this manual, it will be assumed that the reader has a


basic understanding of the Finite Element Method in general and of
concrete and masonry applications in particular.

Related volumes. Familiarity with notation conventions and general aspects


of Diana use as described in Volume Getting Started will be assumed. Some fa-
miliarity with Volumes Pre- and Postprocessing, Analysis Procedures, Element
Library, and Material Library will be assumed as well. Moreover, there are two
more volumes with examples of Diana analyses:

ˆ Volume Analysis Examples describes general examples, not specifically


related to concrete, masonry, or geotechnics.

ˆ Volume Geotechnical Analysis describes examples related to geotechnics.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis November 8, 2010 – First ed.
xvi Preface

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Glossary of Symbols

This glossary is additional to the general Glossary of Symbols for Diana. It


describes the symbols used particularly in concrete and masonry analysis.

1
Scalars
D11 Linear stiffness modulus [N/m2 ].
D22 Linear stiffness modulus [N/m2 ].
Gcr Shear modulus after cracking [N/m2 ].
Gf Fracture energy [N/m2 ].
K Conduction coefficient [W/(m2 ·K)].
c Volumetric thermal capacity [J/(m3 ·K)].
cA Arrhenius constant [K].
co Reinforcement coverage [m].
ft Tensile strength [N/m2 ].
m01 Reinforcement moment, X [N·m/m].
m02 Reinforcement moment, Y [N·m/m].
n01 Reinforcement force, normal, X [N / m].
n02 Reinforcement force, normal, Y [N / m].
n0c
1 Reinforcement force, combined, X [N / m].
n0c
2 Reinforcement force, combined, Y [N / m].
q 0 Reinforcement force, shear [N / m].
teq Reinforcement equivalent thickness [m].
zr Relative internal beam arm.
β Shear retention factor [−].
εc Creep strain [−].
εcr Crack strain [−].
εp Plastic strain [−].

1 SI-units in brackets.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis November 8, 2010 – First ed.
xviii Glossary of Symbols

εu Ultimate strain [−].


λ Thermal conductivity [W/(m·K)].
σy Yield stress of steel [N/m2 ].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis
Part I

General Introduction

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (I) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
Chapter 1

Basic Principles

Generally speaking a concrete and masonry analysis with Diana requires the
following actions.

Model definition. Typically you will define the model in the Preprocessing
environment of iDiana, as introduced in Volume Getting Started and formally
described in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing, or in FX+, as described in Volume
FX+ for DIANA.

Structural nonlinear analysis. In a concrete analysis, Module nonlin is


the core module, which handles the nonlinear constitutive models for concrete
and masonry-like materials in combination with load steps and/or time steps.

Heat flow analysis. A concrete analysis may also consist of a single heat
flow analysis to investigate the hardening process.

Phased analysis. A concrete analysis is often performed in phases to simulate


the various stages of construction. Diana offers Module phase to perform such
a ‘phased analysis’. This analysis handles the transfer from analysis results, like
displacements, strains and stresses, from one phase to a next phase.

Coupled flow–stress analysis. To analyze for instance the stress develop-


ment after pouring of concrete, or for a structural analysis of concrete members
subjected to a thermal load, Diana offers coupled flow–stress analysis.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (I) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
4 Basic Principles

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (I)
Part II

Structural Design

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
Chapter 2

Reinforcement Forces and


Moments for a Bridge
Name: ReBridge
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/ReBridge
Keywords: analys: linear static. constr: suppor. elemen: cq40s curved
shell. load: edge elemen face force weight. materi: elasti
isotro. option: direct groups units. post: binary femvie.
result: cauchy displa force moment reinfo stress total.

8000 10000 8000

(a) span

Lane 1 Lane 2

1000 3000 3000 500

8000

(b) cross-section

Figure 2.1: Bridge [mm]

This example aims at designing the reinforcements of a bridge. To prevent


failure of the bridge we have to know the amount and direction of reinforce-
ment needed. Diana allows for a relatively easy determination of the forces
and moments which are to be supported by the reinforcement, which will be
illustrated. In this example we construct a plate bridge consisting of massive
concrete [Fig. 2.1]. The bridge comprises three fields constructed as a continu-
ous plate. The first and last span is 8 meters long, the middle is 10 meters long.
The width of the deck is 8 meters.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
8 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

2.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model, we start iDiana and we enter the Design
environment with the model name BRIDGE.
iDiana
FEMGEN BRIDGE
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 3D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify the model type for a three-dimen-
sional structural analysis and the adopted units [mm, kg, N].

2.1.1 Geometry Definition


To define the geometry we apply eight points P1 to P8 [Fig. 2.2].
Lane 2

3000

P4 P8
Lane 1

3000

Y
P3 P7

P2 P6

P1 P5

X
Z

2×500

8000

Figure 2.2: Top view (plan) of first span bridge [mm]

Points bridge.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 500
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 1000
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 4000

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.1 Finite Element Model 9

GEOMETRY POINT COORD 8000 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD 8000 500
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 8000 1000
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 8000 4000
EYE FRAME
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS

With a series of GEOMETRY POINT commands, we define the coordinates of the


points. With the EYE FRAME command we display the specified points fitted in
the iDiana viewport. We display the points with their name labels [Fig. 2.3a].

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:15 points.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:16 surf.ps

Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

P4 P8

S3

P3 P7
S2
P2 P6
S1
P1 P5

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) points (b) surfaces

Figure 2.3: Geometry with labels

Surfaces bridge.fgc

GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P1 P5 P6 P2


GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P2 P6 P7 P3
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P3 P7 P8 P4
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
LABEL GEOMETRY SURFACES ALL BLUE

We specify the lines and the surfaces for the model via some GEOMETRY SURFACE
commands with the four corner points. The VIEW and LABEL commands display
the surfaces with their names [Fig. 2.3b].
Divisions bridge.fgc

LABEL GEOMETRY LINES


LABEL GEOMETRY DIVISIONS
MESHING DIVISION FACTOR ALL .5
DRAWING DISPLAY
MESHING DIVISION L1 32
MESHING DIVISION L3 32
MESHING DIVISION L6 32

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
10 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

MESHING DIVISION L8 14
MESHING DIVISION L9 32
MESHING DIVISION L10 14
DRAWING DISPLAY

In order to get a mesh with the desired amount and size of the elements, we
change the divisions of the lines. We start with a VIEW command to show all
geometry without any labels. When labeling the divisions of the lines we see
that all the divisions equal to four. This is the default value of the division.
We wish to create quadratic elements which are mainly 500 mm square. To
do this we must change the divisions per line. We use the command MESHING
DIVISION FACTOR to multiply the division of all lines with the specified factor.
With the MESHING DIVISION command we change the division for the lines. The
final DRAWING DISPLAY command refreshes the drawing so we can see the final
divisions [Fig. 2.4a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:16 divi.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:16 sweep.ps

Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

L9
32

L9 L17
32 20
L10
14
L10
S3 14
S3 S6

L8 L8 L13
14 14 14

L6 L16
L7 S2 32 20 S5
2 L5 L12
L3 2 L15 2
L6 L4 32 20
32 S1 L2 S4 L11
L7 2
S2 L1 2 L14 2
2 L5 32 20
L3 2
L4 32
2 S1
L2
L1 2
32
Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) surface lines (b) after sweeping an edge

Figure 2.4: Geometry and divisions

Sweeping an edge bridge.fgc


CONSTRUCT SET OPEN EDGE2H
CONSTRUCT SET APPEND LINES L2 L5 L8
CONSTRUCT SET CLOSE
VIEW GEOMETRY +EDGE2H GREEN
MESHING DIVISION DEFAULT 20
GEOMETRY SWEEP EDGE2H SE1 TRANSLATE TR1 5000 0 0
EYE FRAME
LABEL GEOMETRY SURFACES ALL BLUE

First we make a group of lines EDGE2H using the command CONSTRUCT SET. To
check this group we color it green. We want all new lines to have a division
of 20. Therefore we change the default setting of the division. The GEOMETRY
SWEEP command sweeps the group EDGE2H using a translation of 5000 mm in
X-direction. The division of the lines will be set to the specified default value
[Fig. 2.4b].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.1 Finite Element Model 11

Geometry for wheel loads. The bridge must be loaded with concentrated
wheel loads. These loads should be located on the most unfavorable position.
The critical position of the wheel load, in transverse as well as in longitudinal
direction can be determined with an influence field analysis in Diana. In this
example we assume that the wheel loads act on the middle of the second span
(in longitudinal direction) and at the middle of the lanes in transverse direction.
Figure 2.5 shows the concentrated wheel loads (as defined according to the Eu-
ropean code ENV 1991-3 [3]) and the location on the bridge. The wheel prints


Lane 1
3000

2000
Wheel prints
400×400

600
8000 5000

Figure 2.5: Concentrated wheel load

are 400 × 400 millimeters.1 Comparing this figure with the current geometry
[Fig. 2.4b] we see that the wheel load is located on surface S6. We will delete
this surface and create a new surface, with two internal surfaces exactly at the
location of the wheel loads. In this way we are able to put the wheel loads
exactly at the right location.
bridge.fgc

UTILITY DELETE S6
yes
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 12200 1300 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 12600 1300 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 12600 1700 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 12200 1700 0
MESHING DIVISION DEFAULT 2
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P13 P14 P15 P16
GEOMETRY COPY S7 S8 TRANSLATE 0 2000 0
LABEL GEOMETRY DIVISIONS
VIEW GEOMETRY +S7 GREEN
VIEW GEOMETRY +S8 GREEN

After deleting a surface, viewing all geometry and label the surfaces, we see
that only the surface is deleted. The lines and points of this surface remain. We

1 In practice we have to enlarge the wheel prints because of spreading of the load with an

approximate angle of 45°over the thickness of the asphalt and half the thickness of the bridge
when modeling it with shell elements. We will omit this in this example.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
12 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

do not delete these points and lines because we need them later on. With the
command GEOMETRY COPY we copy surface S7 using a translation of 2000 mm
in Y -direction. Now the two surfaces for the wheel prints have been made. We
display them in green [Fig. 2.6].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:16 wheelp.ps

Model: BRIDGE
Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D

32 20
2
2
2
2
14

14 14
2
2
2
2
32 20
2
2 2
32 20
2
2 2
32 20

Z X

Figure 2.6: Surfaces for wheel loads (green)

bridge.fgc

LABEL GEOMETRY LINES ALL


CONSTRUCT SET LANE APPEND L16 L13 L17 L8
CONSTRUCT SET WHEEL1 APPEND L18 L19 L20 L21
CONSTRUCT SET WHEEL2 APPEND L22 L23 L24 L25
VIEW GEOMETRY LANE GREEN
VIEW GEOMETRY +WHEEL1 BLUE
VIEW GEOMETRY +WHEEL2 BLUE
GEOMETRY SURFACE REGION S9 LANE WHEEL1 WHEEL2
VIEW GEOMETRY S9 RED

To ensure a proper mesh we will now remake a surface for the lane, with the
surfaces of the wheel loads as internal ‘holes’. We start with labeling the lines of
the current geometry. Then we make a set LANE with the lines along the outer
edge of the lane surface. These lines form a closed loop. Likewise we assemble
the lines along the edges of the wheel loads in two sets WHEEL1 and WHEEL2.
The geometry of the three sets is now displayed [Fig. 2.7a]. We create a region
surface with the lines in set LANE as boundary and the lines in the sets WHEE1
and WHEEL2 as internal ‘holes’. Finally, we display the new surface [Fig. 2.7b].

2.1.2 Meshing
Because a quarter of the bridge is defined, we may now create a finite element
mesh on the geometry.
bridge.fgc

VIEW GEOMETRY ALL

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2.1 Finite Element Model 13

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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) line sets (b) region surface

Figure 2.7: Making a region surface around the wheel loads

MESHING TYPES ALL QU8 CQ40S


MESHING GENERATE
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK
VIEW HIDDEN SHADE
VIEW MESH S9 RED
VIEW MESH +S7 BLUE
VIEW MESH +S8 BLUE
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR QUALITY
VIEW MESH ALL

We activate the complete geometry and select element type CQ40S (curved shell)
for all generic QU8 elements (8-node quadrilaterals). We generate the mesh and
then view it in ‘shrunken elements’ style. First only the mesh for the region
surface, with the elements below the wheel loads in blue [Fig. 2.8a]. Note that
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Y Y

Z X Z X
Quality
All Tests
PASS

(a) lane section with wheels (b) complete, colored for quality

Figure 2.8: Element mesh

the ‘holes’ for the wheel loads are not real holes: an element is generated for

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
14 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

each of the holes because the surfaces which represent them are still part of
the geometry. Finally, we display all the elements, colored according to their
‘quality’ [Fig. 2.8b]. We see that all elements are green which indicates that
none of the elements fails the quality test.
Expanding the mesh bridge.fgc

VIEW HIDDEN OFF


CONSTRUCT SET QUART APPEND ALL
GEOMETRY COPY QUART MIRROR Y 4000
CONSTRUCT SET HALF1 APPEND ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY HALF1 BLUE
EYE FRAME

Currently we only have a model for one quarter of the bridge. We can easily
expand this model to a complete model via two mirror transformations. First
we assemble the current geometry in a set QUART. We mirror this set via an
horizontal mirror plane at Y = 4000. This way the quarter geometry is mirrored
in Y -direction such that we obtain half the geometry of the complete bridge
model. We assemble the current geometry in a set HALF1 which we display in
blue [Fig. 2.9a].
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) from quarter to half (b) from half to full: complete

Figure 2.9: Expanding the geometry

bridge.fgc

GEOMETRY COPY HALF1 HALF2 MIRROR X 13000


VIEW GEOMETRY +HALF2 VIOLET
EYE FRAME
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW HIDDEN SHADE
VIEW MESH

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.1 Finite Element Model 15

We repeat the mirror procedure, but now with a vertical mirror at X = 13000.
We assemble the mirrored geometry in a set HALF2 which we display in violet
[Fig. 2.9b]. Finally, we regenerate the mesh, now for the complete geometry,
and display it [Fig. 2.10].

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:17 meshtot.ps

Model: BRIDGE
Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D

Z X
Quality
All Tests
PASS

Figure 2.10: Element mesh of bridge slab

2.1.3 Axes Consistency


We want to analyze local element output, for example distributed moments and
forces. For this, it is convenient to have consistent element axes.
bridge.fgc
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
EYE ROTATE TO 45 30 30
LABEL GEOMETRY AXES ALL Z RED
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 0 1
CONSTRUCT COORDSYS RECTANGUL CS1 P1 P68 P38
PROPERTY ATTACH ALL COORDSYS CS1
GEOMETRY FLIP CONSISTENT ALL
LABEL GEOMETRY AXES ALL Z RED
DRAWING DISPLAY

We start with a three-dimensional view of the geometry. Then we display the


local z-axes with red arrows [Fig. 2.11a]. We see that there is no consistency in
the directions: some z-axes point upward, others downward. To solve this we

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
16 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) before flipping - inconsistent (b) after flipping - consistent

Figure 2.11: Geometry local z-axes

define a rectangular coordinate system CS1 with its origin at point P1 (0,0,0),
the z-axis to point P68 (in global Z-direction) and the x-axis to point P38 (in
global X-direction). We attach this coordinate system to all geometry. Now
we use the FLIP CONSISTENT option to get consistent local z-axis directions. A
redisplay confirms the consistency [Fig. 2.11b].

2.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


We define the properties via the Property Manager dialog.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: CONCRETE
↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

↑Mass →Mass Density

↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: THICK


↑Geometry →Curved Shell →Regular

We define a material CONCRETE with Young’s modulus E = 31000 N/mm2 ,


Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.2, and mass density ρ = 2.4×10−6 kg/mm3 . We also
define a physical property THICK with a thickness of 330 mm.
bridge.fgc
PROPERTY ATTACH ALL CONCRETE
PROPERTY ATTACH ALL THICK

We attach the defined properties to the complete geometry of the model.

2.1.5 Boundary Constraints


We define the supports (boundary constraints) with the following commands.
November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.1 Finite Element Model 17

bridge.fgc

EYE ANGLE 0
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES
CONSTRUCT SET SUP1 APPEND L4 L7 L10 L34 L32 L29
CONSTRUCT SET OPEN SUPZ
CONSTRUCT SET APPEND SUP1
GEOMETRY COPY SUP1 SUP2 TRANSLATE 8000 0 0
GEOMETRY COPY SUP2 SUP3 TRANSLATE 10000 0 0
GEOMETRY COPY SUP3 SUP4 TRANSLATE 8000 0 0
CONSTRUCT SET CLOSE
VIEW GEOMETRY +SUPZ RED

We create a group SUP1 containing all the lines at the left edge of the bridge.
From this set we create a set SUPZ to contain all lines that must be supported
vertically. With three copy operations we copy the geometry of an existing set
into a new set using an appropriate translation in X-direction. Because target
lines do already exist, each copy operation will create a new set but no new
lines. For confirmation we display the new set SUPZ in red [Fig. 2.12a].
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

L26 L27 L38 L35 L80 L72 L71


L29 L28 L39 L81 L73 L74
L32 L30 L36 L75 L77
L31 L40 L82 L76
L41 L83
L42L84
L44
L43 L85L86
L33 L37 L78

L34 L79
L45 L87
L46L88
L48 L90
L47 L89
L9 L17 L62 L57
L24 L69
L25 L70
L23L68
L22 L67
L10 L58

L8 L13 L56
L20 L65
L21 L66
L19L64
L18 L63
L7 L6 L16 L61 L54 L55
L3 L5 L15 L12 L60 L53 L51
L4 L2 L11 L50 L52
L1 L14 L59 L49

Y
Z
Y
Z X
X

(a) sets for vertical supports (b) supports

Figure 2.12: Defining boundary constraints

bridge.fgc

PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO1 SUPZ Z


PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO2 P1 X Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO3 P21 X
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO4 P38 Y
MESHING GENERATE
EYE ROTATE TO 45 30 30
VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT ALL

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
18 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

We define the constraints with appropriate specification of the supported de-


gree(s) of freedom: Z for the set SUPZ, X and Y for the origin, X for the top-left
vertex and Y for the bottom-right vertex. We regenerate the mesh and display
the supports as spikes in a three-dimensional view [Fig. 2.12b].

2.1.6 Loads
We will first analyze the construction phase. In this phase the bridge is loaded
with the dead weight and a distributed load of asphalt. The load of the asphalt
is 3.22 kN/m2 . We apply these loads with the following commands:
bridge.fgc

PROPERTY LOADS GRAVITY LO1 ALL -9.8 Z


LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS LO1 ORANGE
CONSTRUCT SET DECK APPEND SURFACES ALL
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LO2 DECK -3.22E-3 Z
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS LO2 VIOLET

With the GRAVITY load class we apply the dead weight of the bridge. For the dis-
tributed asphalt load we define a set DECK and apply the load via the PRESSURE
load class. We display both loads with different colors [Fig. 2.13].
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) dead weight (b) distributed asphalt

Figure 2.13: View of the loads

2.2 Linear Analysis


Before we can run an analysis we must write the model to a file in Diana batch
format and initiate the analysis.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.2 Linear Analysis 19

iDiana
SAVE AS BRIDG1
yes
Bridge model for first analysis
UTILITY WRITE DIANA bridg1.dat
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
Bridge model
ANALYSE BRIDG1
Analysis Setup
Input Data File(s) Path: bridg1.dat ↑ OK

Reading Input ··· ↑ OK

Select Analysis Type


Type →Structural linear static ↑ OK

DIANA
⇑Structural linear static →Edit...

Structural Linear Static Settings ↑ Output


Model • User
° Selection ↑ Modify

Model Selection ↑ Elements ↑ Add

Elements Selection
¤
g Axes for Transformation of Strains or Stresses

Relative Internal Beam Arms 1: 0.8


Coverages 1: 30
↑ OK

Model Selection ↑ OK

Structural Linear Static Settings Output


Result • User
° Selection ↑ Modify

Results Selection
→DISPLA →TOTAL →TRANSL →GLOBAL ↑ Add

→STRESS →TOTAL →CAUCHY →GLOBAL ↑ Add

→STRESS →TOTAL →DISFOR →LOCAL ↑ Add

→STRESS →TOTAL →DISMOM →LOCAL ↑ Add

→STRESS →TOTAL →DISFOR →REINFO ↑ Add

→STRESS →TOTAL →DISMOM →REINFO ↑ Add

↑ OK

Structural Linear Static Settings ↑ OK

DIANA
↑File →Save Command File As...

Save Command File As


File Name: lin.dcf ↑ Save

DIANA
↑Analysis →Run

Calculating · · · ↑ OK

DIANA
↑ File → Exit

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
20 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

In the Analysis Setup dialog we specify the parameters and options for the
analysis of the model. In the Elements Selection dialog we specify a coverage
co = 30 mm and a relative internal beam arm zr = 80% of the effective height
(= ht − co). In the Results Selection dialog we select appropriate output items.
We save the commands on a file lin.dcf which looks as follows.
lin.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
*LINSTA
BEGIN OUTPUT
BEGIN SELECT
BEGIN ELEMEN
BEGIN REAXES
CO 30
ZR 0.8
END REAXES
END ELEMEN
END SELECT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL GLOBAL
STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY GLOBAL
STRESS TOTAL DISFOR LOCAL
STRESS TOTAL DISMOM LOCAL
STRESS TOTAL DISMOM REINFO
STRESS TOTAL DISFOR REINFO
END OUTPUT
*END

To assess the results we enter the iDiana Results environment with the name
of the model.
bridg1.fvc

FEMVIEW BRIDG1
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1

We start with a two-dimensional outline view of the finite element mesh. We


select load case LC1 which includes the dead weight and the asphalt loading.

2.2.1 Displacements
To display the vertical displacement we give the following commands:

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.2 Linear Analysis 21

bridg1.fvc

RESULTS NODAL DTX....G DTZ


PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
EYE ROTATE TO 45 30 30
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING DTX....G RESDTX

We select the nodal result attribute DTZ which represents the vertical displace-
ments. For these results we make a contour plot [Fig. 2.14a]. In the results
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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 Deformation = 454
Nodal DTX....G DTZ LC1: Load case 1
Max = 0 Nodal DTX....G DTZ
Min = -3.37 Max = 0
Min = -3.37

-.306 -.306
-.612 -.612
-.918 -.918
-1.22 -1.22
Y -1.53 -1.53
-1.84 Z -1.84
-2.14 Y -2.14
Z X -2.45 -2.45
-2.75 -2.75
-3.06 X -3.06

(a) 2D outline view (b) 3D view in deformed model

Figure 2.14: Contour plot of vertical displacements

monitor we see that the maximum deflection is 3.37 mm. It is even more in-
structive to display the contour plot in a three-dimensional view of the mesh in
‘shrunken elements’ style. Therefore we change the viewing direction and apply
the SHRINK and DEFORM viewing options [Fig. 2.14b].

2.2.2 Stresses
To display the stresses we give the following commands.
bridg1.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX


RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

We select the element result attribute SXX which represents the stresses in the
global X-direction σXX . With the RANGE and SURFACE options we indicate
that we want to see the stresses in the lower plane. We display a contour plot
of the stresses in the lower plane [Fig. 2.15a]. Notice that positive (tension)
stresses (orange and red) occur in areas around the middle of the spans. We

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
22 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


Deformation = 454 Deformation = 454
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.SXX.G SXX Element EL.SXX.G SXX
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface
Max = 2.78 Max = 5.18
Min = -5.18 Min = -2.78

2.06 4.46
1.33 3.74
.608 3.01
-.116 2.29
-.84 1.56
Z -1.56 Z .84
Y -2.29 Y .116
-3.01 -.608
-3.74 -1.33
X -4.46 X -2.06

(a) lower plane (b) upper plane

Figure 2.15: Stresses in X-direction (σXX )

also display the stresses in the upper plane [Fig. 2.15b]. Here the tension stresses
occur around the two mid support lines.

2.2.3 Local Element Axes


In the next sections we will assess the bending moments and forces. Because
these results are defined in local element directions we may check the consistency
of the element x-axes, which we had in mind during the preparation of the model
[§ 2.1.3 p. 15].
bridg1.fvc
EYE ANGLE 0
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK OFF
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM OFF
VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH AXES ELEMENT X RED QUICK
EYE ZOOM FACTOR 10

We switch off the current viewing options to get a two-dimensional view of


the mesh. Then we display the local x-axes directions [Fig. 2.16a]. Due to the
QUICK option iDiana will display only one arrow per element, instead of one
for each Gauss point. This way we are able to check the consistency of the
x-axis direction. We zoom in on the center of the model to confirm the axes
consistency even more [Fig. 2.16b].
bridg1.fvc
LABEL MESH OFF
RESULTS RANGE OFF
EYE FRAME
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.2 Linear Analysis 23

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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) full model (b) zoomed in

Figure 2.16: Directions of local element x-axes

We revert to an outline view of the full model. Because moments and forces are
single surface results we switch off the surface range selection.

2.2.4 Distributed Bending Moments


We will now assess the bending moments.
bridg1.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.MXX.L MXX


PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
PRESENT GRAPH LINE NODES THROUGH 236 1745

We select the element result attribute MXX which represents the element bending
moments mxx . We display these in a contour plot [Fig. 2.17a]. We also display a
diagram for mxx along the center line of the bridge slab [Fig. 2.17b]. We define
the line with two nodes at both ends of the bridge. Here we specify the nodes by
their number. In practice it is more convenient to select them via the graphics
cursor.
bridg1.fvc

VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.MXX.L MYY
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
PRESENT GRAPH LINE NODES THROUGH 236 1745

Bending moments in transverse direction myy are represented by the MYY result
attribute. We display a contour plot and a diagram [Fig. 2.18].

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
24 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.MXX.L MXX Element EL.MXX.L MXX
Max = .941E5 Max/Min on whole graph:
Min = -.505E5 Ymax = .885E5
Ymin = -.479E5
Xmax = .26E5
*1E4 Xmin = 0
Variation along a line
10

8
E
L
E 6
M
E
N
T 4

E
L 2
.
M
X
X 0
. 0 .25 .5 .75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75
L
*1E4
M -2
X
X
-4
.809E5
.678E5
.547E5 -6
.415E5 DISTANCE
Y .284E5
.152E5
.211E4
Z X -.11E5
-.242E5
-.373E5

(a) contour plot (b) diagram for center line

Figure 2.17: Bending moment mxx


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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.MXX.L MYY Element EL.MXX.L MYY
Max = .195E5 Max/Min on whole graph:
Min = -.808E4 Ymax = .177E5
Ymin = -.808E4
Xmax = .26E5
*1E4 Xmin = 0
Variation along a line
2

1.75

E 1.5
L
E 1.25
M
E
N 1
T
.75
E
L .5
.
M
X .25
X
. 0
L 0 .25 .5 .75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75
M -.25 *1E4
Y
Y -.5

.17E5 -.75
.145E5
.12E5 -1
.949E4 DISTANCE
Y .698E4
.447E4
.196E4
Z X -551
-.306E4
-.557E4

(a) contour plot (b) diagram for center line

Figure 2.18: Bending moment myy

2.2.5 Distributed Forces


We may assess the normal forces with the following commands.
bridg1.fvc

VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.NXX.L NXX
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -0.1 TO 0.1 LEVELS 4
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.NXX.L NYY
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -0.1 TO 0.1 LEVELS 4

Result attributes NXX and NYY respectively represent the normal forces nxx and
nyy . The two contour plots confirm that in this load case only bending moments

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.2 Linear Analysis 25

are present [Fig. 2.19]. The extreme values of the forces are virtually zero, as
indicated in the results monitor.
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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.NXX.L NXX Element EL.NXX.L NYY
Max = .524E-11 Max = .556E-11
Min = -.955E-11 Min = -.374E-11

Y .1 Y .1
.6E-1 .6E-1
.2E-1 .2E-1
Z X -.2E-1 Z X -.2E-1
-.6E-1 -.6E-1
-.1 -.1

(a) nxx (b) nyy

Figure 2.19: Normal forces [sic]

2.2.6 Reinforcement Moments


In this model membrane forces can be neglected [§ 2.2.5], so reinforcement
only needs to support bending moments. Because there are no torsional shear
stresses, the reinforcement moments are equal to the distributed moments. Note
that the results of the reinforcement moments in the lower and upper planes are
similar. This corresponds to the definition of requirement of reinforcement:
Positive reinforcement moments in a positive surface (in this model
the upper plane) require reinforcement. In a negative plane (lower),
due to the definition of moments, negative moments require rein-
forcement.
With a simple trick we can easily display the areas of the model that require
reinforcement: in a contour plot with VALUES 0, iDiana will display positive
values in red, and negative values in blue.
bridg1.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.M1R.S M1R
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.M1R.S M2R
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0

Result attributes M1R and M2R are the reinforcement moments in X- and Y -
direction respectively. We display contour plots for the lower and upper planes
[Fig. 2.20]. Looking at the results we can conclude that reinforcement in X-
direction is required in the lower plane at the spans (blue) [Fig. 2.20a] and in
the upper plane above the support lines (red) [Fig. 2.20b]. Reinforcement in Y -
direction is required in the lower plane at the spans (blue) [Fig. 2.20c] and in the
upper plane also at the spans and a bit along the long edges (red) [Fig. 2.20d].

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
26 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:37 m1r1.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:37 m1r2.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:37 m2r1.ps

Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.M1R.S M1R Element EL.M1R.S M1R Element EL.M1R.S M2R
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface Bottom (first) surface
Max = .94E5 Max = .946E5 Max = .195E5
Min = -.506E5 Min = -.504E5 Min = -.909E4

Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X
0 0 0

(a) lower, X-dir. (b) upper, X-dir. (c) lower, Y -dir.


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:37 m2r2.ps

Model: BRIDG1
LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.M1R.S M2R
Top (last) surface
Max = .198E5
Min = -.808E4

Z X
0

(d) upper, Y -dir.

Figure 2.20: Reinforcement moments (red is +, blue is −)

2.2.7 Reinforcement Forces


Reinforcement forces only occur if membrane forces are present. As this is not
the case in this model [§ 2.2.5] we expect these to be zero.
bridg1.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1R
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -0.1 TO 0.1 LEVELS 4
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1R
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -0.1 TO 0.1 LEVELS 4

Result attributes N1R and N2R respective represent the reinforcement forces n01
and n02 . The contour plots, and the results monitor, show zero forces indeed
[Fig. 2.21].
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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N1R Element EL.N1R.S N1R
Top (last) surface Top (last) surface
Max = .432E-11 Max = .432E-11
Min = -.352E-11 Min = -.352E-11

Y .1 Y .1
.6E-1 .6E-1
.2E-1 .2E-1
Z X -.2E-1 Z X -.2E-1
-.6E-1 -.6E-1
-.1 -.1

(a) n01 (b) n02

Figure 2.21: Reinforcement forces [sic]

2.2.8 Combined Moments and Forces


If both membrane forces and bending moments are present, the reinforcement
loading is expressed by forces equivalent to the combined results of these mem-

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.2 Linear Analysis 27

brane forces and bending moments. These combined reinforcement forces can
also be determined only if bending moments are present.
bridg1.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1RC


RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N2RC
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0

Result attributes N1RC and N2RC respectively represent the reinforcement com-
bined moment and forces in the X- and Y -direction, n0c 0c
1 and n2 . These results
are reinforcement forces per unit length. Reinforcement is required for positive
values in the upper plane (red) [Fig. 2.22bd], and for negative values in the lower
plane (blue) [Fig. 2.22ac].
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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N1RC Element EL.N1R.S N1RC Element EL.N1R.S N2RC
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface Bottom (first) surface
Max = 211 Min = -392 Max = 394 Min = -210 Max = 37.9
Min = -81.1

Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X
0 0 0

(a) lower, X-dir. (b) upper, X-dir. (c) lower, Y -dir.


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:38 n2rc2.ps

Model: BRIDG1
LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N2RC
Top (last) surface
Max = 82.5
Min = -33.7

Z X
0

(d) upper, Y -dir.

Figure 2.22: Combined reinforcement moments and forces (red is +, blue is −)

We will design the reinforcement in X-direction in the lower plane, based


on the maximum combined reinforcement moment and forces (n0c 1;max = 211
N/mm [Fig. 2.22a]). If we divide n0c
1;max by the yield stress of the steel (σy = 435
N/mm2 ) we get a thickness teq of the ‘equivalent reinforcement plate’ with a
unit length:

n0c
1;max 211
teq = = = 0.485 mm (2.1)
σy 435
For one meter length we need 0.485 × 1000 = 485 mm2 . So for example we can

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
28 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

apply ∅10–160, i.e., reinforcement bars of 10 mm diameter at a center to center


distance of 160 mm.

Questions:
1. How much reinforcement is required in X-direction in the upper surface,
designed on the maximum reinforcement combined moment and forces?
2. How much reinforcement is required in Y -direction?

2.2.9 Shear Reinforcement


We may assess the shear reinforcement with the following commands.
bridg1.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S QT
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

Result attribute QT represents the shear reinforcement forces q 0 . We display


contour plots for the lower and upper plane [Fig. 2.23]. Note that the results
are equal for both surfaces and that 0 < q 0 ≤ 114.
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Model: BRIDG1 Model: BRIDG1


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S QT Element EL.N1R.S QT
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface
Max = 114 Min = .347 Max = 114
Min = .347

104 104
93.6 93.6
83.2 83.2
72.9 72.9
Y 62.5 Y 62.5
52.2 52.2
41.8 41.8
Z X 31.4 Z X 31.4
21.1 21.1
10.7 10.7

(a) lower (b) upper

Figure 2.23: Shear reinforcement forces

2.3 Prestress
In this example only bending moments have been considered so far. In the next
analysis we will investigate the effect of adding a compressive force. This pre-
stressing reduces the required amount of reinforcement. To model the prestress

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.3 Prestress 29

we can apply a distributed normal force in global X-direction (nxx ) at both


edges of the bridge. We add this distributed normal force to the model. The
rest of the model will not be changed. We want to prestress the bridge to such
an extend that no reinforcement is needed in the lower plane in X-direction.

Question:
3. What is the value of the prestress (nxx ) that must be applied so that no
reinforcement is required in the lower plane in X-direction?
We assume that the internal arm (zd ) stays the same. In practice the internal
arm depends on the ratio of moment and normal force. In this case we use the
same command file.

Answer: No torsional shear forces and moments occur because a symmet-


ric load is applied. So in this case it is possible to make an addition of the
reinforcement needed for separate membrane and bending behavior
¯ ¯
nxx mxx ¯¯ nxy mxy ¯¯
n0c = − + ¯ 2 − (2.2)
1,lo
2 zd zd ¯

such that the last part of the equation for the combined reinforcement forces is
zero. Zero reinforcement in X-direction in the lower plane means that n0c
1,lo = 0.
Bending moment mxx will not change when adding a normal force. We also
assume that the internal arm zd remains the same. All these conditions result
in the following equation:
nxx mxx nxy mxy
n0c
1,lo = − =0⇔ = (2.3)
2 zd 2 zd

where mxx /zd is equal to the reinforcement forces n0c


1,lo due to bending moments
only, no membrane forces and no torsional shear forces and moments. This is
a result of our previous analysis [Fig. 2.22a]. We observed that the maximum
reinforcement force of combined moments and forces is n0c 1;max = 211 N/mm.
We must add a compression distributed normal force nxx of 422 N/mm.

2.3.1 Applying Prestress


To add the prestress (the normal force) we revert to the iDiana Design envi-
ronment and change the model.
bridge.fgc

FEMGEN BRIDGE
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY +SUP1 RED
VIEW GEOMETRY +SUP4 BLUE
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOP1 SUP1 422 X
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOP2 SUP4 -422 X

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
30 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH LOADS LOP1 RED
LABEL MESH LOADS +LOP2 BLUE

As a check, we display the two edges appropriate for the prestress in different
colors [Fig. 2.24a]. Then we apply the prestress load to the two edges: load
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) edges of geometry (b) prestress load on mesh

Figure 2.24: Applying the prestress load

class PRESSURE in X direction. We check the new load by displaying it on a


three-dimensional view of the mesh [Fig. 2.24b].

2.3.2 Linear Analysis


The model is now ready for a second analysis.
iDiana
SAVE AS BRIDG2
yes
Bridge model for second analysis
UTILITY WRITE DIANA bridg2.dat
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
ANALYSE BRIDG2
Analysis Setup
Input Data File(s) Path: bridg2.dat ↑ OK

···

We write a new input data file bridg2.dat. Then we close the model and launch
the Analysis Setup dialog. We perform an analysis with the new input data file
and the same command file lin.dcf that we used previously. The model for the
iDiana Results environment is now called BRIDG2. We enter this environment
as soon as the analysis has terminated.
November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.3 Prestress 31

bridg2.fvc
FEMVIEW BRIDG2
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1

We display the mesh and select load case LC1 which now includes not only the
dead weight and the asphalt load, but also the prestress load.

2.3.3 Normal Forces and Stresses


As a first impression of the analysis we assess the forces and stresses in longi-
tudinal direction.
bridg2.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.NXX.L NXX
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

Result attribute NXX represents the the distributed normal forces nxx . These
can be used to check the input of the prestress. The contour plot shows an
evenly distributed normal force [Fig. 2.25a]. The results monitor and the legend
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Model: BRIDG2 Model: BRIDG2


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.NXX.L NXX Element EL.SXX.G SXX
Max = -422 Bottom (first) surface
Min = -422 Max = 1.5 Min = -6.46

-422 .777
-422 .531E-1
-422 -.671
-422 -1.39
Y -422 Y -2.12
-422 -2.84
-422 -3.57
Z X -422 Z X -4.29
-422 -5.01
-422 -5.74

(a) normal forces nxx (b) stress σxx in lower plane

Figure 2.25: Prestressed model – primary results

show that the all values are equal to −422 which is equal to the input value of
the prestress [§ 2.3.1]. Therefore we may conclude that the model is correct.
We also select the global stresses σXX and display a contour plot for those
in the lower plane [Fig. 2.25b]. The results monitor shows that the stresses vary
from +1.5 to −6.5. So there are still tensile stresses which appear in the spans
(orange and red).

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
32 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

2.3.4 Reinforcement Forces


For the lower plane we display the distribution of the reinforcement forces in
the longitudinal direction. Note that the forces in the upper and lower plane
are the same.
bridg2.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1RC


RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUE 0
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1R
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

The zero-contour plot for the combined reinforcement forces n0c1 shows that these
are all negative [Fig. 2.26a]. The contour plot for the reinforcement force n01
shows that all values are equal to −211 [Fig. 2.26b]. The reinforcement forces
n01 are based on the membrane forces only. Because of the absence of shear
stresses, these forces are equal to half the distributed normal forces.
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Model: BRIDG2 Model: BRIDG2


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N1RC Element EL.N1R.S N1R
Bottom (first) surface Bottom (first) surface
Max = -.205 Max = -211 Min = -211
Min = -603

-211
-211
-211
-211
Y Y -211
-211
-211
Z X Z X -211
-211
0 -211

(a) combined (b) force only

Figure 2.26: Prestressed model – reinforcement forces, X-dir., lower plane

Question:
4. Do you think that our calculation of the prestress was correct so that re-
inforcement in the lower plane in X-direction is not required?

2.3.5 Reinforcement Moments


For the lower plane we display the distribution of the reinforcement moments
in the longitudinal direction.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.4 Asymmetric Loading 33

bridg2.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.M1R.S M1R
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUE 0

The zero-contour plot shows negative moments in the spans and positive above
the support lines [Fig. 2.27]. The reinforcement moments are based on bending
moments only. So the results are similar to the results of the model without
prestress [Fig. 2.20a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:48 m1r1ps.ps

Model: BRIDG2
LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.M1R.S M1R
Bottom (first) surface
Max = .94E5
Min = -.506E5

Z X
0

Figure 2.27: Prestressed model – reinforcement moment, X-dir., lower plane

2.4 Asymmetric Loading


In the two previous analyses we have applied a symmetric load. Hence no
torsional forces and moments do occur. However, in reality these torsional
forces and moments do arise. That is why we will finally apply an asymmetric
load. First we delete the two prestress loads.
Delete prestress load bridge.fgc
UTILITY DELETE LOADS LOP1
yes
UTILITY DELETE LOADS LOP2
yes

Here we delete the prestress loads LOP1 and LOP2 that we added for the second
model [§ 2.3.1].

2.4.1 Applying Load According to Eurocode


For the new asymmetric load we will check the bridge in ultimate limit state. In
this example we apply loads according to the Eurocode ENV 1991-3 [3] which
comprise the following [Fig. 2.28]:

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
34 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

q1
F1 F1
q3 F2 F2 q3
q2

3×500 2000 3000

8000

Figure 2.28: Asymmetric bridge load

ˆ q1 = 9.0 kN/m2 – a distributed traffic load on lane 1.


ˆ q2 = 2.5 kN/m2 – a distributed traffic load on lane 2.
ˆ q3 = 0.5 kN/m – a distributed load on the railing.
ˆ F1 = 300 kN – a concentrated tandem load (axle load) in lane 1.
ˆ F2 = 200 kN – a concentrated tandem load (axle load) in lane 2.

We will apply these loads in three steps: the railing loads, the axle loads, and
the distributed traffic loads.
Railing load bridge.fgc

CONSTRUCT SET RAIL1 APPEND LINES LIMITS VMIN 499 VMAX 501
CONSTRUCT SET RAIL2 APPEND LINES LIMITS VMIN 7499 VMAX 7501
CONSTRUCT SET RAILS APPEND RAIL1 RAIL2
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY +RAILS RED
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LORA RAILS -0.5 Z
VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH LOADS LORA RED

We assemble the geometric parts of the railing in two sets: RAIL1 all lines within
499 < Y < 501 (actually Y = 500), and RAIL2 all lines within 7499 < Y < 7501
(actually Y = 7500). We also make a set RAILS with the lines of the two previous
sets. As a check we display the set RAILS, overlaid in red on the complete
geometry [Fig. 2.29a]. Finally, we apply the load q3 = 0.5 on the set RAILS,
pointing downward (in −Z-direction). The display on the mesh confirms the
correct location and direction of this load [Fig. 2.29b].
Axle loads bridge.fgc

CONSTRUCT SET AXLE1 APPEND S7 S8 S23 S24


CONSTRUCT SET AXLE2 APPEND S15 S16 S31 S32
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY +AXLE1 RED
VIEW GEOMETRY +AXLE2 BLUE
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOAX1 AXLE1 -0.9375 Z
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOAX2 AXLE2 -0.625 Z

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.4 Asymmetric Loading 35

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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) geometry (b) loading

Figure 2.29: Applying the railing load

VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH LOADS LOAX1 RED
LABEL MESH LOADS LOAX2 BLUE

The axle loads will be applied near the middle of the second span [Fig. 2.5 p. 11].
Note that we have already made the surfaces for the wheels [Fig. 2.6 p. 12]. We
assemble these surfaces in two sets, AXLE1 and AXLE2, which we display in red
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) geometry (b) loading

Figure 2.30: Applying the axle loads (wheels)

and blue respectively [Fig. 2.30a]. Then we apply the two loads on these sets
and display these on the mesh [Fig. 2.30b]. Note that the start of each arrow
indicates the proper location of the load.
Traffic loads bridge.fgc

CONSTRUCT SET LANE1 APPEND SURFACES LIMITS VMIN 999 VMAX 4001

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
36 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

CONSTRUCT SET LANE2 APPEND SURFACES LIMITS VMIN 3999 VMAX 7001
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY +LANE1 RED
VIEW GEOMETRY +LANE2 BLUE
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOTR1 LANE1 -9.0E-3 Z
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LOTR2 LANE2 -2.5E-3 Z
VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH LOADS LOTR1 RED
LABEL MESH LOADS +LOTR2 BLUE

The traffic loads q1 and q2 will be applied on each of the lanes, inside the railing
[Fig. 2.28 p. 34]. We assemble the surfaces of these lanes in two sets: LANE1 all
surfaces within 999 < Y < 4001 and LANE2 all surfaces within 3999 < Y < 7001.
We display the sets in red and blue respectively [Fig. 2.31a]. Finally, we apply
the two loads on the sets and display these on the mesh [Fig. 2.31b].
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Model: BRIDGE Model: BRIDGE


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 3D Model Type: Structural 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) geometry (b) loading

Figure 2.31: Applying the traffic loads (lanes)

2.4.2 Linear Analysis


The model is now ready for a third analysis.
iDiana
SAVE AS BRIDG3
yes
Bridge model for second analysis
UTILITY WRITE DIANA bridg3.dat
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
ANALYSE BRIDG3
Analysis Setup
Input Data File(s) Path: bridg3.dat ↑ OK

···

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.4 Asymmetric Loading 37

We write a new input data file bridg3.dat. Then we close the model and launch
the Analysis Setup dialog. We perform an analysis with the new input data file
and the same command file lin.dcf that we used previously. The model for
the iDiana Results environment is now called BRIDG3. To assess the results we
enter the iDiana Results environment with the name of the model.
bridg3.fvc
FEMVIEW BRIDG3
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1

Load case LC1 now includes the dead weight, the asphalt and the railing loading,
and the asymmetric traffic load.

2.4.3 Displacements
To assess the displacements we use commands like for the first analysis [§ 2.2.1
p. 20].
bridg3.fvc
RESULTS NODAL DTX....G DTZ
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
EYE ROTATE TO 45 30 30
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING DTX....G RESDTX

The vertical displacements [Fig. 2.32a] confirm the asymmetric nature of the
loading. The maximum deflection is now 19.5 mm, it occurs in the mid-span
at the axle loads (blue). This is also clear from the deformed mesh display
[Fig. 2.32b].

2.4.4 Combined Moments and Forces


To assess the combined reinforcement moments and forces we use commands
like for the first analysis [§ 2.2.8 p. 26].
bridg3.fvc
EYE ANGLE 0
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK OFF
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N1RC
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S N2RC
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
38 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

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Model: BRIDG3 Model: BRIDG3


LC1: Load case 1 Deformation = 78.5
Nodal DTX....G DTZ LC1: Load case 1
Max = 2.46 Nodal DTX....G DTZ
Min = -19.5 Max = 2.46
Min = -19.5

.467 .467
-1.53 -1.53
-3.52 -3.52
-5.51 -5.51
Y -7.51 -7.51
-9.5 Z -9.5
-11.5 Y -11.5
Z X -13.5 -13.5
-15.5 -15.5
-17.5 X -17.5

(a) 2D outline view (b) 3D view in deformed model

Figure 2.32: Contour plot of vertical displacements (asymmetric)

RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP


PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0

The zero-contour plots show where reinforcement is required [Fig. 2.33]. We


may compare this with the results of the first analysis [Fig. 2.22 p. 27].
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Model: BRIDG3 Model: BRIDG3 Model: BRIDG3


Deformation = 78.5 Deformation = 78.5 Deformation = 78.5
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N1RC Element EL.N1R.S N1RC Element EL.N1R.S N2RC
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface Bottom (first) surface
Max = .112E4 Max = .107E4 Max = 362 Min = -191
Min = -.102E4 Min = -.111E4

Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X
0 0 0

(a) lower, X-dir. (b) upper, X-dir. (c) lower, Y -dir.


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:56:57 n2rc2a.ps

Model: BRIDG3
Deformation = 78.5
LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S N2RC
Top (last) surface
Max = 253 Min = -361

Z X
0

(d) upper, Y -dir.

Figure 2.33: Combined reinforcement moments and forces (asymmetric)

Question:
5. How much reinforcement is required, and where?

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.4 Asymmetric Loading 39

2.4.5 Shear Reinforcement


To assess the shear reinforcement we use commands like for the first analysis
[§ 2.2.9 p. 28].
bridg3.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.N1R.S QT


RESULTS RANGE SURFACE BOTTOM
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
RESULTS RANGE SURFACE TOP
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

The shear reinforcement forces now look also asymmetric [Fig. 2.34]. Com-
parison with the results of the first analysis [Fig. 2.23 p. 28] learns that the
asymmetric load induces considerably larger shear reinforcement forces.
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Model: BRIDG3 Model: BRIDG3


Deformation = 78.5 Deformation = 78.5
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Element EL.N1R.S QT Element EL.N1R.S QT
Bottom (first) surface Top (last) surface
Max = 390 Min = .477 Max = 390
Min = .477

354 354
319 319
283 283
248 248
Y 213 Y 213
177 177
142 142
Z X 107 Z X 107
71.2 71.2
35.8 35.8

(a) lower (b) upper

Figure 2.34: Shear reinforcement forces (asymmetric)

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
40 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
2.4 Asymmetric Loading 41

Answers to questions: 4. Yes, all negative n0c


1 in lower plane
1. In X-direction in upper plane: [Fig. 2.26a].
maximum n0c 1 = 394 N/mm, re-
quired steel area A = 906 mm2 /m. 5. The only method to check if we have
2. In Y -direction in upper plane 190 applied enough reinforcement is to
mm2 /m, in lower plane 87 mm2 /m. model the reinforcement and per-
3. See § 2.3 on page 29. form a nonlinear analysis!

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
42 Reinforcement Forces and Moments for a Bridge

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
Chapter 3

Fire under Concrete Slab


Name: Fire
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/Fire
Keywords: analys: flow flowst heat nonlin physic stagge transi. constr:
initia suppor temper. elemen: bq4ht chx60 flow grid hx8ht
potent reinfo solid taper. load: edge elemen force temper
time. materi: capaci conduc elasti isotro. option: direct
groups newton regula units. post: binary femvie. pre: femgen.
result: cauchy displa stress temper total.

P = 14.5 N/mm P = 14.5 N/mm


Y
reinforcement

1900 Z

o o oo o
150 o
15 oo
X
o oo
fire
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o oo

200 1200 2100 1200 200


4900

Figure 3.1: Slab with fire under it [mm]

This example demonstrates how to perform a staggered flow–stress analysis. It


aims at:
ˆ Setting up such flow–stress analysis,
ˆ Using iDiana features for three-dimensional modeling and results manip-
ulation.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
44 Fire under Concrete Slab

It concerns a reinforced concrete slab which is subjected to a temperature load-


ing at the bottom faces (fire) [Fig. 3.1]. The slab is 4900 mm long, 1900 mm
wide and 150 mm high. The reinforcement cover is 15 mm. A distributed load
is applied at the top face along two lines over the width of the slab. At the
bottom, the slab is heating up resulting in the temperature loading [Fig. 3.2].

[°C] [°C]
1200 120
1000 100
Temperature

Temperature
800 80
600 Bottom face 60 Lateral faces
400 40
200 20
0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 [min] 0 50 100 150 200 250 [min]
Time Time

Figure 3.2: Temperature evolution

The adopted material parameters for constructing the model are presented in
Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 on page 50. All material properties have been defined
as linear elastic with no temperature dependencies.
These are unrealistic assumptions, made to simplify the model. Re-
sults should not be interpreted as representing the correct slab behav-
ior at least from a quantitative point of view.

3.1 Finite Element Model


Due to symmetry only a quarter of the slab should be modeled. To build up the
finite element model we start iDiana and enter the Design environment with
the model name.
iDiana
FEMGEN FIRELOAD
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Time: →Minute

Temperature: →Celsius

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.1 Finite Element Model 45

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify the analysis type along with adopted
units for the analysis.

3.1.1 Geometry Definition


For the geometry of one quarter of the model we define some points and lines.
By sweeping the lines we create the bottom surface. A sweep of the latter
creates a body for the slab geometry.
Points and lines fireload.fgc
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 200.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 1400.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 2450.0
EYE FRAME
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P1 P2 2
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P2 P3 12
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P3 P4 10
CONSTRUCT SET SELIN1 APPEND LINES ALL

We define three lines in the X-direction that correspond to the bottom front
line of the model. Simultaneously with the definition of a line we specify its
division. We put all lines in a set SELIN1.
Sweep to bottom surface and slab body fireload.fgc
GEOMETRY SWEEP SELIN1 SELIN2 10 TRANSLATE 0.0 950.0 0.0
EYE FRAME
CONSTRUCT SET BOTTOM APPEND ALL
GEOMETRY SWEEP BOTTOM TOP 12 TRANSLATE 0.0 0.0 150.0
CONSTRUCT SET SLAB APPEND ALL

We sweep the set SELIN1 in Y -direction to create the bottom surface of the
model. Implicitly we define the division in Y -direction for the created lines.
We put the geometry entities of the bottom surface in a set BOTTOM. A second
sweep operation in the Z-direction creates a surface in set TOP and a body for
the slab geometry. We put all current geometry in a set SLAB.
Display fireload.fgc
EYE ROTATE TO 41 30 30
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
VIEW GEOMETRY +BOTTOM BLUE
EYE FRAME
LABEL GEOMETRY SURFACES ALL BLUE
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES ALL VIOLET

We choose an appropriate viewing direction and display the geometry with dif-
ferent colors for the bottom surface and the slab [Fig. 3.3a]. For future reference
we label the surfaces and the lines with their names.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
46 Fire under Concrete Slab

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Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D
L14
L25
S10
L4 L26

L15
S13S4
L17
S1 S14 L5
L18 S11
L7
L11 L8
L21
S7 S5
L1 L22

S2 L27
L12
L16
L2
S8 L6
S15 S12
L19

L9
S6
L23 L28
S3
L13

L3 S9 S16
L20

L10

Z Z
Y L24 Y

X X

(a) geometry (b) finite element mesh

Figure 3.3: Modeling the slab

3.1.2 Meshing
fireload.fgc

MESHING TYPES SLAB HE20 CHX60


MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH
VIEW HIDDEN SHADE

We select the HE20 generic element type and the quadratic solid brick CHX60
structural element for the slab. We generate the mesh and display it in hidden
shade style [Fig. 3.3b].

3.1.3 Boundary Elements


A complication with respect to the modeling of boundary elements for stag-
gered flow–stress analysis is that these elements are linearly interpolated, i.e.,
they have no mid-side nodes. In principle, these elements are incompatible with
quadratic structural elements that we use for the structural model. Fortunately,
for the flow part of the staggered analysis, Diana will internally convert quad-
ratic structural elements to linear heat flow elements and thus will not consider
mid-side nodes for the flow analysis. However, in the Design environment of
iDiana, where we must build the complete model, the meshing procedure will
not allow the incompatibility of elements. We must find a work-around solution
for this problem. The trick is to copy the set of lines along the boundary by
translation over a zero distance.
Geometry fireload.fgc

CONSTRUCT SET LATERA APPEND SURFACES S13 S7 S8 S9


CONSTRUCT SPACE TOLERANCE OFF
GEOMETRY COPY TOP BNDTOP TRANSLATE 0.0 0.0 0.0
GEOMETRY COPY BOTTOM BNDBOT TRANSLATE 0.0 0.0 0.0
GEOMETRY COPY LATERA BNDLAT TRANSLATE 0.0 0.0 0.0

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.1 Finite Element Model 47

VIEW GEOMETRY BNDTOP ORANGE


VIEW GEOMETRY +BNDLAT RED
VIEW GEOMETRY +BNDBOT BLUE
CONSTRUCT SET BOUNDS APPEND BNDTOP BNDLAT BNDBOT
MESHING DIVISION FACTOR BOUNDS 0.5
MESHING TYPES BOUNDS BQ4HT

We put the lateral surfaces on which boundary elements have to be applied in


a set LATERA. We copy the sets TOP, BOTTOM and LATERA to new sets BNDTOP,
BNDBOT and BNDLAT to model the boundaries. With the TRANSLATE option we
indicate a zero distance. iDiana would not have created new lines and points
without corrective action because any new point would exactly coincide with
an existing point. To force the creation of new points and lines we switch off
the tolerance check. We view the geometry of the boundaries with different
colors [Fig. 3.4a] and put them in a set BOUNDS. The surfaces of the boundaries
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Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) geometry (b) finite element mesh

Figure 3.4: Modeling the boundaries

get their division numbers from their originators during the copy action. So we
simply halve the number of divisions via the FACTOR option. Finally we assign
the linear BQ4HT boundary flow element to the surfaces of the boundaries.
Meshing fireload.fgc
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK
VIEW MESH BNDTOP ORANGE
VIEW MESH +BNDLAT RED
VIEW MESH +BNDBOT BLUE

We generate the complete mesh. We display the mesh of the boundaries in


the ‘shrunken elements’ style with different colors [Fig. 3.4b]. Although the
mesh seems to be fine we still have to make one final correction. Since the
surfaces in the slab have no common points with the surfaces in the boundaries,
the generated boundary elements will not be automatically connected to the
structural elements.
Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
48 Fire under Concrete Slab

Merging nodes fireload.fgc

VIEW MESH +SLAB GREEN


LABEL MESH NODES
EYE ZOOM FACTOR 5. 650. -630. 0.
MESHING MERGE ALL 0.001
DRAWING DISPLAY

We add the mesh of the slab to the display and label the nodes. We zoom in
on the bottom part of the model [Fig. 3.5a]. Looking at the end nodes of the
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:34 shmeshza.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:34 shmeshzb.ps

1969 1799 1608 1803 1972 1807 1611 1811 1969 1799 1608 1803 1972 1807 1611 1811
Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD
1913
Analysis: DIANA 2115
1214 1916 2120
1219 1913
Analysis: DIANA 1214 1916 1219
Model Type:1897
Heatflow-Stress
1727 Staggered 3D 1731 1900 1735 1739 Model Type:1897
Heatflow-Stress
1727 Staggered 3D 1731 1900 1735 1739
1841 1844 1841 1844
1825 16551351 16591356 1828 16631361 16671366 1825 16551351 16591356 1828 16631361 16671366
1769 1772 1769 1772
1753 12601948 12651952 1756 12701956 12751496 1753 12601948 12651952 1756 12701956 12751496
1697 1700 1697 1700
1876 1880 1684 1884 1497 1876 1880 1684 1884 1497
1681 2049
1311 1681 1311
1625 2044
1306 1628 1625 1306 1628
1804 1973 1808 1612 1812 1490 1498 1804 1973 1808 1612 1812 1490 1498
1609 1454 1609 1454
2116
1215 1917 2121
1220 1215 1917 1220
1732 1901 1736 1740 1491 1499 1732 1901 1736 1740 1491 1499
1845 1455 1845 1455
1352 16601357 1829 16641362 16681367 1492 1500 1352 16601357 1829 16641362 16681367 1492 1500
1773 1456 1773 1456
1427 12661953 1757 12711957 12761485 1493 1281 1427 12661953 1757 12711957 12761485 1493 1281
1701 1457 1701 1457
1428 1881 1685 1885 1486 1494 1428 1881 1685 1885 1486 1494
2045
2242
1307 1629 2050
1312 1458 1307 1629 1312 1458
1429 1432 1809 1613 1813 1479 1487 1495 1429 1432 1809 1613 1813 1479 1487 1495
2243
1384 2122
1221 1449 1226
2127 1384 1221 1449 1226
1430 1433 1737 1741 1480 1488 1430 1433 1737 1741 1480 1488
2244
1385 1450 1385 1450
1431 1434 16651363 16691368 1481 1489 1431 1434 16651363 16691368 1481 1489
2245
1386 1451 1386 1451
1267 1435 12721438 12771474 1482 1282 1267 1435 12721438 12771474 1482 1282
2246
1387 1452 1387 1452
1436 1439 1475 1483 1436 1439 1475 1483
2247
1388 2051
2249
1313 1453 1388 1313 1453
1437 1440 1443 1476 1484 1437 1440 1443 1476 1484
2248
1222
2123 2250
1389 1227
2128 1222 1389 1227
1441 1444 1477 1441 1444 1477
2251
1390 1390
1442 1445 1478 1442 1445 1478
2252
1391 1391
1278 1446 1283 1278 1446 1283
Z 2253
1392 Z 1392
Y 1447 Y 1447
2254
1393 1393
X 1448 X 1448
2255
1228
2129 1228

(a) before merging (b) after merging

Figure 3.5: Merging nodes – displayed labels

boundary elements, we see overlapping numbers: one node for the boundary
element and another one for the structural element. Therefore, there is no
connection. To solve this problem we apply a merging operation. The parameter
1
value 0.001 indicates a tolerance of 1000 millimeter for the check on coincident
nodes. A second display of node labels now shows one single node at the end of
each boundary element [Fig. 3.5b].

3.1.4 Reinforcements
To model the reinforcement grid we will first define its corner points. Then we
will model the grid between these points.
Points fireload.fgc

VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK OFF


LABEL MESH OFF
VIEW MESH ALL
EYE FRAME
CONSTRUCT SET OPEN RPTS
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 0 15
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 2450 0 15
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 2450 950 15
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 950 15

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.1 Finite Element Model 49

CONSTRUCT SET CLOSE


VIEW GEOMETRY +RPTS RED

We define points at the four vertices of the reinforcement grid, 15 mm above the
bottom face [Fig. 3.1]. We put the new points in a set RPTS which we display
on the mesh [Fig. 3.6a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:34 mesh3.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:35 mreif.ps

Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) points (b) reinforcement

Figure 3.6: Modeling the reinforcement grid

Grid fireload.fgc

REINFORCE GRID SECTION P43 P44 P45 P46


REINFORCE GRID STEEL RE1
REINFORCE SET SETGRID APPEND ALL
VIEW REINFORCE +STEEL

We specify the reinforcement section between the four points. We define the
actual reinforcement as STEEL and put it in a set SETGRID. We display the
reinforcement in the mesh [Fig. 3.6b].

3.1.5 Material and Physical Properties


To specify the material and physical properties for the different components of
our model we launch the Property Manager dialog.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
specify properties

We will specify the properties for the concrete, the boundary, and the reinforce-
ment.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
50 Fire under Concrete Slab

Table 3.1: Thermo-mechanical concrete properties

Thermal conductivity λ 0.132 J/(min·mm·°C)


Thermal capacity c 2.3×10−3 J/(mm3 ·°C)
Young’s modulus E 42000 MPa
Poisson’s ratio ν 0.18
Thermal expansion coefficient α 10×10−6 °C−1
Boundary conduction coefficient K 4.8×10−2 J/(mm2 ·°C·min)

Concrete iDiana
Property Manager
↑ Materials Material Name: MASLAB
↑Flow →Isotropic

↑Expansion →Isotropic →Constnt params.

↑Linear elasticity →Isotropic

We specify the properties of the concrete elements in a material MASLAB [Table


3.1]. For flow we specify the thermal conductivity and the thermal capacity. For
expansion we specify the thermal expansion coefficient. As elastic properties we
specify Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
Boundary iDiana
Property Manager
Materials Material Name: MABOUN
↑Flow →Boundary →Convection Only

We define a material MABOUN for the boundary elements. We specify the con-
duction coefficient K [Table 3.1] which simulates the conduction with the envi-
ronment.

Table 3.2: Properties of reinforcement

Young’s modulus E 215000 MPa


Equivalent thickness t 0.48 mm

Reinforcement grid iDiana


Property Manager
Materials Material Name: MAREIN
↑Elastic →Reinforcement →Bonded

↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHREIN


↑Geometry →Embedded Reinforcements →Grid

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.1 Finite Element Model 51

For the reinforcement grid we define a material MAREIN with a Young’s modulus
for elasticity [Table 3.2]. We also define a physical property PHREIN with an
equivalent thickness in the X- and Y -direction of 0.48 mm both. In our case the
local x-axis of the grid is the same as the global X-axis. Thus the components
of the local vector are {1, 0, 0}.
Properties assignment fireload.fgc

PROPERTY ATTACH SLAB MASLAB


PROPERTY ATTACH STEEL MAREIN PHREIN
PROPERTY ATTACH BOUNDS MABOUN
VIEW HIDDEN FILL COLOUR
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR MATERIAL
VIEW MESH SLAB
VIEW MESH BOUNDS

We assign the material and the physical properties to the appropriate sets of
the model geometry. We check the assignment of the material properties by
displaying the mesh of the slab and the boundaries with colors modulated ac-
cording to the assigned material [Fig. 3.7]. Both displays show only one color.
The legend confirms that this color represents the proper material: respectively
MASLAB and MABOUN.
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Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X
Materials Materials
MASLAB MABOUN

(a) concrete slab (b) boundaries

Figure 3.7: Checking the material assignment

3.1.6 Mechanical Loading


The quarter model is loaded by a vertical line load, distributed in the Y -direction
[Fig. 3.1 p. 43]. We define this load for the structural analysis.
Line load fireload.fgc

PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE 1 L19 -14.5 Z

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
52 Fire under Concrete Slab

CONSTRUCT TCURVE TC1 LIST 0.0 1.0 250.0 1.0


PROPERTY ATTACH LOADCASE 1 TCURVE TC1
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
VIEW MESH ALL
LABEL MESH LOADS

We specify the distributed force via the PRESSURE load class as load case 1. The
distributed force P = 14.5 N/mm acts downward, i.e., in the Z-direction, over
line L19. As we are going to perform a transient analysis, we have to specify the
time dependency of this load. We define a time curve with a constant value of
1 from time t = 0 to t = 250. Assignment of the time curve to the load case
thus defines a constant pressure load for the specified time interval. A display
of the load on the mesh confirms the correct specification [Fig. 3.8a].
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Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D

Z Z
Y Y

X X

(a) loading (b) constraints

Figure 3.8: Boundary conditions for structural analysis

3.1.7 Boundary Constraints


The boundary constraints for the structural analysis consist of a symmetry
condition along the back and right surfaces of the model and a vertical support
on the bottom line [Fig. 3.1 p. 43].
Symmetry and supports fireload.fgc

PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT S10 Y


PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT S11 Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT S12 Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT S16 X
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT L8 Z
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.1 Finite Element Model 53

We suppress the horizontal normal displacement of the surfaces along the sym-
metry faces.1 For the supports we suppress the vertical displacement along the
line at X = 1200. We display the mesh with constraint labels to confirm the
correct specification [Fig. 3.8b].

3.1.8 Temperature
For the transient analysis we must specify the temperature development in time
along the boundaries, i.e., the fire load. For the heat flow analysis we must also
specify the initial temperature of the model.
Fire load fireload.fgc

PROPERTY LOADS EXTTEMP 2 BNDTOP 1


PROPERTY LOADS EXTTEMP 3 BNDBOT 1
PROPERTY LOADS EXTTEMP 4 BNDLAT 1
CONSTRUCT TCURVE TC2 LIST 0 20 250 20
CONSTRUCT TCURVE TC3 LIST 0 20 15 400 50 800 100 1000 250 1200
CONSTRUCT TCURVE TC4 LIST 0 20 15 40 50 80 100 100 250 120
UTILITY GRAPH TCURVE TC2
UTILITY GRAPH TCURVE TC3
UTILITY GRAPH TCURVE TC4
PROPERTY ATTACH LOADCASE 2 TCURVE TC2
PROPERTY ATTACH LOADCASE 3 TCURVE TC3
PROPERTY ATTACH LOADCASE 4 TCURVE TC4

Via the EXTTEMP load class we define an ambient temperature of 1 °C for the
surfaces of the boundaries. For each surface we use a time curve to define the
time dependency of the temperature. For the top surface we assume a constant
environmental temperature of 20 °C. For the bottom and lateral surfaces we
make time curves according to Figure 3.2 on page 44. We plot graphs of the
time curves to check their specification [Fig. 3.9]. By assigning the time curves
to the load cases we define the time dependency of the external temperature.
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Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD Model: FIRELOAD


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D Model Type: Heatflow-Stress Staggered 3D
TCURVE : TC2 TCURVE : TC3 TCURVE : TC4

*1E3
22.5 1.2 140

20
120
1
17.5
100
15 .8
V V V
A 12.5 A A 80
L L L
U U .6 U
E 10 E E
60

7.5 .4
40
5
.2
20
2.5

0 0 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
TIME TIME TIME

(a) constant (b) fire (c) for lateral surface

Figure 3.9: Time curves for temperature

1 See Figure 3.1a for surface and line names.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
54 Fire under Concrete Slab

Initial temperature fireload.fgc

PROPERTY INITIAL INITEMP ALL 20.0

Finally we specify an initial temperature field of 20 °C for all parts of the model.

3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis


For a staggered flow–stress analysis we must perform a flow analysis followed
by a structural analysis. Prior to the actual analysis we write the model to an
input data file in Diana batch format.
Write input data file iDiana
UTILTY WRITE DIANA
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
Fire under concrete slab

iDiana writes the model to an input data file fireload.dat. We close the
model and start with the heat flow analysis.

3.2.1 Transient Heat Flow Analysis


We initiate the transient heat flow analysis via the ANALYSE command.
Initiate analysis iDiana
ANALYSE FIRELOAD
Analysis Setup
specify analysis options

In the Analysis Setup dialog we specify the various analysis options for the heat
flow analysis. This results in the following batch analysis commands.
Analysis commands thermal.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
*HEATTR
INITIA TEMPER INPUT FIELD=1
EXECUT SIZES 1(10) 5(8) 50(4)
BEGIN OUTPUT FILE="thermal"
TEMPER
END OUTPUT
*END

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis 55

We start the transient heat flow analysis with an initial temperature field as
defined in the input data file. We execute time steps over an interval of 250
minutes ranging from 1 minute at the beginning of the analysis to 50 minutes
at the end. We ask for output of temperatures to a database THERMAL for the
iDiana Results environment.
Once the analysis run has terminated we enter the iDiana Results environ-
ment with the name of the database to assess the results.
Initiate postprocessing thermal.fvc

FEMVIEW THERMAL
UTILITY TABULATE LOADCASES

The tabulation shows the available load cases (time steps) with their result data.

Tabulated load cases loads.tb


; Model: THERMAL
;
; LOADCASE DATA
;
; Name Details and results stored
; ---- --------------------------
;
; TR1 1 TIME = 1 "Boundary case 1"
; Nodal : PTE....S
;
; TR1 2 TIME = 2 "Boundary case 1"
; Nodal : PTE....S
... lines skipped
; TR1 22 TIME = 250 "Boundary case 1"
; Nodal : PTE....S

3.2.2 Temperature Distribution and Development


We will make contour plots for the temperature distribution after 250 minutes of
fire, i.e., for the last time step. We will also assess the temperature development
in time.
Temperature after 250 minutes of fire thermal.fvc

VIEW MESH SLAB


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE ROTATE TO 41 30 30
EYE FRAME
RESULTS LOADCASE TR1 22
RESULTS NODAL PTE....S PTE
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
EYE ROTATE TO 90
EYE FRAME
DRAWING DISPLAY

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
56 Fire under Concrete Slab

We display a bird’s-eye view of the mesh of the slab in outline style. We select
nodal result attribute PTE representing the temperatures. We select the last
time step, i.e., the situation after 250 minutes of fire. We display a contour plot
of the temperatures [Fig. 3.10a]. As the top surface of the slab stays rather cool
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:41 temps.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 temps2.ps

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 22 TIME: 250 Step: 22 TIME: 250
Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = .13E4 Max = .13E4
Min = 31.8 Min = 31.8

.118E4 .118E4
.107E4 .107E4
953 953
838 838
723 Z 723
Z 608 608
Y 492 492
377 Y X 377
262 262
X 147 147

(a) bird’s-eye view (b) side view

Figure 3.10: Temperature contours after 250 minutes of fire

we do not see much of the contours. These are only discernible in the side faces.
A view perpendicular to the longitudinal side face gives a better view of the
temperature distribution [Fig. 3.10b].
Distribution over thickness thermal.fvc
VIEW MESH SLAB
CONSTRUCT SHAPE PLANE PLANEY Y 380
VIEW XSECTION PLANEY
EYE ROTATE TO 90
EYE FRAME
LABEL MESH NODES
RESULTS LOADCASE TR1 10 TR1 18 TR1 22
PRESENT GRAPH LINE NODES THROUGH 302 404
PRESENT OPTIONS GRAPH AXES SWAP

To make a graph of the temperature distribution over the thickness of the slab
we need two nodes to define a vertical line through the slab. Therefore we
redisplay the mesh of the slab and construct a shape PLANEY corresponding
to the plane at Y = 380. With the XSECTION option we define a plane cross-
section through the model. We make a normal view of this cross-section with
node numbers [Fig. 3.11a]. We can now choose two nodes which form a vertical
line through the thickness, for instance 302 and 404 at X = 1400 (see pointers).
We select the time steps corresponding to times t = 10, 50, and 250 minutes.
We make a single display with three graphs for the temperature distribution
along the line between the two nodes [Fig. 3.11b]. To get the distance along
the thickness in vertical direction we swap the X- and Y -axes of the graphs.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis 57

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 cross.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 thgraph.ps

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = 150 Ymin = 0
Xmax = .116E4 Xmin = 20.2
Variation along a line
TR1 10
TR1 18
TR1 22
160

140

120

D 100
I
32 38 374 380 386 392 398 404 1287 1293 1299 1305 1311 S
67 169 1112 1116 1120 1124 1128 574 1904 1908 1912 1916 1454
68 170 1023 1027 1031 1035 1039 575 1832 1836 1840 1844 1455 T 80
69 171 934 938 942 946 950 576 1760 1764 1768 1772 1456 A
70 172 845 849 853 857 861 577 1688 1692 1696 1700 1457
71 173 756 760 764 768 772 578 1616 1620 1624 1628 1458 N
4 10 272 278 284 290 296 302 1202 1208 1214 1220 1226
C
E 60

40

20

0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 1.2
Z NODAL PTE....S PTE *1E3

Y X

(a) node numbers for cross-section (b) after 10, 50, and 250 minutes

Figure 3.11: Temperature distribution over the thickness

We observe that after 10 minutes of fire the temperature of the bottom face is
about 230 °C, after 50 minutes about 760 °C, and after 250 minutes about 1160
°C. The top surface hardly warms up, which confirms the blue contour in the
bird’s-eye view [Fig. 3.10a].
Animation thermal.fvc

VIEW XSECTION PLANEY


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS LOADCASE TR1
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 25 TO 800 LEVELS 10
UTILITY SETUP ANIMATE LINEAR
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman

To conclude the results assessment of the heat flow analysis we make an ani-
mation of the temperature development in the previously defined longitudinal
cross-section at Y = 380. Note that we apply consistent contour levels for all
animation frames, otherwise the contours could not be compared. The PLOT-
FILE option yields the animation frames on files so that we can show them in a
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman001
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman002
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman003
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman004

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 1 TIME: 1 Step: 2 TIME: 2 Step: 3 TIME: 3 Step: 4 TIME: 4
Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 37.6 Max = 59.6 Max = 83.2 Max = 107 Min = 17.5

document [Fig. 3.12].


Min = 18.4
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 Min = 17.6
iDIANA
teman005
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 Min = 17.4
iDIANA
teman006
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman007
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman008

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 5 TIME: 5 Step: 6 TIME: 6 Step: 7 TIME: 7 Step: 8 TIME: 8
Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 132 Min = 17.5 Max = 157 Min = 17 Max = 182 Min = 16.3 Max = 207 Min = 15.8
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman009
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman010
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman011
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman012

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 9 TIME: 9 Step: 10 TIME: 10 Step: 11 TIME: 15 Step: 12 TIME: 20
Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 232 Min = 15.2 Max = 258 Min = 14.6 Max = 387 Min = 11.8 Max = 455 Min = 10.4
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman013
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman014
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman015
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman016

Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL Model: THERMAL


TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1 TR1: Boundary case 1
Step: 13 TIME: 25 Step: 14 TIME: 30 Step: 15 TIME: 35 Step: 16 TIME: 40
Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE Nodal PTE....S PTE
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 517 Min = 10.6 Max = 578 Min = 12.3 Max = 639 Min = 15.5 Max = 700 Min = 16.8
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman0179.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman0189.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 iDIANA
teman0199.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman020
800 800 800 800
Model: THERMAL Model: 730
THERMAL Model: 730
THERMAL Model: 730
THERMAL 730
TR1: Boundary case 1 659
TR1: Boundary case 1 659
TR1: Boundary case 1 659
TR1: Boundary case 1 659
Step: 17 TIME: 45 Step: 18589 TIME: 50 Step: 19589 TIME: 100 Step: 20589 TIME: 150 589
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min448on model set: Max/Min448on model set: Max/Min448on model set: 448
Max = Z761 Min = 17 Max = Z821
377 Min = 17.2 Max = Z.105E4
377 Max = Z.113E4
377 377
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 teman021
iDIANA 307
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:36:42 Min = 23
teman022
307 Min = 27.6
307 307
800
236 800
236 800
236 800
236
Model:Y THERMAL Model: 730
166
THERMAL 730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166
X Y 659 X Y 659 Y 659 659
TR1: Boundary case 1 95.5
TR1: Boundary case 1 95.5 95.5 95.5
Step: 21 TIME: 200 Step: 22589
25 TIME: 250 589
25 589
25 589
25
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518
Nodal PTE....S PTE 518 518 518
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min448on model set: 448 448 448
Max = Z.122E4 Max =Z.13E4
377 Z 377 Z 377 377
Min = 30.2 Min = 31.8
307 307 307 307
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236
730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166
Y X Y 659 Y 659 Y 659 659
95.5 95.5 95.5 95.5
589
25 589
25 589
25 589
25
518 518 518 518
448 448 448 448
Z Z 377 Z 377 Z 377 377
307 307 307 307
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236
730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166
Y X Y 659 Y 659 Y 659 659
95.5 95.5 95.5 95.5
589
25 589
25 589
25 589
25
518 518 518 518
448 448 448 448
Z Z 377 Z 377 Z 377 377
307 307 307 307
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236
730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166 X 730
166
Y X Y 659 Y 659 Y 659 659
95.5 95.5 95.5 95.5
589
25 589
25 589
25 589
25
518 518 518 518
448 448 448 448
Z Z 377 Z 377 Z 377 377
307 307 307 307
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 800
236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 236
730
166 X 730
Y X Y 659 Y 166
659 X Y 166 X 166
95.5 95.5 95.5 95.5

Figure 3.12: Animation of temperature development in cross-section


589
25 589
25 25 25
518 518
448 448
Z Z 377 377
307 307
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman 236 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman

Y X Y 166 X 166
95.5 95.5
25 25

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE teman

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
58 Fire under Concrete Slab

3.2.3 Structural Analysis


Diana has stored the temperature distribution for the whole model, and for each
time step, on the analysis database (filos file). So this temperature information
is available for the structural analysis of the concrete slab. To initiate the
structural analysis we enter the iDiana Index environment.
Initiate analysis iDiana
INDEX
ANALYSE FIRELOAD
Analysis Setup
specification of options

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we specify a Structural Nonlinear analysis and
choose to perform the mechanical analysis using the already existing filos file
by selecting Open Existing in the Filos File section. Furthermore we specify
the various analysis options for the mechanical analysis. This results in the
following batch analysis commands.
Analysis commands structural.dcf

*NONLIN
EXECUT TIME STEPS EXPLIC SIZES 1(10) 5(8) 50(4)
BEGIN OUTPUT
FILE "Structural"
DISPLA
STRESS
END OUTPUT
*END

Once the analysis run has terminated, we enter the iDiana Results environment
to assess the results.
Initiate postprocessing structural.fvc

FEMVIEW STRUCTURAL
UTILITY TABULATE LOADCASES
VIEW MESH SLAB
EYE ROTATE TO 41 30 30

The load case tabulation shows the available load cases (time steps) with their
result data. We start with a bird’s-eye view of the model of the concrete slab.
Tabulated load cases loads.tb
; Model: STRUCTURAL
;
; LOADCASE DATA
;
; Name Details and results stored
; ---- --------------------------
;
; MODEL STATIC "Model Properties"
; Element : REINGRID*
;
; LC1 1 TIME = 1 "Load case 1"

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis 59

; Nodal : TDTX...G
; Element : EL.SXX.G RE.SXX.G
;
... lines skipped
; Nodal : TDTX...G
; Element : EL.SXX.G RE.SXX.G
; * Indicates loads data

The nodal attribute TDTX represents the total displacement. The element at-
tribute EL.SXX represents the stress in the concrete slab. The element attribute
RE.SXX represents the reinforcement stress.

3.2.4 Stresses in the Concrete Slab


We will assess the distribution and development of the stresses in the concrete
slab.
Von Mises stress after 250 minutes of fire structural.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 22


VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 1
EYE FRAME
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS CALCULATE VONMISES
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 200 LEVELS 10
EYE DIRECTION 0 -1000 0
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE FRAME
DRAWING DISPLAY

We select the last available load case (time step) for the situation after 250
minutes of fire. Via the DEFORM option we ask iDiana to display any results
in a model deformed according to the true total displacements (×1). We select
result attribute SXX for the Cauchy stresses. From these stresses we let iDiana
calculate the equivalent Von Mises stresses σeq . We display a contour plot
with explicitly specified level values [Fig. 3.13a]. To get a better view of the
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:13 sigeq1.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:14 sigeq2.ps

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 22 TIME: 250 Step: 22 TIME: 250
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 745 Min = 5.56 Max = 745 Min = 5.56

200 200
182 182
164 164
145 145
127 127
109 109
90.9 Z 90.9
Z 72.7 72.7
Y 54.5 54.5
36.4 Y X 36.4
18.2 18.2
X 0 0

(a) bird’s-eye view (b) side view

Figure 3.13: Von Mises stress in deformed model after 250 minutes of fire

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
60 Fire under Concrete Slab

stress distribution over the thickness of the slab we also make a view on the
longitudinal side face, with the model in outline style [Fig. 3.13b]. The contour
plots show that the higher stresses occur above the support, at X = 200 mm.
Distribution over thickness structural.fvc

VIEW MESH SLAB


CONSTRUCT SHAPE PLANE PLANEY Y 380
VIEW XSECTION PLANEY
LABEL MESH NODES
EYE ZOOM FACTOR 4 -900 110
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 10 LC1 18 LC1 22
PRESENT GRAPH LINE NODES THROUGH 10 38
PRESENT OPTIONS GRAPH AXES SWAP

To make graphs of the stress distribution over the thickness we need nodes
in the top and bottom face. Like for the thermal analysis, we make a cross-
section at Y = 380. We get the appropriate node numbers from a zoomed-in
display [Fig. 3.14a] (see pointers). The graphs show the distribution of the Von
Mises stress at location (200,380) for times after 10, 50, and 250 minutes of fire
[Fig. 3.14b].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:14 strnod.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:14 seqgr.ps

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = 150 Ymin = 0
Xmax = 322 Xmin = 12.3
Variation along a line
LC1 10
160 LC1 18
LC1 22

140

32 120
109 49
67
110 38
267 D 100
68 205 410 I
111 169 S
263 374
69 206 1132 T 80
1181 421 A
112 170
259 1112 380 N
70 207 1043 1092 1141 1185 C
113 171 E 60
255 1023 1116
71 208 954 1003 1052 1096
114 172
251 934 1027
4 209 865 40
914 963 1007
173
21 845 938
210 776 825 874 918
10 20
756 849
308 736 785 829
272 760
0
319 740
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
278
Z VONMISES EL.SXX.G

Y X

(a) node numbers for cross-section (b) after 10, 50, and 250 minutes

Figure 3.14: Graphing the Von Mises stress distribution over the thickness

Animation structural.fvc

VIEW XSECTION PLANEY


EYE FRAME
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 200 LEVELS 10
UTILITY SETUP ANIMATE LINEAR
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan

We make an animation of the Von Mises stress development in the previously


defined longitudinal cross-section at Y = 380 [Fig. 3.15].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:14 seqan001
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:14 seqan002
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan003
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan004

3.2 Staggered Flow–Stress Analysis 61


Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL
Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 1 TIME: 1 Step: 2 TIME: 2 Step: 3 TIME: 3 Step: 4 TIME: 4
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 7.55 Min = .258 Max = 16.8 Min = .632 Max = 26.3 Min = .748 Max = 35.7 Min = 1.12
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan005
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan006
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan007
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan008

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 5 TIME: 5 Step: 6 TIME: 6 Step: 7 TIME: 7 Step: 8 TIME: 8
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 46 Min = 1.08 Max = 56.9 Min = .881 Max = 68.2 Min = .677 Max = 79.7 Min = .582
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan009
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan010
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan011
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan012

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 9 TIME: 9 Step: 10 TIME: 10 Step: 11 TIME: 15 Step: 12 TIME: 20
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 91.6 Min = .745 Max = 104 Min = .754 Max = 170 Min = 2.34 Max = 213 Min = 1.86
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan013
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan014
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan015
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:15 seqan016

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1 Deformation = 1
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load
200 case 1 LC1: Load
200 case 1 LC1: Load
200 case 1 200
Step: 13 TIME: 25 Step: 182
14 TIME: 30 Step: 182
15 TIME: 35 Step: 182
16 TIME: 40 182
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element 164VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element164 VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element164VONMISES EL.SXX.G 164
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G 145
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 253 Min = 2.51 Max = 127
291 Min = 2.72 Max = 127
329 Min = 2.91 Max = 127
366 Min = 3.64 127
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV iDIANA109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan017 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV iDIANA109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan018 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV iDIANA109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan019 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan020
Z Z90.9 Z90.9 Z90.9 90.9
Model: STRUCTURAL Model:72.7STRUCTURAL Model:72.7
STRUCTURAL Model:72.7
STRUCTURAL 72.7
Deformation = 1 54.5 = 1
Deformation 54.5 = 1
Deformation 54.5 = 1
Deformation 54.5
LC1: Load
Y case
X 1 36.4 case
LC1: Load
Y200 X 1 36.4 case
LC1: Load
Y200 X 1 36.4 case
LC1: Load
Y200 X 1 36.4
200
Step: 17 TIME: 45 18.2
Step: 182
18 TIME: 50 18.2
Step: 182
19 TIME: 100 18.2
Step: 182
20 TIME: 150 18.2
182
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element 0 VONMISES EL.SXX.G
164 Element0 VONMISES EL.SXX.G
164 Element0 VONMISES EL.SXX.G
164 0
164
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G 145
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 402 Min = 4.61 Max = 127
439 Min = 5.27 Max = 127
594 Min = 3.47 Max = 127
654 Min = 1.71 127
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV iDIANA109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan021 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 109
28 OCT 2010 01:37:16 seqan022 109 109
Z DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan 90.9
Model: STRUCTURAL Model:72.7
STRUCTURAL 72.7 72.7 72.7
Deformation = 1 54.5 = 1
Deformation 54.5 54.5 54.5
LC1: Load
Y case
X 1 LC1: Y 36.4 case
Load
200 X 1 36.4 X
Y200 36.4 X
Y200 36.4
200
Step: 21 TIME: 200 18.2
Step: 182
22 TIME: 250 18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2
182
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element164VONMISES EL.SXX.G
0 0
164 0
164 0
164
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated
145 from: EL.SXX.G 145 145 145
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = 702 Min = 6.22 Max = 127
745 Min = 5.56 127 127 127
109 109 109 109
Z DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan 90.9
72.7 72.7 72.7 72.7
54.5 54.5 54.5 54.5
Y X 36.4 X
Y200 36.4 X
Y200 36.4 X
Y200 36.4
200
18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2
182
0
164 0
164 0
164 0
164
145 145 145 145
127 127 127 127
109 109 109 109
Z DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan 90.9
72.7 72.7 72.7 72.7
54.5 54.5 54.5 54.5
Y X 36.4 X
Y200 36.4 X
Y200 36.4 X
Y200 36.4
200
18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2
182
0
164 0
164 0
164 0
164
145 145 145 145
127 127 127 127
109 109 109 109
Z DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan 90.9
72.7 72.7 72.7 72.7
54.5 54.5 54.5 54.5
Y X 36.4 X
Y200 Y36.4
200 X Y36.4 X 36.4
18.2
182 18.2
182 18.2 18.2
0
164 0164 0 0
145 145
127 127
109 109
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan Z90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan 90.9 DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan

Figure 3.15: Animation of Von Mises stress development in cross-section


Z
72.7 72.7
54.5 54.5
Y X Y36.4 X 36.4
18.2 18.2
0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE seqan

3.2.5 Stresses in the Reinforcement Grid


We will assess the distribution and development of the stresses in the reinforce-
ment grid.
Stress after 250 minutes of fire structural.fvc

VIEW MESH SETGRID


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM OFF
EYE ROTATE TO 41 30 30
EYE FRAME
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 22
RESULTS ELEMENT RE.SXX.G SXX
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 800 TO 2300 LEVELS 10
RESULTS ELEMENT RE.SXX.G SYY
DRAWING DISPLAY

We display a bird’s-eye view of the undeformed mesh of the reinforcement grid


in outline style. We select the last load case (time step) for the situation after
250 minutes of fire. We display contour plots, with equivalent level values, for
the stresses in the X- and Y -direction [Fig. 3.16].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:17 sxxrei.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:17 syyrei.ps

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 22 TIME: 250 Step: 22 TIME: 250
Element RE.SXX.G SXX Element RE.SXX.G SYY
Max/Min on model set: Max/Min on model set:
Max = .259E4 Max = .238E4
Min = 489 Min = 352

.23E4 .23E4
.216E4 .216E4
.203E4 .203E4
.189E4 .189E4
.175E4 .175E4
.162E4 .162E4
.148E4 .148E4
Z .135E4 Z .135E4
Y .121E4 Y .121E4
.107E4 .107E4
936 936
X 800 X 800

(a) σXX (b) σY Y

Figure 3.16: Reinforcement stresses after 250 minutes of fire

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
62 Fire under Concrete Slab

History plot structural.fvc

LABEL MESH ELEMENTS VIEWMODE BLUE


EYE ZOOM FACTOR 3 800 -550
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
PRESENT GRAPH ELEMENT 699
PRESENT OPTIONS GRAPH AXES SWAP

We label the element numbers on the current contour plot. We zoom in on the
area with the high stresses and determine the element nearest to the highest
stress [Fig. 3.17a]. We select all load cases (time steps) and make a time graph
of the development of the stress σY Y for this element [Fig. 3.17b]. We swap the
axes to get the time horizontally.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:17 relm.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:37:17 resgr.ps

Model: STRUCTURAL Model: STRUCTURAL


LC1: Load case 1 Element RE.SXX.G SYY
Step: 22 TIME: 250 Max/Min on whole graph:
Element RE.SXX.G SYY Ymax = .225E4
Max/Min on model set: Ymin = 4.77
Max = .238E4 677 678 685 686 693 694 Xmax = 250
Min = 352 Xmin = 1
*1E3 Variation over loadcases
Element 699 Mean
2.25

679 680 687 688 695 696 2


E
L 1.75
E
M
E
682 689 690 697 698 N 1.5
T

R 1.25
E
.
700 S 1
691 692 699 X
X
. .75
G

S .5
701 702 Y
.23E4 Y
.216E4 .25
.203E4
.189E4
.175E4 0
.162E4 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275
.148E4 TIME
Z .135E4
Y .121E4
.107E4
936
X 800

(a) location of element (b) time graph

Figure 3.17: Development of σY Y in the reinforcement

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (II)
Part III

Cracking and Failure

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
Chapter 4

Smeared Cracking in a
Notched Beam
Name: NotchSm
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/NotchSm
Keywords: analys: linear nonlin physic static. constr: suppor. elemen:
pstres q8mem. load: deform. materi: consta crack cutoff
elasti isotro linear retent smear soften. option: direct groups
newton regula units. post: binary femvie. pre: femgen. re-
sult: cauchy crack displa extern force green reacti strain stress
total.

50

50
5

450

Figure 4.1: Notched beam [mm]

This example aims at setting up and evaluating a finite element model based
on smeared cracking. More precisely, it concerns a single-edged notched beam
[Fig. 4.1]. The thickness of the beam is 100 mm. The notch is 5 mm wide and
50 mm deep. We assume that the load is concentrated in one point.

4.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model, we start iDiana and enter the Design
environment with the model name NOTCH.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
66 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

iDiana
FEMGEN NOTCH
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 2D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

Time: →Second

Temperature: →Celsius

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify that the model is for a structural two-
dimensional analysis of a plane stress condition. We also indicate the adopted
units [mm, kg, N, s, °C].

4.1.1 Geometry Definition


To define the geometry we apply six points P1 to P6 [Fig. 4.2].
P6 P5

P3 P4
Y

P1 P2
X

Figure 4.2: Points for geometry definition

Points notch.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD 222.5
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 222.5 50
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 225 50
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 225 100
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 100
EYE FRAME
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS

We specify the coordinates of the points in the XY -coordinate system. Note that
non-specified coordinates are zero by default and that iDiana will automatically
name the points sequentially: P1, P2, ..., P6. We display the points labeled with
their names and fitted in the viewport.
Lines and surface notch.fgc

GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L1 P1 P2


GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L2 P2 P3

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
4.1 Finite Element Model 67

GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L3 P3 P4


GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L4 P4 P5
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L5 P5 P6
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L6 P6 P1
CONSTRUCT SET LEFT APPEND LINES ALL
GEOMETRY SURFACE REGION S1 LEFT
VIEW GEOMETRY CURRENT RED
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES ALL RED

We construct successively six lines. Then, we construct a set named LEFT that
contains all the lines of the left-hand side part of the model. We display the
geometry and line labels in red [Fig. 4.3a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:42 geom1.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:42 mesh1.ps

Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

L5

L6 L4

L3

L2

L1

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) geometry (b) mesh

Figure 4.3: Half the model (left part)

4.1.2 Meshing
We may now create a finite element mesh on the defined geometry.
notch.fgc
MESHING OPTIONS ALGORITHM PAVING S1
MESHING DIVISION ELSIZE ALL 5
MESHING TYPES ALL QU4 Q8MEM
MESHING DIVISION AUTOMATIC
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH

We select the QU4 generic element type and the Q8MEM linear plane stress el-
ement for the set LEFT of the model. With the ELSIZE option we request for
an average element size of 5 mm. The PAVING meshing algorithm can create a
quadrilateral free mesh on any type of surface and thus is well suited to mesh
the left surface of our model. We generate the mesh and display it in the default
wire netting style [Fig. 4.3b]. Note that the specified element size leads to a fine
mesh.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
68 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

4.1.3 Mirror to Full Model


We may now complete the model by mirroring the geometry.
notch.fgc

GEOMETRY COPY S1 MIRROR X 225


VIEW GEOMETRY ALL RED
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS ALL BLUE
EYE FRAME
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH

We mirror the surface with respect to a vertical line at X = 225 mm, i.e., the
central axis of the model. We introduce a small imperfection by modifying the
location of point P3 to assure that the cracking will be initiated at the left side
of the symmetric model. The geometry now covers the whole model [Fig. 4.4a].
Finally, we re-generate and display the mesh [Fig. 4.4b].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:42 geom2.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:43 mesh3.ps

Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

P6 P5 P10

P3P9
P4

P1 P8
P2 P7

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) geometry (b) final mesh

Figure 4.4: Full model

4.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


We launch the Property Manager dialog to define the material and physical
properties of the model.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
···

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
4.1 Finite Element Model 69

Concrete (nonlinear) iDiana


Property Manager
↑ Materials Material Name: MACONCRE
↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

↑Static Nonlinearity →Concrete and Brittle Materials →Multi-directional Fixed Crack

→Constant Stress Cut-off →Linear Tension Softening

→Ultimate Strain Based →Constant Shear Retention →No Plasticity

We define the properties of concrete in a material instance MACONCRE. For linear


elasticity we specify a Young’s modulus E = 31000 MPa and a Poisson’s ratio
ν = 0.15. For the nonlinear material properties we fill in the parameters for the
tensile strength ft = 2.4 MPa, the ultimate strain of the diagram εu = 0.013,
and a constant shear retention factor β = 0.001.
Concrete (linear) iDiana
Property Manager
↑ Materials Material Name: MACONLIN
↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

Since we know where the cracks are going to appear we are going to limit
the nonlinear material usage to the relevant region. This is done to reduce the
calculation time. In order to do so we need a second material with linear material
properties only. We define the properties of concrete in a material instance
MACONLIN. For linear elasticity we specify a Young’s modulus E = 31000 MPa
and a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.15.
Thickness iDiana
Property Manager
↑ Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHCONCRE
↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

For the thickness of the concrete we define a physical property instance PHCON-
CRE for which we specify a thickness value t = 100 mm.

Assignment notch.fgc

PROPERTY ATTACH ALL MACONLIN PHCONCRE


CONSTRUCT PMODIFIER CENTROID CUBOID 214 49 -1 236 101 1
PROPERTY ATTACH MO1 MACONCRE PHCONCRE

We first assign the linear material and property instances to the entire geometry
of the model. Then we modify the properties for the relevant nonlinear region of
the model. Please note that the attachment of the PMODIFIER also changes
the physical property assignmenti which you do not want to change. It isw
therefore specified again in the second PROPERTY ATTACH command.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
70 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

4.1.5 Supports and Loading


To define the supports and loading with respect to the geometric parts, we read
the appropriate points from the geometry plot [Fig. 4.4a].
Supports notch.fgc

PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO1 P1 X Y


PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO2 P7 Y
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

We support the lower-left corner in X- and Y -direction and the lower-right


corner in Y -direction. The supported degrees of freedom show up as red spikes
[Fig. 4.5a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:43 constr.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:43 load.ps

Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) supports (b) load

Figure 4.5: Boundary conditions

Load notch.fgc

PROPERTY LOADS DISPLACE LO1 P5 -1.0 Y


LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS

The defined load corresponds to a unit displacement applied on top of the beam
just above the notch. This load shows up as a vertical violet arrow [Fig. 4.5b].

4.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis


First of all, we will perform a linear analysis in order to check the model. There-
fore, we write the just created finite element model to a an input data file in
Diana batch format.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
4.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis 71

iDiana
UTILITY WRITE DIANA
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
Smeared cracking of a notched beam
ANALYSE NOTCH
Analysis Setup
···

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we activate the following batch commands.
linsta.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
*LINSTA
*END

By default, Diana will write the analysis results to a database for the iDiana
Results environment. As soon as the job has finished, we enter this environment
with the name of the model
linsta.fvc

FEMVIEW LINSTA
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE FRAME

The VIEW and EYE commands display outlines of the non-deformed mesh in
green.

4.2.1 Deformation
To get the deformed mesh displayed we give the following commands
linsta.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


RESULTS NODAL DTX....G RESDTX
PRESENT SHAPE

We select load case LC1 (the only one) and result attribute RESDTX which rep-
resents the nodal displacements. We display the deformed shape of the mesh
[Fig. 4.6a]. Note that iDiana chooses a red color and an appropriate multipli-
cation factor, in this case 22×.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
72 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:48 lidfm.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:44:48 listr.ps

Model: LINSTA Model: LINSTA


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Nodal DTX....G RESDTX Element PRINC STRESS ALL
Max = 1.18 Min = 0 Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Factor = 22.3 Max = 252 Min = -136
Factor = .105

214
175
136
Y Y 97
58.2
19.3
-19.6
Z X Z X -58.4
-97.3

(a) deformation (×22) (b) principal stresses

Figure 4.6: Linear analysis results

4.2.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses


The principal stresses in the beam may still give a better understanding of the
behavior of the model.
linsta.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX


RESULTS CALCULATE P-STRESS ALL
PRESENT OPTIONS VECTORS MODULATE 10
PRESENT VECTORS

We select result attribute SXX which represents the Cauchy stresses in the el-
ement nodes. As only the primary stresses were stored, we ask iDiana to
calculate the principal stresses via the P-STRESS option. Although iDiana will
always display stress vectors with a size proportional to the stress value, stress
peaks are more convincing when the vectors are modulated with colors accord-
ing to their values as well. Therefore, we give the VECTORS MODULATE option
and ask for modulation with ten colors. Finally, we display the stress vectors
[Fig. 4.6b]. Note that the red vectors indicate the highest tension stresses and
the dark blue vectors the highest compression stresses.

4.3 Nonlinear Analysis


To perform the nonlinear analysis we enter the iDiana Index environment.
iDiana
INDEX
ANALYSE NOTCH
Analysis Setup
···

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
4.3 Nonlinear Analysis 73

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we choose for a Structural Nonlinear analysis and
create the following batch commands:
nonlin.dcf

*NONLIN
BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN ITERAT
CONVER SIMULT
MAXITE=30
END ITERAT
BEGIN LOAD
BEGIN STEPS
BEGIN AUTOMA
SIZE=1.0
MAXSIZ=0.1
MINSIZ=0.001
END AUTOMA
END STEPS
END LOAD
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL
STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY
FORCE REACTI TRANSL
STRAIN CRACK GREEN
END OUTPUT
*END

You could also directly run the analysis in batch mode, with the input data
and command files:
diana notch.dat nonlin

When the analysis is completed, we can enter the iDiana Results environment
with the model name NONLIN to assess the analysis results.
nonlin.fvc

FEMVIEW NONLIN
UTILITY TABULATE LOADCASES

The load case tabulation shows the available load cases with their load factor
and available result items. Here we only show the first and last steps of the
tabulation:

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
74 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

nllc.tb
;
; Model: NONLIN
;
; LOADCASE DATA
;
; Name Details and results stored
; ---- --------------------------
;
; MODEL STATIC "Model Properties"
; Element : THICKNES* CRKBANDW*
;
; LC1 1 LOAD = .25E-1 "Load case 1"
; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G
; Element : EL.SXX.G
; Gauss : EL.EKNN1
;

... lines skipped

; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G


; Element : EL.SXX.G
; Gauss : EL.EKNN1 EL.EKNN2
;
; LC1 54 LOAD = 1 "Load case 1"
; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G
; Element : EL.SXX.G
; Gauss : EL.EKNN1 EL.EKNN2
; * Indicates loads data
;

In all the steps we see the element attributes EL.SXX.G which represent the total
stresses in the elements and the Gaussian attributes EL.EKNN1 and EL.EKNN2
which represent the crack strains in the integration points, i.e., there are cracks
in the model.

4.3.1 Load–Displacement Diagram


We will first present the load–displacement diagram for the top center of the
beam. This requires the number of the node at that location.
nonlin.fvc
VIEW MESH
EYE ZOOM /CURSOR
LABEL MESH NODES

We display the mesh and drag a zoom window around the top center of the
model [Fig. 4.7a]. Then we label the mesh with node numbers and see that the
appropriate node is number 68 [Fig. 4.7b]. We can now issue the commands to
draw the load–displacement diagram.
nonlin.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS NODAL FBX....G FBY
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 68

First we select all available load cases, i.e., the load steps. Then we select the
nodal result attribute FBY which represents the vertical reaction force. The final
PRESENT command displays the load–displacement diagram [Fig. 4.8]. Note that
the horizontal axis of the graph represents the ‘load factor’ which is equivalent

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
4.3 Nonlinear Analysis 75

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:48 meshp.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:48 meshz.ps

Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN

72 71 70 69 68 1036 1037 1038 1039

190 191 192 193 67 1160 1159 1158 1157

311 312 313 194 66 1161 1280 1279 1278


Y Y

Z X Z X

424 425 314 195 65 1162 1281 1392 1391

(a) general view and zoom window (b) zoom-in

Figure 4.7: Mesh with node numbers


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:48 lodis.ps

Model: NONLIN
Nodal FBX....G FBY
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = .162E4
Ymin = 143
Xmax = 1
Xmin = .25E-1
*1E3 Variation over loadcases
Node 68
1.8

1.6

N 1.4
O
D
A
L 1.2

F
B 1
X
.
. .8
.
.
G .6

F
B .4
Y

.2

0
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 1.1
LOAD

Figure 4.8: Load–displacement diagram at mid-span

to the multiplication factor for the applied vertical unit displacement at the top
center. The diagram clearly shows that at the end the structure has almost
collapsed, i.e., the analysis has reached the Ultimate Limit State.

4.3.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses


To assess the results in the mesh we first make a display of the full mesh without
node numbers.
nonlin.fvc

VIEW MESH
VIEW EDGES
EYE FRAME
LABEL MESH NODES OFF
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 1
RESULTS ELEMEN EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS CALCULATE P-STRESS P1 2DSORT

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
76 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS


RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 48
DRAWING DISPLAY

We select load case LC1 1 which represents the analysis results of the first step.
Then we select the Cauchy stresses from which we let iDiana calculate the
principal stresses. Due to the sorting option 2DSORT, the first stress will always
represent the maximum of the two principal stresses. We display these maximum
stresses in a contour plot [Fig. 4.9a]. We also select step 48 which represents
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 1 LOAD: .25E-1 Step: 48 LOAD: .504
Element PRINC STRESS PMAX Element PRINC STRESS PMAX
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max = 2.73 Min = -1.87 Max = 7.06 Min = -1.82

2.31 6.26
1.89 5.45
1.48 4.64
1.06 3.83
Y .639 Y 3.02
.221 2.22
-.197 1.41
Z X -.616 Z X .602
-1.03 -.206
-1.45 -1.01

(a) first load step (b) near Ultimate Limit State

Figure 4.9: Maximum principal stress

the situation just before the Ultimate Limit State. Only the DRAWING DISPLAY
command will do to display the results for the selected step [Fig. 4.9b].

4.3.3 Crack Pattern


We will now draw the crack pattern for the currently selected load step, i.e.,
near the Ultimate Limit State.
nonlin.fvc
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.EKNN1 EKNN
PRESENT DISC 0.2
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT

We select the Gaussian result attribute EKNN which represents the crack strains
in the integration points. We display the edges of the model in its deformed
shape and present the strains via the DISC option. This option shows the strains
as disks in three-dimensional space. In a two-dimensional view, i.e., viewed
perpendicular to the model, these disks show up as lines which clearly indicate
the crack pattern [Fig. 4.10].

Animation. It is very instructive to see the crack strain contours develop


with increasing load. Therefore we can produce an animation sequence (movie)
with the following commands.
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4.3 Nonlinear Analysis 77

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Model: NONLIN
Deformation = 39.7
LC1: Load case 1
Step: 48 LOAD: .504
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .72E-1
Min = 0

Z X .48E-1
.24E-1

Figure 4.10: Crack pattern near Ultimate Limit State

nonlin.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 0.08 LEVELS 10
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

First we select load cases for which crack strains have developed, i.e., without
load case 1. Be aware that in an animation sequence of contour plots the frames
of the animation all use the same color to represent a certain value. Therefore
we explicitly specify the values for the first and last contours and the number
of contour levels. The DRAWING command starts the animation. Due to the
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr001
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr002
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr003

PLOTFILE option we can show the animation frames in a document. Figure 4.11
shows a subset of the frames.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr004
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr005
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr006

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr007


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr008
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr009

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr010


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr011
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr012

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr013


iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:49 anecr014
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:50 anecr015

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

Figure 4.11: Crack strain development (cracking) – animation frames


DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE anecr

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
78 Smeared Cracking in a Notched Beam

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
Chapter 5

Discrete Cracking in a
Notched Beam
Name: Notch
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/Notch
Keywords: analys: nonlin physic. constr: suppor tying. elemen: interf
l8if pstres q8mem struct. load: deform. materi: consta crack
discre elasti isotro nonlin secant shear soften unload. option:
direct groups newton regula units. post: binary femvie. pre:
femgen. result: cauchy displa force reacti stress total tracti.

50

50
5

450

Figure 5.1: Notched beam [mm]

This example aims at setting up and evaluating a finite element model based
on discrete cracking. More precisely, it concerns a single-edged notched beam
[Fig. 5.1]. The thickness of the beam is 100 mm. The notch is 5 mm wide and
50 mm deep. Just above the notch, we will anticipate for a central crack by
using line interface elements in the middle of the model. We assume that the
load is concentrated in one point.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
80 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

5.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model, we start iDiana and enter the Design
environment with the model name NOTCH.
iDiana
FEMGEN NOTCH
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 2D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

Time: →Second

Temperature: →Celsius

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify that the model is for a structural two-
dimensional analysis of a plane stress condition. We also indicate the adopted
units [mm, kg, N, s, °C].

5.1.1 Geometry Definition


To define the geometry we apply six points P1 to P6 [Fig. 5.2].
P6 P5

P3 P4
Y

P1 P2
X

Figure 5.2: Points for geometry definition

Points notch.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD 222.5
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 222.5 50
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 225 50
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 225 100
GEOMETRY POINT COORD 0 100
EYE FRAME
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS

We specify the coordinates of the points in the XY -coordinate system. Note that
non-specified coordinates are zero by default and that iDiana will automatically
name the points sequentially: P1, P2, ..., P6. We display the points labeled with
their names and fitted in the viewport.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
5.1 Finite Element Model 81

Lines and surface notch.fgc


GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L1 P1 P2
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L2 P2 P3
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L3 P3 P4
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L4 P4 P5
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L5 P5 P6
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L6 P6 P1
CONSTRUCT SET LEFT APPEND LINES ALL
GEOMETRY SURFACE REGION S1 LEFT
VIEW GEOMETRY CURRENT RED
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES CURRENT BLUE

We construct successively six lines. Then, we construct a set named LEFT that
contains all the lines of the left-hand side part of the model. We display the
geometry in red with line labels in blue [Fig. 5.3a].
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Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

L5

L6 L4

L3

L2

L1

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) geometry (b) mesh

Figure 5.3: Half the model (left part)

5.1.2 Meshing
We may now create a finite element mesh on the defined geometry.
notch.fgc
MESHING OPTIONS ALGORITHM PAVING S1
MESHING DIVISION ELSIZE ALL 5
MESHING TYPES ALL QU4 Q8MEM
MESHING DIVISION AUTOMATIC
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH

We select the QU4 generic element type and the Q8MEM linear plane stress struc-
tural element for the set LEFT of the model. With the ELSIZE option we request
for an average element size of 5 mm. The PAVING meshing algorithm can create
a quadrilateral free mesh on any type of surface and thus is well suited to mesh

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
82 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

the left surface of our model. We generate the mesh and display it in the default
wire netting style [Fig. 5.3b]. Note that the specified element size leads to a fine
mesh.

5.1.3 Expansion to Full Model


We may now complete the model by mirroring the surface S1 and putting in
between interface elements. In our case, the thickness of the interface is zero
and we would not be able to distinguish the two edges of the interface which is
rather inconvenient for checking connections, assigned properties and so on. To
overcome that, we will first model the two concrete parts with a virtual distance
in between and fill the gap with interface elements. Then we will close this gap
by moving the parts against each other in order to get zero thickness interface
elements.
Mirror transformation notch.fgc
GEOMETRY COPY S1 MIRROR X 250
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
EYE FRAME
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS

We mirror surface S1 with respect to vertical line at X = 250 mm. Then we


display the geometry with point labels.
Filling the gap notch.fgc
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P10 P11 P5 P4
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK GEOMETRY 0.9
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES ALL BLUE
LABEL GEOMETRY SURFACES ALL VIOLET
LABEL GEOMETRY DIVISION ALL WHITE

We fill the gap with a 4POINTS surface. We display the geometry in shrunken
style and with labels for lines, surfaces, and divisions [Fig. 5.4a].
Adding the interface notch.fgc
MESHING TYPES S3 IL22 L8IF
MESHING DIVISION AUTOMATIC
CONSTRUCT SET CRACK APPEND SURFACES S3
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH

We add the crack interface for the mid-surface S3. We specify a division of
1 in the normal direction of the interface elements. We specify the element
type and apply a L8IF linear interface element to geometry S3. We create a set
CRACK which contains the interface elements. Finally, we generate and display
the mesh [Fig. 5.4b]. Note that we still have to close the gap. We will do this
after having defined and verified the material and physical properties and the
boundary conditions [§ 5.1.6].

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5.1 Finite Element Model 83

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Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

L5 L13 L11
45 4 45
S3
L6 L4 L10 L12
20 10 10 20
S1 L3 L14 L9 S2
1 4 1

L2 L8
10 10
L1 L7
46 46

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) geometry (b) mesh

Figure 5.4: Full model with interface in gap

5.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


We launch the Property Manager dialog to define the material and physical
properties of the model.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
···

Concrete and crack interface iDiana


Property Manager
Materials Material Name: MACONCRE

↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

Materials Material Name: MACRACK


↑Linear Elasticity →Interfaces

↑Static Nonlinearity →Interfaces →Cracking →Discrete Cracking

→Nonlinear Tension Softening →Secant Mode-I Unloading

→Constant Shear Stiffness After Crack

We define the properties of concrete for the beam in a material instance MA-
CONCRE. For linear elasticity we specify a Young’s modulus E = 31000 MPa
and a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.15. For the crack interfaces we define a mate-
rial instance MACRACK with linear stiffness moduli D11 = 1.0×108 N/mm3 and
D22 = 1.0×108 N/mm3 . We also specify the nonlinear material parameters for
discrete cracking in the interface: the tensile strength ft = 2.4 MPa, the fracture
energy Gf = 0.08 N/mm2 and the shear modulus after cracking Gcr = 0.001
MPa.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
84 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

Thickness iDiana
Property Manager
↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHCONCRE
↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHCRACK


↑Interface →Line →Plane Stress

For the concrete of the beam we define a physical property instance PHCONCRE
with a thickness value t = 100 mm. For the interface elements we define a
physical property PHCRACK with a thickness also equal to t = 100 mm.
Assignment notch.fgc
PROPERTY ATTACH S1 MACONCRE PHCONCRE
PROPERTY ATTACH S2 MACONCRE PHCONCRE
PROPERTY ATTACH S3 MACRACK PHCRACK
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
VIEW HIDDEN FILL COLOUR
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR MATERIALS
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR PHYSICAL

We assign the defined property instances to the concrete of the beam (surfaces
S1 and S2) and to the crack interface (surface S3). To verify the assignment we
display two outline views of the model with the elements colored according to
their assigned property [Fig. 5.5].
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Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X
Materials Physical
MACONCRE PHCONCRE
MACRACK PHCRACK

(a) material (b) physical

Figure 5.5: Model colored for properties assignment

5.1.5 Boundary Conditions


The boundary conditions of the model comprise the supports, the loading, and
the tyings (liner constraints). For convenience, we tie the two top nodes of the
interface and prescribe the displacement load of the master node. Doing so will
facilitate the determination of the total reaction force later on.
November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
5.1 Finite Element Model 85

Supports and tying notch.fgc


PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT P1 X Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT P7 Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY MPC RBEAM P11 P5 Y
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

We support the lower-left corner in X- and Y -direction and the lower-right


corner in Y -direction. The supported degrees of freedom show up as red spikes
and the tying as a red line [Fig. 5.6a].
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Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

3M 3S

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) constraints (b) load

Figure 5.6: Boundary conditions

Load notch.fgc
PROPERTY LOADS DISPLACE P5 -1.0 Y
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS

The load corresponds to a unit displacement applied on top of the beam just
above the notch. The load appears as a violet arrow [Fig. 5.6b].

5.1.6 Moving Parts Together


Finally we connect the two parts of the concrete beam.
notch.fgc
GEOMETRY MOVE S2 TRANSLATE P11 P5
yes
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK MESH 0.8
EYE ZOOM FACTOR 30 -25 5

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
86 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

We close the interface by moving surface S2 on the right-hand side such that
point P11 takes the position of point P5. The geometry has now changed so we
must re-mesh the model. The display shows the final mesh [Fig. 5.7a]. To discern
the interfaces as separate lines we display the mesh in ‘shrunken elements’ mode
and zoom in on the area above the notch [Fig. 5.7b].
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Model: NOTCH Model: NOTCH


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) full mesh (b) zoomed-in on notch

Figure 5.7: Final mesh with closed interface gap

5.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis


First of all, we will perform a linear analysis in order to check the model. There-
fore, we write the just created finite element model to a file in Diana batch
format.
iDiana
UTILITY WRITE DIANA
yes
FILE CLOSE
yes
Discrete cracking of a notched beam
ANALYSE NOTCH
Analysis Setup
···

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we activate the following batch commands.
linsta.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
5.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis 87

*LINSTA
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL
STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY
STRESS TOTAL TRACTI INTPNT
END OUTPUT
*END

We have selected output of displacements, Cauchy stresses and tractions within


the interfaces to a database for the iDiana Results environment. After com-
pleting the analysis we enter this environment with the name of the model.

linsta.fvc
FEMVIEW LINSTA
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE FRAME

The VIEW and EYE commands display the outlines of the non-deformed mesh in
green.

5.2.1 Deformation
To get the deformed mesh displayed we give the following commands
linsta.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS NODAL DTX....G RESDTX
PRESENT SHAPE

We select load case LC1 (the only one) and result attribute RESDTX which rep-
resents the nodal displacements. We display the deformed shape of the mesh
[Fig. 5.8a]. Note that iDiana chooses a red color and an appropriate multipli-
cation factor, in this case 22×.

5.2.2 Principal Cauchy Stresses


The principal stresses in the beam may give a better understanding of the
behavior of the model.
linsta.fvc
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS CALCULATE P-STRESS ALL
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES MATERIALS
PRESENT OPTIONS VECTORS MODULATE 10
PRESENT VECTORS

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
88 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

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Model: LINSTA Model: LINSTA


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Nodal DTX....G RESDTX Element PRINC STRESS ALL
Max = 1.18 Min = 0 Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Factor = 22.3 Max = 249 Min = -136
Factor = .106

210
172
133
Y Y 94.8
56.3
17.8
-20.7
Z X Z X -59.2
-97.7

(a) deformation (×22) (b) principal stresses

Figure 5.8: Linear analysis results in concrete

We select result attribute SXX which represents the Cauchy stresses in the el-
ement nodes. As only the primary stresses were stored, we ask iDiana to
calculate the principal stresses via the P-STRESS option. With the EDGES MA-
TERIALS view option we get the model displayed with only the material edges,
which is often more convenient than the full mesh as a background for the stress
display. Although iDiana will always display stress vectors with a size propor-
tional to the stress value, stress peaks are more convincing when the vectors
are modulated with colors according to their values as well. Therefore, we give
the VECTORS MODULATE option and ask for modulation with ten colors. Finally,
we display the stress vectors [Fig. 5.8b]. Note that the red vectors indicate
the highest tension stresses and the dark blue vectors the highest compression
stresses.

5.2.3 Interface Normal Tractions


To get the normal tractions of the interface elements displayed we give the
following commands.
linsta.fvc
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.STX.L STX
PRESENT VECTORS

We select result attribute STX which represents the normal traction tn of inter-
face elements. The resulting vector plot show the distribution of this traction
along the crack interface Figure 5.9.

5.3 Nonlinear Analysis


To perform the nonlinear analysis, we enter the iDiana Index environment.
November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
5.3 Nonlinear Analysis 89

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Model: LINSTA
LC1: Load case 1
Gauss EL.STX.L STX
Max = 202
Min = -163
Factor = .131

166
129
92.6
Y 56
19.5
-17
-53.5
Z X -90
-127

Figure 5.9: Linear analysis: interface normal tractions

iDiana
INDEX
ANALYSE NOTCH
Analysis Setup
···

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we create the following batch commands for the
nonlinear analysis:
nonlin.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
READ
*NONLIN
BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN ITERAT
BEGIN CONVER
SIMULT
END CONVER
END ITERAT
BEGIN LOAD
BEGIN STEPS
BEGIN AUTOMA
SIZE=1.0
MAXSIZ=0.02
MINSIZ=0.001
END AUTOMA
END STEPS
END LOAD
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
90 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY


STRESS TOTAL TRACTI
FORCE REACTI TRANSL
END OUTPUT
*END

When the analysis is completed, we can enter the iDiana Results environment
with the model name NONLIN to assess the analysis results.
nonlin.fvc

FEMVIEW NONLIN
UTILITY TABULATE LOADCASES

The load case tabulation shows the available load cases (load steps) with their
result data. Here we only show the first and last steps of the tabulation:
nllc.tb
;
; Model: NONLIN
;
; LOADCASE DATA
;
; Name Details and results stored
; ---- --------------------------
;
; MODEL STATIC "Model Properties"
; Element : THICKNES*
;
; LC1 1 LOAD = .2E-1 "Load case 1"
; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G
; Element : EL.SXX.G EL.STX.L
;
; LC1 2 LOAD = .4E-1 "Load case 1"

... lines skipped

;
; LC1 49 LOAD = .98 "Load case 1"
; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G
; Element : EL.SXX.G EL.STX.L
;
; LC1 50 LOAD = 1 "Load case 1"
; Nodal : TDTX...G FBX....G
; Element : EL.SXX.G EL.STX.L
; * Indicates loads data
;

5.3.1 Load–Displacement Diagram


We will present a load–displacement diagram for the top center of the beam,
i.e., where we have applied the displacement load [Fig. 5.6b]. Via node labeling
and zooming we can determine that this is node 68.
nonlin.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


RESULTS NODAL FBX....G FBY
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 68

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
5.3 Nonlinear Analysis 91

We select all load cases, these represent the displacement. We also select result
attribute FBY representing the reaction force in the nodes. These reaction forces
can be interpreted as ‘the load’ on the beam to achieve the displacement. The
graph of these values for node 68 then represents the load–displacement diagram
at the mid-span [Fig. 5.10a].
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


Nodal FBX....G FBY Element EL.STX.L STX
Max/Min on whole graph: Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = .142E4 Ymax = 50 Ymin = 0
Ymin = 36.9 Xmax = 4.01 Xmin = -5.32
Xmax = 1 Variation along a line
Xmin = .2E-1 LC1 1
*1E3 Variation over loadcases LC1 50
Node 68
1.6 60

1.4
50
N
O 1.2
D
A
L 40
1 D
F I
B S
X .8 T 30
. A
. N
. C
. .6 E
G 20
F
B .4
Y
10
.2

0 0
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 1.1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
LOAD ELEMENT EL.STX.L STX

(a) load–displacement diagram (b) normal tractions along interface

Figure 5.10: Result graphs

5.3.2 Interface Normal Tractions


We will assess the distribution of the normal tractions along the crack interface.

nonlin.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 1 LC1 50


RESULTS ELEMENT EL.STX.L STX
PRESENT GRAPH LINE NODES LIST 58 TO 68
PRESENT OPTIONS GRAPH AXES SWAP

We select the first and the last load step (1 and 50) and attribute STX which
represents the normal tractions of the interface. Then we display a graph of the
variation of the normal traction along a line through the nodes of the interface
[Fig. 5.10b]. To get a realistic graph we swap the axes via the SWAP option. The
distance is now along the vertical axis, i.e., in the same direction as the crack
interface. Note that the solid line is for the first step and the dashed line for
the last step.

5.3.3 Von Mises Stresses


We will assess the stresses for the first and last load step. In this case we let
iDiana calculate the equivalent Von Mises stresses.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
92 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

nonlin.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 1
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS CALCULATE VONMISES
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 50
DRAWING DISPLAY

For attribute SXX, the primary stresses, we let iDiana calculate the Von Mises
stresses. We display contour plots for the first and last load step (1 and 50)
[Fig. 5.11]. Note that the contour levels for the two steps are different: for the
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 1 LOAD: .2E-1 Step: 50 LOAD: 1
Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G Element VONMISES EL.SXX.G
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max = 2.91 Min = .797E-3 Max = 3.44 Min = .394E-4

2.64 3.13
2.38 2.81
2.12 2.5
1.85 2.19
Y 1.59 Y 1.88
1.32 1.56
1.06 1.25
Z X .794 Z X .938
.529 .626
.265 .313

(a) first load step (b) last load step

Figure 5.11: Nonlinear analysis: Von Mises equivalent stress

first load step the colors blue to red represent a stress range of approximately
0.0 < σeq < 2.9, for the last step the same colors represent a range of 0.0 <
σeq < 3.4.
Animation nonlin.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 1.4 LEVELS 6
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 30
UTILITY SETUP ANIMATE LINEAR
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani

We can display the development of the stress for increasing deformation in an


animation sequence. First, we select all available load cases. A proper animation
sequence with contours requires consistent color levels for the frames. Therefore,
we explicitly specify the values for the first and the last contour via the FROM
... TO option. With the DEFORM USING option the contours will be displayed
in the deformed model, here with a 30× magnification. The DRAWING ANIMATE
command starts the animation. The PLOTFILE option yields a file for each frame
so that we can show them in a document [Fig. 5.12]. Note the increasing stress in
the first six frames. This confirms the increasing load in the load–displacement

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5.3 Nonlinear Analysis
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DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani

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DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani

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Figure 5.12: Nonlinear analysis: animation frames for Von Mises stress
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ani

diagram [Fig. 5.10a]. Then the crack arises, the stress decreases gradually and
is localized at the crack tip.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
94 Discrete Cracking in a Notched Beam

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
Chapter 6

Shear Failure in Reinforced


Concrete Beam
Name: Shear
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/Shear
Keywords: analys: nonlin physic. constr: suppor. elemen: bar cq16m
pstres reinfo. load: deform. materi: consta crack cutoff
elasti harden isotro linear plasti retent smear soften strain von-
mis. option: direct groups newton regula units. post: binary
femvie. result: cauchy crack displa force green increm reacti
strain stress total. analys: nonlin physic. constr: suppor.
elemen: bar cq16m pstres reinfo. load: force node. materi:
consta crack cutoff elasti harden isotro linear plasti retent smear
soften strain vonmis. option: adapti arclen direct groups loadin
newton normal regula size units update. post: binary femvie.
result: crack displa extern force green strain total.

F ♥
500

450 Y

X 30 1∅20, 2∅14
290
2050

Figure 6.1: Model of the reinforced concrete beam [mm]

This example demonstrates application of the multi–directional fixed crack model.


The model is a moderately deep beam [Fig. 6.1]. The thickness of the beam is
200 mm. In the finite element model we will apply 8-node quadrilateral plane
stress elements.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
96 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

6.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model, we start iDiana and we enter the Design
environment with the model name SHEAR.
iDiana
FEMGEN SHEAR
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 2D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

Time: →Second

Temperature: →Celsius

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify the model type for two-dimensional
structural analysis and the adopted units [mm, kg, N, s, °C].

6.1.1 Geometry Definition


We will first define the bottom lines of the beam and then sweep these upward
to create the surface.
shear.fgc
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P1 0.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P2 290.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P3 1550.0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P4 2050.0
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P1 P2 4
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P2 P3 26
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT P3 P4 10
CONSTRUCT SET BOTLIN APPEND LINES ALL
GEOMETRY SWEEP BOTLIN TMPLIN 4 TRANSLATE TR1 0 60
GEOMETRY SWEEP TMPLIN TOPLIN 10 TRANSLATE TR2 0 390
EYE FRAME
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL GREEN
VIEW GEOMETRY +BOTLIN RED
VIEW GEOMETRY +TOPLIN BLUE
LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS

We define the coordinates of the end points of the bottom lines. Then we create
straight lines between the points while we also specify the meshing division.
We collect the lines in a set BOTLIN. We sweep (translate through space) the
set BOTLIN vertically to create surfaces. A subsequent sweep reaches to the top
line, with the new geometry assembled in a set TOPLIN. In the sweep operations
we also define the meshing division for created vertical lines. Finally we display
the geometry in green with the bottom and top lines overlayed in red and blue
[Fig. 6.2a].

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6.1 Finite Element Model 97

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Model: SHEAR Model: SHEAR


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

P9 P10 P11 P12

P5 P6 P7 P8
P1 P2 P3 P4

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) sets and point labels (b) reinforcements

Figure 6.2: Geometry definition

6.1.2 Reinforcement
We define the location of the reinforcement with the following commands.
shear.fgc

GEOMETRY COPY P1 P13 TRANSLATE 0 29.9


GEOMETRY COPY P4 P14 TRANSLATE 0 29.9
REINFORCE BAR SECTION RE1 P13 P14
REINFORCE BAR BAR1 RE1
LABEL GEOMETRY OFF
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL YELLOW
VIEW REINFORCE +BAR1 RED

We copy the two bottom corner points to create the end points of the reinforce-
ment bar. Then we define the reinforcement section RE1 and the reinforcement
bar BAR1. Finally, we display the geometry in yellow with the reinforcement in
red [Fig. 6.2b].

6.1.3 Meshing
We will mesh the model with 8-node quadratic quadrilateral plane stress ele-
ments CQ16M.
shear.fgc

MESHING TYPES ALL QU8 CQ16M


MESHING GENERATE
VIEW HIDDEN SHADE
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK MESH
VIEW MESH
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
VIEW REINFORCE +ALL RED

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
98 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

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Model: SHEAR Model: SHEAR


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) as generated (b) with reinforcements

Figure 6.3: Finite element mesh

We specify the element type to be applied to all surfaces as CQ16M. Then we


generate the mesh and display it in ‘filled shrunken elements’ style [Fig. 6.3a].
We also display the reinforcement in the mesh [Fig. 6.3b]. Note that this requires
an un-filled view of the mesh.

6.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


We launch the Property Manager dialog to define the material and physical
properties of the model.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
···

Concrete iDiana
Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: MACONCRE
↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

↑Static Nonlinearity →Concrete and Brittle Materials →Multi-directional Fixed Crack

→Constant Stress Cut-off →Linear Tension Softening

→Ultimate Strain Based →Constant Shear Retention →No Plasticity

↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHCONCRE


↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

For the concrete we define a material instance MACONCRE. We specify the elastic
properties: Young’s modulus E = 28000 MPa and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.2. As

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6.1 Finite Element Model 99

nonlinear material properties we specify a tensile strength ft = 2.5 MPa, an


ultimate strain εu = 3.11×10−4 , and a constant shear retention factor β = 0.2.
We also define a physical property instance PHCONCRE with a thickness t = 200
mm.
Reinforcement iDiana
Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: MASTEEL
↑Linear Elasticity →Reinforcement →Reinforcement Bonded

↑Static Nonlinearity →Reinforcement →Von Mises Plasticity → Ideal Plasticity


↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHSTEEL
↑Geometry →Embedded Reinforcements →Bar

For the reinforcement we define a material instance MASTEEL. We specify a


Young’s modulus E = 210000 MPa and Von Mises plasticity with a yield stress
σy = 440 MPa. We also define a physical property instance PHSTEEL with a
cross-section area A = 622 mm2 .
Assignment shear.fgc
PROPERTY ATTACH ALL MACONCRE PHCONCRE
PROPERTY ATTACH BAR1 MASTEEL PHSTEEL

First we assign the properties of the concrete to the entire model. Then we
overrule the assignment for the reinforcement BAR1 with the appropriate prop-
erties.

6.1.5 Boundary Conditions


The boundary conditions involve the constraints (supports) and the loading
[Fig. 6.1].
Constraints shear.fgc
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT P2 Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT L10 X
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT L17 X
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

We define the constraints with respect to the geometric parts. The point on the
lower edge at X = 290 is supported vertically (Y -direction). Due to symmetry
conditions, the two lines of the right edge are supported horizontally. The
display confirms the correct definition [Fig. 6.4a].
Loading shear.fgc
PROPERTY LOADS DISPLACE P11 -1.0 Y
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS

The load corresponds to a vertical unit displacement of the beam top at 500
mm from the right edge [Fig. 6.4b].

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
100 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

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Model: SHEAR Model: SHEAR


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) constraints (b) loading: fixed displacement

Figure 6.4: Boundary conditions

6.2 Nonlinear Analysis


We write the model to a file in Diana batch format and leave the iDiana Design
environment.
iDiana
UTILITY WRITE DIANA sheard.dat
FILE CLOSE
yes
Shear failure in reinforced concrete beam (displacement control)
ANALYSE SHEAR
Analysis Setup
···

The FILE CLOSE command brings us in the Index environment where we launch
the Analysis Setup dialog. Here we create the following batch commands for
the displacement-controlled nonlinear analysis:
sheard.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
*NONLIN
BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN LOAD
LOADNR=1
STEPS EXPLIC SIZES 1(15)
END LOAD
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL

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6.2 Nonlinear Analysis 101

DISPLA INCREM TRANSL


FORCE REACTI TRANSL
STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY GLOBAL INTPNT
STRAIN CRACK GREEN
END OUTPUT
*END

We start the analysis and when it is completed we enter the iDiana Results
environment to assess the analysis results.
iDiana
FEMVIEW SHEARD

6.2.1 Load–Displacement Diagram


We will present a diagram of the load versus the displacement for the node on
top of the beam where the load has been applied. Therefore we need to know
the number of this node.
Node number sheard.fvc

VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH CONSTRNTS
LABEL MESH NODES
EYE ZOOM /CURSOR

We label the constraints and the node numbers on the mesh [Fig. 6.5a]. When
we drag a zoom window around the appropriate node on the top edge, the node
appears to be number 266 [Fig. 6.5b].
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Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD

166 186 171 196 176271206281211291216301221311226321231331236341241351246361251371256381261391266426401436406446411456416466421


181 191 201 276 286 296 306 316 326 336 346 356 366 376 386 396 431 441 451 461 471
167 187 172 197 177272207282212292217302222312227322232332237342242352247362252372257382262392267427402437407447412457417467422
182 192 202 277 287 297 307 317 327 337 347 357 367 377 387 397 432 442 452 462 472
168 188 173 198 178273208283213293218303223313228323233333238343243353248363253373258383263393268428403438408448413458418468423
183 193 203 278 288 298 308 318 328 338 348 358 368 378 388 398 433 443 453 463 473
169 189 174 199 179274209284214294219304224314229324234334239344244354249364254374259384264394269429404439409449414459419469424
184 194 204 279 289 299 309 319 329 339 349 359 369 379 389 399 434 444 454 464 474
170 190 175 200 180275210285215295220305225315230325235335240345245355250365255375260385265395270430405440410450415460420470425
185 195 205 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 435 445 455 465 475 381 261 391 266 426 401 436
1
10 12 15
4 7 61 64
17 20 28 76 79
25 71 74
22 66 69 34 86 89
31 81 84 40 96 99
37 91 94 49 111114
46 106109
43 101104 55 121124
52 116119 144146
58 141126 149151
129 154156
132 159161
135 138
164
476
2
11 13 477
5 18 478
8 62 479
23 67 480
26 72 481
29 77 482
32 82 483
35 87 484
38 92 485
41 97 486
44 102487
47 107488
50 112489
53 117490
56 122491
59 142492
127147493
130152494
133157495
136162496
139
3 14 16
6 24 68 70
9 63 65
19 21 33 83 85
30 78 80
27 73 75 39 93 95
36 88 90 45 103105
42 98 100 51 113115
48 108110 57 123125
54 118120 145148
60 143128 150153
131 155158
134 160163
137 165
140

386 396 431

Y Y

382 262 392 267 427 402 437


Z X Z X

(a) full display (b) zoom-in

Figure 6.5: Mesh with labeled node numbers

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
102 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

Diagram sheard.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS NODAL FBX....G FBY
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 266

We select all available load cases (steps) and choose result attribute FBY which
represents the reaction forces in the node. The PRESENT command displays the
load–displacement diagram for node 266 [Fig. 6.6]. Note that the horizontal axis
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:57:12 lodis

Model: SHEARD
Nodal FBX....G FBY
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = .864E5
Ymin = .251E5
Xmax = 15
Xmin = 1
*1E4 Variation over loadcases
Node 266
9

8
N
O
D 7
A
L

F 6
B
X
.
. 5
.
.
G

F 4
B
Y
3

2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
LOAD

Figure 6.6: Load–displacement diagram

of the graph represents the ‘load factor’ which is equivalent to the multiplica-
tion factor for the applied vertical unit displacement. The load–displacement
diagram shows a discontinuity at step 8. Presumably this indicates the point of
yielding of the reinforcement.

6.2.2 Reinforcement Stresses


We will check the stresses along the reinforcement. Therefore we need to know
the numbers of the elements that represent the reinforcement bar.
Element numbers sheard.fvc
VIEW MESH
EYE FRAME ALL
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH ELEMENT VIEWMODE RED

We display a general view of the mesh and remove the existing labels. Then we
label the mesh with element numbers [Fig. 6.7]. The reinforcement bar appears
to be represented by element numbers 141 to 160.
Stress distribution sheard.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 8 9
RESULTS GAUSSIAN RE.SXX.G SXX
PRESENT GRAPH LINE ELEMENT LIST 141 TO 160

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6.2 Nonlinear Analysis 103

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Model: SHEARD

41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 121 126 131 136

42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 102 107 112 117 122 127 132 137

43 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 83 88 93 98 103 108 113 118 123 128 133 138

44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99 104 109 114 119 124 129 134 139

45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140


1
141 3
142 5
143 7
144 9
145 11
146 13
147 15
148 17
149 19
150 21
151 23
152 25
153 27
154 29
155 31
156 33
157 35
158 37
159 39
160
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

Z X

Figure 6.7: Element numbers

We plot the stress distribution in the reinforcement for the moment of yielding
and just beyond, i.e., for steps 8 and 9. We select the result attribute RE.SXX
which represents the axial stress in the reinforcement bar. Then we display the
distribution of the reinforcement stress along the line from element 141 to 160
[Fig. 6.8a]. Note that for step 8 (solid line) the maximum stress σmax ≈ 400
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Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD


Gauss RE.SXX.G SXX LC1: Load case 1
Max/Min on whole graph: Step: 9 LOAD: 9
Ymax = 440 Gauss RE.SXX.G SXX
Ymin = -.376 Max = 440
Xmax = .193E4 Min = -5.74
Xmin = 0 Results shown:
Variation along a line Mapped to nodes
Mean value used for each element
450 LC1 8
LC1 9
400
G
A 350
U
S
S 300
I
A
N 250

R
E 200
.
S
X 150
X
.
G 100

S 50
X
X
0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-50 *1E3
DISTANCE
Y

Z X
435

(a) stress distribution (b) plastic zone

Figure 6.8: Stress in reinforcement

MPa which is less than the yield stress σy , but for load case 9 (dotted line)
σmax = σy = 440 MPa. Of course we can also display the stress distribution
in a contour plot, this will confirm the distribution as presented by the graph.
However, here we will apply a contour plot to show the plastic zone in the
reinforcement.
Plastic zone sheard.fvc

LABEL MESH OFF


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
104 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 9


PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 435

First we display an outline view of the model without element numbers. We


select step 9 and draw a contour plot with one value 435 which is just below the
yield stress σy . In this case iDiana will display the zone where σ ≥ σy in red
[Fig. 6.8b]. This clearly indicates the plastic zone. The elastic zone is displayed
in blue.

6.2.3 Crack Development


We will assess the crack pattern for a specific step and as an animation.
Crack pattern for step sheard.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 9
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.EKNN1 EKNN
PRESENT DISC 0.3
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 10

We select step 9 and result attribute EL.EKNN which represents the normal crack
strains εcr
nn . With the DISC option we display the crack pattern. With the
DEFORM option the cracks are presented on the deformed model, in this case for
the total displacement with a 10× magnification [Fig. 6.9].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:57:12 crack

Model: SHEARD
Deformation = 10
LC1: Load case 1
Step: 9 LOAD: 9
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .401E-2
Min = -.336E-4

Z X 0
435

Figure 6.9: Crack pattern for step 9

Animation sheard.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr

We can display the development of the cracks for increasing deformation in


an animation sequence. Therefore we select all steps. The DRAWING ANIMATE
command starts the animation. The PLOTFILE option yields a file for each frame
so that we can show them in a document [Fig. 6.10].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
6.3 Force-Controlled Analysis
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105
Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD
Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 1 LOAD: 1 Step: 2 LOAD: 2 Step: 3 LOAD: 3 Step: 4 LOAD: 4 Step: 5 LOAD: 5
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .165E-3 Max = .105E-2 Max = .164E-2 Max = .216E-2 Max = .261E-2
Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0

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Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD
Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 6 LOAD: 6 Step: 7 LOAD: 7 Step: 8 LOAD: 8 Step: 9 LOAD: 9 Step: 10 LOAD: 10
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .301E-2 Max = .339E-2 Max = .373E-2 Max = .401E-2 Max = .457E-2
Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = -.336E-4 Min = 0

Y Y Y Y Y

Z 9.4.3-02
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iDIANA Z X : TNO Diana BV
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435 435 435 435 435
Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD Model: SHEARD
Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10 Deformation = 10
LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 11 LOAD: 11 Step: 12 LOAD: 12 Step: 13 LOAD: 13 Step: 14 LOAD: 14 Step: 15 LOAD: 15
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr
Max = .592E-2 Max = .793E-2 Max = .921E-2 Max = .101E-1 Max = .117E-1
Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0 Min = 0

Y Y Y Y Y

Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0
435 435 435 435 435

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr

Y Y Y Y Y

Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0 Z X 0
435 435 435 435 435

Figure 6.10: Animation frames for crack development


DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASE PLOTFILE ancr

6.3 Force-Controlled Analysis


We will now investigate the behavior of the same model in a force-controlled
analysis rather than a displacement-controlled analysis.

6.3.1 Creating a Force Load


We must replace the displacement load uY = −1 mm by a force load FY = −10
kN. Therefore we open the model in the Design environment.
shear.fgc

FEMGEN SHEAR
UTILITY DELETE LOADS ALL
yes
PROPERTY LOADS FORCE P11 -1.0E+4 Y
VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH LOADS
UTILITY WRITE DIANA shearf.dat
yes

First we delete all loads on the model. Then we apply a force load on the
appropriate point and display the load on the mesh [Fig. 6.11]. Finally we write
the model to a new data file in Diana batch format.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:57:03 meshlo2

Model: SHEAR
Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D

Z X

Figure 6.11: Loading for force-controlled analysis

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
106 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

iDiana
FILE CLOSE
yes
Shear failure in reinforced concrete beam (force control)
ANALYSE SHEAR
Analysis Setup
···

6.3.2 Nonlinear Analysis


To perform the analysis we apply an automatic adaptive load increment based on
the number of iterations in combination with the Arc-length iteration method.
The upper limit of the step size could be set to 0.25 with a factor γ = 0.25.1
With such parameter values, the number of steps could be set to 100. As
output results, we choose the total displacements, the external forces, and the
crack strains. These options could yield the following command file.
shearf.dcf
*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
READ
*NONLIN
BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN LOAD
LOADNR=1
BEGIN STEPS
BEGIN ITERAT
ARCLEN
GAMMA=0.25
MAXSIZ=0.25
NSTEPS=100
END ITERAT
END STEPS
END LOAD
ITERAT MAXITE=50
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA TOTAL TRANSL
FORCE EXTERN TRANSL
STRAIN CRACK GREEN
END OUTPUT
*END

1 For more information, see Volume Analysis Procedures of the Diana User’s Manual:
‘Iteration Based Adaptive Loading’ in Chapter Nonlinear Analysis.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
6.3 Force-Controlled Analysis 107

After the job has been terminated, we check the convergence of the analysis
process via the output messages of which the last ones are:
shearf.out
STEP 46 TERMINATED, CONVERGENCE AFTER 1 ITERATION
STEP 47 TERMINATED, CONVERGENCE AFTER 1 ITERATION
STEP 48 TERMINATED, NO CONVERGENCE AFTER 50 ITERATIONS

Obviously, the last load step did not converge. Presumably this indicates that
the structure has collapsed, i.e., it has reached the Ultimate Limit State. We
enter the iDiana Results environment to assess the analysis results.
iDiana
FEMVIEW SHEARF

6.3.3 Load–Displacement Diagram


We check the overall behavior of the force-controlled analysis via the load–
displacement diagram.
shearf.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS NODAL TDTX...G TDTY
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 266
PRESENT OPTIONS GRAPH AXES SWAP

The load cases (steps) now represent the real load in vertical direction. Result
attribute TDTY represents the vertical displacements. We display the load–
displacement diagram for the loading point. We swap the axes to get the
displacements along the horizontal axis and the load along the vertical axis
[Fig. 6.12]. Note that the displacements are negative (−Y ) and thus the graph
is to be read from right to left. The dip at the end of the graph indicates that
the structure has indeed reached its Ultimate Limit State.

6.3.4 Ultimate Limit State


To assess the Ultimate Limit State we will display the crack pattern and the
crack strain distribution.
Crack pattern shearf.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 47
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.EKNN1 EKNN
PRESENT DISC 0.3

We select the last step that has converged and the normal crack strain εcr
nn . We
display the crack pattern via the DISC option [Fig. 6.13a].
Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
108 Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beam

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Model: SHEARF
Nodal TDTX...G TDTY
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = 8.27
Ymin = .25
Xmax = -.821E-1
Xmin = -9.28
Variation over loadcases
Node 266
9

L 5
O
A
D 4

0
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
NODAL TDTX...G TDTY

Figure 6.12: Load–displacement diagram


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Model: SHEARF Model: SHEARF


LC1: Load case 1 Deformation = 10
Step: 47 LOAD: 8.27 LC1: Load case 1
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Step: 47 LOAD: 8.27
Max = .497E-2 Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Min = 0 Max = .497E-2
Min = 0
Results shown:
Mapped to nodes

.452E-2
.407E-2
.361E-2
.316E-2
Y Y .271E-2
.226E-2
.181E-2
Z X Z X .136E-2
.331E-2 .904E-3
.166E-2 .452E-3

(a) crack pattern (b) crack strain

Figure 6.13: Ultimate Limit State

Crack strain shearf.fvc

PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS


VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 10

To gain an insight into the true value of the crack strain we display a contour
plot in a deformed mesh (10×) [Fig. 6.13b]. The results monitor indicates that
the maximum crack strain εcr nn is approximately equal to 0.005. Note that un-
cracked areas do not have crack strain and therefore remain empty.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
Chapter 7

Shear Wall Panel


Name: Panel
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/Panel
Keywords: analys: linear static. constr: suppor. elemen: cq16m grid
pstres reinfo taper. load: deform edge elemen force. materi:
consta crack elasti harden isotro multil plasti rotati soften strain
totstr vonmis work. option: direct groups units. post: bi-
nary femvie. pre: append femgen. result: cauchy displa
extern force green reacti strain stress total. analys: nonlin
physic. constr: suppor. elemen: cq16m grid pstres reinfo
taper. load: deform edge elemen force. materi: consta crack
elasti harden isotro multil plasti rotati soften strain totstr von-
mis work. option: direct groups newton regula units. post:
binary femvie. pre: append femgen. result: cauchy crack
displa force green plasti princi reacti status strain stress total.
analys: nonlin physic. constr: suppor. elemen: cq16m grid
pstres reinfo taper. load: deform edge elemen force. materi:
consta crack elasti harden isotro multil plasti rotati soften strain
totstr vonmis work. option: direct groups newton regula units.
post: binary femvie. pre: append femgen. result: cauchy
crack displa force green plasti princi reacti status strain stress
total.

This example presents the building and analysis of a finite element model of a
shear wall panel [Fig. 7.1]. The panel has been tested experimentally by Maier
and Thürliman [9]. It will be modeled using plane stress elements and adopting
the Total Strain based rotating crack model as constitutive material behav-
ior. First we will build and check the model. Then we will subjected it to a
monotonic load and finally, as an option, to a cyclic load.

7.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model we start iDiana and enter the Design
environment with the model name PANEL.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
110 Shear Wall Panel

u 240
ρy
ρx ρf
1200

Y
B X B

380

A A–A
1700 700
260 100 980 100 260

150
100
400

150
B–B

Figure 7.1: Geometric model of the shear wall panel

iDiana
FEMGEN PANEL
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 2D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

Time: →Second

Temperature: →Celsius

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify that this is a model for two-dimen-
sional structural analysis. We also indicate the adopted units [mm, kg, N, s,
°C].

7.1.1 Geometry Definition


We will first define the two-dimensional square, also know as ‘the workbox’,
where the model is going to be build. Then we will subsequently define the
panel and the beam along the top. Note that the beam along the bottom will
not be modeled, it is considered as a rigid support for the panel.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.1 Finite Element Model 111

Workbox panel.fgc

CONSTRUCT SPACE WORK-BOX 1440 1440 -260 0


EYE FRAME WORK-BOX

For this model we choose the XY -axes as shown in Figure 7.1. Then the X-
coordinates of the model vary from −260 to 1440 and the Y -coordinates from
0 to 1440. With the WORK-BOX option we specify these coordinate limits and
frame the display to it.
Panel bottom panel.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD P1 0 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD P2 100 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P3 590 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P4 1080 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P5 1180 0
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P6 0 1200
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L1 P1 P2 4
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L2 P2 P3 10
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L3 P3 P4 10
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L4 P4 P5 4
CONSTRUCT SET BOTTOM APPEND LINES ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY BOTTOM VIOLET
VIEW GEOMETRY +P6 BLUE

We define the coordinates of points P1 to P5 at the bottom of the panel. We also


define a point P6 at the top-left corner of the panel. Then we define straight
lines between the points along the bottom of the model. Note that we also
specify the meshing division for each line. We collect all lines in a set BOTTOM
which we display in violet [Fig. 7.2a]. We also display the top-point in blue.
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Model: PANEL Model: PANEL


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

4 10 10 4

20 20 20 20 20

Y Y

Z X Z X
4 10 10 4

(a) bottom lines (b) swept for surfaces

Figure 7.2: Definition of the panel geometry

Panel sweep panel.fgc

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
112 Shear Wall Panel

GEOMETRY SWEEP BOTTOM SE1 20 TRANSLATE TR1 P1 P6


CONSTRUCT SET WALL APPEND SURFACES ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY WALL BLUE
LABEL GEOMETRY DIVISIONS

We sweep the lines in set BOTTOM upward over the distance from point P1 to
point P6. Simultaneously we specify the meshing division as 20. We collect
all surfaces in a set WALL which we display in blue [Fig. 7.2b]. We label this
geometry display with the applied meshing divisions.
Upper beam panel.fgc
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P11 0 1320
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P12 0 1440
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P13 -260 1200
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P14 1440 1200
CONSTRUCT SET OPEN BEAMUP
CONSTRUCT SET APPEND L5 L6 L7 L8
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L14 P13 P6
GEOMETRY LINE STRAIGHT L15 P10 P14
GEOMETRY SWEEP BEAMUP SE2 2 TRANSLATE TR2 P6 P11
GEOMETRY SWEEP L20 L29 2 TRANSLATE TR3 P11 P12
GEOMETRY SWEEP L16 L32 2 TRANSLATE TR4 P11 P12
GEOMETRY SWEEP L17 L34 2 TRANSLATE TR5 P11 P12
GEOMETRY SWEEP L18 L36 2 TRANSLATE TR6 P11 P12
GEOMETRY SWEEP L19 L38 2 TRANSLATE TR7 P11 P12
GEOMETRY SWEEP L21 L40 2 TRANSLATE TR8 P11 P12
CONSTRUCT SET CLOSE
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK GEOMETRY 0.8
VIEW GEOMETRY BEAMUP ORANGE
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES CURRENT WHITE
DRAWING CONTENTS MONITOR OFF

To model the upper beam we define additional points P11 to P14. We create a
new set BEAMUP to contain all geometric parts of the upper beam. We define
the bottom line of the beam: the four lines along the border between the panel
and the beam and two new lines L14 and L15 at the left and right ends. Then
we sweep these lines upward over half the height of the beam (to point P11). A
series of sweeps until the top of the beam (to point P12) completes the beam
geometry. We display the geometry of the upper beam with line labels [Fig. 7.3a].
Due to the shrunken style we can easily discern the points, lines, and surfaces.
Note that we remove the monitor because it overlaps the geometry. For the
forthcoming definition of constraints and loads it is useful to collect various
parts of the model in sets of which we already have BOTTOM and BEAMUP. We
will now create another set for the top line of the beam.
Sets panel.fgc
CONSTRUCT SET TOP APPEND L29 L32 L34 L36 L38 L40
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL VIOLET
VIEW GEOMETRY +BEAMUP ORANGE
VIEW GEOMETRY +BOTTOM GREEN
VIEW GEOMETRY +TOP BLUE

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7.1 Finite Element Model 113

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L29 L32 L34 L36 L38 L40 P21 P12 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26
S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16
L30 L31 L33 L35 L37 L39 L41
L20 L16 L17 L18 L19 L21 P19 P11 P15 P16 P17 P18 P20
S9 S5 S6 S7 S8 S10
L27 L22 L23 L24 L25 L26 L28
L14 L5 L6 L7 L8 L15 P13 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P14

S1 S2 S3 S4

Y Y

Z X Z X P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

(a) upper beam with line labels (b) complete geometry with labels

Figure 7.3: Finishing the geometry

LABEL GEOMETRY POINTS


LABEL GEOMETRY SURFACES ALL WHITE

We collect the lines along the top of the beam in a set TOP. To check the
geometry and the sets we display the full geometry in violet overlapped with
the sets in various colors [Fig. 7.3b]. We add point and surface labels which are
useful in forthcoming definitions of reinforcements, materials etc.

7.1.2 Reinforcement
We will now specify the reinforcement grids in the shear wall.
panel.fgc

REINFORCE GRID SECTION REIWAL P1 P5 P10 P6


REINFORCE GRID REIFOR REIWAL
REINFORCE GRID SECTION REISE1 P1 P2 P7 P6
REINFORCE GRID SECTION REISE2 P4 P5 P10 P9
REINFORCE GRID REIFL1 REISE1
REINFORCE GRID REIFL2 REISE2
REINFORCE SET REIFLA APPEND REIFL1 REIFL2
LABEL GEOMETRY OFF
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL YELLOW
VIEW REINFORCE +REIWAL BLUE
VIEW REINFORCE +REIFLA RED

We specify the grid sections via their corner points. We define a grid REIFOR
for the panel. We define two grids for the flanges: REIFL1 and REIFL2 which we
collect in a grid set REIFLA. We display the grid for the panel in blue and the
grids for the flanges in red over a geometry displayed in yellow [Fig. 7.4].

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
114 Shear Wall Panel

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Z X

Figure 7.4: Reinforcement in geometry

7.1.3 Meshing
We will mesh the model with 8-node quadratic quadrilateral plane stress ele-
ments CQ16M.
panel.fgc

MESHING TYPES ALL QU8 CQ16M


MESHING GENERATE
VIEW HIDDEN SHADE
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK MESH 0.9
VIEW MESH
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
VIEW REINFORCE +REIWAL BLUE
VIEW REINFORCE +REIFLA RED

We specify the element type to be applied to all surfaces as CQ16M. Then we


generate the mesh and display it in ‘filled shrunken elements’ style [Fig. 7.5a].
We also display the reinforcement in the mesh [Fig. 7.5b]. Note that this requires
an un-filled view of the mesh.

7.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


We will specify the material properties [Table 7.1] and the physical properties
[Fig. 7.1] for the model. Therefore we launch the Property Manager dialog.
iDiana
View →Property Manager...

Property Manager
···

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.1 Finite Element Model 115

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Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) as generated (b) with reinforcement grids

Figure 7.5: Finite element mesh

Table 7.1: Material parameters

Young’s modulus E 30000 N/mm2


Poisson’s ratio ν 0.15
Concrete Tensile strength ft 2.2 N/mm2
Ultimate tensile strain εcrk
ult 0.0014
Compressive strength fc 27.5 N/mm2
Young’s modulus E 200000 N/mm2
Reinforcement Yield strength fsy 574 N/mm2
Hardening modulus Esy 8000 N/mm2

Concrete material iDiana


Property Manager
Materials Material Name: CONLIN

↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

Materials Material Name: CON


↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

↑Static Nonlinearity →Concrete and Brittle Materials →Total Strain Rotating Crack

→Direct Input →Multi-lin. Diag. in Tension

→Ideal in Compression →No lateral confinement behav.

→No lateral cracking reduction →No Poisson reduction

We consider the upper beam to be linear elastic: we define a material instance


CONLIN with Young’s modulus E = 30000 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.15. For the
concrete in the panel we define a material instance CON with the same elastic
properties: E = 30000 and ν = 0.15. For nonlinearity in the panel we choose
the Total Strain Rotating Crack model with a compressive strength fc = 27.5.
We specify the stress–strain diagram on an external file multln.dat.
multln.dat

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
116 Shear Wall Panel

TENPAR 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0014

Concrete thickness iDiana


Property Manager
↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: BEAMTH
↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

Physical Properties Physical Property Name: FLTH


↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

Physical Properties Physical Property Name: WALLTH


↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

We define the various thicknesses of the concrete: for the beam an instance
BEAMTH with a thickness of 700, for the flanges an instance FLTH with a thickness
of 400, and for the panel an instance WALLTH with a thickness of 100.
Reinforcement grids iDiana
Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: STEEL
↑Linear Elasticity →Reinforcement →Reinforcement Bonded

↑Static Nonlinearity →Reinforcement →Von Mises Plasticity → Work Hardening Diag.


↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: REFL
↑Geometry →Embedded Reinforcements →Grid

Physical Properties Physical Property Name: REWA


↑Geometry →Embedded Reinforcements →Grid

For the reinforcement steel we define a material STEEL with a Young’s modulus
E = 200000 and Von Mises plasticity with a work hardening diagram from an
external file hardia.dat.
hardia.dat

HARDIA 5.74000E+02 0.00000E+00 85.74000E+02 1.0

Next we specify the thickness for the reinforcement grids. For the flanges we
define a property instance REFL with an equivalent thickness of 4.64 in the y-
direction (vertical). For the panel we define a property instance REWA with
an equivalent thickness of 1.03 in the x-direction (horizontal) and 1.16 in the
y-direction (vertical). Note that we must ensure that the local x-direction co-
incides with the global X-direction by checking the X-axis components in the
dialog window.
Assignment panel.fgc
PROPERTY ATTACH BEAMUP CONLIN BEAMTH
PROPERTY ATTACH WALL CON
PROPERTY ATTACH S1 FLTH
PROPERTY ATTACH S4 FLTH
PROPERTY ATTACH S2 WALLTH

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.1 Finite Element Model 117

PROPERTY ATTACH S3 WALLTH


VIEW HIDDEN SHADE
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR MATERIALS
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR PHYSICAL
PROPERTY ATTACH REIFOR STEEL REWA
PROPERTY ATTACH REIFLA STEEL REFL

We assign the material and physical properties to the various geometrical parts
and reinforcement grids of the model. For the geometry we check the assignment
via a colored display of the mesh [Fig. 7.6].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:59 meshma.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:49:59 meshph.ps

Y Y

Z X Z X Physical
Materials FLTH
CON WALLTH
CONLIN BEAMTH

(a) material (b) thickness

Figure 7.6: Property assignment for mesh

7.1.5 Boundary Conditions


The boundary conditions involve the constraints (supports) and the loading
[Fig. 7.1].
Constraints panel.fgc
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT CO1 BOTTOM PINNED
VIEW HIDDEN OFF
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

We apply constraints at the bottom of the geometry: the PINNED option indicates
a support in X- and Y -direction. We display the supports on the mesh [Fig. 7.7-
a].
Loads panel.fgc
PROPERTY LOADS PRESSURE LO1 1 TOP -366.95 Y
PROPERTY LOADS DISPLACE LO2 2 P16 1 X
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
118 Shear Wall Panel

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Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) constraints (b) loads

Figure 7.7: Boundary constraints

We apply two loads: a vertical pressure on the top of the beam and a horizontal
displacement of the beam center. The total vertical load is 433 kN, we distribute
this over the width of the model which results in 366.95 N/mm. It is important
that both loads are defined in different load cases. Here we specify the pressure
in load case 1 and the displacement in load case 2. We display both load cases
on the mesh [Fig. 7.7b].

7.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis


In order to check the model, we will run a linear analysis. By default the two
load cases are applied separately and nonlinearities will not be considered at
first. We write the model to a file panel.dat in Diana batch format.
iDiana
UTILITY WRITE DIANA
FILE CLOSE
yes
Shear Wall Panel
ANALYSE PANEL
Analysis Setup
···

Prior to the actual analysis we will change the integration scheme of the CQ16M
elements: for this model we prefer a 3×3 integration instead of the default 2×2
scheme. We specify the customized integration scheme on a data file data.dat
in Diana batch format.
data.dat

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.2 Preliminary Linear Analysis 119

’ELEMEN’
DATA
/ WALL BEAMUP / 1
’DATA’
1 NINTEG 3 3
’END’

We launch the Analysis Setup dialog via the ANALYSE command and activate
the following command file for the linear analysis.
linear.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
READ FILE="panel.dat"
READ APPEND FILE="data.dat"
*LINSTA
*END

When the analysis is completed, we enter the iDiana Results environment with
the model name to assess the analysis results.

FEMVIEW LINSTA
VIEW MESH
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE FRAME

The VIEW and EYE commands display the outlines of the non-deformed mesh.

7.2.1 Stresses
We will display the distribution of vertical stresses for the two load cases.
linsta.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SYY
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -2.5 TO -5 LEVELS 9
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM -10 TO 10 LEVELS 9

We select results attribute SYY which represents the vertical stresses σY Y . We


display a contour plot for both load cases [Fig. 7.8]. Note that we explicitly
specify the contour levels to gain a better insight in the stresses in the panel.

7.2.2 Displacements
To assess the displacements we display the mesh including the element edges.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
120 Shear Wall Panel

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Model: LINSTA Model: LINSTA


LC1: Load case 1 LC2: Load case 2
Element EL.SXX.G SYY Element EL.SXX.G SYY
Max = .517 Max = 23.3
Min = -7.46 Min = -23.3

-5 10
-4.75 8
-4.5 6
-4.25 4
-4 2
Y -3.75 Y 0
-3.5 -2
-3.25 -4
Z X -3 Z X -6
-2.75 -8
-2.5 -10

(a) for vertical pressure (b) for horizontal displacement

Figure 7.8: Vertical stresses

linsta.fvc

VIEW OPTIONS EDGES ALL


RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS NODAL DTX....G RESDTX
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 0.2 LEVELS 9
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING DTX....G RESDTX
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 1.05 LEVELS 9
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING DTX....G RESDTX

We select results attribute RESDTX which represents the displacement vectors of


the nodes. We display a contour plot for the two load cases [Fig. 7.9]. Note the
use of the DEFORM option to display the contour plot on the deformed mesh.
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Model: LINSTA Model: LINSTA


Deformation = 622 Deformation = 105
LC1: Load case 1 LC2: Load case 2
Nodal DTX....G RESDTX Nodal DTX....G RESDTX
Max = .193 Min = 0 Max = 1.15 Min = 0

.2 1.05
.18 .945
.16 .84
.14 .735
.12 .63
Y .1 Y .525
.8E-1 .42
.6E-1 .315
Z X .4E-1 Z X .21
.2E-1 .105
0 0

(a) for vertical pressure (b) for horizontal displacement

Figure 7.9: Total displacements

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.3 Nonlinear Analysis 121

7.3 Nonlinear Analysis


We now specify a nonlinear analysis via the Analysis Setup dialog.
iDiana
ANALYSE PANEL
Analysis Setup
···

We will consider and apply the following analysis options.


ˆ Use physical nonlinear effects and specify plasticity and total strain based
cracking with the secant option.
ˆ Specify two execute blocks, the first one for the vertical load and the
second one for the monotonic displacement.
ˆ Use for the first load the displacement convergence norm only.
ˆ Use for the second load the energy convergence norm of 0.001 only.
ˆ Apply in the second execute block the second load using thirty steps of
size 1.0.
ˆ Use one output block for the whole analysis and specify:
– Displacements,
– Crack status and strain,
– Principal and global stresses,
– Global strains,
– Plasticity status and plastic strains,
– Reaction and residual forces.
We save the analysis specification as a command file:
nonlin.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
READ FILE="panel.dat"
READ APPEND FILE="data.dat"
*NONLIN
BEGIN TYPE
BEGIN PHYSIC
PLASTI
TOTCRK
END PHYSIC
END TYPE
EXECUT

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
122 Shear Wall Panel

BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN ITERAT
BEGIN CONVER
DISPLA OFF
ENERGY TOLCON=0.001
FORCE OFF
END CONVER
MAXITE=50
END ITERAT
BEGIN LOAD
LOADNR=2
STEPS EXPLIC SIZES 1.(30)
END LOAD
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT
DISPLA
FORCE
STATUS
STATUS CRACK
STRAIN
STRAIN TOTAL GREEN PRINCI
STRAIN CRACK
STRAIN PLASTI
STRESS
STRESS CRACK
STRESS TOTAL CAUCHY PRINCI
END OUTPUT
*END

We run the analysis and enter the iDiana results environment to assess the
results.

7.4 Load–Displacement Diagram


We will present a diagram of the load versus the displacement for the node in
the beam center where the displacement has been applied. Therefore we need
to know the number of this node.
Node number nonlin.fvc

VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH CONSTRNTS
LABEL MESH NODES
EYE ZOOM /CURSOR

We label the constraints and the node numbers on the mesh [Fig. 7.10a]. When
we drag a zoom window around the appropriate node it appears to be number
482 [Fig. 7.10b].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.4 Load–Displacement Diagram 123

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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN

534 538 535 540 536


544
542
546
543553548555549557550559551561552568563570564572565574566576567
580
578
582
579 586 584 588 585
537 539 541545547 554 556 558 560 562 569 571 573 575 577581583 587 589
514 519 516 522 470
474
471
476
472483478485479487480489481491482498493500494502495504496506497
510
508
512
509 528 524 531 526 550 559 551 561 552 568 563 570 564
518 521 473475477 484 486 488 490 492 499 501 503 505 507511513 530 533
515 520 517 523 1 12
44
590
597
59623
65
646141
647 678162
67986 71197 743108
710183 775119
742204 807130
774225806301838322
839246871257903268
870343 935279
902364 967290
934385 428
406
9991031
998
966 1030
417
449 529 525 532 527
34
59155
59576
645 152
677 173
709 194
741 215
773 236
805 312
837 333
869 354
901 375
933 396
9654391029
997460
2 13
45
592
593
59424
644142
66
643 67587 70798
676163 739109
708184 771120
740205 803131
772226804302
835247867258
836323 899269
868344 931280
900365 963291
932386 429
995
996
407
964 418
1027
1028
450
35
59856
60277
650 153
682 174
714 195
746 216
778 237
810 313
842 334
874 355
906 376
938 397
970440
1034
1002
461 558 560 562 569 571
3 14
46
599
600
60125
649143
67
648 68088 71299
681164 744110
713185 776121
745206 808132
777227809303
840248872259
841324 904270
873345 936281
905366 968292
937387 4301032
1000
969
4081033
419
1001
451
36
60357
60778
653 154
685 175
717 196
749 217
781 238
813 314
845 335
877 356
909 377
941 398
973441
1037
1005
462
4 15
47
604
605
60626
652144
68
651 68389 715100
684165 747111
716186 779122
748207 811133
780228812304
843249875260
844325 907271
876346 939282
908367 971293
940388 4311035
1003
972
4091036
1004
420
452
37
60858
61279
656 155
688 176
720 197
752 218
784 239
816 315
848 336
880 357
912 378
944 399
976442
1040
1008
463
5
60916
48
610 27
655145
69
611
654 68690 718101
687166 750112
719187 782123
751208 814134
783229815305
846250878261
847326 910272
879347 942283
911368 974294
943389 4321038
10061039
1007
975
410421
453 480 489 481 491 482 498 493 500 494
38
61359
61780
659 156
691 177
723 198
755 219
787 240
819 316
851 337
883 358
915 379
947 400 1043
979443
1011
464
6 17
49
614
615
61628
658146
70
657 68991 721102
690167 753113
722188 785124
754209 817135
786230818306
849251881262
850327 913273
882348 945284
914369 977295
946390 4331041
1009
978
4111042
1010
422
454
39
61860
62281
662 157
694 178
726 199
758 220
790 241
822 317
854 338
886 359
918 380
950 401 1046
1014
982444
465
7 18
50
619
620
62129
661147
71
660 69292 724103
693168 756114
725189 788125
757210 820136
789231821307
852252884263
853328 916274
885349 948285
917370 980296
949391 4341044
1012
981
4121045
1013
423
455
40
62361
62782
665 158
697 179
729 200
761 221
793 242
825 318
857 339
889 360
921 381
953 402 1049
1017
985445
466 488 490 492 499 501
8 19
51
624
625
62630
664148
72
663 69593 727104
696169 759115
728190 791126
760211 823137
792232824308
855253887264
856329 919275
888350 951286
920371 983297
952392 1047
1015
435
984
4131048
1016
424
456
41
62862
63283
668 159
700 180
732 201
764 222
796 243
828 319
860 340
892 361
924 382
956 403 1052
1020
988446
467
9 20
52
629
630
63131
667149
73
666 69894 730105
699170 762116
731191 794127
763212 826138
795233827309
858254890265
859330 922276
891351 954287
923372 986298
955393 1050
1018
987
436
4141051
1019
425
457
42
63363
63784
671 160
703 181
735 202
767 223
799 244
831 320
863 341
895 362
927 383
959 404 1055
1023
991447
468
Y Y
10
53
63421
63574
63632
670150
669 733106
702171
70195 765117
734192 797128
766213 829139
798234830310
861255893266
862331 925277
894352 957288
926373 989299
958394 1053
10211054
1022
990
437
415426
458 108
742 204
775 119
774 225
807 130
806 301
839 246
838 322
871 257
870
43
63864
64285
674 161
706 182
738 203
770 224
802 245
834 321
866 342
898 363
930 384
962 405 1058
1026
994448
469
Z X Z X
11
54
63922
64075
64133
673151
672 70496 736107
705172 768118
737193 800129
769214 832140
801235833311
864256896267
865332 928278
897353 960289
929374 992300
961395 1056
1024
993
438
4161057
1025
427
459

(a) full display (b) zoom-in

Figure 7.10: Mesh with labeled node numbers

Diagram nonlin.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 LC2


RESULTS NODAL FBX....G FBX
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 482

We select all available load cases (steps) and choose results attribute FBX which
represents the horizontal reaction force in the node. The PRESENT command
displays the load–displacement diagram for node 482 [Fig. 7.11]. Note that the
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:20 lodis.ps

Model: NONLIN
Nodal FBX....G FBX
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = -.7E-10
Ymin = -.884E6
Xmax = 30
Xmin = 1
*1E5 Variation over loadcases
Node 482
0
0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 27.5 30 32.5
-1

N -2
O
D
A
L -3

F
B -4
X
.
. -5
.
.
G -6

F
B -7
X

-8

-9
LOAD

Figure 7.11: Load–displacement diagram

horizontal axis is labeled with ‘load’ which means that it represents the load on
the model. In this case this is the factor for the forced horizontal displacement
in the nonlinear analysis. In the sequel of this example we will present analysis
results for steps 6 and 31 which represent a horizontal displacement uX of 5 and
30 mm.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
124 Shear Wall Panel

7.4.1 Principal Stress


Principal stresses can best be displayed as vectors, then we can see both their
size and their direction. iDiana will display a tensile stress with a straight line,
a compressive stress gets a small transverse dash at its end.
nonlin.fvc

LABEL MESH OFF


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
EYE FRAME
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 6
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.S1 S2
PRESENT VECTORS ALL 1.0
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 31
PRESENT VECTORS ALL 1.0

We revert to a clean outline view of the model and select results attribute S12
which represents the principal stresses. We display a vector plot for two selected
steps [Fig. 7.12]. Note that both plots share the same enlargement factor (1×)
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


LC2: Load case 2 LC2: Load case 2
Step: 6 LOAD: 5 Step: 31 LOAD: 30
Element EL.S1 S2 Element EL.S1 S2
Max = 2.1 Max = 3.22
Min = -36.4 Min = -35.4
Factor = 1 Factor = 1

Y Y

Z X -10.7 Z X -9.64
-23.5 -22.5

(a) uX = 5 mm (b) uX = 30 mm

Figure 7.12: Vectors for principal stress

and color modulation so that we can readily compare the results. Obviously
the tensile stresses are so small that they appear as dots, most notably in the
beam.

7.4.2 Plastic Strains in Reinforcements


Via the plot of the plastic strain in the reinforcements we can determine the
yield areas of the grids.
nonlin.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT RE.EPXXG EPXX


RESULTS CALCULATE VONMISES
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 6

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.4 Load–Displacement Diagram 125

PRESENT CONTOUR VALUE 0.001


RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 31
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUE 0.001

We select results attribute RE.EPXX which represents the plastic strain in the
reinforcements. From these we let iDiana calculate the equivalent Von Mises
plastic strain εpeq . We display a contour plot for the two selected steps. Note
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


LC2: Load case 2 LC2: Load case 2
Step: 6 LOAD: 5 Step: 31 LOAD: 30
Element VONMISES RE.EPXXG Element VONMISES RE.EPXXG
Calculated from: RE.EPXXG Calculated from: RE.EPXXG
Max = .137E-2 Min = 0 Max = .367E-1 Min = 0

Y Y

Z X Z X
.1E-2 .1E-2

(a) uX = 5 mm (b) uX = 30 mm

Figure 7.13: Plastic areas in reinforcements (red)

that we do a little trick to get the yielding areas clearly displayed: we ask for
one contour at a small but significant value. In this case areas with εpeq > 0.001
appear in red, the other areas, which are still elastic, in blue.

7.4.3 Cracking
We will asses the cracking behavior of the model via the crack strains and the
crack pattern.
Crack strain panel.fvc
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.EKNN1 EKNN
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 6
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 0.02 LEVELS 7
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 31
PRESENT CONTOUR FROM 0 TO 0.02 LEVELS 7

The selected results attribute EKNN represents the normal crack strain εcrnn . We
display two contour plots with the same levels so that we can compare the colors
of the contours [Fig. 7.14]: areas without crack strain are dark blue, areas with
εcr
nn > 0.02 are red.
Animation panel.fvc
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 4.0
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 1 TO LC2 31

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
126 Shear Wall Panel

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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


LC2: Load case 2 LC2: Load case 2
Step: 6 LOAD: 5 Step: 31 LOAD: 30
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .39E-2 Max = .357E-1
Min = -.626E-4 Min = -.642E-4
Results shown: Results shown:
Mapped to nodes Mapped to nodes

.2E-1 .2E-1
.175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1
Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2
Z X .5E-2 Z X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2
0 0

(a) uX = 5 mm (b) uX = 30 mm

Figure 7.14: Crack strains

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr


utility setup animate exit

We can display the development of the crack strain for increasing deformation in
an animation sequence. For the deformation we select results attribute RESTDT,
the total displacement, and we apply a 4× magnification. We select all steps
and start the animation. The PLOTFILE option yields a file for each frame so
that we can show them in a document [Fig. 7.15].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:20
iDIANA ancr001
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:20
iDIANA ancr002
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:20
iDIANA ancr003
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:20
iDIANA ancr004
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:21
iDIANA ancr005
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:21
iDIANA ancr006
9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:51:21 ancr007

.2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1


.175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1
Y Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2
Z X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr
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.2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1


.175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1
Y Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2
Z X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr
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.2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1


.175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1
Y Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2
Z X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr
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.2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1


.175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1
Y Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2
Z X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X Z .5E-2
X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr
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.2E-1 .2E-1 .2E-1


.175E-1 .175E-1 .175E-1
.15E-1 .15E-1 .15E-1
Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1 Y .125E-1
.1E-1 .1E-1 .1E-1
.75E-2 .75E-2 .75E-2
Z X .5E-2 Z X .5E-2 Z X .5E-2
.25E-2 .25E-2 .25E-2
0 0 0

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE ancr

Figure 7.15: Animation frames for crack strain development

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
7.5 Cyclic Loading 127

Crack pattern panel.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 6


PRESENT DISC 0.2
RESULTS LOADCASE LC2 31
PRESENT DISC 0.2

With the DISC option the crack strain is displayed as a disc perpendicular to
the strain direction. In a two-dimensional view this disc degrades to a narrow
line which clearly shows the crack pattern [Fig. 7.16]. Note that all cracks are
displayed with lines of equal length. The significance of the crack can only be
seen from its color: red for the larger strains, blue for the smaller.
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Model: NONLIN Model: NONLIN


Deformation = 4 Deformation = 4
LC2: Load case 2 LC2: Load case 2
Step: 6 LOAD: 5 Step: 31 LOAD: 30
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .39E-2 Max = .357E-1
Min = -.626E-4 Min = -.642E-4

Y Y

Z X .258E-2 Z X .238E-1
.126E-2 .119E-1

(a) uX = 5 mm (b) uX = 30 mm

Figure 7.16: Crack pattern

7.5 Cyclic Loading


We can use the same model to study the effect of cyclic loading We only need
to change the command file so that the model is loaded cyclic [Fig. 7.17]. Please

u [mm] 0

−2

−4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Steps

Figure 7.17: Cyclic loading diagram

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
128 Shear Wall Panel

note that in the model there are no time-dependent properties, so we can apply
the load in the steps command of the command file by changing the line in the
second EXECUT block to:
cyclic.dcf

STEPS EXPLIC SIZES 1.(1) -1.(2) 1.(1) \


1.(2) -1.(4) 1.(2) \
1.(4) -1.(8) 1.(4)

We could now proceed in the same way as for the monotonic loading.

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
Chapter 8

Column–Beam Joint in a
Portal Frame
Name: Portal
Path: /Examples/ConcMas/Portal
Keywords: analys: nonlin physic. constr: suppor. elemen: bar cq16m
pstres reinfo. load: force node. materi: consta crack cutoff
elasti harden isotro linear plasti retent smear soften strain von-
mis. option: adapti arclen direct groups loadin newton normal
regula size units update. post: binary femvie. pre: femgen.
result: cauchy crack displa extern force green plasti strain
stress total.

500 500 500

F F

810

1500

Figure 8.1: Frame and loading [mm]

In this example we will apply a concrete material model combining cracking


and crushing phenomena. It concerns the column–beam joint of a portal frame
[Fig. 8.1]. The thickness of the frame is 70 mm. We assume that the load is

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
130 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

concentrated in two points. Due to the symmetry of the problem (geometry and
loading), one half of the frame will be modeled [Fig. 8.2].
560 ♥
F 2∅6
10

120

90 10 2∅6
30

10 10
870
750

2∅6 2∅6

X
120
810

Figure 8.2: Dimensions of the portal frame and reinforcement details [mm]

8.1 Finite Element Model


To build up the finite element model, we start iDiana and enter the Design
environment with the model name PORTAL.
iDiana
FEMGEN PORTAL
Analysis and Units
Analysis Selection
Model Type: →Structural 2D
Units Definition
Length: →Millimeter
Mass: →Kilogram
Force: →Newton

Time: →Second

Temperature: →Celsius

In the Analysis and Units dialog we specify the model type for two-dimensional
structural analysis and the adopted units [mm, kg, N, s, °C].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
8.1 Finite Element Model 131

8.1.1 Geometry Definition


portal.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD P1 0


GEOMETRY POINT COORD P2 60
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P3 120
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P4 120 750
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P5 560 750
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P6 810 750
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P7 810 870
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P8 560 870
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P9 120 870
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P10 0 870
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P11 0 750
EYE FRAME
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P1 +P2 P3 P4 P11
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P11 P4 P9 P10
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P4 P5 P8 P9
GEOMETRY SURFACE 4POINTS P5 P6 P7 P8
CONSTRUCT SET PORTAL APPEND ALL
VIEW GEOMETRY PORTAL VIOLET
LABEL GEOMETRY LINES CURRENT RED

We define the coordinates of the vertices of the portal. Then, we construct the
corresponding surfaces and append all the geometrical entities constructed so
far in the set PORTAL. The geometry is finally displayed with labeled line names
[Fig. 8.3a].
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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D L8 L12 L15 Model Type: Structural 2D
L9
L7 L11 L14
L5 L10 L13

L1

L4

Y Y

Z X L2L6 L3 Z X

(a) geometry (b) mesh

Figure 8.3: Definition of the model

8.1.2 Meshing
The meshing procedure involves the specification of the divisons, the generation
of the mesh and the check via a display.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
132 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

portal.fgc

MESHING DIVISION LINE ALL 8


MESHING DIVISION LINE L2 4
MESHING DIVISION LINE L3 4
MESHING DIVISION LINE L4 -520
MESHING DIVISION LINE L1 520
MESHING DIVISION LINE L10 220
MESHING DIVISION LINE L12 -220
MESHING TYPES ALL QU8 CQ16M
MESHING GENERATE
VIEW MESH

First we define the line divisions to be adopted. Note that we apply a slight
grading toward the connection of the column and the beam. Then we choose
for all geometrical entities the 8-node quadrilateral plane stress element CQ16M.
Finally we generate and display the finite element mesh [Fig. 8.3b].

8.1.3 Reinforcement
We define the reinforcement bars according to Figure 8.2 on page 130
portal.fgc

GEOMETRY POINT COORD P12 10


GEOMETRY POINT COORD P13 10 870
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P14 110
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P15 110 840
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P16 90 760
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P17 810 760
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P18 0 860
GEOMETRY POINT COORD P19 810 860
REINFORCE BAR SECTION RE1 P12 P13
REINFORCE BAR SECTION RE2 P14 P15
REINFORCE BAR SECTION RE3 P16 P17
REINFORCE BAR SECTION RE4 P18 P19
REINFORCE BAR REBAR1 RE1
REINFORCE BAR REBAR2 RE2
REINFORCE BAR REBAR3 RE3
REINFORCE BAR REBAR4 RE4
REINFORCE SET REBAR APPEND REBAR1 REBAR2 REBAR3 REBAR4
VIEW GEOMETRY ALL YELLOW
VIEW REINFORCE +REBAR RED
VIEW OPTIONS SHRINK MESH
VIEW MESH
VIEW REINFORCE +REBAR RED

First we define the end-points of each reinforcement bar. Then we specify the
four reinforcement sections via the SECTION option. All reinforcements, REBAR1
to REBAR4, are combined in the reinforcement set REBAR. The VIEW commands
display the reinforcements in the geometry and in the mesh [Fig. 8.4].

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8.1 Finite Element Model 133

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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) in geometry (b) in mesh

Figure 8.4: Defined reinforcement bars

8.1.4 Material and Physical Properties


To specify the material and physical properties of the model we launch the
Property Manager dialog.
iDiana
View Property Manager...
↑ →

Property Manager
···

Concrete iDiana
Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: MACONCRE
↑Linear Elasticity →Isotropic

↑Static Nonlinearity →Concrete and Brittle Materials →Multi-directional Fixed Crack

→Constant Stress Cut-off →Linear Tension Softening

→Ultimate Strain Based →Constant Shear Retention

→Von Mises Plasticity →Ideal Plasticity

↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHCONCRE


↑Geometry →Plane Stress →Regular

For the concrete part, we define a material instance MACONCRE. As parameters


for elasticity we specify a Young’s modulus E = 28000 MPa and a Poisson’s
ratio ν = 0.2. As nonlinear material parameters we specify a tensile strength
ft = 2.2 MPa, an ultimate strain εu = 1×10−3 , a constant shear retention factor
β = 0.2, and a yield stress fc = 25 MPa. We also define a physical property
instance PHCONCRE with a thickness value t = 70 mm.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
134 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

Reinforcement iDiana
Property Manager
↑Materials Material Name: MAREINFO
↑Linear Elasticity →Reinforcement →Reinforcement Bonded

↑Static Nonlinearity →Reinforcement →Von Mises Plasticity → Ideal Plasticity


↑Physical Properties Physical Property Name: PHREINFO
↑Geometry →Embedded Reinforcements →Bar

For the reinforcement we define a material instance MAREINFO. The parameter


for elasticity is a Young’s Modulus E = 210000 MPa and for nonlinearity a yield
stress σy = 450 MPa. We also create a physical property instance PHREINFO with
a cross-section area A = 56.55 mm2 .
Assignment portal.fgc
PROPERTY ATTACH PORTAL MACONCRE PHCONCRE
PROPERTY ATTACH REBAR MAREINFO PHREINFO

We assign the property instances to the appropriate geometrical parts: the


concrete properties to set PORTAL and the reinforcement properties to the bars
REBAR.

8.1.5 Boundary Conditions


The boundary conditions involve the constraints (supports) and the loading
[Fig. 8.1].
Constraints portal.fgc
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT P2 X Y
PROPERTY BOUNDARY CONSTRAINT L14 X
VIEW REINFORCE OFF
LABEL MESH CONSTRNT

We define the constraints with respect to the geometric parts. The mid-point of
the column base is supported horizontally and vertically (X- and Y -direction).
Due to symmetry conditions, the line of the right edge is supported horizontally.
The display confirms the correct definition [Fig. 8.5a].
Load portal.fgc
PROPERTY LOAD FORCE P8 -200 Y
LABEL MESH OFF
LABEL MESH LOADS

The load is a vertical force of −200 N, applied on top of the beam [Fig. 8.5b].

8.2 Nonlinear Analysis


We write the model to a file in Diana batch format and leave the iDiana Design
environment.
November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
8.2 Nonlinear Analysis 135

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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


Analysis: DIANA Analysis: DIANA
Model Type: Structural 2D Model Type: Structural 2D

Y Y

Z X Z X

(a) constraints (b) loading

Figure 8.5: Boundary conditions

iDiana
UTILITY WRITE DIANA
FILE CLOSE
yes
Column-Beam Joint in a Portal Frame
ANALYSE PORTAL
Analysis Setup
···

Via the Analysis Setup dialog we create or activate the following batch command
file for the nonlinear analysis.
portal.dcf

*FILOS
INITIA
*INPUT
*NONLIN
BEGIN EXECUT
BEGIN LOAD
LOADNR=1
BEGIN STEPS
BEGIN ITERAT
ARCLEN
GAMMA=0.25
MAXSIZ=5
NSTEPS=40
END ITERAT
END STEPS
END LOAD
END EXECUT
BEGIN OUTPUT

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
136 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

DISPLA
FORCE EXTERN
STRAIN PLASTI
STRAIN CRACK
STRESS
END OUTPUT
*END

Note the use of the Arc-length iteration control method which is particularly
useful in case of force-controlled analysis of structures with softening material.
For this example, it would have been easier to use a displacement-controlled
analysis. However, we will apply force-control for demonstration purposes. After
the job has been terminated, we check the convergence of the analysis process
via the output messages of which the last ones are:
shearf.out

STEP 22 TERMINATED, CONVERGENCE AFTER 6 ITERATIONS


STEP 23 TERMINATED, CONVERGENCE AFTER 2 ITERATIONS
STEP 24 TERMINATED, CONVERGENCE AFTER 4 ITERATIONS

Obviously the last step that reached convergence is 24. Presumably the struc-
ture has collapsed beyond that step, i.e., it has reached its Ultimate Limit State.
We enter the iDiana Results environment to assess the analysis results.
iDiana
FEMVIEW PORTAL

8.2.1 Load–Displacement Diagram


We will present the load versus the displacement of the node on which the force
has been applied. Therefore we need to know the number of this node.
Node number portal.fvc

VIEW MESH
LABEL MESH NODES
EYE ZOOM /CURSOR

We display the mesh labeled with node numbers [Fig. 8.6a]. We know that the
force load was applied on the top edge between the fourth and fifth element
from the right [Fig. 8.5b]. For a closer look we drag a zoom window over the
right part of the portal. The node number turns out to be 255 [Fig. 8.6b].

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
8.2 Nonlinear Analysis 137

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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL

165
447166
202
416
448 167
203
449168
204
450169
205
451246247248249
336
452453454455 250
337338339 340
456 251
341
457 252
342
458 253
343 254
459344334 255
460345335 362
461398394 363
462399395 364
463400396 365
464401397
465
197198 199200201326327328329 330 331 332 333
160161
193
415 162
194 163
195 164
196
430 236237238239
316 240
317318319 320 241
321 242
322 243324244325245390358391359392360393361
323
188189190191192306307308309 310 311 312 313 314 315 386 387 388 389
155156
184
414 157
185 158
186 159
187
429 226227228229
296 230
297298299 300 231
301 232
302 233304234305235382354383355384356385357
303
179180181182183286287288289 290 291 292 293 294 295 378 379 380 381
150151
175
413 152
176 153
177 154
178
428 216217218219
276 220
277278279 280 221
281 222
282 223284224285225374350375351376352377353
283
170171172173
431174
432266267268269
433434435436 270
437 271
438 272
439 273
440264274
441265275
442366370
443367371
444368372
445369373
446
1412
66128723108
34129
427
45 206207208209
256 210
257258259 260 211
261 212
262 213
263 214 215 346 347 348 349
56 77 98 119140 254 345 255 398 362 399 363 400 364 401 365
2411 35130
67138824109426
46
57 78 99 120141 460 461 462 463 464 465
3410 36131
68148925110425
47 334 335 394 395 396 397
58 79 100121142
4409 37132
69159026111424
48
59 80 101122143 244 325 245 390 358 391 359 392 360 393 361
5408 38133
70169127112423
49
60 81 102123144 314 315 386 387 388 389
6407 39134
71179228113422
50
61 82 103124145 234 305 235 382 354 383 355 384 356 385 357

7406 40135
72189329114421
51
294 295 378 379 380 381
62 83 104125146

8405 41136
73199430115420
52 224 285 225 374 350 375 351 376 352 377 353

63 84 105126147 274 275 370 371 372 373


441 442 443 444 445 446
9404 42137
74209531116419
53 214 265 215 366 346 367 347 368 348 369 349

64 85 106127148

403 43138
75219632117
10 418
54

Y Y
65 86 107128149

Z X Z X
402 44139
76229733118
11 417
55

(a) full display (b) zoom-in

Figure 8.6: Mesh with labeled node numbers

Diagram portal.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


RESULTS NODAL TDTX...G TDTY
PRESENT GRAPH NODE 255

We select all load cases and result attribute TDTY which represents the vertical
displacements uY . We then display for node 255 the evolution of uY over the
load step values [Fig. 8.7]. Note that uY is negative and therefore the displace-
ment in the graph increases downward.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:52:59 loadis.ps

Model: PORTAL
Nodal TDTX...G TDTY
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = -.257E-1
Ymin = -6.08
Xmax = 63.7
Xmin = 1
Variation over loadcases
Node 255
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

-1
N
O
D
A -2
L

T
D -3
T
X
.
. -4
.
G

T -5
D
T
Y
-6

-7
LOAD

Figure 8.7: Load–displacement diagram

8.2.2 Crack Development


We will assess the crack pattern for a specific step and as an animation.

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
138 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

Crack pattern for step portal.fvc

VIEW MESH
EYE FRAME
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
LABEL MESH NODES OFF
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 24
RESULTS GAUSSIAN EL.EKNN1 EKNN
PRESENT DISC 0.3
PRESENT OPTIONS DISC MODULATE 10
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM USING TDTX...G RESTDT 20

We revert to an outline view of the full mesh without node numbers. We select
the last step which represents the Ultimate Limit State. Result attribute EKNN
represents the normal crack strains εcr
nn . With the DISC option we display the
crack pattern [Fig. 8.8]. With the DEFORM option the results are presented on
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:52:59 crkuls.ps

Model: PORTAL
Deformation = 20
LC1: Load case 1
Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7
Gauss EL.EKNN1 EKNN
Max = .904E-2
Min = 0

.813E-2
.723E-2
.632E-2
Y .542E-2
.452E-2
.361E-2
.271E-2
Z X .181E-2
.904E-3

Figure 8.8: Crack pattern at Ultimate Limit State

the deformed mesh, in this case for the total displacements RESTDT and with
a 20× magnification. Due to the color modulation we can easily discern the
cracks with the largest normal strain, these are red in color.
Animation portal.fvc

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 5 to LC1 24


PRESENT OPTIONS DISC MODULATE OFF
DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack

We can display the development of the cracks for increasing deformation in an


animation sequence. Therefore we select the steps for which cracks have arisen:
5 to 24. We switch off color modulation to get all cracks displayed in the same
color. The DRAWING ANIMATE command starts the animation. The PLOTFILE
option yields a file for each frame so that we can show them in a document
[Fig. 8.9].

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Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X

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DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X

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DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack

Y Y Y Y Y Y

Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X Z X

DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack DRAWING ANIMATE LOADCASES PLOTFILE crack

Figure 8.9: Animation frames for crack development

8.2.3 Principal Stress


Due to the STRESS command in the OUTPUT block of the analysis commands
[§ 8.2] Diana has only stored the total Cauchy stresses. Thus, to display the
principal stresses we must first have them calculated by iDiana.
Calculation portal.fvc
VIEW OPTIONS DEFORM OFF
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1
RESULTS ELEMENT EL.SXX.G SXX
RESULTS CALCULATE P-STRESS ALL

We switch off the deformed model option and select all available load cases. The
SXX result attribute represents the total Cauchy stresses. Via the CALCULATE
option we let iDiana calculate the principal stresses.
Vector plot portal.fvc
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 1
PRESENT VECTORS
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 24
PRESENT VECTORS

For the first and last load cases we display vector plots of the principal stresses
via the VECTORS option [Fig. 8.10]. Note that the two plots have totally different
scaling factors and color levels for the vectors. So the two plots cannot be
compared mutually.

8.2.4 Concrete Crushing via Plastic Strain


To assess the crushing of the concrete we will display the Von Mises plastic
strains. These are not available as a results and must be calculated from the
Cauchy plastic strains.
Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
140 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 1 LOAD: 1 Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7
Element PRINC STRESS ALL Element PRINC STRESS ALL
Calculated from: EL.SXX.G Calculated from: EL.SXX.G
Max = .244 Min = -.547 Max = 14.8 Min = -43.6
Factor = 132 Factor = 1.66

Y Y

Z X -.198E-1 Z X -4.63
-.283 -24.1

(a) for first load case (b) at Ultimate Limit State

Figure 8.10: Vector plots of the principal stresses

portal.fvc

RESULTS ELEMENT EL.EPXXG EPXX


RESULTS CALCULATE VONMISES
PRESENT CONTOUR LEVELS

We select the last load case, i.e., the Ultimate Limit State. The result attribute
EPXX represents the Cauchy plastic strains. From these we let iDiana calculate
the Von Mises plastic strains. We display these in a contour plot [Fig. 8.11a].
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 epvm.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 epvmz.ps

Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1 50 51 52 139 77
Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7 Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7
Element VONMISES EL.EPXXG Element VONMISES EL.EPXXG
Calculated from: EL.EPXXG Calculated from: EL.EPXXG
Max = .24E-2 Min = 0 Max = .24E-2 Min = 0

46 47 48 138 67

42 43 44 137 57

140 141

.218E-2 .218E-2
.197E-2 .197E-2
.175E-2 .175E-2
.153E-2 .153E-2
Y .131E-2 Y .131E-2
.109E-2 .109E-2
.874E-3 .874E-3
Z X .655E-3 Z X 11 21 31 136 .655E-3
.437E-3 .437E-3
.218E-3 .218E-3

(a) full model (b) zoom-in

Figure 8.11: Von Mises plastic strain at Ultimate Limit State

portal.fvc

EYE ZOOM /CURSOR


VIEW OPTIONS EDGES ALL
LABEL MESH ELEMENTS VIEWMODE RED

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8.2 Nonlinear Analysis 141

RESULTS LOADCASE LC1


PRESENT GRAPH ELEMENT 31

We zoom in on the crushed concrete area and ask for labeling element num-
bers. We can identify the element with larger plastic strains to be number 31
[Fig. 8.11b]. We then select all available load cases and display the evolution of
the Von Mises plastic strain as a function of the load step value [Fig. 8.12]. We
can detect the onset of crushing at a load value of about 50.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 evolvm.ps

Model: PORTAL
Element VONMISES EL.EPXXG
Calculated from: EL.EPXXG
Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = .762E-3 Ymin = 0
Xmax = 63.7 Xmin = 1
Variation over loadcases
*1E-4 Element 31 Mean
8

V
O 6
N
M
I 5
S
E
S
4
E
L
. 3
E
P
X
X 2
G

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
LOAD

Onset of crushing

Figure 8.12: Evolution with loading of the Von Mises plastic strain

8.2.5 Yielding in Reinforcement


We will assess the yielding of the reinforcement by displaying the plastic strain
and the stress in the model and as graphs.
Display in model portal.fvc
VIEW MESH
EYE FRAME
VIEW OPTIONS EDGES OUTLINE
LABEL MESH OFF
RESULTS LOADCASE LC1 24
RESULTS ELEMENT RE.EPXXG EPXX
PRESENT SYMBOL
PRESENT CONTOUR VALUES 0

We display an outline view of the full model without labels. Then we select
load case LC1 24, representing the last load step or the Ultimate Limit State
(ULS). Reinforcement results attribute EPXX represents the plastic strains εp .
Via the SYMBOL option we display these as symbols [Fig. 8.13a]. The size and
the color of the symbols (triangles) vary according to the represented value.
We also display a one-contour plot with a contour value 0 [Fig. 8.13b]. This
clearly indicates the plastic zones in red, i.e., where εp > 0. Both displays show
that yielding only occurs in the right end of the lower reinforcement bar in the
horizontal beam.
Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
142 Column–Beam Joint in a Portal Frame

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Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7 Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7
Element RE.EPXXG EPXX Element RE.EPXXG EPXX
Max = .597E-2 Max = .597E-2
Min = -.16E-2 Min = -.16E-2
Symbol factor = 1
All values

.53E-2
.455E-2
.379E-2
.303E-2
Y .227E-2 Y
.152E-2
.758E-3
0
Z X -.758E-3 Z X
-.152E-2 0

(a) symbol representation (b) plastic zones

Figure 8.13: Plastic strain in reinforcements (ULS)

Elements for reinforcements portal.fvc


VIEW EDGES
LABEL MESH ELEMENTS VIEWMODE RED

To get the elements that model the reinforcement bars we display the mesh with
element numbers [Fig. 8.14.] With a bit of zooming in we note that the elements
for the lower bar in the horizontal beam are 140 to 154 and for the upper bar
155 to 172.
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 frael.ps

Model: PORTAL

15554
53
12615655
15756
15887
15988
160161162 163 92
89 90 91 164 93
165 94
166 95
167 96
168 169
109 170
110 171
111 172
112
49 50 51 52
125 13977 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 105 106 107 108
45 46 47 48
124 13867 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 101 102 103 104
41 42 43 44
123 137
14057
14158 59 60 61
142143144 145 62
146 63
147 64
148 65
149 66
150 97
151 98
152 99
153 100
154
1 11 21 31
122 136
2 12 22 32
121 135
3 13 23 33
120 134

4 14 24 34
119 133

5 15 25 35
118 132

6 16 26 36
117 131

7 17 27 37
116 130

8 18 28 38
115 129

9 19 29 39
114 128

Y
10 20 30 40
113 127

Z X

Figure 8.14: Element numbers

Graphs of plastic strain and total stress portal.fvc


PRESENT GRAPH LINE ELEMENTS LIST 140 TO 154
RESULTS ELEMENT RE.SXX.G SXX
PRESENT GRAPH LINE ELEMENTS LIST 155 TO 172

November 8, 2010 – First ed. Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III)
8.2 Nonlinear Analysis 143

We display a graph of the distribution of the currently selected results attribute,


i.e., the plastic strain, along the lower reinforcement bar [Fig. 8.15a]. Note that
iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 plareg.ps iDIANA 9.4.3-02 : TNO Diana BV 28 OCT 2010 01:53:01 frasxx.ps

Model: PORTAL Model: PORTAL


LC1: Load case 1 LC1: Load case 1
Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7 Step: 24 LOAD: 63.7
Element RE.EPXXG EPXX Element RE.SXX.G SXX
Max/Min on whole graph: Max/Min on whole graph:
Ymax = .219E-2 Ymax = 422
Ymin = 0 Ymin = -131
*1E-3 Xmax = 674 Xmax = 764
Xmin = 0 Xmin = 0
2.25 Variation along a line 500 Variation along a line
Mean value used for each element Mean value used for each element
2
E 400
E
L L
E 1.75 E
M M 300
E
N 1.5 E
T N
T
R 1.25 200
E R
E
. .
E 1
S 100
P X
X X
X .
G .75 G
0
E S 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
P .5
X
X X
X -100
.25

0 -200
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 DISTANCE
DISTANCE

(a) plastic strain in lower bar (b) total stress in upper bar

Figure 8.15: Plasticity in horizontal reinforcement bars (ULS)

the bar itself is specified as a polyline via the LIST option with element numbers.
The graph confirms the distribution of the plastic strains as displayed on the
model [Fig. 8.13].
Finally, we select results attribute SXX which represents the total stresses
in the reinforcements. We display their distribution along the upper bar as a
graph [Fig. 8.15b]. In the results monitor we see a maximum value of 422 which
is well below the yield stress σy = 450 MPa. This confirms the elastic state of
the entire upper bar as displayed in the contour plot [Fig. 8.13b].

Diana-9.4.3 User’s Manual – Concrete and Masonry Analysis (III) November 8, 2010 – First ed.
144 Column–Beam Joint in a P