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Subject: Physics TIME: 1 HOUR

1(a) State the name of an electrical sensing device that will respond to changes in
(i) Length,
(ii) Pressure.
(b) A block diagram for an electronic sensor is shown below. Complete the diagram by
labelling the remaining boxes.

(c) A relay is sometimes used as the output of a sensing circuit.

The output of a particular sensing circuit is either + 2 V or – 2 V.

In the figure below, draw symbols for a relay and any other necessary component so that the
external circuit is switched on only when the output from the sensing circuit is + 2 V.

(d) A device is to be built that will emit a red light when its input is at +2 V. When the input is
at –2 V, the light emitted is to be green.

(i) On the figure below, draw a circuit diagram of the device.

(ii) Explain briefly the action of this device.

2 (a) (i) Describe what is meant by Frequency Modulation.

(ii) A sinusoidal carrier wave has frequency 500 kHz and amplitude 6.0 V. It is to be
frequency modulated by a sinusoidal wave of frequency 8 kHz and amplitude 1.5 V.
The frequency deviation of the carrier wave is 20 kHz𝑉 −1.
Describe, for the carrier wave,
1. the variation (if any) of The amplitude
2. the variation (if any) of The frequency.

(b) State two reasons why the cost of FM broadcasting to a particular area is greater than
that of AM broadcasting
3(a) By reference to an amplifier, explain what is meant by negative feedback.

(b) An amplifier circuit incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown below

(i) State the type of amplifier

(ii) The supply for the op-amp is ± 9.0 V.

The amplifier circuit is to have a gain of 25.

Calculate the Resistance of resistor R.

(c) State the value of the output voltage 𝑉𝒐𝒖𝒕 of the amplifier for input voltages 𝑉𝑖𝑛 of

(i) – 0.08 V,

(ii) +0.4 V.

4(a) Optic fibres have negligible cross-talk and are less noisy than co-axial cables.
Define the terms,
(i) cross-talk,
(ii) Noise.
(iii) The attenuation of a signal

(b)(i) The figure above shows a ground station on Earth transmitting a signal with a power of
18 kW towards a communications satellite orbiting the Earth, the loss in signal power
between the ground station and the satellite is 190 dB. Calculate the power of the signal
received by the satellite.

(ii) Suggest a good frequency for the transmitted signal that is sent to the satellite

(iii) Give a reason for your suggestion