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Subject: Physics TIME: 1 HOUR 30 MINS

1. A simple iron-cored transformer is illustrated below

(a) (i) State why the primary and secondary coils are wound on a core made of iron.
(ii) Suggest why thermal energy is generated in the core when the transformer is in use.
(iii) Explain why the supply to the primary coil must be alternating current, not direct current,
(iv) Suggest why for constant input power, the output current must decrease if the output voltage
(b) The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) voltage and current in the primary coil are Vp and Ip respectively.
The r.m.s. voltage and current in the secondary coil are Vs and Is respectively.

(i) Show that, for an ideal transformer,

(ii) A student is asked to design a circuit by which a direct voltage of peak value 9.0 V is obtained
from a 240 V alternating supply. The student uses a transformer that may be considered to be ideal
and a bridge rectifier incorporating four ideal diodes.

Calculate for the transformer used, the ratio of

(c) Electrical energy is usually transmitted using alternating current. Suggest why the transmission is
achieved using
(i) High voltages,
(ii) Alternating current

2. A sinusoidal alternating voltage is to be rectified.

(a) Suggest one advantage of full-wave rectification as compared with half-wave rectification.
(b)The rectification is produced using the circuit of Fig. 2.1.

(i) On Fig. 2.1, draw the symbol for a capacitor, connected into the circuit so as to provide

(ii) State how the amount of smoothing may be increased.

(c) Fig. 2.2 shows the variation with time t of the smoothed potential difference across the resistor R
in Fig. 2.1.
(i) On Fig. 2.2, draw the variation with time t of the potential difference across resistor R for
increased smoothing
(ii) State the interval of time during which the capacitor is being charged

(3) A potential divider circuit is shown in Fig. 5.2.

The battery of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 12V and negligible internal resistance is connected
in series with resistors X and Y and thermistor Z. The resistance of Y is 15 KΩ and the
resistance of Z at a particular temperature is 3.0 KΩ. The potential difference (p.d) across Y
is 8.0 V.

(i) Calculate the current in the circuit

(ii) Calculate the resistance of X.

(4) A potential divider circuit consists of two resistors of resistances P and Q, as shown in Fig. 3.1.

(a) The battery has e.m.f. E and negligible internal resistance.

Deduce the potential difference V across the resistor of resistance P

(b) The resistances P and Q are 2000Ω and 5000Ω respectively. A voltmeter is connected in parallel
with the 2000Ω resistor and a thermistor is connected in parallel with the 5000Ω resistor, as shown in
Fig. 3.2.

The battery has e.m.f. 6.0 V. The voltmeter has infinite resistance.

(i) State and explain qualitatively the change in the reading of the voltmeter as the temperature of the
thermistor is raised.
(ii) The voltmeter reads 3.6 V when the temperature of the thermistor is 19 °C. Calculate the
resistance of the thermistor at 19 °C.