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Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)

Social Networking Sites (SNS):


The Effect of Having Facebook and Instagram Account
towards the SQS’s Students’ Behaviour and Academic
Performance
Nurul Farhana binti Khairol Ikhbal1, a), Nurhana binti Roslan2, b)
1, 2
School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia

a)
nurul_farhana_khairo@sqs.uum.edu.my
b)
nurhana_roslan@sqs.uum.edu.my

Abstract. Social networking sites (SNS) have been a phenomenal compared to any other sites towards
the young generations especially the students over the past few years. There are effect towards the
behaviour and academic performance usage of SNS. This study aims to gather and explore more about
the concept of SNS (Facebook or Instagram), to investigate the perceptions of the students towards using
a Facebook or Instagram as well as to identify what is the main purpose and factors that keep encourage
them to continually use the Facebook or Instagram among students from School of Quantitative Science
(SQS). Survey had been done to collect the information for the study. One-way ANOVA, sample
correlation, cross tabulation and frequencies are the methods used to achieve the objectives of the study.

Keywords: Social Networking Sites (SNS), academic performance, students’ behaviour

INTRODUCTION
Social networking sites or social media’s have been a phenomenal compared to any other sites towards
the young generations especially the students over the past few years. Social media enables individuals to interact
and be connected with other people at different time and place by sharing their thoughts, interest and personal
information towards each. These systems are referred to as social, simply because they allow communication with
buddies and coworkers so easily and effectively. It also strengthens the ties between people of those systems. It
can be used in many forms for instance for work-related issues, personal issues, romantic relationships, and shared
interests such as music, arts, sports, or politics. People love to use the social media because of its unique functions
like easily to access, flexibility of social technologies and convenience.
According to Masrom & Usat (2013), the social networking sites that have been favourite and commonly
used by many students nowadays are Facebook, twitter, Instagram and YouTube. These type of websites and social
forums are way of communication directly with other people socially and in media like allowing users to share
their profile information, pictures and to communicate with other in innovative ways such as sending their online
status updates as well as conducting a public or private online chat . They are playing a large and influential role
decision-making in the occasions from the global world economically, politically, socially and educationally.
Previous research showed that social networking sites help the students to gather information, enable the
students to get connected easily with each other and helping the students in academic performance while for the
negative aspects from using the social networking sites are distraction, no life privacy, too addiction to SNS, using
the SNS simultaneously with work completion and lead to emotional health (Kitsantas, Dabbagh, S. Chirinos &
Fake, 2016). Hence, there is a need to understand how social networking is impacting the students’ behavior in a
positive or negative way nowadays.

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Although most universities in Malaysia, such as Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), are located in urban
areas, the internet is still accessible and accessible in this generation of information technology. UUM students
also used SNS to get information. Its main function is to inform current issues happened on campus and inform
important information other than to connect and keep in touch with their friends.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
In this research, researcher aimed to gather and explore more about the concept of social media (Facebook
or Instagram) which is its meaning, usage and how it impacts the students’ behaviour towards using it, to
investigate the perceptions of the students towards using a Facebook or Instagram and how many hours do
they spent on it as well as to identify what is the main purpose and factors that keep encourage them to
continually use the Facebook or Instagram.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1) What is the frequency of using the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS students?
2) What is the perception and the effects of having the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS student
on their academic performance and social behaviours?
3) What is the main purpose and ideas of SQS students’ ideas on how the Facebook and Instagram can
be used positively for educational purposes?

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

1) To measure the frequency of using the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS students.
2) To investigate the perception and the effects of having the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS
student on their academic performance and social behaviours.
3) To find out the main purpose and to explore the SQS students’ ideas on how the Facebook and
Instagram can be used positively for educational purposes.

SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH


The main scope of this research is to obtain the opinion from School of Quantitative Science (SQS)
students on the SNS. The sample group of the study is collected among 269 students from SQS.
Since the main scope of research is to know the effect of having Facebook and Instagram account towards
the SQS’s Students’ behaviour and academic performance, the information required includes background of
respondent, Facebook and Instagram usage, effects of using Facebook and Instagram towards social behaviour,
and effects of using Facebook and Instagram towards academic performance.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Review Problems

Based on the previous studies, many researchers from all over the world have discussed and investigate this
issue regarding what are the impacts of the students’ behaviour towards the use of social networking sites (SNS). One
of the methods used in previous research to examine and find out the students’ behaviour towards the uses of SNS are
by obtaining the personal background information of the students and also the information about their use of social
networking sites such as knowing the frequency and duration of using the social networking sites, types of social
networking site they frequented and the types of social networking applications/devices they possessed (Thang, Noor,
Taha & Shi, 2016).
Previous studies shows that the uses of the social networking sites impacts the students from positive and
negative sides. Major findings in the early studies suggest that the students become aware of the uses of social media
towards their life positively like engaging in studies which in turn leads them to perform successfully in their
academics while the students also experienced the negative effects of using the social media for instance being too

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addictive and distractive in their study (Kitsantas, Dabbagh, Chirinos & Fake, 2016). Also, through previous study it
is identified that students showed their awareness of the benefits and dangers involved in using the social networking
sites. The students were wary in using the SNS at certain times and believed that the SNS enriched their lives by
developing these students towards developing maturity and wisdom. Eventhough they also had facing the bad
experience in using the SNS but actually for them SNS gives much more benefits than harm when using the SNS with
maturity and care in order to get the benefits from it. (Thang, Noor, Taha & Shi, 2016). Besides, the students do not
know how to balance their study and at the same time using the social media.
On top of that, early research suggested that the social media may be facilitates the academic experience with
the majority of the participants but it is need to control and manage their time. Unless will affect the use of social
media negatively on the academic performance of students. So, to improve this research, the researcher proposed for
future work more studies and addition of factors have an effect with collaborative learning to improve students'
academic performance and taking into account demographic factors, a larger sample to clarify more and it is necessary
to be able to find more elements to measure the factors that affect a student's academic performance through
collaborative learning in higher education institutions (Al-Rahmi, 2013).

Review Methods
Different methods have been used to achieve the objective of the research: frequency of using the
Facebook and Instagram among the SQS students. Frequency methods which is by using pie chart and bar
chart have been used for this objective.
Different methods have been used to achieve the objective of the research: the perception and the
effects of having the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS student on their academic performance and
social behaviours. The researcher used cross tabulation method to analyze and achieve this objective.
Besides, the likert scale are used in the question of this part.
Same methods have been used to achieve the objective of the research: the main purpose and to
explore the SQS students’ ideas on how the Facebook and Instagram can be used positively for educational
purposes. For this objective, researcher used the same methods which is frequency and cross tabulation.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Proposed Approach

One-way ANOVA
The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any statistically significant
differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups. This guide will provide a brief
introduction to the one-way ANOVA, including the assumptions of the test and when we should use this test.

Correlation
Correlation is used to test relationships between quantitative variables or categorical variables. In other words, it’s a
measure of how things are related. The study of how variables are correlated is called correlation analysis.
Correlations are useful because if we can find out what relationship variables have, we can make predictions about
future behavior.

Cross Tabulation
Also known as contingency tables or cross tabs, cross tabulation groups variables to understand the correlation
between different variables. It also shows how correlations change from one variable grouping to another. It is
usually used in statistical analysis to find patterns, trends, and probabilities within raw data.

Frequencies
The Frequencies procedure can produce summary measures for categorical variables in the form of frequency tables,
bar charts, or pie charts.

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Respondent

The respondents are collected from the population of 897 SQS students. The sample size of target
respondent are calculated by using the following formula:

ANALYSIS AND INTEPRETATION


1) To measure the frequency of using the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS students.

Based on the Figure 1 above, of the 269 SQS students


who use the Facebook and Instagram account, the most
likely come from the students of Bachelor of Science
with Hons. (Decision Science). Hence, students from the
Decision Science course spend their time on Facebook
and Instagram account extremely likely compared to the
students from Business Mathematics course and
Industrial Statistics course.

Figure 1

Based on the Figure 2 above, SQS students spent more


than 2 hours in using the Facebook and Instagram. This
emphasized that the students enjoyed to spend most of
their time in using Facebook and Instagram account in a
typical day.

Figure 2

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Based on the Figure 3 above, as we can see that 81.04%
of the SQS students like to log on the Facebook account
daily. Almost every day and every time the students
spending their time on Facebook and Instagram. This
means that most of the students are addicted to the
Facebook and Instagram account because they never
fail to log on the Facebook account every day in their
life.

Figure 3

Most of the SQS students prefer to use Instagram


compared to Facebook. This is because the Instagram is
more simple and convenient to be used instead of
Facebook.

Figure 4

According to the Figure 5 above, most of the SQS


students were extremely likely to spend their time in
a typical day on Instagram. This emphasized that the
students are been influenced a lot in using the social
networking sites which is Instagram.

Figure 5

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According to the Figure 6 above, most of the SQS
students prefer to spend their time on Facebook and
Instagram through smartphone. Hence, we can say that
the students mostly use their smartphone to log on into
Facebook and Instagram account. Besides, the
students are really attached and addicted in having the
Facebook and Instagram account because obviously
we know that the students installed the Facebook and
Instagram account applications in their smartphone.

Figure 6

Based on the figure 7 above, as we can see the SQS


students who use the smartphone to log on into
Facebook and Instagram account are the one who
depends on WIFI and subscribe to the internet plans in
order for them to use the Facebook and Instagram
account. Most of the SQS students depend on WIFI to
use the Facebook and Instagram account as well.
Hence, this means that the SQS students are more
prefer to use the Facebook and Instagram account
when there is a free WIFI instead of wasting their
money in subscribing to the internet data plans.

Figure 7

From the above diagram, we can summarize that the


SQS students who do subscribe to the internet data
plans are mostly come from the range between RM10
to RM30. Thus, we can say that the internet data plans
that they were subscribed to is mainly in moderate
range where the cost to buy the internet data plans is
quite affordable for them since they are still a student.
So the SQS students can afford to subscribe to the
internet data monthly since the range of the price is
reasonable. On the other hand, as we can see that
42.22% comes from the students who depends on
WIFI to use the Facebook and Instagram account.

Figure 8

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2) To investigate the perception and the effects of having the Facebook and Instagram among the SQS student
on their academic performance and social behaviours.

The perception

Programme Of Study * Express Idea And Feelings On SNS Cross Tabulation


Count
Express Idea And Feelings On SNS
Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Programme Bachelor of Sciences with 29 20 36 38 35 158
Of Study Hons. (Decision Science)
Bachelor of Sciences with 12 7 11 10 9 49
Hons. (Industrial Statistics)
Bachelor of Sciences with 13 12 15 9 13 62
Hons. (Business
Mathematics)
Total 54 39 62 57 57 269

Table 1

Based on the crosstabs above, most of the SQS students especially the students from Decision Science course were
agreed and strongly agreed that they use the Facebook and Instagram account as the platform for them to express
their feelings and ideas. So, most of them use the Facebook page to write their status regarding their currents feelings
and ideas happened on that day.

Count
Help In Personal And Communication Skills
Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Programme Bachelor of Sciences with 18 11 52 41 36 158
Of Study Hons. (Decision Science)
Bachelor of Sciences with 5 9 12 16 7 49
Hons. (Industrial
Statistics)
Bachelor of Sciences with 7 8 19 16 12 62
Hons. (Business
Mathematics)
Total 30 28 83 73 55 269

Table 2

According to the crosstabs above, most of the SQS students especially the students that come from Decision Science
course choose to be neutral in answering the questionnaire regarding the Facebook and Instagram helps them in their
personal and communication skills. This means that, they do not really know whether the Facebook and Instagram
account influenced them towards enhancing their personal and communication skills or not. So, we can assume that
the SQS students use the Facebook and Instagram account just as the entertainment for them instead for them to use
the Facebook or Instagram to learn or improve their personal and communication skills.

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Count
Influenced Bad Behaviours
Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Programme Bachelor of Sciences with 54 37 35 20 12 158
Of Study Hons. (Decision Science)
Bachelor of Sciences with 13 6 19 4 7 49
Hons. (Industrial Statistics)
Bachelor of Sciences with 18 15 16 7 6 62
Hons. (Business
Mathematics)
Total 85 58 70 31 25 269

Table 3

According to the crosstab above, most of the SQS students especially that comes from decision science course are
mainly agreed that the two influenced social networking sites which are Facebook and Instagram do influence them
in speaking or writing in their daily life. This means that they learn to speak and write from the Facebook and
Instagram page. For example, they learn to speak and write in English based on the communications that they
practised through their conversations with their friends in the messages.

Programme Of Study * Affect Study Timings Cross Tabulation


Count
Affect Study Timings
Strongly Disagre Strongly
Disagree e Neutral Agree Agree Total
Programme Of Bachelor of Sciences 15 14 40 41 48 158
Study with Hons. (Decision
Science)
Bachelor of Sciences 1 3 22 16 7 49
with Hons. (Industrial
Statistics)
Bachelor of Sciences 2 5 16 22 17 62
with Hons. (Business
Mathematics)
Total 18 22 78 79 72 269

Table 4

Based on the above crosstab, most of the SQS students who consist of Decision Science course were totally disagreed
that the Facebook and Instagram account influenced them towards bad behaviours. The perspective of the SQS
students mostly agreed that these popular social media which are Facebook and Instagram do not lead them to bad
behaviors instead these social media only give them the positive impacts in their daily life.

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The effect

Table 5: Crosstabs on investigating the effects of time spending on Facebook and Instagram and time spent on study
among the SQS students
Time Spend on Facebook And Instagram * Time Spent On Study Cross tabulation
Count
Time Spent on Study
Less than 1 More than
1 hour 2 hours hour 2 hours Total
Time Spend on 1 hour 15 17 5 11 48
Facebook And 2 hours 11 16 3 13 43
Instagram
More than 2 31 24 38 85 178
hours
Total 57 57 46 109 269

Of 269 SQS students who spend their time on Facebook and Instagram in UUM, 85 of them love to spend their time
on Facebook and Instagram and at the same time they also spend their time on study. Thus, as we can see even
though the SQS students spent their time on Facebook and Instagram more than 2 hours, but still they spent more
than 2 hours on study.

Table 6: Crosstabs on finding out the effects of time spending on Facebook and Instagram and procrastinate in doing
work among the SQS students

Time Spend On Facebook And Instagram * Procrastinate Work Cross Tabulation


Count
Procrastinate Work

Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Time Spend on 1 hour 2 5 20 13 8 48
Facebook And
2 hours 3 2 17 10 11 43
Instagram
More than 2 7 13 51 60 47 178
hours
Total 12 20 88 83 66 269

Of 269 SQS students who spend their time on Facebook and Instagram in UUM, most of them agreed that they like
to procrastinate in doing their work while 47 of them were strongly agreed and only 7 of them were strongly
disagreed. Also, as we can see, 51 of the SQS students seem do not really know and cannot decide either they like
to procrastinate in doing and completing their work or not.

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Table 7: Crosstabs on finding out the effects of time spending on Facebook and Instagram and get distracted easily
among the SQS students

Time Spend on Facebook And Instagram * Get Distracted Cross Tabulation

Count
Get Distracted

Strongly Disagr Neutra Strongly


Disagree ee l Agree Agree Total
Time Spend on 1 hour 4 9 11 14 10 48
Facebook And
2 hours 5 2 13 14 9 43
Instagram
More than 2 12 28 64 35 39 178
hours
Total 21 39 88 63 58 269

Of 269 SQS students who spend their time on Facebook and Instagram in UUM, most of them choose to be neutral in
deciding whether spending time on Facebook and Instagram can distract them in doing things for instance, using
Facebook and Instagram can distract them in study and many more. Most of the SQS students neither strongly disagree
nor strongly agree to say that they get distracted in spending their time on Facebook and Instagram. Only 12 of the
SQS students were strongly disagreed that spending time on Facebook and Instagram would lead to distraction while
39 of the SQS students were strongly agreed that they got distracted on spending their time on Facebook and
Instagram.

Table 8: Crosstabs on finding out the effects of how likely use the Instagram account in a typical day and feel addicted
to Facebook and Instagram account.

How Likely Use Instagram Account In Typical Day * Feel Addicted To Facebook and Instagram
Cross Tabulation
Count
Feel Addicted To FB and IG

Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
How Likely Use Not at all 3 1 4 1 0 9
Instagram Account likely
In Typical Day Slightly 1 1 2 3 1 8
likely
Neutral 2 5 21 10 3 41
Likely 4 11 30 36 16 97
Extremely 15 4 12 24 59 114
likely
Total 25 22 69 74 79 269

Of 269 SQS students who likely spending their time on Instagram in a typical day, most of them were strongly agreed
that they extremely likely feel addicted in using the Instagram.

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Table 9: Crosstabs on finding out the effects of the current CGPA and time spending on Facebook and Instagram
among the SQS students.

Current CGPA * Time Spend On Facebook And Instagram Cross Tabulation


Count
Time Spend On Facebook And Instagram
More than 2
1 hour 2 hours hours Total
Current CGPA 3.67-4.00 11 9 34 54
3.00-3.66 31 30 122 183
2.00-2.99 6 3 22 31
Total 48 42 178 268

Of 268 SQS students who like spending their time more than 2 hours on Facebook and Instagram, most of them has
the current CGPA ranged from 3.00 to 3.66. We can say that even though most of the SQS students spent more than
2 hours on Facebook and Instagram but still, they managed to get the CGPA ranged from 3.00 to 3.66.

Table 10: Crosstabs on finding out the effects of the current CGPA and time spending on study among the SQS
students.
Current CGPA * Time Spent On Study Cross Tabulation
Count
Time Spent On Study
Less than 1 More than 2
1 hour 2 hours hour hours Total
Current CGPA 3.67-4.00 11 9 9 25 54
3.00-3.66 39 42 35 67 183
2.00-2.99 6 6 2 17 31
Total 56 57 46 109 268

Of 268 SQS students, most of them spent more than 2 hours on study and their current CGPA ranged from 3.00 to
3.66. As we can see, SQS students like to spend their time on study and at the same time most of them achieved 3.00
to 3.66 in their current CGPA. Besides, only two of the SQS students who spend their time less than 1 hour on study
and their current CGPA is 2.00 to 2.99.

3) To find out the main purpose and to explore the SQS students’ ideas on how the Facebook and Instagram
can be used positively for educational purposes.

Main purpose

From the Figure 9 above, the main purpose of the


students spending their time on Facebook is to get
updates on the current news or issues that happened
around them. Only a few of them use the Facebook to
make new friends. This emphasized that the SQS
students mostly are hardworking and knowledgeable
person because they tend to keep on updating and get
the new updates on the current issues happened around
them. Most of them know about the worldwide or
trending issues on what happened nowadays is just
from a Facebook where all the current issues or
information just at their fingertips where they can just
read the current information or news at the Facebook
Figure 9 page that been shared.

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Based on the figure 10 above, most of the SQS
students use the Instagram account is just to make the
story based on what is happening to them in that day.
As we can see that, the SQS students love to share their
personal life with their friends on the Instagram
account. From the activity that they tend to do in the
Instagram account, people will know their personal or
private life regarding their interests, thoughts and
passions in spending their life daily.

Figure 10

Based on the figure 11 above, most of the SQS


students tend to approve the friends’ request sent from
the people to them. This means that the SQS students
love to make friends and be friendly to everybody. So
instead from they just use the Facebook and Instagram
to get updates of the current issues and make the
Instagram story on what happened in their life that
day, the students also like to make friends that they
meet on Facebook or Instagram account. So, they use
the Facebook and Instagram account as the platform
for them to communicate and keep in touch with their
social media’s friends.

Figure 11
Based on the figure 12 above, the SQS students prefer
to approve the friend’s request that is mainly requested
by their mutual friends instead of strangers. Only
8.50% of the SQS students did approve the friend’s
request sent from strangers. This means that most of
the SQS students only approve the friend’s request that
is come from their mutual friends this is because only
the person that they know and meet in their daily life
they approved to be their friends on the Facebook and
Instagram account. Thus, we can say that the SQS
students have more friends in their real life compared
to their virtual friends.

Figure 12

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Explore the ideas on how SNS can be used positively for educational purposes

Of 269 SQS students, 89.96% of them agreed that the


Facebook and Instagram account can be used as the
source to look for the information regarding the career
or academic interests on Facebook and Instagram.

Figure 13

Of 269 SQS students, 91.11% agreed that


Facebook and Instagram are important to
them and only 8.52% of them were not
agree.

Figure 14

Of 269 SQS students, 75.84% agreed that


Facebook and Instagram have the initiatives to
serve as the positive platform for the educational
purposes. As we can see, Facebook and Instagram
do help the students a lot in finding the
information and knowledge regarding educations
and also helping them in doing and completing
their assignments or study.

Figure 15

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Based on the Figure 16 above, 64 of the SQS
students were strongly agreed and disagreed
respectively based on finding about academic
information on Facebook and Instagram and
helping them in assignment. Most of them agreed
that they can use the Facebook and Instagram in a
positive way to find information regarding their
academic purpose but there is 64 of them were
disagreed that the information they found in
Facebook and Instagram can help them in doing
the assignments. Also, there is 64 of them who
strongly agreed that the information and
knowledge they found on the Facebook and
Instagram can help them in doing their
assignments.
Figure 16

Use Facebook And Instagram Positively For Educational Purposes * Help In Assignment Cross
Tabulation
Count
Help In Assignment

Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Use Facebook 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
And Instagram
No 0 7 33 13 10 2 65
Positively For
Educational Yes 0 11 42 53 35 63 204
Purposes
Total 1 18 75 66 45 65 270

Table 11

According to the figure 17 above, most of the


SQS students were agreed that the Facebook and
Instagram account helps them in improving their
knowledge. This means that the SQS students
emphasized that they were actually improving
their knowledge by having the Facebook and
Instagram account to look for educational
information such as any information that relates
to their assignments or study and about the
general information for instance worldwide and
trending issues that happen recently which this
helps them a lot in order to improve their
knowledge.
Figure 17

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Find Info About Academic On Facebook Or Instagram * Improve Knowledge Cross Tabulation

Count
Improve Knowledge

Strongly Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total
Find Info About 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Academic On
No 0 0 1 10 15 1 27
Facebook Or
Instagram Yes 0 1 11 50 93 87 242
Total 1 1 12 60 108 88 270

Table 12

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

Hypothesis

The null hypothesis in this study is:


1) There is no significant relationship between Facebook’s and Instagram’s usage, students’ behaviour and
academic performance.

ANOVA
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Current CGPA Between Groups .213 2 .107 .341 .711
Within Groups 82.813 265 .313
Total 83.026 267
Time Spent On Study Between Groups 27.251 2 13.625 10.283 .000
Within Groups 352.459 266 1.325
Total 379.710 268
Procrastinate Work Between Groups 3.638 2 1.819 1.599 .204
Within Groups 302.659 266 1.138
Total 306.297 268
Affect Study Timings Between Groups .334 2 .167 .124 .884
Within Groups 359.458 266 1.351
Total 359.792 268
Improve Knowledge Between Groups 2.316 2 1.158 1.520 .221
Within Groups 202.681 266 .762
Total 204.996 268
Bad Mood Between Groups .143 2 .071 .043 .958
Within Groups 443.240 266 1.666
Total 443.383 268
Feel Lazy Between Groups 1.521 2 .760 .475 .622
Within Groups 425.654 266 1.600
Total 427.175 268
Get Distracted Between Groups .525 2 .263 .183 .833
Within Groups 381.772 266 1.435
Total 382.297 268

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Feel Stress Between Groups 2.000 2 1.000 .529 .590
Within Groups 502.617 266 1.890
Total 504.617 268
Feel Addicted To Between Groups 17.226 2 8.613 5.733 .004
Facebook and Instagram Within Groups 399.607 266 1.502
Total 416.833 268

Table 13

The table above shows the output of the ANOVA analysis that tell us that there is a significant difference between the
group means. 95% of significant level is used in this test. In this test, we want to find out whether there exists a relationship
between Facebook’s and Instagram’s usage, students’ behaviour and academic performance or not. So, to prove this test,
we carried out the hypothesis testing using ANOVA analysis.
The null hypothesis stated that there is no significant relationship between Facebook’s and Instagram’s usage,
students’ behaviour and academic performance.
Based on the ANOVA output above, only two variables which are time spending on study and feel addicted to
Facebook and Instagram are significant in this test because the p-values showed for both variables are 0.000 and 0.004
respectively which are less than the alpha value (α = 0.05) and it means that the time spent on Facebook and Instagram
affects the time spending on study and impacts the feeling of addicted to Facebook and Instagram among the SQS students.
In overall, most of the variables refers to current CGPA, procrastinate in doing work, affecting study timing, improve the
knowledge, feeling bad mood, feeling lazy, get distracted easily and feeling stress tested in this ANOVA analysis are not
significant due to the p-values for each variable are greater and equals to 0.05 (α = 0.05). This means that the variables
mentioned above are not significant hence, it means that there is no significant relationship between time spending on
Facebook and Instagram and students’ behaviours and academic performance. To summarize this analysis, we can
conclude that the null hypothesis is not rejected therefore, there is no significant relationship exists between Facebook’s
and Instagram’s usage, students’ behaviour and academic performance.

Correlation

Correlations
Feel Addicted To Get
Improve Procrastinate Affect Study Facebook and Distracte
Knowledge Work Timings Instagram d Bad Mood
Improve Pearson 1 .337** .270** .135* .263** .273**
Knowledge Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .027 .000 .000
N 269 269 269 269 269 269
Procrastinat Pearson .337** 1 .585** .362** .587** .433**
e Work Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 269 269 269 269 269 269
Affect Study Pearson .270** .585** 1 .351** .531** .405**
Timings Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 269 269 269 269 269 269
Feel Pearson .135* .362** .351** 1 .337** .210**
Addicted To Correlation
Facebook Sig. (2-tailed) .027 .000 .000 .000 .001
and N 269 269 269 269 269 269
Instagram
Get Pearson .263** .587** .531** .337** 1 .540**
Distracted Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

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N 269 269 269 269 269 269
Bad Mood Pearson .273** .433** .405** .210** .540** 1
Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .001 .000
N 269 269 269 269 269 269
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table 14

Based on the above table, all the relationship between each variable are positively correlated. The strongest
relationship between each variable happened between procrastinate in doing work and get distracted easily with correlation
coefficient value of 0.587. This can be explained that the SQS tend to procrastinate in doing work and get distracted easily
when spending their time on Facebook and Instagram.

CONCLUSION
This study examined the effects of having the Facebook and Instagram account towards the behaviour and
academic performance among the SQS students. Results found that students from Bachelor of Science Hons. (Decision
Science) spent more time on Facebook and Instagram account. As we can see from the above analysis, the time spent
on Facebook and Instagram increased and the time spent on the study increased too. The current CGPA mostly
achieved by the SQS students are between the ranges of 3.00 to 3.66. We can assume that even though the SQS
students love to spend their time on Facebook and Instagram but they still manage to spend more hours on study.
Unfortunately, based on this research found that some of the SQS students like to procrastinate in doing their
work, feel addicted in using the Facebook and Instagram and get distracted easily. This study also revealed that most
of the SQS students use their smartphone to log on to the Facebook and Instagram account. Most of them prefer to log
on to the Facebook and Instagram account when the WIFI is available only while few of them prefer to subscribe the
internet data plans monthly in order for them to keep logging on into Facebook and Instagram account. Also, we found
that the SQS students have more real friends instead of virtual friends.
Besides, in this study, we found out that the SQS students mostly agreed that the Facebook and Instagram
account do help them a lot in their educational study by improving their knowledge and aid them in completing their
assignments. Study also revealed that most of the SQS students tend to use the Facebook account to get updates on
the current issues and news happened around them. Also, the SQS students love to use Instagram because they like to
make a video or Instagram story based on what happen in their life on that day. This means that the SQS students
prefer to share their private life with the people around them in the social media. In addition, most of the SQS students
love to make friends and approve the friend’s request from the person in the Facebook and Instagram account but
most of the friends that they approved are mainly comes from their mutual friends means their friends that they already
meet and know in their real life. Results also revealed that there is no significant relationship exists between the usage
of Facebook and Instagram account, students’ behaviour and academic performance.
Only two variables are significant during the ANOVA analysis which are the time spending on study and
feeling addicted to Facebook and Instagram account. Besides, all the variables used in this research are positively
correlated with each other. For example, the strongest relationship between each variable happened between
procrastinate in doing work and get distracted easily in spending their time on Facebook and Instagram account. One
of the findings also show that the SQS students prefer to use Instagram more than the Facebook account this is because
for them the Instagram is more convenient and much simpler social media compared to Facebook.
In a conclusion, the most two influenced and popular social media’s nowadays which refers to Facebook and
Instagram impacts the SQS students in a more positive way than the negative one. SQS students get many benefits
and can improve their knowledge through having these two social media’s. In general, the use of Facebook and
Instagram account do not impact the SQS students in their behaviours and academic performance.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to express our appreciation to Dr Nerda Zuhra binti Zaibidi who act as the supervisor in this
study. With her teaching, encouragement and input of variety of knowledge, the research can be completed on time.
Lastly, we are thankful to our parents and friends who gave us mentally support all the time .

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QUESTIONNAIRE

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