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The Skeletal System

A.

Background

Skeletal system is a system of bones in human body associated with joints and cartilages. Human
skeleton is composed of three components; bones, associated cartilage and joints. It mainly functions as
structural support, movement, storage for minerals and blood cell formations. Bone tissues are divided
into two types: compact bones and spongy bones. Compact bone consists of closely packed osteons, or
haversian system. Spongy bone consists of plates of bone, called trabeculae, around irregular spaces
that contain red bone marrow. Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation. Bone formation and
remodeling includes three types of cell which are osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Development
of bones can be through the process called endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification.
The adult human skeleton usually consists of 206 named bones and these bones can be grouped in two
divisions: axial skeleton which forms the axis of human body. It consists of Skull, vertebral column and
thoracic cage and appendicular skeleton, the skeleton of appendages of human body, consists of
Shoulder girdle, Skeleton of upper limb, Pelvic girdle and Skeleton of lower limb. Cartilage is a form of
connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is
the mineralization factor. Bones are highly mineralized with calcium salts while cartilages are not while
joints are important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A
joint may occurs between “two or more bones”, “bone and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage”.
There are three types of joints in terms of the amount of movement they allow: synarthroses
(immovable), amphiarthroses (slightly movable), and diarthroses (freely movable).

Objective:

The purpose of this activity is to evaluate the physical and chemical effect of a strong acid
(hydrochloric acid) to the composition of the bone thus, emphasizing the importance of a healthy bone.

Materials:

5 Chicken long bone


5 Amber bottle
250mL HCl/Muriatic Acid
Distilled water
Graduated cylinder
Mesh Cloth
Methodology

1. Prepare 5 Chicken long bones, make sure that the flesh are removed.
2. Label each amber bottle correspondingly: 15%HCl, 10%HCl, 5%HCL, 1%HCl, (-)Control.
3. Get and record the initial weigh of each bone and place one bone in each labelled bottles.
4. Dilute 10%, 5%, 2% and 1% Hydrochloric solution with distilled water and place in its
corresponding bottle.
5. For (-) Control use distilled water only,
6. Make sure that the entire bone is submerged in its corresponding solution.
7. Observe the bone for 1 week.
8. After the 7th day remove the bone from bottle using a mesh cloth and record the final weigh of
each bone.
9. Calculate the %weight loss using the formula
𝑊𝑖 − 𝑊𝑓
𝑥 100
𝑊𝑖

B.

Objective:

This activity aims to evaluate the different types of bone in the skeletal system and its function.

Methodology

1. Skeletal System cut-outs will be provided.


2. In a separate sheet, label the bones in and classify its types namely: LONG BONES, SHORT
BONES, FLAT BONES, IRREGULAR BONES, and SESAMOID BONES.

Guide Question

1. Discuss the composition of the bone.


2. Relate osteoporosis to the experiment.
3. What reaction took place when the bone is submerged to an acid?
4. Differentiate the effect of acid in bones that are submerged in different concentration
5. What is the form and function of the different types of bones?