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There are two basic methods for analysing the behaviour or response of a linear system to a

given input signal.one method is based on the direct solution of the input-output equation for the

system, which, in general has the form

𝑦(𝑛) = 𝐹[𝑦(𝑛 − 1), 𝑦(𝑛 − 2), … , 𝑦(𝑛 − 𝑁), 𝑥(𝑛), 𝑥(𝑛 − 1), … , 𝑥(𝑛 − 𝑀)]

Where F[ ] denotes some function of the quantities in brackets. Specifically, for an LTI system, the

general form of the input-output relationship is

𝑁 𝑀

𝑘−1 𝑘=0

Where {𝑎𝑘 } and {𝑏𝑘 } are constant parameters that specify the system and are independent of 𝑥(𝑛) and

𝑦(𝑛). The input-output relationship in (1) is called a difference equation

The second method for analysing the behaviour of a linear system to a given input signal is the

first to decompose or resolve the input signal into a sum of elementary signal now, suppose that that

the signal 𝑥(𝑛) is resolve into a weighted sum of a elementary signal components {𝑥𝑘 (𝑛)} so that

𝑥(𝑛) = ∑ 𝑐𝑘 𝑥𝑘 (𝑛)

𝑘

Where {𝑐𝑘 } are set of the amplitude (weighting coefficients) in the decomposition of the signal 𝑥(𝑛).

Now suppose that the response of the system to the elementary signal component 𝑥𝑘 (𝑛) is 𝑦𝑘 (𝑛). Thus,

𝑦𝑘 (𝑛) = 𝜏[𝑥𝑘 (𝑛)]

Assuming that the system is relaxed and that the response to 𝑐𝑘 𝑥𝑘 (𝑛) is 𝑐𝑘 𝑦𝑘 (𝑛), as a sequence of a

scaling property of the linear system .

𝑘

= ∑𝑘 𝑐𝑘 𝜏[𝑥𝑘 (𝑛)]

= ∑𝑘 𝑐𝑘 𝑦𝑘 (𝑛)

Resolution of a discrete time-signal into impulses

Suppose we have an arbitrary signal x(n) that we wish to resolve into a sum of unit sample

sequences. We now select the elementary signal 𝑥𝑘 (𝑛) to be

𝑥𝑘 (𝑛) = 𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘)

𝑥(𝑛)𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘) = 𝑥(𝑘)𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘)

Which is a sequence that is zero everywhere except at 𝑛 − 𝑘 , where its value is 𝑥(𝑘).

Consequently, if we repeat the multiplication of the signal x(n) by a shifted unit impulse over all

possible delays , -∞<k<∞, and sum all the product sequences, the result will be a sequence equal to the

sequence x(n), that is,

Where the right-hand side of the equation gives the resolution or decomposition of any

arbitrary signal x(n) into a weighted (scaled) sum of shifted unit sample sequence.

EXAMPLE:

X(n)={2,4,0,3}

Response of LTI system to Arbitrary Inputs:

To determine the response of any relaxed linear system to any input signal, we denote the

response y(n,k) of the system to the input unit sample sequence at n-k by the special symbol h(n,k) ,

-∞<k<∞. That is

In (A) we note that n is the time index and k is a parameter showing the location of the input

impulse. If the impulse at the input is a scaled by an amount ck = x(k), the response of the system is the

correspondingly scaled output, that is,

ckh(n,k)=x(k)h(n,k)

Now, if the input is the arbitrary signal x(n) that is expressed as a sum of weighted impulses, that

is,

∞

𝑥(𝑛) = ∑ 𝑥(𝑘)𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘)

𝑘=−∞

Then the response of the system to 𝑥(𝑛) is the corresponding sum of the weighted outputs, that is,

𝑦(𝑛) = 𝜏[𝑥(𝑛)] = 𝜏 ∑∞

𝑘=−∞ 𝑥(𝑘)𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘)

= ∑∞

𝑘=−∞ 𝑥(𝑘)𝜏[𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘)]…………………………………………………..(B)

= ∑∞

𝑘=−∞ 𝑥(𝑘)ℎ(𝑛, 𝑘)

Clearly, (B) follows from the superposition property of linear systems, and is known as the superposition

summation. Thus (B) applies to any relaxed linear (time-variant) system.

If the system is time invariant , the formula in (B) simplifies considerably. In fact, if the response

of the LTI system to the unit sample sequence 𝛿(𝑛) is denoted as ℎ(𝑛) , that is ,

ℎ(𝑛) = 𝜏[𝛿(𝑛)]

then by the time-invariance properly,the response of the system t the delayed unit sample sequence

𝛿(𝑛 − 𝑘) is

𝑦(𝑛) = ∑∞

𝑘=−∞ 𝑥(𝑘)ℎ(𝑛 − 𝑘)……………………………………………………(C)

The formula in (C) that gives the response 𝑦(𝑛) of the LTI system as a function of the input

signal 𝑥(𝑛) and the input unit sample (impulse) response signal ℎ(𝑛) is called a convolution sum

Suppose that we wish to compute the output of the system at same time instant, say = 𝑛𝑜 .

according to (C), the response at 𝑛 = 𝑛𝑜 is given as

𝑦(𝑛𝑜 ) = ∑ 𝑥(𝑘)ℎ(𝑛𝑜 − 𝑘)

𝑘=−∞

To summarize, the process of computing the convolution between 𝑥(𝑘) and 𝑛(𝑘) involving the

four steps:

2. Shifting. Shift ℎ(−𝑘) by 𝑛𝑜 to the right (left) if 𝑛𝑜 is positive(negative), to obtain ℎ(𝑛𝑜 − 𝑘)

3. Multiplication. Multiply 𝑥(𝑘) by ℎ(𝑛𝑜 − 𝑘) to obtain the product sequence 𝑣𝑛𝑜 (𝑘) =

𝑥(𝑘)ℎ(𝑛𝑜 − 𝑘).

4. Summation. Sum all the values of the product sequence 𝑣𝑛𝑜 (𝑘) to obtain the value of the

output at time 𝑛 = 𝑛𝑜

Examples:

1. The impulse response of a linear time-invariant system is ℎ(𝑛){1,2,1, −1}. Determine the

response of the system to the input signal 𝑥(𝑛) = {1,2,3,1}.

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