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You are on page 1of 14

Exercise No. 6

ABE 67 U-1L

02 October 2018

I. INTRODUCTION

In an open-channel flow where the pressure in the water surface is the atmospheric

pressure. Water flow in the open-channel is caused by the gravity of the earth and also

possesses a certain type of energy that is responsible to a phenomenon called the hydraulic

jump or also known as standing waves. This is the phenomenon where the supercritical

flow of the water transforms into more stable flow called the subcritical flow. To understand

these flows, it must be realized that these are caused by the governing principle of specific

energy which includes the static energy head referring to the height of the water flow and

𝑉2

𝐸= +ℎ

2𝑔

The first term in the equation is the corresponding kinetic energy of the flow while

the second term is the static energy of the flow. A plot between the specific energy and the

height of water given by figure 1 together with the plot of static energy head curve and

kinetic energy head curve describes the relationship between the factors resulting a

hydraulic jump.

Figure 6.1. Specific Energy curve from (Open Channel Hydraulics for Engineers, Chapter 3)

1

The supercritical flow is found at the height of water lower than the critical flow hc

while the subcritical flow is the height of the water at a depth greater than the critical flow.

Now at a certain specific energy, there can be two values of h one below the critical depth

and one above the critical depth this point is where hydraulic jump occurs. To maintain a

constant specific energy when the static energy heads are different the velocity or the

kinetic energy head must be different as well to account for the increase of the other

factors. Which explains why the subcritical or stable flow has a lower velocity but higher

depth and the supercritical flow has an unstable flow or higher velocity but a lower depth of

flow.

Hydraulic jumps are natural phenomenon evident in all open channels even with to

the smallest scale to the large scale ones similar to dams and rivers. That is why having an

understanding regarding this concept can be used to suitably design dams and other man-

II. OBJECTIVES

This exercise aims to demonstrate to the students how to calibrate flow measurement

3. establish the relationship between the specific energy and the alternate and/ or

sequent depths;

4. generate correspondence between the Froude number and the ratio of the sequent

depths.

2

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS

A. Materials

3

B. Methods

For this exercise, the relationship of sequent depths to the Froude number (Fr) was

𝒅𝟏 𝟏

= √𝟏 + 𝟖𝑭𝒓𝟐𝟏 − 1

𝒅𝟐 𝟐

The headloss (hL) due to jump was also calculated by using the equation

(𝒅𝟏 −𝒅𝟐 )𝟐

𝒉𝑳 = 𝟒𝒅𝟏 𝒅𝟐

A hydraulic jump was created for four discharge settings, and the upstream depth

was regulated by using the sluice gate. The super critical depth, denoted by d1, and the

subcritical depth, d2, were measured during the experiment. The depth do of the upstream

sluice gate was also measured. The location where depths were measured was marked with

a whiteboard marker. The volume and time of discharge was also measured, by using the

gravimetric method, for approximating the flowrate for the four discharge settings. Three

4

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based from figures 6.5-6.8, hydraulic jump occurs when the Froude number of

the first section is greater than 1 or the discharge of water exhibits supercritical flow

while the Froude number of second section is less than 1 meaning that the discharge

is a subcritical flow (Lind, McCallum, & M-Yaqoob, 2006). When observing with

respect the critical depth, hydraulic jump happens when the initial depth is below

the critical depth of the water while the final depth is above the said critical depth of

flow. Hydraulic jump happens at underflow structures with the use of sluice gates

having high magnitude of velocities on every discharge. The said event will never

occur from subcritical to supercritical flow for the jump occurs when a liquid with

high velocity meets a zone with low velocity creating a standing wave hence the

hydraulic jump.

5

Figure 6.6. Illustration of Hydraulic Jump of Setting 2

6

Table 6.1. Behavior of Hydraulic Jumps on Every Settings based on Froude

Numbers

1ST

SETTING 19.04901 1.451081 0.328714 Yes

(highest)

2ND

16.09934 1.022029 0.437273 Yes

SETTING

3RD

12.09628 2.124227 0.370066 Yes

SETTING

4TH

SETTING 10.71713 1.727398 0.338691 Yes

(lowest)

Based from Table 6.1, hydraulic jump occurred in every setting. From the

highest up to the lowest discharge of flow used, the Froude numbers of the first

elevation generated values larger than 1 and are all exhibited supercritical flow while

those in the second elevation generated values lower than 1 and are all in subcritical

flow. When looking at the critical depths for each setting, the first and second

elevations are below and above the critical depth computed respectively. The

discharges of the flow that went out from the sluice gate had enough values of

velocities to meet the zone with lower velocities creating the said hydraulic jumps.

7

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1 Elevation 1

0.08 Elevation 2

0.02

0

0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120

Depth (m)

Figure 6.9 shows that in elevation 1, the relationship of the specific energy and

the depth of flow is inversely proportional. On the other hand, the relationship of

specific energy and depth of flow in elevation 2 is directly proportional. This due to

the decreasing discharge for every setting. From specific energy equation, the

decrease in discharge causes the velocities of flow in elevation 1 to decrease that also

leads to the reduction in specific energy. For elevation 2, the increasing depths of flow

causes the specific energy to also increase.

8

2.5

2

y = 2.8576x + 0.2438

0.5

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

d1/d2

Total head loss is composed of the head loss due to elevation and the head loss

due to velocity and pressure. Based from Table 6.2, highest head loss of 0.0285m

occurred at the third setting while the lowest head loss occurred at the second setting.

Head loss through the sluice gate cannot be in anyway detected since it can be

observed from the experiment that the flow is steady. Steady flow causes an

approximately zero velocity thereby making the head loss through the sluice gate

undetectable.

9

Table 6.2. Head loss per Setting

with higher values of discharge given a constant height of sluice gate elevation.

Higher discharge exhibits greater Froude number and specific energy. Having higher

velocity in the first elevation will create higher standing wave thereby decreasing the

Froude number of the second elevation creating a subcritical flow. In addition, the

Head loss is also directly proportional to specific energy meaning greater specific

energy exhibits greater head loss. In conclusion, high values of discharge, Froude

number, specific energy and head loss will have a high possibility of having a

hydraulic jump.

not needed otherwise it may cause damage to hydraulic structures (Engineer, 2011).

It is the most commonly used choice of design engineers for energy dissipation below

spillways and outlets. Sixty percent to seventy percent (60-70%) energy dissipation

10

of the energy in the basin itself can be provided by a properly designed hydraulic

jump, limiting the damage to structures and the streambed. Due to uplift, vibration,

cavitation, and abrasion, stilling basins must be carefully designed to avoid serious

damage even with such efficient energy dissipation (Khatsuria, 2005).

11

V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Hydraulic jump occurs when the first section of the flow has a Froude number

greater than 1 and the second section has a Froude number less than 1. This means

that the jump always occurs in between a supercritical flow and a subcritical flow.

These flows can be observed when the flow has high discharge. Moreover, the greater

the specific energy, the higher the Froude number. The specific energy is inversely

proportional to the depth of flow in the first section while it is directly proportional

in the second section after the hydraulic jump. Higher specific energy also exhibits

higher head loss. The Froude number is directly proportional to the ratio of sequent

depths. In conclusion, high values of discharge, Froude number, specific energy, and

head loss gives a higher possibility of hydraulic jump.

12

REFERENCES

Chow, Ven Te. Open Channel Hydraulics for Engineers . New York : McGraw-Hill, 1959.

Hydraulic Jump. (2018, October 1). Personal Pages. Retrieved from Islamic University of

Gaza: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/ylahwani/files/Hydraulic-Jump.pdf

Engineer (2011). Hydraulic jump jump and its practical applications. Andrha University.

http://optimist4u.blogspot.com/2011/04/hydraulic- -and-its-practical.html

Khatsuria, R.M. (2005). Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipaters. New York: Marcel

Lind, N., McCallum, J., & M-Yaqoob, M. (2006). Hydraulic Jumps. Colorado: Colorado State

University.

Luo, R., & Ching, E. (2013). Analysis and Application of Hydraulic Jump. International

Youngkyu, K., Gyewoon, C., Hyoseon, P., & Seongjoon, B. (2015). Hydraulic Jump and

13

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