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WELCOME

HIV/AIDS – Global and Course No. BSW- 3202;


Bangladesh Perspectives -
Public Health- Social and
& Consequences Behavioural Aspects

Md. Mohinuddin Dr. Md.Abul Hossen


Dept. of Social Work, Professor,
Jagannath University, Dhaka Department of Social Work
BSS (hons) & Session: 2015-16 Jagannath University, Dhaka

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HIV/AIDS

❑ The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a


subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over
time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is
a condition in humans in which progressive failure of
the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic
infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average
survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9
to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

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WAY OF TRANSMISSION

❑ Sexual Transmission — it can happen when


there is contact with infected sexual fluids (rectal,
genital, or oral mucous membranes). This can
happen while having sex without a condom,
including vaginal, oral, and anal sex, or sharing sex
toys with someone who is HIV-positive.
❑ Perinatal Transmission — a mother can
transmit HIV to her child during childbirth,
pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
❑ Blood Transmission — the risk of transmitting
HIV through blood transfusion is extremely low in
developed countries, thanks to meticulous
screening and precautions. However, among
people who inject drugs, sharing and reusing
syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is
extremely hazardous.

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WORLD STATUS OF HIV/AIDS

❑ Global summary of the AIDS epidemic  2017 (UNAIDS Data)

Number of People Total 36.9 million [31.1 million–43.9 million]


Living With HIV
Adults 35.1 million [29.6 million–41.7 million]
Women (15+ years) 18.2 million [15.6 million–21.4 million]
Children (>15 years) 1.8 million [1.3 million–2.4 million]

People Newly Infected Total 1.8 million [1.4 million–2.4 million]


With HIV In 2017 Adults 1.6 million [1.3 million–2.1 million]
Children ((>15 years) 180 000 [110 000–260 000]

Aids-related Deaths In Total 940 000 [670 000–1.3 million]


2017 Adults 830 000 [590 000–1.2 million]
Children ((>15 years) 110 000 [63 000–160 000]
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BANGLADESH STATUS OF HIV/AIDS

❑ Estimated people living with HIV, HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths, 1990-
2017

Source: www.aidsdatahub.org :: UNAIDS_Data_2018.pdf

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HIV/AIDS VULNERABLE GROUPS

❑ People Who Injects Drugs (PWIDs)


❑ Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM)
❑ Commercial Sex Workers (CSWs)
❑ Female Sex Workers (FSWs)
❑ Men Sex Workers (MSWs)
❑ Transgender Sex Workers (TSWs)
❑ Transgender People
National HIV Prevalence Among Key Populations, 2015-2016

Source: www.aidsdatahub.org :: UNAIDS_Data_2018.pdf

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FAC TO R S A F F E C T I N G C AU S I N G A N D S P R E A D I N G H I V / A I D S

1. Promiscuity: Promiscuity is now the leading cause of the spread of HIV in the developing
regions. Many people are having more than one sexual partner, and also prostitution is
common in the regions (Hilary Heuler,VOA).
2. Cultural Factors: The most common cultural factors fueling the spread of HIV/AIDS in the
developing world include polygamy and wife inheritance. These cultural practices are
specifically common in Africa (Susser I., Stein Z.).
3. Immigration and Movement of People: First, HIV/AIDS was introduced in most of these
developing regions by people from other countries (i.e., the developed ones). And even today,
there is a big number of new infections that are caused by immigrants.
4. Commercialization of sex: A prominent aspect of South African culture that undoubtedly
contributes to the HIV/Aids epidemic is that sexuality is frequently seen as a resource that can
be used to gain economic benefits.
5. Gender inequality and male dominance Society: Men are socialised to believe that
women are inferior and should be under their control; women are socialised to over-respect
men and act submissively towards them. The resulting unequal power relation between the
sexes, particularly when negotiating sexual encounters, increases women’s vulnerability to HIV
infection and accelerates the epidemic.

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CONTINUE……….

6. Ignorance & Illiteracy: Most people living in these regions are fully aware of the disease, but they
continue to get involved in practices that fuel its transmission. This is ignorance, and it is adversely
driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the whole world, not just the developing countries (Kelly M. J.,
Bain, B.).
7. Poverty: The developing world has a large population of people living in poverty. Most poor people
are forced to do anything to earn a living, including engaging in sexual activities which are a high-risk
factor for the disease.
8. Drug and Alcohol Use: Drug and alcohol use is quite common among the youth in the developing
regions. According to studies, there have been consistent new HIV infections resulting from sharing
of injectors among the drug users in these regions (Liu H., Grusky O., Li X., Ma E.).
9. HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: The stigma attached to HIV seriously hinders prevention
efforts, and makes HIV-positive people wary to seek care and support for fear of discrimination.
10. Physical and sexual violence: Men often use violence in an attempt to maintain their status in
society and prove that they are “real men” by keeping women under their control. Physically abusive
relationships limit women’s ability to negotiate safer sex: many men still do not want to use
condoms, and some become violent if women insist on safer sex. Women may not even raise the
issue of safer sex for fear of a violent response.
11. Lack of Access to Maternity Services: The developing countries lack enough maternity services
for all their pregnant women. Most women, especially those in remote areas, bear children without
the help of trained healthcare providers (Grant A. D.,Yousaf M.Z.).
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THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC AND ITS SOCIAL AND
ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS

 Fallen of life expectancy at birth:


 The loss of the income and household production of the family member, in particular if he/she
is the breadwinner & the increase in household expenditures to cover the medical costs.
 Reduction in the number of available workers
 Absenteeism and deaths of health workers pose a serious threat to the health system
 Facing a shortage of teachers as the pool of qualified educators
 Reduce the labour supply, leading to reduced productivity.

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HOW TO REDUCE THE RISK OF GETTING HIV?

Anyone can get HIV, but you can take steps to protect yourself from HIV infection.

▪ Get Tested And Know Your Partner’s HIV Status


▪ Have Less Risky Sex Use Condoms
▪ Limit Your Number of Sexual Partners
▪ Get Tested And Treated For STDs
▪ Talk To Your Health Care Provider About Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (Prep)
▪ Don’t Inject Drugs
▪ Follow The Religious Values
▪ Increasing Moral Education
▪ Reducing Poverty And Developing Socio-economic Condition of People
▪ Increasing Female Health Education
▪ IEM Intervention To Use Condoms
▪ Using the Behavior Change Communication (BCC) And Information, Education, &
Communication (IEC) Programs
▪ Awareness-raising Activities
▪ Uganda’s ABC Model On HIV Control: ( A) Abstinence (B) ‘Be-faithful’ (C), Condoms

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So, friends, It’s my message
to you that please-

Contact Information:
E-mail:
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Bangladesh Perspectives & mohinuddin01@yahoo.com
Consequences https://www.facebook.com/mohinuddin.jnu
https://www.linkedin.com/in/mohinuddinbd
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