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Intercultural Communication: A linguistic and argumentative approach
Eddo Rigotti, Andrea Rocci, Sara Greco

Istituto Linguistico Semiotico
Working Paper n. 5 Master in Intercultural Communication (MIC) USI, Lugano 2004

Università della Svizzera Italiana

Facoltà di Scienze della comunicazione

Via Buffi 13 CH-6900 Lugano Tel. + 41 91 9124791 + 41 91 9124794 ils@lu.unisi.ch

Foreword
This Working Paper presents the lectures and discussions concerning verbal communication and argumentation of the course “Intercultural Communication: linguistic and semiotic aspects” given within the Master in Intercultural Communication (MIC) at the University of Lugano. We are grateful to: - The Master course participants, for their vivid interest, their enthusiasm, and their rich contributions to the discussions; - Professor Marcel Danesi, who collaborated to the course project and directly contributed to the discussions with the participants to the Master course; - Eugenia Converso and Sabine Christopher Guerra for their contribution to the writing of the present Working Paper, concerning respectively the French and the English sections; - The scientific responsible of the Master in Intercultural Communication, Professor Edo Poglia, and the executive director Osvaldo Arrigo; - Karin Frei, for helping in the scientific dialogue about the notion of intercultural communication. Other course materials, including the intervention of Professor Marcel Danesi and some of the texts we have suggested to the Master participants are available on the MIC platform ( http:/ /corsi.elearninglab.org).

Lugano, July 2004

Eddo Rigotti Director of the Institute for Linguistics and Semiotics

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Course organization
1er jour : Morning (9:0012:30) Afternoon (13:3017:00) 2è m e jour : Morning (9:0012:30) Eddo Rigotti Andrea Rocci Sara Greco Marcel Danesi Verbal communication within a framework of communicative interaction; Communication in an intercultural context; Verbal and non verbal communication. Keywords denoting cultural diversity; different metaphoric systems in different cultures; metaphorologic analysis. Mechanisms of argumentation and how, if improperly used, they can create incomprehension among individuals and groups of different cultures; Mechanisms of manipulation in intercultural interaction. Role of non-verbal communication (body language, symbolic, pictorial language, etc); Dysfunctions in communication (e.g. misunderstandings and incomprehension) caused by diversity in cultural codes. Final discussion and role-playing activities.

Eddo Rigotti Andrea Rocci Sara Greco

Afternoon (13:3017:00)

Marcel Danesi

3è m e jour : Morning (9:0011:30)

Marcel Danesi Eddo Rigotti Andrea Rocci Sara Greco

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Participants
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Rosa Anaba Aba'a Milena Blagojevic Maya Bossahart Doina-Teresia Buzut Annalisa Cadenazzi Marco Calmes Moses-Valentine Chukwujekwu Giorgio Comi Eugénia Converso Demba Dieng Stephanie Dupuy Abdelhakim Elkhattabi Juerg Etter Margherita Giromini Alexandra Häseli Marie Julienne Kalmogo Flavia Lazzeri Médard Mavoungou Bafouka Monica Moedano Katia Papa Aymone Isabelle Poletti Fulvio Poletti Giorgio Porta Pascal Rev Marianne Roth Patrizia Schettino Annalisa Soldini Alfredo Villa Philipp Vogt Cristina Vonzun Sybille Zollinger

Beside the lecture in charge of giving the course, the other lecturers have been participating to all phases of the Master course. Peter Praxmarer has also collaborated to the discussions and group activities of the course.

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Table of contents
Foreword......................................................................................................................... 2 Course organization.......................................................................................................... 3 Participants..................................................................................................................... 4 Table of contents............................................................................................................... 5 Intercultural communication ................................................................................ 6 1.1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 6 1.2 The communicative exchange................................................................................... 7 1.3 A fundamental principle......................................................................................... 8 1.4 Communicative actions........................................................................................... 9 1.5 The structure of action.......................................................................................... 10 1.6 Discussion: the notions of need and desire................................................................. 11 1.7 Cooperation....................................................................................................... 12 1.8 Interaction......................................................................................................... 13 1.8.1 Two further examples of communicative interaction..................................15 1.9 Competition....................................................................................................... 16 1.10 Benevolent (inter-)action....................................................................................... 17 Common ground and culture .............................................................................. 20 2.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 20 2.2 Culture............................................................................................................. 22 2.2.1 Culture as a hypertext .................................................................................22 2.2.2 Culture as a semiotic system .......................................................................24 2.3 Culture and cultures: les appartenances croisées......................................................... 26 2.4 Freedom from culture and necessity of culture............................................................ 27 Argumentation in intercultural communication................................................ 32 3.1 Manipulation in intercultural communication........................................................... 34 3.1.1 Manipulation exploiting human instinct of referring to totality...................35 3.1.2 The polarity temptation..............................................................................36 Respect and dignity in intercultural communication ....................................... 37 Role -playing activities and final discussions ..................................................... 38 5.1 Un modèle pour la conception d’une intervention de communication interculturelle............. 38 5.2 Groupe 1 .......................................................................................................... 41 5.3 Groupe 2 .......................................................................................................... 44 5.4 Groupe 3 .......................................................................................................... 48 References ............................................................................................................ 53

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1 Intercultural communication 1. Cultures cannot take their natural continuity for granted: intercultural contacts and exchanges have become essential. c. Enlargement of intellectual space. in order to build a definition of intercultural communication. The articulation of cultures and peoples has de facto changed from a bijective mapping (where only one culture. cooperation. 6 . traditions. b. and include a set of possible human relationships. must be recognized in order to overcome them. among which interaction. such as that of culture and its relationship with the freedom of each human subject. from misunderstandings to manipulations and conflicts. o Given the value that intercultural communication may provide. competition. Check of our own culture. o Some basic notions. Discovery of new values (ethical principles. religions. Enlargement of interaction space. the possible risks implied in intercultural communication. must be introduced and discussed. one religion “inhabited” a certain place) to a much more complex relationship: the borders that separated cultures. intercultural communication is an important and urgent topic. since the future of human communal life seems to be necessarily bound to our attitude towards intercultural communication. groups. one language. new cognitive opportunities. o On one hand. the possible advantages of intercultural communication will be also considered. such as: a. the complexity and urgency of intercultural communication in the present society is to be considered. languages… have begun to overlap. new notions for interpreting reality… ) Such advantages would lead us to consider that there is an intrinsic added value of the sound intercultural dialogue. d. but also different forms of gratuitous giving. Course objectives: o Firstly. on the other hand. we should ask ourselves how to guarantee the quality of intercultural communication in the communicative exchanges occurring in the human Souq.1 Introduction Nowadays.

2 The communicative exchange Our first approach to the notion of communication will be analyzing its etymological value. the etymological approach often suggests us interesting insights. it is a free gift. on the other hand. in Latin. by showing us the pat h along which a certain notion has been constructed. is an exchange of munera. the history of the term communication reminds us the deep meaning of t his notion.Course contents: The following schema provides a synthetic overview of the topics that will be tackled during the course: Figure 1: Course contents 1. Figure 2: Etymology of communicatio 7 . of something that is at the same timea gift and a task (in the sense of commitment). the considered notions need to be analyzed further.e. it is the task to be accomplished. The Latin word munus has a double value: on one hand. i. “ Communicatio”. Nevertheless. In our case. nevertheless. Understanding the etymology of a term is not sufficient for a scientific analysis of its semantic value.

“Behold. actually pervades just about all speech acts”. and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth”. are semantically connected to each other: every gift implies a task to be accomplished. in the French cher. 1. And this is what they began to do. and a tower whose top will reach into heaven. John Searle describes the importance of the exchange of commitments in communicative interactions as follows: “. let us build for ourselves a city. despite their seeming distance. which means “dear” and “expensive”. and to permitting the hearer to do it. each communicative interaction implies a set of commitments for the interagents1. in the German teuer and in the Russian dorogoj2. so. that they may not understand one another's speech”.3 A fundamental principle In order to improve our understanding of the relevance of communication in human interaction and in social relationship. where the speaker is committed to carrying out a future course of action. but asserting commits the speaker to the truth of the proposition asserted. let Us go down and there confuse their language. and vice versa. let us make bricks and burn them thoroughly. and they used tar for mortar." And they used brick for stone. that they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. The same ambivalence can be found in the Italian and Spanish word caro. An analogous relationship is expressed in many European languages with the word carus (Lat. they are one people. Searle (2001 : 147). 1 8 .. where my interlocutor expects me to give him something p recious. And they said. and let us make for ourselves a name. see Rigotti & Cigada (2004 : 3). “Now the whole Earth used the same language and the same words. "Come.One interesting point is that the two concepts of gift and task. Therefore its name was called Babel. So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of the whole earth. and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them.Just about every speech act involves a commitment of some kind or other. The famous examples are speech acts like promising. and they stopped building the city. and orders commit the speaker to the belief that the person to whom he or she gives the order is able to do it. And it came about as they journeyed east. and they all have the same language.“ And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.). to the desire that he or she should do it. 2 On this point. what people have thought of as the distinctive element of promising. lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth. And the Lord said. "Come. Communication is therefore an exchange of values. because there the Lord confused the language of the whole earth.. In short. Cf. it may be useful to recall a wise story offered by the Bible: the story of the Tower of Babel. And they said to one another. Come.

human beings act in order to realize a possible state of affairs. to the cases missed or not realized in the past. was der Fall war oder gewesen hätte sein können.4 Communicative actions In order to understand the notion of communicative action.“ In other words: the world as actual case and as potential case past. enriching it not only by (future or actually present) possibilities. the notion of possible worlds has been introduced beside the real world. it is necessary to start from the structure of human action and of its relationship with the world: „Die Welt ist alles. it emerges that no human interaction occurs without communication: where communication is clogged.In our – rather communication-oriented – interpretation of this passage. Thus one could add: “ … . present and future” . Peter Praxmarer has proposed a further widening of Wittgenstein’s definition: “ If one were to follow this line of thinking. we discover an essential relation between communication and human interaction: no interaction can succeed if inter-agents do not communicate. Thus. and maybe hidden in “the world of cases”. carried within. Thus. 1. was der Fall ist (Wittgenstein)… … und was der Fall sein könnte (Rigotti)“ 3 Figure 3: Human actions and the world Wittgenstein’s statement. which does not exist in the moment of the performance of the action. one would very soon arrive at the necessity to widen Wittgenstein’s first sentence even further. which is the first Satz of the Tractatus logico -philosophicus (“The world is all what is the case”) does not exhaustively explain human action: in fact. und all dessen. but also by pointing to the past. 3 9 . to the history embedded. the enterprise is blocked.

nevertheless. dynamic facts may be also defined events. for instance in cases of manslaughter. the structure of action must be analyzed in order to understand communication. An agent is a subject who has a certain epistemic knowledge of the world. 4 10 . it might be considered an action. in the sense that an agent acts in order to modify the actual world in order to achieve a new possible state of affairs corresponding to his desire. For instance.States of affairs can be subdivided into static facts (such as “the table is black”) and dynamic facts (such as “this table has been moved”). Actions are a category of events where an individual or collective subject (an agent) pursues his own goal to realize a desired state of affair. 1. Consequently. and In some cases. intended here in the widest sense of the word. and can imagine a new possible world corresponding to his desire – these features may be considered “internal” to the subject. he also has a desire.5 The structure of action The following diagram represents an elementary ontology of human action: Figure 4: The structure of action Human action represents the intersection between what is possible and what is real. the agent decides to pursue his goal to achieve the new state of affairs. it might be difficult to establish if an event is an action. This topic turns out to be particularly relevant for its juridical implications. 4 Communication is a subtype of joint action: thus. as it is not intentionally performed. because who burns the roast has not invested enough attention to monitoring the meat roasting. it is not an action. is letting the roast burn an action? In a sense.

and what the semantic difference between the two words is. acting just on the basis of fears and external needs appears to be a rather “resentful” position (a reaction to something that somehow “forces” us). need and fear is also examined: a course participant asks if fear might be an adequate reason for some – or for all – human actions. one must also consider that each human action somehow deals with a risk: in banking. Thus. It is certainly true that fear. and can really change the world to realize better states of affairs6. because if a man looses his desire for life. one has to take the risk of “delegating” part of the education of one’s child to the school teachers.6 Discussion: the notions of need and desire Here. Danesi suggests that the distinction between the “internal” and the “external” part of the action is echoed respectively by the English verbs “to do” and “to make”. In fact. a discussion is opened on the notions of need and desire. “I need some money” implies “I must buy food”. or “I must pay a creditor”… In the proposed schema of action. whereas a desire is not: for instance. which is surely a more complex and essential risk. whereas a need is more “external”. which may be related to the first one. whereas the action that is generated by a desire is more “creative”. Normally.activates a causal chain that is intended to realize his goal – which is more an “external” effect of the agent’s action5. in certain cases leads us to make decisions.e. needs are placed within the causal chain. since we need something for something else.e. i. in a way. the participants of the Master course are asked whether it is preferable to replace this term by the term “need”. our desire to avoid what may be negative for us. whereas an agent cannot be considered responsible for an event occurring independently of his will. Nevertheless. − A second important feature. i. M. for instance. one does not say: “I desire to take this bitter medicine”. A need is necessarily related to a precise goal. even if he knows he will die. we say “Human beings need food and water” implying “in order to survive”. the term desire seems to imply a more positive characte rization of what is desired. − The relationship between desire. even more essential. The proposed ontology of human action considers desire as the fundamental moving cause of human action. 5 Here. is that one cannot desire something that is negative for him. if one has a child who goes to school. which is a desire. less depending on the subject. there is the risk of loosing money. 6 On this point. since human action by definition implies the responsibility of the agent. but rather “I need to take this bitter medicine”. the desire for food is. 11 . − A first distinctive feature that emerges concerns the fact that “desire” seems to be necessarily more internal and personal. 1. − Desire and action are also bound to the notion of responsibility. and a more radical connection with the notion of interest: if it is true that each human being needs some food in order to live. he will also stop eating.

one can compare need and desire considering the predicates that can be associated to them: To have To lack To grow ? ? v v v v 1. Here. we consider the different sources domain and their application to the concepts: Source domain Container Up/down Obstacle Shapes Strength Weakness Intensity Obscurity Clarity Plants Physical Personal Social Need v v ? ? v v ? v v v v v Desire v v v v v v v v v v v v ? Now. you should not be 1. communication turns out to be necessary. − M.70 meters tall!” or *“I think you are wrong.one cannot say: *“You bad guy. because we do not always manage to control the required causal chain to achieve those goals. In other 12 . in these case.7 Cooperation mere human action is not sufficient to realize all the possible goals that a human being may have. Danesi proposes a metaphorologic analysis of the terms need and desire. consisting in verifying which source domains can be used to build up metaphors in order to explain the two terms. you should not be Russian!”.

However. we are not cooperating.e. cooperation is the basis of the weness. we shall consider the structure of cooperation: Figure 5: Cooperation In cooperation. a set of shared visions. two agents may pursue the same goal even not knowing of the existence of each other.e.8 Interaction Cooperation is not the only possible form of joint action: if I go to the watchmaker’s to buy a watch.words. two or more co-agents share a desire (a w e-intention). For instance. we do not know each other and we do not know what the other has done. Cooperation. a joint action is activated. but who sells the watch does not share that desire. Firstly. 7 13 . I am trying to “kill” a tree o n the other side of the street. A certain common ground.. i. of the awareness of being a community. i. my desire is to get a good watch. between the co-agents is essential in order t o realize cooperation7. in fact. an interaction.. one can see the knowledge of the world of a co -agent overlaps with the knowledge of the other co -agent. knowledge. 1. In this sense. which may be a cooperation. and I go and put some poison near the roots of the poor tree. in these cases. and imagine a causal chain realizing it. a competition or a benevolent (inter-)action. desires. for we do not perceive our action as a cooperation. despite our goals turning out to be the same. and an other person who also hates that miserable tree goes and does the same. and probably has other desires – he In Figure 5. is not simply defined by two agents pursuing the same goal. and intentions. rather he wants to get money for the watch.

if I do not go into the watchmaker’s shop. and may therefore desire that the watches he produces are appreciated by his customers.” 8 14 . it must be said that each inter-agent looses something that he somehow desires (in the case of the watch. I give money to buy it. X shows to Y that Y obtains a certain benefit or avoids some evil by cooperating in the required way. every interaction implies. although I would maybe prefer to have both my money and the new watch. Roughly speaking. Communicative interaction allows each inter-agent to construct an action scheme coinciding to some extent with the action scheme of the other inter-agent. Here different mutual commitments are exchanged in relation to the different speech acts that are each time accomplished.. he may desire the money to feed his family. a conflict of interests. the seller cannot imagine I want to buy a watch. The notion of integration of the causal chain allows us to consider that each interaction implies a certain level of cooperation: in our example. do not coincide. in some degree.. the action of an inter-agent perfectly realizes the desire of the other. forms of cooperation as well as forms of interaction. thus. Our desires. and therefore I cannot get it. but each one cannot realize his own desire without the action of the other inter-agent8.. see Rigotti (in press): “And communication involves. etc. The interaction can be represented as follows: knows singles out a desire the world a new responding state of affairs Agent A decides to pursue this goal a causal chain realizing and activates INTEGRATION and activates decides to pursue this goal a causal chain realizing Agent B singles out a desire a new responding state of affairs the world knows Figure 6: Interaction In ideal circumstances. On this point.. and vice versa.may be an artisan. normally. in its turn.): in this sense.

and the barman is.8. of course.1. committed to serve him. 15 . I’ll double your pay” 9. The following diagram shows the interaction between the candidate and an elector to whom the rather demagogical electoral promise is addressed: “If you vote for me. see Rigotti (in press). Figure 7: May I have a coffee? The second example we consider is that of a political candidate engaging in a particular strategy in order to be elected. 9 For more details on this example. where a client asks for a coffee.1 Two further examples of communicative interaction The first example we consider is that of a particular interaction field. a bar.

Figure 8: A political interaction 1. and which is exclusive by nature: if the other agent succeeds in getting that good. I loose it. Competing means desiring a certain good (in our case.9 Competition A particular kind of joint action is competition. The etymology of this term may help understanding the phenomenon: competition derives from Latin cum + petere (two persons point at the same good in order to possess it). a big slice of cake). Figure 9: Competition 16 . which is at the same time desired by someone else. One can describe competition with the Latin saying: mors tua vita mea.

For instance. for instance. In this case. a football match. the fact that other runners also get good results does not hinder his own achieving a good result.10 Benevolent (inter-)action Is it possible that an (inter-)agent does not simply desire something for himself. In a race (for instance. consider the difference between a race and a football match: Figure 10: Race and match The difference between a race and a match depends on the structure of the competition. if a team scores three goals. since much of intercultural communication is directly bound to the gratuitous part of human interaction.Different kinds of competition may be possible. which involves essential differences. can a benevolent (inter-)action take place? The answer to this question is not trivial. they score three goals against the other team. a time trial) a runner wins by achieving his own best result. a team wins in that the other team looses. Latin certamen) rather than of competition. one could speak of emulation (German Wetteifer. mainly concerning the notion of victory In the case of . but rather for someone else? In other words. The concept of a football match is that of the German term Wettstreit and Latin pugna. 17 . 1.

has no direct interest in taking care of her children. or is it rather a joint action? In other words. collateral effects? Somebody argues that. more or less unexpected. but which are simply 18 . In general. we may say that interactions within a family can be assumed as a paradigm of benevolent interactions. a plenary discussion is opened. − A further problem concerns the notion of benevolent action versus benevolent interaction. the question of the existence of benevolent (inter-)actions is taken into account. in their turn. − What does “benevolent” mean? To be benevolent literally means to desire or to want the good of the other person. It must be noticed that there are many initiatives which may be considered benevolent from the point of view of intentions. to take care of him. in fact.Figure 11: Benevolent (inter-)action On this point. is the acceptance of a benevolent action also an action? With regard to the diagram. and perform “egoistic” actions. which may. one could wonder if this kind of interaction may occur outside the family environment. as in the relationship between a mother and her children: a mother. this idea reminds us of the notion of love as a possible motive for action. Is benevolence an action performed by a single agent. the agent should not have any personal advantage in performing that action. for an action to be purely benevolent. which we try to summarize in its main passages: − Firstly. have benevolent. Is it possible that human beings desire something for others? Or is it rather the case that human beings have only “selfish” needs. However. we may ask whether B is an agent in the strict sense of the term.

despite the fact that people may assign different interpretations to their own good . nevertheless. clearly this must be the good and the chief good”. 10 19 . which is their good11. of many humanitarian interventions. of distinguishing between proposing some good to or imposing it upon other human beings. The choice of not accepting a benevolent action on the part of the addressee leads us to consider the benevolent relationship as an interaction: both subjects have a responsibility within the benevolent interaction. and if we do not choose everything for the sake of something else (for at that rate the process would go on to infinity. This is particularly relevant in relation to intercultural communication. And. There appear to be two possibilities: either B explicitly asks for something.html (Last visited: June 2004): “If.e. as may be the case.the shared desire of good and the need to give a reasonable justification to their choices may induce them to engage in a dialogue whence healthy cooperative interactions may arise. If B does not accept A’s action. if it is really in B’s perspective10. The scheme of action and interaction that we propose does not specifically address the problem of complex agents (i. since in educating the idea is implicitly conveyed that who is being educated must reach his good. − The way is opened to a further question: are there meta-cultural dimensions that concern each human being. where each inter-agent officially represents the desires and intentions of a group of people: this is the case. i.msu. of agents that are actually composed by groups). which we desire for its own sake (everything else being desired for the sake of this). available at: http://www.org/ethics/content_ethics/texts/aristotle/ nicoeth1. 11 See Aristotle. there is some end of the things we do.and hence many misunderstandings and conflicts can be generate d . Such negotiations may be even more complex if the benevolent interaction takes place at an institutional level. it must be noticed that the management of the internal dynamics and interactions among agents who constitute a collective inter-agent may be crucial in many situations. then A responds to an explicit request. so that our desire would be empty and vain). here. Nicomachean Ethics. complex negotiations may occur in order to understand if A’s offer is effectively related to B’s desires. Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics describes men as beings that tend to an aim (télos). − The problem arises. Does proposing a certain specific good necessarily imply imposing it upon the beneficiary with a certain degree of implicit or explicit violence? This problem necessarily affects our perspective on education. then.not accepted by the intended beneficiaries of the benevolence. irrespective of his cultural identity? Is there a universal dimension relative to the human being as such? This topic will be tackled more in detail further down. In the latter case. or A takes the initiative in doing something for B. A must negotiate in order to make sure that what he holds for good is in fact good for B. for instance.e.

Which are the essential elements that each inter-agent must be aware of? Figure 12: The inter-agents' knowledge As shown in the diagram (Figure 12). each inter-agent has a certain degree of culture and experience. each inter-agent has a certain (though partial) knowledge of different elements: the culture that he respectively shares or does not share with the other inter-agent (possible and real worlds.1 Introduction Going back to the scheme of interaction. values) and private experience (states of affairs. semiotic systems. and constitutes what is called the common ground in their communicative interaction: 20 . implications)… So. persons.2 Common ground and culture 2. we may zoom on one of the essential conditions for interaction: the inter-agents’ knowledge of the world. of which only a part is shared with the other inter-agent. relations.

their diseases. values. for instance. about previous speech acts. inter-agents may have some knowledge about each other. Most of these experiences fall into two categories – joint perceptual experiences and joint actions. and the other one may be from Lugano: they share their belonging to the Swiss nation. and their treatment”. about the “history” of their interaction. The shared part of the private experience of the inter-agents coincides with what H. skills. but they do not have the same mother tongue 13. culture. The cultures of the inter-agents taking part in a given communicative interaction also overlap only partially. 12 21 . The notion of culture needs further clarification. knowledge. nomenclature. but are not necessarily shared with the interlocutor. joint actions. Perceptual experiences rely on the perception of natural signs of things. What makes them a communitsy is a shared system of beliefs. and know-how about eyes. On the concept of cultural community see Clark (1996 : 102-106): “A cultural community is really a set of people with a shared expertise that other communities lack. and will be developed further down. Clark defines the personal common ground of the interlocutors (see Clark 1996 : 112): “Much of our common ground is based on joint personal experiences [… ]. because they have built it together: for instance. private experience There is a part of the private experience that the participants in a communicative interaction share. interests… that they share and that they are aware of sharing at the moment of the interaction.Figure 13: Common ground. conventions. Some other experiences may rather concern the private sphere of each interagent. desires. whereas joint actions depend on the interpretation of intentional signals”. practices. Opthalmologists don’t all live in one place or know each other. a n inter-agent may be from Geneva. 13 The common ground depending on cultural bases is defined by Clark (1996 : 100) communal common ground. and depends on the shared belonging to a certain cultural community. about salient events having occurred in the presence of both… etc12. or their relationships with other people. The common ground of the inter-agents is composed of the set of beliefs. needs.

Civic commitments. Common currency. 16 Two literary texts that are essential for English speaking countries have been discussed in class: the Bible and the works of Shakespeare. Common history of a certain community. narrations. 1) The myth of William Tell shows the origin of the Swiss unity. During the course. The identification of these two complementary aspects of culture is due to the Tartu-Moscow school. unity and freedom. nevertheless they have shaped the evolution of the English language during the course of history. and the categories presented in these texts continue to represent a cultural background to be taken into account. literary texts16… . which give rise to principles to be respected in a community. festivities.1 Culture as a hypertext Culture is in part constituted by a set of historically founded and shared experiences (a set of canonical texts which are interrelated in the experience and in the memory of those who belong to that culture). teaching him how to relate to reality and to others members of the community à culture as a system 15 2. i. and other (verbal and non-verbal) foundational texts: sayings. which welcomes and “accompanies” the baby within a community (a group of human beings) under two respects: 1. and conveys values such as independence. Rituals. culinary traditions. 22 . It is certainly true that these two texts are not equally important in the different English speaking nations.2 Culture Culture has been defined as the non-genetic information that is transmitted across generations14. 14 See 15 for instance Lotman & Uspenskij (1973). myths. many kinds of shared experiences can be said to be foundational for a certain culture: − − − − − Constitutions. laws. monuments. See Lotman & Uspenskij (1973). In this first sense. we have considered two categories of canonical texts by bringing two examples of foundational myths and an example of a Constitution. Culture might be compared to a cradle. providing him with basic categories.e.2. introducing the baby to the relevant aspects of reality à culture as a hypertext 2.2.

17 23 . qui conduisit à l'unification et à l'indépendance de la Suisse17. autour de saint Marin. reviving the sovereign statehood of Russia and asserting the firmness of its democratic basic. proceeding from the universally recognized principles of equality and self-determination of peoples. avait fait placer au sommet d'un mât pour mettre à l'épreuve la loyauté de la population. 18 It is worth noticing that other constitutions also refer to “hypertextual” aspects of one nation’s culture. striving to ensure the well-being and prosperity of Russia. There are many cases of communities that have a foundational myth to recall their origin and meaning. civic peace and accord. recognizing ourselves as part of the world community. proceeding from the responsibility for our Fatherland before the present and future generations. belief in the good and justice. to have lived and suffered together on the Russian soil: “we… united by a common fate on our land” 18. au IVe siècle. si son fils avait dû y laisser la vie.Guillaume Tell Selon la tradition. il aurait fait subir à G essler un sort funeste. establishing human rights and freedoms. was characterized by serious problems in identifying a common ground on which the new Russian nation could be established. des Sarrasins et des Normands. Gessler. The Pream ble of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland (1997). preserving the historically established state unity. Cette petite communauté se fortifia au haut Moyen Âge pour se protéger des attaques des Hongrois. Guillaume Tell déclara que. adopt the CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. 1993 We. Cet exploit accompli. La tradition fait remonter l'origine de la cité à une communauté de chrétiens dalmates réunie. tailleur de pierre et ascète retiré sur le mont Titan. vivid in the memories of all people. revering the memory of ancestors who have conveyed to us the love for the Fatherland. we have also briefly considered the case of the tiny but very ancient Republic of San Marino: Saint-Marin est la plus ancienne république du monde. written after the end of the communist regime. Guillaume Tell se rendit coupable d'insoumission en refusant de saluer le chapeau aux couleurs des Habsbourg que le bailli du canton d'Uri. 2) The writing of the Preamble of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. united by a common fate on our land. the basis that was chosen for the Constitution is the common experience. During the course. Finally. The Constitution of the Russian Federation Ratified December 12. Cet épisode aurait été à l'origine de la révolte des Suisses contre les ducs d'Autriche. the multinational people of the Russian Federation. explicitly cites the bitterness for the past events as a feature of the Polish community: “Mindful of the bitter experiences of the times when fundamental freedoms and human rights were violated in our Homeland… ” . Guillaume Tell fut emprisonné sur-le-champ mais parvint à s'échapper et à tuer son ennemi. Le bailli ordonna alors à Guillaume Tell de percer d'une flèche une pomme posée sur la tête de son jeune fils à l'aide d'une arbalète. for instance.

we consider an example of visual codes that turn out to be different in different cultures: Figure 14: Alberti's grid (1450 ca) The so-called direct perspective was explicitly theorized by Leon Battista Alberti in the XV century. different cultures may have different codes. The notion of c ulture as a system implies the acknowledgment of the difference between cultures: if culture is partly defined by a code. see Wierzbicka (1991 : 21): “Language – and. visual and art codes. such as languages.2. a system of shared codes that shape a community’s way of living and thinking: for instance. in fact. it is rather a visual code that must be learned in order to be used. in particular. culture is a language. in the sense of an historically transmitted system of “conceptions” and “attitudes”. systems of visual representation. On the analogy between culture and language. which the members of a community share and which constitute the “grammar” of that community. Here.2 Culture as a semiotic system Culture also includes a set of systems. in principle. In this second sense. heterogeneous and changeable. It cannot be considered a “natural” way of perceiving and representing the outside world. vocabulary – is the best evidence of the reality of “culture”. Of course. musical codes… etc. but so is language”. the verbal language (with its cultural categories). 19 24 . and music are included in this categorization of culture 19. culture is.2.

we see a different semiotic system that is simply alternative to The example is taken from Uspenskij (2001). so that God may read them. 20 25 . who analyzes Van Eyck’s work in Gand from a semiotic point of view. so the words go from his mouth towards her. which propose a different. as it is “normal” for us. The direct perspective. Here. The following example is a particular from a Van Eyck’s masterpiece in Gand20: Figure 15: The Annunciation in Gand The scene is that of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary. she is actually speaking to God rather than to the archangel: for this reason. it is not the viewers’ perspective (in fact. Figure 14 shows a grid that Alberti used in order to “shape” the visual perception and convey it into the rules of direct perspective. as Mary is accepting God’s proposal. the words flow from her mouth towards Gabriel. is far from being “natural”. from the left side to the right. it is quite difficult for us to read those words!).children do not naturally draw things in direct perspective. they may learn this system of representation as part of their education. The archangel addresses his words to the woman ( Ave Maria). thus. the words are upside-down. moreover. rather “internal” point of view on the depicted scene. is a cultural datum. But as she answers (Ecce ancilla Domini). this is confirmed if we look at other representation systems. the chosen perspective is internal to the scene. In this case.

nevertheless. French. in the tradition of Russian icons. such as linguistic communities. 26 . This is not true. which is however. The Swiss case is particularly representative of the crossing and 21 The internal (or “inverted”) perspective is used. From the linguistic point of view. because each human being belongs to a multiplicity of cultural communities. Switzerland is subdivided into four regions (German. Italy and the north-east area in Italy where the Ladin and Furlan languages are widespread.that of the direct perspective. equally comprehensible and valid21. The notion of culture as a system is essential to the comprehension of culture. Italian and Romantsch) each one of which unites the Swiss language communities with other communities inhabiting the adjacent States: Germany.3 Culture and cultures: les appartenances croisées We might be tempted to think that each person exclusively belongs to one cultural code. it must be considered as complementary to the notion of culture as an hypertext. if explained. as the example of Switzerland clearly demonstrates: Figure 16: Les appartenances croisées in Switzerland In Switzerland. France. for instance. as if each person could be exhaustively defined by his belonging to a single cultural community. 2. the political identity to the Swiss state is crossed with other important identities.

renvoie au fait que l’individu agit d’une manière conforme à sa culture. residence. set of languages. Rosa Anaba: La notion de l’individu et de la liberté. or are we rather determined by our cultural systems? For instance. religion. 2.. Etre libre dans ce cas. but we can personally reflect on those categories (both those that are explicit. political affiliation. 22 27 . de sentir. The problem arises. We each have a nationality. really free to deny (at least part of) their cultural system? In the discussion among the Master participants the idea has emerged. S. and those that remain unconscious) and propose changes. il pourrait débuter par une prise On this point. d’agir.S.. it could be said that each one of us shares the condition of multiple identities: one could. dès lors qu’il commence à réfléchir sur les ambiguïtés. level of education.4 Freedom from culture and necessity of culture We may thus conclude that there is no bijective relation between an individual and a culture.R. L’individu est ainsi libre dans un cadre préétabli par la culture. This leads us also to consider the problem of the liberty of individuals with respect to their own culture: can we overcome the limits of our culture. see Clark (1996 : 104): “We all belong to many communities at once. belong to the community of the Swede s. L’individu commence un processus de négociation de la liberté. il y a comme un rejet par les autres qui n’acceptent pas qu’un individu puisse (ose) remettre en cause la culture. set of hobbies. to the Lutheran religion. il cherche à conquérir la liberté. nevertheless. Cet apport de changement est progressif. en essayant d’apporter un changement aux contradictions. ethnic affiliation. here. aux ambiguïtés. were those living in U. Ce problème de la liberté de l’individu se pose. occupation. Sa façon de penser. of the creation of a reasonable consensus in the relationship between the individual and the community he belongs to. L’individ u obtient une reconnaissance par les autres comme faisant partie de la culture. La liberté de l’individu dépend de la relation de celui ci avec la culture de sa communauté d’appartenance. les contradictions de sa culture. employment. cohort. to the community of the IBM workers… etc22. Il est à noter que chaque culture est constituée de contradictions. In order to sum up some results of this plenary discussion. and gender”. for instance. to the Swedish language community. et des ambiguïtés : l’appartenance à une culture permet l’acceptation et la tolérance des contradictions.overlapping of different cultural identities. est in concordance avec sa culture. L’individu vif au sein d’une communauté qui est déterminée par une culture. that t he culture(s) we belong to give us basic categories for interpreting reality. Dès ce moment. de percevoir. we quote the contribution of one of the participants of the Master course.

dans la frustration . ou alors il décide de quitter. qui se traduit par un réveil de la conscience endormie des autres.de conscience des contradictions. Deux cases sont possibles : 1er cas --> Il y a acceptation de la position de changement : le cercle des individus acceptant le changement s’élargit et on aboutir probablement à un changement. qui continue à vivre dans ce cadre. à partager la même culture malgré lui. d’abandonner la culture. Le facteur temps devrait dans toute cette démarche jouer un grand rôle. Sous forme de schéma : 28 . Il pourrait y avoir résignation de l’individu. 2e cas --> il y a rejet de la proposition du changement.

who dedicated himself to the education of the boy. Rigotti & Cigada (2004 : 39) quote the episode of Victor and discuss its meaning in relation to the concepts of culture and language acquisition. The humanity in Victor had been damaged24 by the absence of a culture. in this sense. because if one grows up in a certain culture x. and did not show any interest in anything around him. because this way of considering culture may also become a modern way of replacing racism with a new equivalent notion. and is strictly related to the interest we have in reality.e. without a culture. the opposition between nature and culture does not stand: belonging to some cultural system(s) is intrinsically bound to human nature. trying to teach him to speak and. and lack evidence-based proofs. has been mentioned during the course: Victor. Jean-MarcGaspard Itard. but it has also been noticed that Victor had learned to live as a feral being. at the end of the 18th century23. Victor de l’Aveyron. fewer cognitive skills for arithmetics. and that. a boy of about 11 or 12. it is evident that. Nobody can live as a human being without belonging to some culture. 26 During the discussion. he did not need culture. So. The story of one of the most famous feral children. of children who spend many of their formative years in the wilderness. generally. i. 24 It has b een noticed. one must be careful about introducing them. to “civilise” him. for instance. we expect human beings to perform some actions: to try to understand reality. plus the prefix kata-. maybe partial. Speaking of human languages. “with regard to”. as he was not interested in anything. he lacked fundamental properties of human beings. or for interpersonal relations. In this sense. Victor could not even distinguish one thing from another. in France. different cultures cannot be considered equally valid. and be taught some categories which lead him to his first relationships with the outside world. but each human being must grow up in some cultural environment. but having a culture is natural for men27. Itard describes him as unable to experience the meaning of the different entities in the world around him. in our experience. for this reason. to communicate… and it is evident that Victor lacked these properties. as it has been proved by the experiences of the so-called “feral children”. culture is not natural. which was the place (Latin forum) designated for the public speaking. nevertheless it is true that each human being needs to have a culture as a “cradle” with the function of welcoming him and accompanying him into his relationship with reality (in the wide sense of this word). during the discussion. If it is difficult to define a human being philosophically. each culture may provide different. Victor was taken into the care of a scientist. categories for understanding reality. and. of a benevolent welcome into life. was found in the woods near Aveyron. Dr. and nothing was relevant to him. We could not speak without cultural categories: that was the problem of Victor. and of the necessary categories25 to relate with it. it is suggested that cultures might be unequal regarding the cognitive skills that they provide. not having the human faculty of speech and of relating with reality and experiencing interest in things. This is true. Beside the fact that Victor never learned to speak.If the individual is free to discuss and criticize the categories that his culture provides him. it does not matter which culture one grows up in26. wich means “about”. Dante Alighieri introduces 23 29 . 27 In this perspective. which can be further developed or corrected. that Victor had however survived his years of loneliness. i. but it is essential for each human being to have a culture: so. because he had not been taught to relate with reality. Category is the instrument we use in order to speak of something. In this perspective. nothing was worth being given a name – which was also the root of his inability to speak. Victor’s story shows that culture has an essential function in the development of human beings. in this sense. Such considerations are quite problematic. without any contact with other humans. as a consequence of his having grown up without a human culture. 25 The term category derives from Greek agora.e. therefore. he might have.

Given this need. in this sense. Se le cose non stessero così. As the child grows up. Per esempio il tedesco offre (anzi: impone) la distinzione tra Neffe e Enkel (nipote di zio e di nonno. who was in charge of taking care of Victor. the child’s parents (or the adults that take care of him) necessarily teach him their culture. On this point. observing an analogy between the necessity of having some juridical order and the necessity of having some language in order to live. each human being needs a culture. Diese Wissensbestandteile sind natürlich übersetzbar. rispettivamente). since the different cultural perspectives may help understand reality better. nevertheless culture has fulfilled its essential function of awakening his interest in reality. 30 . However. a specific point of view28. ricorrendo eventualmente a delle perifrasi. and their way to perceive and understand reality. in his work De regimine principum. as a benevolent and loving welcome into life. he will be able to evaluate and possibly reject his cultural identity. 28 Here.] Per tradurre bisogna trovare il modo di esprimere un valore piuttosto che l’altro. applies the same concept to the juridical system.. Here. Here. welche diese in einer jeweils einzigartigen Perspektive wahrzunehmen erlaubt. [. natura lascia / poi fare a voi secondo che v’abbella” (Paradiso XXVI). as previously said.Itard. Ma non si tratta di un problema drammatico: il parlante sa che per risolvere i problemi posti dalla lingua deve far ricorso al senso. See also Rigotti & Cigada (2004 : 37-38): “Ogni lingua offre un’articolazione propria della realtà. or is an educational treatment morally valid? The answer to this question may be provided if we take into account that. as a consequence. again. the human being can free himself from his culture as he grows up and learns to relate his cultural categories to his actual experience. see for instance Lüdi (2003 : 76): “Dass jede Sprache ein eigenes Fenster auf die Welt darstellt. and cannot therefore choose the culture he belongs to. i. devoted large efforts to his education. the question arises of the legitimacy of this kind of intervention on others: did Itard respect Victor’s freedom and dignity? And. since each culture provides only a partial perspective of the world. Corrections and improvements of one’s cultural categories are frequent. Aegidius Romanus. Here. die ursprünglich in der einen oder anderen Sprache kodiert wurden. in general. in particular in order to teach him to speak and to “become a complete human being”. it is evident that the ideal model of intercultural communication is not rejecting one’s own the idea that it is natural for human beings to speak. It is true that the child cannot choose where to grow up. whereas it depends on human cultures which language they speak: “Opera naturale è ch’uom favella / ma così o così. is education an essentially violent relationship. nemmeno ci porremmo il problema della diversità delle lingue. tragen aber immer etwas von ihrer Herkunft mit sich“. and may even abandon his cultural categories if they do not adequately explain what he is experienc ing. we speak of a critical identity (appartenance critique) with one’s culture. perché non saremmo in grado di stabilire dei confronti tra un sistema linguistico e l’altro”. inteso appunto come rappresentazione semantico -pragmatica. and of drawing his attention to the positive aspects of reality: culture is the necessary prosthesis for getting in touch with reality. their categories. human beings are not free to choose their culture. the analogy between culture and language may be useful. we see that intercultural communication may generate an added value for each culture.e. as language categories also express a particular angle from which to look at reality.. where a human being imposes his categories and values on other human beings. ist also nicht bloß eine schöne Metapher. Unser Wissen von der Welt resultiert aus einer großen Anzahl von Mosaikteilchen. che l’italiano trascura.

as every communicative interaction. but rather between persons. a sort of “geometrical mean” of different cultures: indifference towards one’s own identity and towards the other’s is not a good starting point for communicating. 30 It must be noticed that the discussion occurred in class about intercultural communication was not aiming to describe an “ideal model” of intercultural communication as something to be create ex novo. The role of argumentation is that of bridging the gap between the present level of common ground and the new issues on which consensus must yet be found. the acknowledgement of what is shared is one of the most important achievements towards the solution of the dispute. and takes place between individuals with different cultural identities. Here.identity in order to find a compromise with the interlocutor. In this sense. there is never 100% common ground between two interlocutors. One should rather consider one’s own interpretation of reality when communicating with others. Actually. It is however to emphasize that intercultural communication. In non-violent conflict resolution processes. all communication is intercultural. argumentation intervenes as a means of building a reasonable consensus starting from shared values and moving towards non-shared values to be discussed30. the first step in intercultural communication is finding a common ground between interlocutors29. intercultural communication already exists. An essential point to be stressed here is that different cultures are never completely unrelated to each other: there is always some kind of common ground that can be found. from the language community to the family life. does not take place between cultures. Conversely. even if they belong to the same cultural communities. such as mediation. 29 31 . in fact.

to justify an action performed. for instance. So. Power is defined as the ability to make someone else do something.e. in this sense. of the respect of logical coherence (non-contradiction). because I oblige an other person to perform actions that he/she is unwilling to perform. which consists of two parts: A R G U. the term argument has the same value as the Latin argumentum. When we argue. the common ground with him. Argument is an instrument to show... as it has been noticed during the class. [. Arguments are instruments we use in order to move from an accepted point to a new level of common ground that has not been accepted yet.] in argument reasons are exchanged for assent” . which is intrinsically violent. going from a shared basis (a common ground) towards consensus building on new issues. etc. etc. to motivate a collaborator… all these activities require. giving reasons is necessary: to give advice to someone. to bring someone to see and to acknowledge something. There is a first form of power. to mediate a conflict. to argue means give reasons to support a claim. to negotiate. in some degree. which is sound: another person does something because I have persuaded him to do so on the basis of good reasons. monumentum is the instrument for reminding. The notion of reason. the one related to argumentation. There is also a second form of power. it implies a certain power of the arguer. the interlocutor. In See also Eckhouse (1999): “At the heart of all argument is the principle of exchange: to receive something. 32 Argumentation practice may be considered an ability to build consensus on certain issues.M E N T U M arguere: to show.). In many circumstances of our ordinary life. we exchange the adhesion to a certain value/issue/statement with reasons. to make a decision.e. and in the sense of reasonable . One can speak of argumentative exchange 31 when an interlocutor acknowledges the other interlocutor’s claim in exchange for reasons supporting this claim . docu-mentum is the instrument for informing. something must be given. Thus.3 Argumentation in intercultural communication In English. to bring someone to acknowledge ‘mentum’ is a formative which means “instrument”. to propose a certain solution. 31 32 . here. i. the support of good reasons 32. based o n coercion. i. of the consideration of all relevant aspects with regard to the topic concerned (which include. must be understood both in the sense of rational.

moving from the accepted bases towards the acceptance of new issues. so to say. the decision maker is named krités. Lógos is the instrument we use to communicate and to argue. when we establish the true or apparently true from the means of persuasion applicable to each individual subject”. affirms that there are two ways off resolving conflicts: violence. for the judgements we deliver are not the same when we are influenced by joy or sorrow.argumentation.” that the worth of the orator in no way contributes to his powers of persuasion. which means ‘to sieve’: a krités is one who sieves. in so far as it proves or seems to prove. constitutes the most effective means of proof. as we have said. The orator persuades by means of his hearers. deriving from the verb augeo. who uses a discourse in order to persuade a decision maker. love or hate. which human beings should consider only as extrema ratio. and of m aking a decision. there are both rational and non-rational aspects. not to any preconceived idea of the speaker's character. the third upon the speech itself. the second upon putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind. Cicero.) Lastly. we have an arguer (argumentateur). in fact. this term derives from the verb kríno (Latin cerno). the present-day writers of treatises endeavor to devote their attention. for it is not the case. available at: http://www. and to whom I give credit: therefore what he says is persuasive to me. but where there is no certainty and there is room for doubt. for we feel confidence in a greater degree and more readily in persons of worth in regard to everything in general.perseus. he is a person in charge of verifying the reasons given by the arguer. in other words. We always argue in front of a decision maker (someone who is in charge of making a decision). in his tractate “De officiis”. The orator persuades by moral character when his speech is d elivered in such a manner as to render him worthy of confidence. Auctoritas is the quality of a person of whom I know (because of past experiences) that he can make me grow up. when they are roused to emotion by his speech. persuasion is produced by the speech itself. our confidence is absolute. or coercion. (We will discuss these matters in detail when we come to speak of the emotions. In the ancient Greek rhetorical tradition. on the contrary. since this is the way beasts solve their conflicts. The Greek term éthos (importance of the arguer due to his current or previous behaviour) corresponds to Latin auctoritas (authority). (“to raise”. as pointed out by Aristotle 33: Figure 17: Brain and heart in argumentation First of all. and it is to this alone that. as some writers of rhetorical treatises lay down in their “Art.tufts. moral character. The first depends upon the moral character of the speaker. and See Aristotelis Rethorica 1356a. But this confidence must be due to the speech itself. “to grow something”). 33 33 .edu : “Now the proofs furnished by the speech are of three kinds.

or human .S. Manipulation can be discovered and avoided. together with his values and sentiments. argumentation (lógos). so that he/she is prevented from having a healthy attitude towards decision (i. Ciceronis De officiis I. love or hate. and his way of perceiving the situation. and pursues the manipulator’s goal i the n illusion of pursuing her/his own goal. he is himself convinced of the distorted vision of the world he promotes36. which is proper of human beings 34. has not been defeated by an external force: it has rather imploded due to internal pressures. confugiendum est ad posterius. It is useful to start with a definition of the manipulative discourse: “A message is manipulative if it twists the vision of the world (physical as well as social .”35 It must be noticed that a subject who manipulates other inter-agents is often a victim of self-manipulation.R. Aristotle warned us about the fact that the judgements we deliver are not the same when we are influenced by joy or sorrow. Anecdotal evidence and the personal testimony of people who survived totalitarian regimes suggest that the effect of a manipulative device is heavily strengthened if it is applied by somebody who has himself been manipulated”. 35 See Rigotti (in press). Páthos is the effect of argumentation on the decision maker’s heart. persuasion based on good reasons. alterum per vim. indeed. which aims at making us aware of possible dangers of manipulation. 34: “Nam cum sint duo genera decertandi.actual as well as virtual) in the mind of the addressee. hoc beluarum. that is.S. which allowed people to perceive other visions of the world beside the regime’s impositions. in this case. 3. cumque illud proprium sit hominis. Before going into further detail in the analysis of manipulative processes.e. In fact. on this point. unum per disceptationem. in fact.e. although very refined. the manipulated person does not pursue the goal of the manipulated manipulator but the goal of the original manipulator. In fact. see Rigotti (in press): “ In our opinion the most interesting case o f manipulation – and at the same time the most likely to succeed – occurs when an already manipulated person aims at convincing another. 36 On this point. the U. we must always take into account the decision maker’s view on the issue. the manipulative system. 34 34 . When arguing. an attitude responding to his/her very interest).1 Manipulation in intercultural communication Manipulation may occur in intercultural communication. we must take into account the decision maker’s emotions and desires. si uti non licet superiore”. it is worth spending a few words on the meaning of the study of manipulation devices. still had some “hole s” and points of contact with the outside world. and it may be the source of intercultural conflicts or misunderstanding.the other way. i. it is remarkable that manipulation is often unintentional. it is interesting to notice that even in the most “perfect” totalitarian regimes of the 20th century.

it has happened in some TV debates in Italy that representatives of the Islamic religion were invited and presented. which is normally not the case. for instance. where some students have proposed the idea that inhabitants of Southern Italy do not like working. for instance a Russian. In other words. which also means to suffer (e. he needs to work to survive. which means to labour. that people of Southern Italy have a particularly negative attitude towards work. This consideration was clearly based on a stereotypical prejudice. therefore. 37 The 38 general categories of manipulative events are taken from Rigotti (in press). makes a public statement on some issue. we only analyze some exemplificative categories in order to identify the kind of problems that may emerge 37. “ laboro ex capite” means “ I’ve got a headache”). the German Arbeit has the same origin as the word Erbe (heir).1. and reminds of a man whose father has d ied. as it is suggested by the comparison of the word faticare with other terms used to refer to work in European languages. We have assisted to an application of this principle this year. It is quite clear that the concept of work is bound to rather negative concepts in many languages. Another kind of undue generalization is what we have called the “temptation of the spokesman”. there is no reason to conclude. the manipulative event based on the exploitation of the human instinct of referring to totality consists of an unjustified passage from the existential quantification to the universal quantification (from “many” to “all”). For instance. since to work. always involving some kind of sufferance. and consequently treated as if they were “Muslim bishops” of those cities. Here. from the analysis of their dialects.g. since he has been left an orphan. translated into some dialects. the Italian term lavorare derives from Latin laboro. but represents an authentic accelerator of scientific progress. but without verifying it. and. in press). thus presupposing a structural analogy between cultures. which is actually not the case. as “the imam of the city x”. The French word travailler and the Spanish trabajar derives from the name of an ancient instrument of torture (the so-called tripallium). it happens that a person. 3. and each particular datum is assumed as a sign of the total truth. Stereotypes are a prime example of this proceeding: I know somebody from the South of Italy whodoesn’t work much. because nobody takes care of him. The linguistic connection between work and labour was meant to demonstrate the negative vision of work of those people.Different manipulative events may occur in intercultural communication. under certain conditions. during a class. A third type of undue generalization is the application of one’s own cultural categories to other cultures. I infer that all Southern Italians do not work at all38. The defect arises from undue simplifications” (Rigotti. thus. is faticare.1 Manipulation exploiting human instinct of referring to totality It has been noticed that “The human beings feel an irresistible tendency to look for principles having general validity. And. nor defends him. this is not only perfectly correct. We might be tempted to think that this statement reflects the opinion of all Russian. 35 . which presupposes a perfect analogy between the institutional structures of the Muslim and the Catholic religions.

who is generally considered good because he is the enemy of the people’s enemy. .2 The polarity temptation This type of manipulative process is tied to the complex notion of paradigm (class of predicate s): “If a semantic paradigm consists of two predicates only. for example. enemy].. 36 . a certain state x. go verned by a bloody despot. E. Our manipulative process arises in relation to those paradigms that present a scalar structure. . the negation of one of them is not necessarily the affirmation of any other predicate in particular: we only affirm that one of the others is the case. The fact that he fights against the old enemy (the “evil”) does not guarantee that he is good. food and conviviality… also derive from this kind of undue generalizations. threatened by a young man from the country.. where there is a graduation between one extreme and the other. . at a certain stage. if somebody is not my friend.Intercultural misunderstandings of this type. So. unfortunately. Here the negation of one extreme does not coincide with the affirmation of the other: they cannot be both true. [white… [strong… [good… [friend… .. if a paradigm consists of more than two predicates. weak]. on the contrary. bound for instance to different perceptions of time (as concerns. we do not affirm that the other extreme is the case. he/she is not necessarily my enemy and not to hate does not necessarily mean to love. with the presence of intermediate states: [high… .” Consider.. This other extreme becomes just one of the possible alternatives. .g. bad]. Instead. black ]. the negation of the former becomes the affirmation of the latter: it is the case of the contradictory relation.. History has shown many cases in which the application of this manipulative process has led to heavily negative consequences. whose power is.... the notion of b eing late!).1. low ]. we do negate the other extreme (and all other alternatives in between). for instance. 3.. if we affirm that one extreme is the case. if we negate one extreme.. but they can be both false. the second man might be even bloodier than the old despot.

since one may respect the other’s dignity in that he is a human being despite the asymmetry of social .4 Respect and dignity in intercultural communication The final session of the course has included a plenary discussion on the topic of respect and dignity in intercultural communication. − Respect etymologically means to be aware of the presence of the other person. watching him out of the corner of one’s eye. To tolerate someone (from Latin tuli. it implies the acknowledgement of the dignity of the other person. implying that we acknowledge – and shall forever acknowledge – his dignity. e. − A further problem is that of how respect may be implemented in cases of strongly asymmetric relationships. roles. It has also been proposed to consider respect as the acknowledgement of each human being’s pursuit of happiness. In these cases. On the contrary. i. since different cultures may have different visions on what an aggressive behaviour is. I do not acknowledge the other person’s dignity – thus the negative connotation. as we can promise to respect the other person. It follows that dignity and respect are correlated notions. Here. caution is necessary. − Dignity is defined as the intrinsic value of human beings just because they are human beings. as we notice if we compare the following utterances: 1. we nonetheless speak of peer dignity and respect. “I promise I will respect you for the rest of my life” 2. The incongruity we perceive in this utterance is due to the fact that to tolerate has a clearly negative connotation. since the act of promising presupposes that what is promised by the speaker is in some way positive for the addressee. the work relationship between a teacher and his pupils.g. and that I decide to accept rather than rebelling against it. − The notion of respect is different from that of tolerance. each human being is equal. 37 .e. In this sense. * “I promise I will tolerate you for the rest of my life” The first utterance is perceived as meaningful. which we resume here in its main passages. because each human being possesses the same dignity (peer dignity). “to carry a burden”) means that the presence of the other person is a burden that I cannot avoid. − The problem has emerged of maintaining respect for the other in cases where he appears aggressive or violent. the second utterance is a non-sense (unless it is perceived as an ironical statement!).

inventio). we report the groups’ participants. – Style d’interaction: prise de parole. les catégories dont elle dispose – niveau textuel: les textes canoniques. 5. buts d es étapes. in which a conflictive situation within an intercultural context had been simulated.1 Un modèle pour la conception d’une intervention de communication interculturelle • Réfléchir sur le type d’inte raction. and to propose possible solution to the conflict. – Chaînes causales (étapes. Here. participants have been subdivided into three groups and asked to prepare and play an argumentative role-playing game. in each group a spokesman had been chosen with the task of resuming the results of the class discussion. and the method that had been suggested to them in order to fulfill their tasks.. Projeter le « discours » argumentatif (elocutio): – Choix de mots-clefs adéquats à rappeler et les dimensions du common ground culturel pertinent.5 Role -playing activities and final discussions To conclude the course. the task they were assigned. back-channel – Langage du corps • • • • 38 . – But(s) des inter-agents. – Choix des métaphores culturellement adéquates – Ordre de présentation de la thèse et des arguments. Moreover.. les mythes fondateurs Établir l’arrière-fond commun (culturel et expérientiel) Projeter l’argumentation (choisir les bons arguments.) – Niveau de coopération Identifier les facteurs culturels impliqués: – niveau conceptuel: la grammaire de la culture.

Figure 18: Type d’interaction Figure 19: Common ground 39 .

1 40 .Figure 20: Facteurs culturels impliqués Figure 21: Projeter l'argumentation .

Figure 22: Projeter l'argumentation . en collaboration avec une équipe de spécialistes de la communication interculturelle à fin de créer les meilleures conditions de travail pour la nouvelle dirigeante: les objectifs sont.2 5. Dans le développement de cette activité on peut choisir de développer un scénario précis lié à un pays et à un type spécifique d’entreprise. au poste de cheffe de la filiale d’un pays de l’Afrique où l’islam est la religion de la majorité des habitants et a une place très importante dans la culture (ou dans les cultures) de ce pays.2 Groupe 1 Une entreprise multinationale suisse nomme la meilleure de ses jeunes dirigeants. de motiver le personnel. Une équipe de dirigeants provenant des headquarters suisses rencontre à un groupe de cadres et de dirigeants locaux. 41 . une Suissesse. mais l’on peut également choisir d’explorer plusieurs « mondes possibles » en variant les paramètres du pays et du secteur industriel. d’établir des liens avec les institutions politiques et d’autres réalités de la société locale. en particulier. d’éviter les conflits.

has been elaborated by one of the participants to the Master. Les soucis des africains sont liés principalement à la peur que l’entreprise suisse ne les écoutent pas. Ce respect est montré par exemple grâce à l’intérêt démontré par l’entreprise vis à vis du pays africain. Stephanie Dupuy. 39 42 . Il ne faut tout même pas oublier que l’entreprise a comme but le profit. les investissements dans les loisirs. Le groupe africain doit se rendre compte que l’entreprise les respecte. which resumes the results of the discussion. de suite ils ont pu analyser les potentiels malentendus et chercher de trouver des solutions conciliantes qui pouvaient satisfaire les besoins des deux partenaires à travers le dialogue et la compréhension réciproque. etc. et cela pourrait donc déclencher un conflit.) The following text. Les démarches entreprises (notamment la recherche de dialogue. notamment la recherche de médiation. Les soucis des Suisses sont que les Africains ne vont pas accepter leur nouvelle directrice étant une femme et étant étrangère . ne prenne pas en considération leur culture et donc pense seulement à leur productivité sans les respecter. de dialogue avec le personnel de la filiale et grâce aux démarches pratiques comme le projet d’une crèche pour les enfants des employés et d’une maison de la culture où l’on mettrait en place des échanges mutuels entre culture locale et culture suisse.Composition du premier groupe Dirigeants de la filiale locale: Abdelhakim Moses-Valentine Demba Elkhattabi Chukwujekwu Dieng Häseli Papa Porta Vogt Lazzeri Dupuy Etter Al Hoceima Lugano Preonzo Arosio Pregassona Breganzona Gerra Piano Genève Lugano Odogno Maroc Suisse/ Nigeria Suisse/ Senegal Suisse Suisse Suisse Suisse Suisse Suisse Suisse Dirigeants suisses: Alexandra Katia Giorgio Philipp Flavia Stephanie Juerg Spécialistes de la communication interculturelle: Solutions de médiation39 Les médiateurs ont d’abord entendu les soucis de chaque partenaire.

Finalement. afin d’éviter des conflits dans la filiale africaine en introduisant une directrice femme et étrangère pour les africains. 40 Le groupe « africain » avait décidé que le pays en question était le Sénégal. la compréhension et le respect réciproque. en meilleures conditions de vie pour eux et pour leur familles. le fait que ce soit une femme n’avait. ils ont donc compris que les besoins des Africains devaient être satisfait pour que les leurs aussi s’accomplissent. devraient écouter les besoins de l’autre et adapter leurs besoins en fonction toujours du but commun qui lie les deux. si l’entreprise a un bon profit. Aussi. a vaient proposé une directrice avec la même formation mais d’origine sénégalaise40. c’est à dire le profit de l’entreprise. 43 . Cela explique peut-être la grande méfiance vis à vis des médiateurs. Pendant la confrontation entre les deux parties. Grâce à la médiation ils ont compris que l’employeur est prêt à les écouter mais il faut collaborer et bien intégrer les nouveaux dirigeants. à fin de comptes. par exemple. Le dialogue. il y aurait la possibilité de gagner davantage . finalement ils ont compris qu’il fallait être moins méfiant vis à vis des employeurs suisses qui voulaient vraiment les prendre en considération et les écouter. posé aucun problème véritable. Les Suisses. Les besoins des Africains concernaient plutôt des démonstrations visibles de respect. exercer et maintenir une interactivité constante entre employeurs et employés. en essayant de les comprendre et de s’approcher davantage de leur culture. les postes de travail seraient plus sûrs. en mettant. suisse et africaine. non pas tout à fait parce que la nouvelle directrice allait être africaine mais surtout parce que les Suisses avaient montré beaucoup de disponibilité à chercher un dialogue. et une meilleure reconnaissance sociale. Les besoins des Suisses étaient surtout économiques mais ils visaient aussi à ce qu’aucun conflit se produise dans leurs filiale africaine. diminution des conflits et un plus grand profit. et souvent ils se sentent ignorés et non respectés. en question l’impartialité du médiateur. de recherche de connaissance de leur culture et d’interaction plutôt que des offres concrètes comme la création d’un jardin d’enfance ou autre .doivent être vues toujours dans c e cadre. fruit de l’écoute des besoins. pour les employés africains. Les deux parties. c’est pour cela que le groupe africain d’employés ne devrait pas montrer un refus excessif et préconç u vis à vis des employeurs suisses. se traduit en meilleure productivité. spécialement la nouvelle directrice. les Africains avaient beaucoup apprécié le geste. D’une part les employeurs doivent tenir compte des besoins des africains comme le respect et la connaissance de leur culture et deuxièmement ils devraient montrer. perçus comme des sortes d’«espions». majeure. les médiateurs ont pu constater que les africains donnent beaucoup d’importance à l’écoute des employés. Du côté africain. le profit de l’entreprise se traduit donc .

Composition du deuxième groupe Représentants de l’institution africaine: Rosa Marie Julienne Médard Anaba Aba'a Basel-Stadt Kalmogo Ouagadougou Mavoungou Bafouka Brazzaville Suisse/Cameroun Burkina Faso Congo Délégation suisse: Cristina Filippo Aymone Isabelle Vonzun Jörg Poletti Converso Moedano Poletti Bellinzona Tesserete Massagno Viganello Mexico City Orsellina Suisse Suisse Suisse Suisse Mexique Suisse Médiateurs: Eugénia Monica Fulvio A) Proposition touristique d u groupe africain du « BoCo » : (Burkina Faso – Congo)41 Facteurs positifs pour une promotion au « BoCo » : 41 Langue officielle : français Alphabétisation : 80% Etat : libéral et démocratique The following text. Une équipe de médiateurs et d’experts de communication interculturelle a été impliquée dans l’organisation de la visite (il peut s’agir d’intermédiaires contactés par une des deux parties). has been elaborated by some of the participants to the Master: Monica Moedano. 44 . Pour bien exploiter cet exercice il est souhaitable que les interlocuteurs africains définissent de manière précise la nature et les buts de l’institution qu’ils représentent.3 Groupe 2 Dans un pays africain qui n’est pas une destination touristique de choix pour l’instant. which resumes the results of the discussion. une institution publique ou une entreprise privée va recevoir une délégation d’entrepreneurs suisses et des représentants d’institutions suisses pour leur illustrer le s potentialités touristiques du pays (ou d’une région particulière de ce pays et pour favoriser la naissance de différentes formes de partenariat dans l’industrie du tourisme. Il faut aussi rappeler que le pays/région en question n’a pas de véritable industrie touristique pour l’instant. Aymone Poletti and Eugenia Converso.5.

Le problème principal est que ces personnes handicapées sont placées dans un institut uniquement pendant la journée. B) La délégation Suisse : Il s’agit d’une fondation privée/no profit ayant pour but de mieux intégrer les handicapés dans la société quotidienne. Au « BoCo » les structures pour les handicapés sont financées par l’état et des ONG alors que l’association européenne est privée. l’Etat du « BoCo » et les ONG qui participent au financement des structures. Il faudra - - 45 . Ce nombre est plutôt élevé par rapport à ce que les structures africaines peuvent supporter. Le but de la démarche du groupe africain est de sensibiliser le marché touristique suisse en montrant une image moderne et occidentalisée de leur nation. il risque d’y avoir des problèmes entre l’association européenne et les ONG africaines responsables des structures. Désir de savoir si le « BoCo » possède des structures pour les personnes handicapées. l’idée des l’association suisse était de les emmener en Afrique en rotation pendant tout l’année. La délégation du « BoCo » conseille d’éviter certains mois trop chauds et humides pour des personnes q ui ne sont pas habituées à ce climat.- Situation économique : en augmentation légère dans les dernières années. on découvre que le « BoCo » a déjà des structures pour les personnes handicapées et aveugles. Comment sont traités les handicapés au « BoCo » ? Quel est leur rôle dans la société ? Y a-t-il des d’autres institutions ou ONG déjà présentes sur place ? Peut-on s’y associer ? Y a-t-il des associations similaires à celle de la suisse au “BoCo” ? C) La confrontation : En parlant avec la délégation africaine. Il manque donc toute la partie logistique dédiée à la nuit qui est fondamentale aux handicapés suisses. Situation politique e sociale : stable. De plus. La plus part de la population est chrétienne (protestante). De plus. Pays cosmopolite Musique et danse traditionnelles. Les délégués africains insistent sur les similitudes de langue. Animaux sacrés Musées et différents types de loisirs. L’objectif de la délégation dans ce cas spécifique est de trouver ou construire une série de structures afin d’offrir des séjours de vacances en Afrique à des personnes handicapées. religion. moyen de communication (internet/radio/TV). Il y a donc une certaine culture partagée. Religion : liberté de culte. Il faudra trouver des accords entre l’association suisse (qui est privée). Parcs : présence de grands parcs nationaux. Toutefois il manque des structures touristiques. grottes. Etant donné que les structures actuelles que les Européens devraient utiliser sont financées par les ONG. un musée en concession du roi. il faut souligner qu’il y a un problème d’intérêt entre l’institution sans but lucratif des Européens et l’intérêt lucratif des Africains. magnifiques pics et cascades. La requête de la délégation suisse d’envoyer en vacances environ 50 patients par mois.

Par rapport au transport des handicapés de l’aéroport à l’institut il est nécessaire trouver/acheter un moyen de transport adéquat étant donné que le véhicule de l’institut africain ne peut pas contenir 50 personnes. BUT . l’idée est de faire travailler du personnel africain et européen et donc de former des infirmiers africains en Suisse.But lucratif. L’idée serait donc d’installer une usine de construction autour de l’aéroport qui permettrait de promouvoir le travail dans cette région. Qui financera l’achat de ce véhicule ? Pour les structures en particulier. l’association suisse remarque qu’elles ne sont pas adaptées aux besoins des patientes européens (salles de bain non conforme à la normative européenne pour les handicapés. L’usine n’est donc pas prise en considération. Pour chaque interaction: Culture de A (Non Partagée) Afrique -Handicapés à la maison principalement. Cette proposition de collaboration avec des ingénieurs suisses n’est pas acceptée par le groupe africain. Culture de B (Non Partagée) Suisse -Handicapés placés principalement dans des 46 . Pour ce qui est des normes européennes. En effet. concernant le personnel soignant. Sans but lucratif.Accueillir des touristes étrangers dans des structures gouvernementales africaines. la délégation du « BoCo » demande d’élaborer un document officiel avec les normes européens demandées afin de voir de quelle manière il est possible de modifier les structures existantes. le «BoCo » possède d’excellents ingénieurs qui peuvent s’occuper de l’édification des structures pour la nuit. BUT Envoyer des handicapés en vacances en Afrique. Inter-Agent A Africains Inter-Agent B Suisses Inter-Agent C Médiateurs Intégration . . Le groupe suisse propose donc de superviser ou collaborer à la fabrication de structures supplémentaires. Ils voudraient collaborer avec un studio d’ingénieurs suisse spécialisé dans la construction de préfabriqués.- - donc déterminer les période de vacances et trouver des accords pour exploiter les structures pendant un maximum de temps.Les deux parties se rencontrent pour discuter sous la supervison d’un médiateur. absence de climatisation et manque de structures pour la nuit). Enfin. Intégration avec les handicapés africains. BUT Protéger les intérêts du groupe africain et de la délégation suisse en améliorant la coopération et la communication.

Giunti. traitement différent des pour les handicapés. richesse culturelle. Comment peut-on arriver à les partager? Facteurs culturels non partagés. à éviter: Catégories: . gouvernement qui veut s’ouvrir au niveau mondial en offrant ses services du point Mots-clefs: . à exploiter: Catégories: -Aide aux handicapés. instituts.Architecture et standards pour les structures -Economie. 1998. Textes: Texts: Vers une architetture. handicapés. Common Ground (avant l’interaction) Expérience Partagée -Centres pour handicapés.L’elefante invisibile. Culture Partagée -Langue française -Econome libérale -Culture démocratique -Stabilité politique -Religion: liberté de culte Identifier les facteurs culturels impliqués: Facteurs culturels non partagés. Firenze. -Architecture traditionnelle.Peur de l’invasion.Structure: privée publique . 1998. Firenze.Organisations publiques et structures gouvernementales à but lucratif.L’elefante invisibile. Le Corbusier. Textes: .Religion chrétienne - 47 . à prendre en compte: Categories: Facteurs culturels non partagés.Handicapé . -Architecture de type préfabriquée -Les handicapés voyagent. social. . -Les handicapés ne vont pas à l’étranger. -Association privée sans but lucratif.. Projeter le “discourse” argumentatif : Prémisses: Métaphores: -Intérêt d’une structure du . Giunti.

-Intérêts d’une association suisse privée qui s’occupe d’handicapés et qui veut faire voyager ses « clients » à l’étranger en leur offrir des structures adéquates. Pathos: -Donner de la joie aux personnes handicapées -Intégrer les personnes handicapées.Se limiter aux lucratif du groupe objectifs sociaux africain pour cette . intérêts d’une seul côté. On est maintenant dans la phase de définition des 48 . Elaboration un document contenant les standards européens des structures pour handicapés. - Langue française Coopération Intégration Aide Projeter l’argumentation: Arguments (Ils doivent ê tre partagés avant l’argumentation) Logos (prémisses): Ethos: . 5. Etablir une coordination économique entre les deux groupes. cette opération.de vue touristique. -Dignité et opportunités pour tous. . Organisation de stages de 6 mois en Suisse pour les infirmières africains.On veut le bien des . But) Ingénieurs africains qui s’occupent de travailler selon les normes européennes pour la construction des structures au “BoCo”.Ne pas oublier le but .4 Groupe 3 Un consortium d’universités de l’Europe orientale (déterminer le pays ou les pays concernés) demande la collaboration d’universités suisses et italiennes pour lancer un nouveau cursus d’études en sciences de la communication qui devra se dérouler partiellement en présence avec la participation d’enseignants du pays concerné(s) et de visiting professors italiens et suisses. - Conclusion(s) (cf.Ne pas imposer les initiative.Ne pas trop profiter handicapés de deux du coté lucratif de côtés. but non lucratif. -But lucratif vs. et partiellement à distance grâce aux nouvelles technologies de la communication.

et de profils professionnels cible envisagés par le nouveau cursus. Composition du troisième groupe Universités de l’Europe orientale: Milena Doina-Teresia Blagojevic Buzut Roth Zollinger Bossahart Schettino Villa Giromini Comi Cadenazzi Rey Genève Balti Zürich Zürich Zürich Milano Milano Varese Mendrisio Osogna Estavayer-le Lac Suisse Moldavie Suisse Suisse Suisse Italie Italie Italie Suisse Suisse Suisse Universités suisses: Marianne Sibylle Maya Universités italiennes: Patrizia Alfredo Margherita Giorgio Annalisa Pascal Experts de la communication interculturelle: Le principe de simplicité impose de disjoindre et de réduire. tout en distinguant. (Edgar Morin. Il est important de rappeler que les représentants des universités de l’Europe orientale ont d’une part l’intérêt de convaincre les Suisses et les Italiens à collaborer dans le projet. Les deux institutions de l’Est demandent la collaboration d’un consultant. 42 The following text. le consortium a aussi engagé une équipe d’experts de communication institutionnelle au niveau international. qui se charge de modérer les rencontres. le principe de complexité enjoint de relier. Il faudra faire jouer ces deux aspects dans la négociation.orientations culturelles.Giorgio Comi. 1996) La traduction réalisée par le groupe de travail42 : Deux nations de l’Europe de l’Est demandent la collaboration de la Suisse et de l’Italie pour organiser ce travail universitaire dans les sciences de la communication. has been elaborated by one of the participants to the Master. Pour s’assurer la bonne réussite du projet. which resumes the results of the discussion. 49 . leurs propres exigences et préférences en ce qui concerne les contenus du cursus. des contenus disciplinaires. mais ils ont aussi. d’autre part.

Moldavie et Serbie Monténégro: Il faudra considérer aussi le choc culturel qui pourrait se créer. quel gain pouvons-nous prévoir. l’entreprise des consultants. peut -être. Le travail a permis de mettre en marche la première discussion entre les « trois » groupes de partenaires : CH et I: Margherita. de choisir les formes de collaboration. nous avons discuté en trois groupes : les responsables des Pays de l’Est. de définir des contenus. par exemple. Sybille. quels arguments devront être objet de la négociation. Consultants : Nous avons un champ commun à développer. Il s’agit aussi de construire un espace d’organisation commun. Milena Consultants: Annalisa. Suisse et Italie : « la réflexion continue » Pour nous il s’agit de définir les contenus à approfondir. Maja. les responsables suisses et italiens. Pays de l’Est : Doina. les infrastructures sont presque absentes. d’évaluer les infrastructures nécessaires. Alfredo. nous voyons actuellement peu d’espace pour le développement de professions liées à la communication dans les Pays de Moldavie et 50 . nous nécessitons d’un support organisationnel. nous voulons entrer dans l’Europe à part entière. il faut trouver des motivations pour activer les universités de nos pays dans cette collaboration. Consultants : « Ils demandent de creuser les différentes facettes ressorties de ce premier round » Quelles réponses peuvent déjà être données.Exercice A partir de la lecture de la consigne. Marianne. quel est le sens du mot « communication » pour vous ? Nous avons dans nos Pays un bon nombre d’universités qui étudient le thème et qui pourraient. quelles questions peuvent trouver des réponses officielles. se mettre à disposition pour ce pro jet. Pascal Pays de l’Est – Moldavie et Serbie Monténégro: « présentation de l’idée et des nécessités » Suisse et Italie : « questions et réflexions d’entrée » Quelles retombées pouvons-nous imaginer dans nos pays. Giorgio. Suisse et Italie : Si nous considérons le terrain de l’économie. nous devons travailler sur le feedback.

Au contraire. dans laquelle l’accord va s’affiner par la présentation de données explicites de la part des « demandeurs ». les compétences communicatives en situation) et des formes possibles de formation qui considèrent déjà les TIC et l’échange de ressources humaines. pour les impliquer dès le départ. elles monopolisent la discussion » Consultants : Nous vous proposons de continuer sur la piste que vous avez tracée. nous voyons un marché potentiel dans les produits financiers : Vos Pays sortent d’une longue période caractérisée par une forte sûreté sociale. Le travail qui suit permet de préparer (en quelques minutes) la session p lénière. Aujourd’hui il s’agit la de reconstruire sur d’autres bases une structure sociale et d’assurance. 51 . les finances. avec une gestion centrale. les TIC. Un autre champ est probablement celui de la formation à l’usage des nouvelles technologies Ou encore celui de la vente et de l’assistance aux clients par téléphone (call center) « La confrontation est ample. est arrivé. parce qu’elle montre des marges de développement concret et laisse prévoir des possibles investissements aussi de la part d’entreprises privées. parallèlement à une coopération entre gouvernements et institutions universitaires.il faut maintenant évaluer comment nous proposer à nos Gouvernements respectifs. Les stratégies que vous discutez intègrent déjà des contenus (la communication. et de la négociation dans le sens d’un tel projet. « Discussion sur les possibles démarches » Consultants : . Les deux nations ont une petite population et les entreprises ont un faible intérêt pour le marché de biens de consommation.Nous pensons que le moment de fixer quelques points pour confirmer l’intention de ratifier un accord de collaboration. Moldavie et Serbie Monténégro: .Serbie Monténégro.Il nous semble que la demande initiale est en train de se développer et de se modifier : o Vous passez de l’idée de demander / offrir un service manquant à l’idée de constituer une coopération entre partenaires. qui a pour but de faire démarrer le projet.Nous pourrions coopérer pour réaliser cette coopération par des sessions de formation conjointes et à distance. Moldavie et Serbie Monténégro: . quant aux retombées sur le marché du travail. les propositions concrètes. Consultants : .

organisation. L’intérêt pour la communication interculturelle « est » déjà là et ne doit pas être inventé dans le projet ! Le processus d’intégration dans la communauté européenne en en marche et cette attention au thème de la communication devrait aider à diminuer le choc culturel. au moins en Moldavie.Consultants : Les points suivants ont été considérés. sans les expliciter directement : Pourquoi cette demande ? Quelle est la compétence déjà présente ? Quelles expériences ont déjà été faites ? Quels seront les critères de faisabilité des différents éléments qui constituent le projet concret ? . Apprendre à organiser un curriculum d’étude d’une certaine façon est aussi un thème culturel. dans le projet proposé est correct. Mais les Pays mêmes depuis lequels part la demande de collaboration vivent déjà cette situation. Quel impact aura l’utilisation des TIC? Quelle évolution est attendue ? Quels critères de qualité seront utilisés pour mesurer les résultats ? La présentation de la situation souligne différents aspects du problème. électricité non stable et problèmes avec l’informatique. La discussion avec les partenaires met en évidence l’intérêt de travailler sur l’organisation globale et non pas seulement sur les formes et contenus d’enseignement. sont reconnues comme appartenantes aussi à une autre nation d’origine. « La discussion se conclu » La pause de midi est utilisée pour continuer la discussion et imaginer une solution concrète. technique) doit être considérée comme centrale. La situation concrète n’est pas simple : Peu de locaux. modifier ses pratiques implique aussi une changement dans la façon de penser ses relations aux autres et au contexte. Le futur pourrait nous ouvrir des possibilités concrètes. qui vont être repris par la suite. qui. par effet de l’histoire qui a vu bouger des communautés entières. si nous en avons encore l’occasion : Parler de situation interculturelle. aujourd’hui. 52 . manque d’infrastructures informatiques modernes Les équivalences des titres devra être étudiée. La logique intégrée (individu. Résultat : la possibilité de faire une demande afin d’être reconnu comme appartenant aussi à une autre nation (d’origine) fait augmenter à 47 les nationalités qui se côtoient dans le Pays.

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