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THE MULES AS SOCIAL POSITION

INDEX IN THE DAYS OF DAVID AND


DURING THE 10TH CENTURY BC

A archaeology, literary and


iconographic study

Gerald Klingbeil
The mules as social
position index

The mules Socioeconomic functions of animals in the ANE

in

Sistematic
OT ANE Archaeology study of the
Literary animals’ bones
‫פֶּ ֶּרד‬/‫ִּפ ְר ָּדה‬ Radical
evidence redating
 Egyptian
Important  Ugaritic Disappearance
indicators of  Sumerian of the 10th
social rank  Akkadian century BC
Primary Secondary
Iconographic products products
evidence
 Hybrid
 Sheep  Ass
 Imported  Neo-Assyrian  Goat  Horse
 Faster  Syria
 Pig  Mule
 Expensive  Assyrian
 Cattle  Camel
 Egyptian