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# Measurements of Static Pressure

## Static Lacking in movemnt, action or change

Pressure The continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in
contact with it
Static Pressure The pressure of a fluid on a body when the body is at rest relatice to the fluid

There are several ways in which engineers measure the absolute and gage pressures at
points within a static fluid. Here we will discuss some of the important ones.

1. Barometer

## Barometers are device used to measure atmospheric pressures. It was

invented in the mid 17th century by an Italian Physicist and Mathematician,
Evangelista Torreceli. It is prefered to use mercury on it simpy because it is high
densed fluid and has very small vapor pressure.
In principle, it the barometer consists of a closed-end glass tube that is first
enlirely filled with mercury. The tube is then submerged in a dish of mercury and
then turned upside down. Doing this causes a slight amount of the mercury to
empty from the closed end, thereby creating a small volume of miercury vapor in
this region.
As the atmospheric pressure, pushes down on the surface of the mercury in
the dish, it causes the pressure at surface to the bottom of the tube to be the same,
since they are at the same horizontal level. If the height of the mercury column in
the tube is measured, the atmospheric pressure can be determirned by multiplying
it to the unit weight of the mercury.

2. Manometer

## A manometer is consist of a transparent tube that is used to measure the

gage pressure of the liquid. There is a rule applied to it whenever solving problems
regarding to the fluid in manometers. It is called manometer rule and it says “Start
at a point in the fluid where the pressure is to be determined, and proceed to add to
it to the pressures algebraically from vertical fluid interface to the next, until you
reach the end of the manometer”

## It can be piezometer, U-tube manometer, or differential manometer.

Piezometer are the simplest type of manometer. The tube is open at one end to the
atmosphere, while the other end is inserted to the vessel, where the pressure is to
be calculated. Any pressure on the vesel with push the liquid inside the piezometer
up the tube. Difference in height will measure the pressure inside the vessel.
However, piezometers are not effective at measuring high pressure since it require
higher heights of the difference of heights.

## Another type of manometers are U-tube Manometer. It is called u-tube

since the tubes are shaped as “u” or curved path. Compared to Piezometers, it can
measure higher pressure since pressure on the same level travelled in the u tube,
can be ignored since they are in the same level of height.

## Last is the Differential Manometer. From the name it self, differential, it

is used to measure the difference of pressure at two points on a closed system. The
solution utilizes the rule of manometer and the result is the difference between the
gage or atmospheric pressure of the fluid.

3. Bourdon Gage

## If the gage pressure to be measure is too high, manometers may not be

effective. With this, a bourdon gage may be used. Essentially, this gage consists of
a coiled meta tube that is connected at one end to the vessel where the pressure is
to be measured. The other end of the tube is closed so that when the pressure in the
vessel is increased the tube begins to uncoil and respond elastically. Using the
mechanical linkage attached to the one end of the tube, the dial on the face of the
gage gives a direct reading of the pressure vvhich can be calibrated in various
units, such as kPa or psi.
4. Pressure Transducers
An electromechanical device is called ,a Pressure Transducers and can
be used to measure pressure as a digital readout. It has the advantage of producing
a quick response to changes in pressure, and providing a continuous readout over
time. When one end is connected to a pressure vessel, the fluid pressure deform
the thin diaphragm. The resulting strain in the diaphragm is then measured using
the attach electrical strain gagre. Essentially, the changing length of the thin wires
composing the strain gage will change their resistance producing a change in
electric current. Since this change the current is direcly proportional to the straiu
caused by the pressure, the-current can be converted into a direct reading of the
pressure.

Hydrostatic Pressure

When designing gates, vessels, dams or other bodies that are submerged in a
liquid, it is important to be able to obtain the resultant force caused by the pressure loading of the
liquid, and to specify tbe location of this force on the body since these are parameters that greatly
affects the composition and strength of a material submerged. With this, it can be obtain using the
formula:

I(g)
F = 𝛾ℎ̅A e = 𝑦̅A